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Biotechnology

By Mark, Brisa, Michaela, and Matthew


The Vast History of Biotechnology
Biotechnology has made many different discoveries and the 20th and 21st century which
includes;
1990 First federally approved gene therapy treatment is performed successfully on a young
girl who suffered from an immune disorder
1972 The DNA composition of chimpanzees and gorillas is discovered to be 99% similar to
that of humans
1982 Humulin, Genentech's human insulin drug produced by genetically engineered bacteria
for the treatment of diabetes, is the first biotech drug to be approved by the Food and Drug
Administration
1999 Discovery of the gene responsible for developing cystic fibrosis.
2012 Thirty-one-year-old Zac Vawter successfully uses a nervous system-controlled bionic
leg to climb the Chicago Willis Tower.
2003 The Human Genome Project is completed, providing information on the locations and
sequence of human genes on all 46 chromosomes.
Ethical Consideration
Many people over the world dispute over the fact whether to do something or not

This is mostly dispute in the fact of whether it is ethical or not ethical to do certain things

People have protested for and against certain thing and the most prominent thing that is
disputed over are scientific ideas and experiments

Experiments are disputed since those experiments can mess up animal and plants as well
as the Earth itself

Some people want these test to go on since it will help out the human race as a whole

People have done this many different times and has change the course of technology people
today are still disputing over many things
History of Stem Cells
1981: Mouse Beginnings

- Martin Evans is first to identify stem cells in mice


Mice
1997: Dolly the Sheep were the
start of
- First artificial animal clone stem
cells
1998: Stem Cells go Human

- Isolated human embryonic stem cells grown in lab

2001: Bush Controversy

- President George W. Bush limits federal funding to research on human embryonic stem cells because a human
embryo is destroyed in the process.

2005: Fraudulent Clones

- Woo Suk Hwang of Seoul National University in South Korea reports that his team has used therapeutic
cloning a technique inspired by the one used to create Dolly to create human embryonic stem cells
genetically matched to specific people. Later that year, his claims turn out to be false.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Stem Cells
Stem cell research can potentially help treat a range of medical problems. It could
lead humanity closer to better treatment and possibly cure a number of diseases
including; Parkinson's, Alzheimers, Heart Diseases/Strokes, and Diabetes

The research would give great insights about the basics of the body, Stem cells may
play a major role in cancer

Stem cells play a major role in curing cancer


Ethical Considerations of Stem Cells
The ethical debate consists of whether or not it is wrong or right to study stem cells, as the
cells are taken from human embryos.

Ethical Points For Stem Cells Ethical Points AGAINST Stem Cells
We should (and will) develop more ethical methods (such as using adult stem cells) which will
enable us to research ethically. We should wait until those methods are available, the ethical
issues of scientific work on aborted fetuses did not justify the possible benefits

A life is a life and that should never be compromised. A fertilized egg should be valued as a
human life even if it is in its very first weeks. Destroying human life in the hopes of saving
human life is not ethical.
Cloning
Cloning is where scientists will replicate (a fragment of DNA placed in an
organism) so that there is enough to analyze or use in protein production

Scientists can replicate an entire organism if they wanted to

Cloning can come right down to the specific DNA that is replicated or object the
scientists are replicating

Cloning can also happen naturally by having twins or what we usually call cloning
in a lab
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning
Advantages: Cloning can be beneficial in getting the best traits for anything

Plants with desired traits can be cloned in their seeds to grow more plants with those traits

Cloning can also reproduce more plants and animals since those animals will be the same

Disadvantages: If a clone is susceptible to a disease then all of the other clones will be
affected causing a great catastrophe

Cloning will lead to less variation of traits making everything the same there won't be
many opportunities to make new and better plants and organism
GMOs
GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have been created in a lab by
forcing in genes from plants and animals into another animal for new variations of
animals and plants

Specific genes may come from bacteria, viruses, insects

GMOs are also referred to as transgenic organism which are organism that have
altered genomes

The most know GMOs are plants for farmers and growing
Advantages and Disadvantages of GMO Crops
Advantages: Insect Resistance- with less insects around less pesticides can will be used

Stronger Crops- with strong crops they withstand weather extremes and fluctuations, which means that
there will be good quality and sufficient yields even under a poor or severe weather condition

Larger Production- GMOs farming has been easier to raise since there is stronger resistance to pests

Disadvantages: Allergic Reactions- GMOs can pose detrimental allergy risks to people. It states that
genetic modification often adds or mixes proteins that were not indigenous to the original animal or plant

Lower Level of Biodiversity- when getting rid of pests for plants the insects might be losing their food
causing them to die losing diversity

New Diseases- since the GMOs are modified by virusus and bacteria people fear that diseases will come
from this
How GMOs Help the world
GMOs can help the world by taking car of world hunger. Since GMOs produce a
larger amount of crops than normal the crops (Due to these crops having having
genetics of plants with more plentiful amount of harvest) those crops could feed a lot of
people that cant get any food

This would be very useful in developing countries like India and Sudan where a lot of
the people are too poor to buy food for themselves or can barely get by by growing
their own food and eating scraps of food

Even though developing countries could benefit from GMOs, most GMOs are in
developed countries like the U.S
Ethical Consideration of GMOs
Many people around the world dont really mind GMOs especially when the
GMOs are plants

The countries that mostly accept GMOs are developed countries and most people
eat GMOs even without knowing that they are GMOs

Many countries in Africa dont want GMOs because the people predict that GMOs
will get diseases and that European want buy GMOs

My opinion is that GMOs should be accepted since GMOs are everywhere in the
world anyway and that GMOs hasnt caused any diseases or health problems
History of Criminal Forensics
600 - use of fingerprints for the first time

Fingerprints first used to determine identity. Arabic merchants would take a debtor's fingerprint and attach it
to the bill.

1836 - Chemical testing utilized

James Marsh, an English chemist, uses chemical processes to determine arsenic as the cause of death in a
murder trial.

1901 - investigations into blood markers

Human blood grouping, ABO, discovered by Karl Landsteiner and adapted for use on bloodstains by Dieter Max
Richter.

1910 - hair is now used in forensics

Victor Balthazard and Marcelle Lambert publish first study on hair, including microscopic studies from most
animals. First legal case ever involving hair also took place following this study.

1930 - lie detection

Prototype polygraph, which was invented by John Larson in 1921, developed for use in police stations.
Ethical consideration of Criminal Forensics
Is it ethical for the government to require all persons to provide a
DNA sample to keep record?

I agree that it is ethical. Reasons for this are:

- To keep track of persons medical records


- To help with a kidnapping case
- To keep criminal records in track
- To track birth records
Advantages and Disadvantages of Criminal Forensics

BENEFITS: CONSEQUENCES:
- It helps in determining the cause of death by examining the - It requires precise and accurate analysis. Even if a minor error occurs in the

postmortem changes, blunt injuries, burns and scalds on the body, and the analysis, it may result in the wrong figure.

scene of death. If it's sudden natural death, the case is investigated by the

coroner or a medical examiner.

- The alcohol content in a human being can be determined by analyzing - Scientific analysis consumes lot of time because of which the verdict is

the blood and other body fluids like saliva, urine etc. delayed.

Opinion: My own opinion on this biotechnology would be that Criminal Forensics is very useful when practiced
in Forensic Sciences. In college, I will be studying this topic for many reasons. Even though I havent settled on a
career yet, this topic will help me determine what I really want to do for the rest of my life. Criminal Forensics
helps to solve mystery cases with advanced technology. Without this technology, investigators wouldnt be able
to find sufficient evidence for court cases. Without being said, Criminal Forensics is one of the best topics to use.
History of Genetic Engineering and Reproducing
1865 - Gregor Mendel's publication of his discoveries with the breeding of peas which became the foundation of modern
genetics.

1927 - H. J. Muller demonstrated that genetic mutation could be induced by X-rays

Late 1960s - Stewart Linn & Werner Arber discovered restriction enzymes in E. coli. These enzymes known
as endonucleases 'cut' DNA at specific sites determined by the adjacent base sequences. Since then hundreds of
these enzymes have been discovered in different micro-organisms and together they comprise one of the most
important tools in the genetic engineer's toolbox. The property of restriction enzymes to create 'sticky ends' in the
'cut' DNA allows fragments of DNA of known properties and composition to be 'spliced' into the DNA 'chain'.

1970 - Plants regenerated from protoplasts (plant cells with cell wall removed).

2001 - 26 November: First human 'embryo' cloned. Advanced Cell Technologies USA used somatic adult cell
nuclear transfer ('Dolly method') to create a clone which developed to six cells before dying.
Ethical Considerations of GE&R
Should genetic engineering and reproduction be available for
individual citizens to create their perfect child?
Personally, unless your child is going to have severe health problems or bad body
modifications, genetic engineering and reproduction should not be used to create the
perfect child because for one, you shouldnt love your child any less even if they have a
disability or not. Two, anything can happen, so many parents wouldnt be too sure if the
modifications to the child will be completely successful.
Advantages and Disadvantages of GE&R
Benefits:
BETTER HARVESTS: When used in crops, genetic engineering can create crops that are pest and disease resistant. This is great because the
amount of harvest that would normally be lost can be saved, increasing the harvest. They are also designed to be able to grow faster, and in more
harsh climates.

BOOSTS NUTRITION: The crops that have been genetically engineered to have higher levels of nutrition. The vitamin levels are boosted and some
even have additional vitamins, such as golden rice, that they do not naturally contain.

Consequences:
REDUCE DIVERSITY: If we begin to pick and choose the traits that we want people to have, then the undesirable or abnormal traits would be
eliminated. The diversity of the population, whether it be in humans or animals, would be highly limited.

EFFECTS ARE UNKNOWN: Genetic engineering in general, whether it comes to plants, animals, or humans, has not been studied for long amounts
of time because it is a fairly new practice. The true effects of consuming genetically engineered foods and meat cannot be known for many years, and
many scientists warn that the outcome will be less than desirable.
Citations
http://www.softschools.com/timelines/forensic_science_timeline/99/
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whatiscloning/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_edexcel/cells/cloningrev3.shtml
Science Direct
Yaabot
responsibletechnology.org/gmo-education/
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-forensic-science.html
http://www.sciencegroup.org.uk/ifgene/history.htm
https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24970-stem-cell-timeline-the-history-of-a-medical-sensation/
http://connectusfund.org/27-big-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-genetically-modified-foods
http://www.domyownpestcontrol.com/images/content/mouse.jpg
https://borgenproject.org/gmos-world-hunger/
http://navajocodetalkers.org/9-big-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-genetic-engineering/
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