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Running head: VEGETARIANS AND VEGANS 1

Vegetarians and Vegans


The University of Texas at El Paso

Grace North
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Abstract

This literature review talks about vegetarians and vegans. This paper will compare these

lifestyles eating habits. Some of the questions answered in this paper will be, what does being

vegetarian and vegan mean? What is the difference between them, why do people turn vegetarian

or vegan, and finally how do vegetarians and vegans get their nutrients? A lot of people are now

choosing to eat less animal products and turning into vegetarians or going a step further and

becoming vegan. Currently in the United States about 7.3 million people are vegetarian and 1

million people are vegan (Vegetarianism in America, n.d).


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Introduction

Currently in the United States about 7.3 million people are vegetarian and 1 million people

are vegan (Vegetarianism in America, n.d). Some of the questions answered in this paper will be,

what does being vegetarian and vegan mean? What is the difference between them, why do

people turn vegetarian or vegan, in what ways is being vegetarian healthier than eating meat, and

finally how do vegetarians and vegans get their nutrients?


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What Does Being Vegetarian and Vegan Mean?

Vegetarians are people who do not eat meat, chicken, or fish. Vegetarians do eat dairy

products and animal products. They can also wear leather and use things made from animals.

There are two types of vegetarians. Lacto-ovo vegetarians eat dairy products such as eggs, butter,

and milk; whereas ovo-vegetarians only eat eggs, no meat, and no other types of dairy (Key,

Appleby, & Rossel 2006). Another type of eating lifestyle is vegan. People who are vegan dont

eat meat, chicken, fish, dairy products, animal by products such as honey and gelatin. Also, they

dont wear leather or use anything that comes from an animal. Some things people might not stop

to think it comes from an animal is honey, marshmallows, and even some cosmetics. Honey

comes from bees and vegans dont eat honey because of this reason, and marshmallows contain

gelatin which comes from a pig or cow. Some ingredients found in makeup that comes from

animals are carmine, guanine, tallow, gelatin, lanolin, squalene, and much more (Ryan, 2015).

Cochineal Dye, also known as carmine and natural red 4, comes from the beetles that feed on
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cactus. They give the red dye found in mostly lipsticks and cheek blushes. (Ryan, 2015).

(Kailei, n.d.)

Why Do People Turn Vegetarian and Vegan?


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(Quickmeme.com, n.d.)

The veganism movement has become more popular and is expected to keep on rising

(Critical Perspectives on Veganism 2016). A lot of people turn vegetarians and/or vegans for

multiple reasons. Some people do it because of religion, some do it to be healthier or to lose

weight, while some do it for the animals sake. A lot of people now are animal activists that save

animals from being eaten or used for clothes. Now a lot of animals are being injected with

hormones or being fed corn which is not nutritious to the animals. When people go buy eggs,

some brands have signs on their egg cartons that say vegetarian fed chickens and no hormones

or antibiotics added. A lot of cows, poultry, and fish are being injected with hormones to make

them grow. Once these animals are injected they get fat and supply more meat to people. Cows

are one of the top animals that are being fed corn. Cows are not born to eat corn, only grass, so

when farmers feed them corn they get fat quick but they get sick and are prone to e-coli because

their stomachs cant the corn well. (How Does Eating a lot of Corn Affect Cows, n.d.). Another

reason people go vegetarian and vegan is to reduce the risk of cancer, heart problems, diabetes,

high blood pressure, and cholesterol.


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A lot of doctors and nutritionists are encouraging people to at least stop eating red meats.

They say chicken and fish are lean meats and dont cause a higher risk of developing heart

disease or cholesterol.

In what ways is being vegetarian healthier than eating meat?

(Halperin, 2016)

In March 2012, a study of 121,342 people that ate red meat showed they had a higher

increased risk of dying from heart disease and cancer. Then, another study in 2003 showed that

vegetarians and even very low meat diets for 20 years or more actually increased life span by

three in a half years, and the same year but a different study showed 73,308 people who were

vegetarian had ad 12 % reduction of mortality rate. Some studied even show that longevity could

be gender related as well. In the summer of 2001, a study of the Christian religion, Seventh-Day

Adventist, showed that vegetarian men had a life longevity increase of almost seven in a half

years and about four in a half years for women (Should People Become Vegetarian? n.d).

How do vegetarians and vegans get their nutrients?

A lot of people that wonder how vegetarians get their nutrients their body needs to thrive.

People that eat meat get their iron, proteins, and other essential vitamins from meat and dairy

products. For vegetarians, they get their iron and proteins from eating legumes, like beans,

lentils, and, they get iron from green leaves, such as spinach and kale. For calcium and vitamin
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D, vegetarians and vegans drink soy milk, almond milk, and take vitamin D pills as well. Zinc

strengthens the immune system and it is very important so people dont get sick. This can also be

found in beans, lentils, garbanzos and leafy greens. Eating fennel and flax seed will also help

with the omega 3 fatty acids. (Family Doctor, 2017)

(Soolman Nutrition and Wellness

LLC (Patch Poster)

Conclusion

Finally, to summarize, vegetarians and vegans follow the same eating rules, but vegans are

stricter. Vegans must read every single ingredient because not all vegan items have labels. There

has been multiple studies showing that vegetarian diets do prove to be more healthier than eating

meat. It lowers heart problems, high blood pressure, as well as helping people lose weight. With

a lot of reading up on vegetarian diets, people who want to become vegetarian can learn to do it

the right way to get all the nutrients and proteins as a regular meat eater gets.
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References

Castricano, J., & Simonsen, R. R. (Eds.). (2016). Critical Perspectives on Veganism (The

Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33419-6

Gavin, M. L., MD. (2014, October). What's a Vegetarian? Retrieved March 5, 2017, from

http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/vegetarian.html

How does eating corn affect cows? (n.d.). Retrieved March 23, 2017, from

http://animals.mom.me/eating-lot-corn-affect-cows-9538.html

Key, T. J., Appleby, P. N., & Rossel, M. S. (2006). Health effects of vegetarian and vegan

diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65, 35-41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481

Products. Retrieved March 23, 2017, from

http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/common-cosmetic-ingredients-derived-

from-animal-products/

Ryan, P. (2015, February 24). 10 Common Cosmetic Ingredients That Are Derived From Animal

Should people become vegetarian. (2016, August 8). Retrieved March 23, 2017, from

http://vegetarian.procon.org/

Vegan diet: how to get the nutrients you need. (2017, February). Retrieved March 23, 2017, from

https://familydoctor.org/vegan-diet-how-to-get-the-nutrients-you-need

Vegetarianims in America. (n.d). Retrieved March 5, 2017, from


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http://www.vegetariantimes.com/article/vegetarianism-in-america