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FilterConceptPvt.

Ltd
ReasonsForFiltration

Removal of fluid contaminants


Eliminate costly problems
Filtered product more valuable
Increase product yield

Collection
C ll ti off suspended
d d solids
lid
Catalysts recovery
Reduce operating cost
DrivingForces

Filtration
The removal of a suspended particles from fluid, liquid
or gas by passing a fluid through a porous or semi
permeable medium

Separation
The removal of dissolved substance from a carrier
fl id stream
fluid t

Cartridge
g filtration
Pressure driven
OtherDrivingForces
Gravitational
Settling
Settling
Centrifugal
Vacuum

Advantages
Greateroutput
Greater output
Smallequipmentrequired
Easeinhandlingvolatileliquids

PressureDrop
Systempressuredrop
Cartridgepressuredrop
Housingpressuredrop
FiltrationVariables
Flowrate

p
Differentialpressure

Viscosity

Contaminants
Contaminants

Flowconditions

C
Compatibility
tibilit

Area
FlowRate

Sizedeterminedbythecartridge
In most of the cases, the flow rate and /or capacity needs of
the application will be used to determine the appropriate size
of cartridge. The housing will then be sized to fit the selected
Cartridge

Inlet/Outlet
The inlet /outlet pipe size is also selected to meet the flow
rate requirement. In most cases this is already determined by
the pipe size in the system
DifferentialPressure
Difference in pressure between the inlet & outlet sides of a
filter

Measured as PSI or kPa and referred to as PSID P, pressure


drop or differential pressure

For applications sensitive to pressure drop, housing &


cartridge need to be considered

P= P Cartridge + P Housing
Location
The size of the housing may be influenced by the amount of
space available for the installation

Location and product selection can also be influenced by the


surrounding environment
DirtHoldingCapacity

Dirt holding capacity is measure of the weight gain of a


filter during its useful (as measured by pressure drop at a
given flow rate ) life.
Systems
Open
Open
Effluenttoatmosphere

Parallel
ll l
Twoormoresystems

Higherflowrates

Reducedpressuredrop

Series
Twoormoresystems

Stepfiltration
ParallelSystem
SeriesSystem
Mechanicalcapture
Directinterception

Physicalbarriercapture
y p

Bridging

Twoparticleshittingthefiltermediumat
thesametimecreatingasmallerpore
MechanicalCapture
Sieving
Particletoolargetopassthroughpore

Inertialimpaction
Inertiaprinciple

Diffusioninterception
Primarilyfoundingases
MechanicalCapture
Electrokineticeffects
Electricallychargedfiltermedium

Gravitationalsettlingg
Heavierparticlessettledatbottom
MeansOfRetention
Mechanicalretention
Particlerestrictionfrompassingthrough
medium

Adsorptiveretention
Adherenceofparticlestomedium
MediaMigration&ParticlesMigration
g g

Mediamigrationisthesloughingofthefiltermedium
Media migration is the sloughing of the filter medium
intothefilteredfluid

Particle migration is the sloughing of filtered particulate


matter from the filter cartridge into the filtered fluid.
This occurs most often due to changes in the flow rate or
excessive pressure drop
Cartridge flow
Cartridgeflow
Radialflow
Pleated
Stringwound
Polypropylenespun
Polypropylene spun
Papercarbon
Carbonblack
GranularCarbon
Specialty
CartridgeFlow
Upflow

Granularcarbon
Granular carbon
Specialty
Softener
Softener
DI
Iron reduction
Ironreduction
Meansofretention
Surface
Particlesonthesurfaceofmediumformingacake
Surfacefilters
Surface filters remove particulate
matter via a sieving mechanism.
(you cant push a basketball through
chicken wire.)
The media is usually pleated to
provide the maximum amount of
surface area.
Meansofretention
Depth
Particlestrappedthroughoutthedepthofmedium
DepthFilters
Depth filters remove particulate matter
via a tortuous path. The fluid travels
racially through the depth of the
cartridge.

Depth cartridges normally have a graded


density. They have larger openings at
their surface and smaller openings near
their center.
Surfacevs.depthfilters

In theory a surface filter will work better when the


particulates matter in the water are of the same size.

A depth filter will work better when the particulate


matter has abroad range of sizes and the filter truly
has gradient density.
PerformanceFactors
Filt ti ffi i d i ti
Filtrationefficiencyandmicronrating

Dirtholdingcapacity

Pressuredrop

Mediamigration&particlesmigration

Chemicalcompatibility
Chemical compatibility
Parameter SurfaceFilters DepthFilters
DeformableParticles Mayblind offpleats RecommendedAdsorptive
retention
Nondeformable Removesnarrowrange Removesbroaderrangeof
Particles particles
Rating Absoluteornominal Absoluteornominal
Classification/ Classification Clarification
Clarification
Flowper10 Recommended10gpm Recommended5gpm
equivalentPSID
EconomicsParticle Holdsmoredirtthandepth, Moreeconomicalthanpleatedat
Retention < 10micron
Retention< 10 micron handles higher flow rate
handleshigherflowrate greater than 10microns
greaterthan 10 microns
CartridgeCost Moreexpensive initiallythan Moreeconomical initiallythan
depth,fewerreplacements, pleated,holdslessdirt
holdsmoredirt
Housing Cost Fewercartridgessmaller More cartridgesbiggerhousing
housing
Type of Description Benefits TypicalApplication
cartridge
YarnWound Yarnoftwistedstaple Inexpensive, broad Chemicals, magneticcoatings,
(
(Depth)
) fiberswoundarounda chemicalcompatibly, Cosmetics,oilproduction
centercore . numerousmaterialoptions ,foodandbeverages,potable
formanyapplications. water,photographic
applications
NonWoven
Non Woven Depthmediacratedby
Depth media crated by Graded pore structure
Gradedporestructure, Photochemical,potable
Photo chemical potable
(Depth) layeringmeltbrown( chemicallyinertmaterials, water, solvents,ultrapure
extruded)fibers Noextractable water,chemicals,beer&
downstream. wine,foodandbeverages
enzymes,resins
Non Woven Pleatedmedia;spun Widechemical DIwater,Processwater,
Pleated bondedormeltbrown compatibility,largesurface electronics ,winefiltration
(Surface) sheets,paperlike areaper 10cartridge, ,photographicapplications,
highdirtholdingcapacity magneticcoatings,chemicals,
,cheaperthandepth,
h h d h cosmetics.
i
cartridgeatlowmicrons
Membrane Polymeric sheets Asymmetricpores, DIwaterapplications,
containingsymmetricor Positivemechanical electronics,plating,chemical
asymmetric pores ( RO
asymmetricpores(RO retention ,highflowrate,
high flow rate process power generation
process,powergeneration,
membraneandmostUF absoluteratings photographicapplications,
membranesdonthave ,resistancetobacteria, foodandbeverages,various
pores) ultrafinefiltration etchbaths.
Type of Description Benefits TypicalApplication
cartridge
Resin FibersTreatedwithresinto Rigidforhighviscosity,
g g y, Paints ,,inks,coatings
, g
Bonded enhancerigidity nocentercore,noglues ,adhesives,oils
orepoxies,littlemedia ,sealants,resins,
migration,onepiece petroleum,Pesticides,
construction,highflow saltwater,varnishes
rates
rates
Sintered Porousmediaformedbysintering Absoluterating, Hightemperature, high
Metal thinlayerofmetal strength,porosity, pressureapplications,
Cleanability,highflow corrosivefluids,
and dirt holding
anddirtholding polymer filtration
polymerfiltration
capacity,nonfiber ,processsteam,gas
releasing filtration,catalyst
recovery
WovenMetal Fibrousmediawovenintodistinct g , cleanability,
Strength, y, SameasDynalloybut
y y
pattern highflowporosity,dirt at muchlargermicron
holdingcapacity ratings.
Usedmoreasssieve
Granular Porous carbonactivatedto Removesdissolved Potablewater,reverse
developlargesurfacearea organicsfrom gasand osmosis,organic
liquids removal ,instrumentsir
platingsolutions.
Fiberfiltration
Fiberdiameter
Fiber diameter
Thinnerfibersequalfinerfiltration

Porosity
Ratioofvoidvolumetototalvolumeof
medium

Thicknessofmedia
Thickermediumequalsdecreasedporesize
Industrialwaterrequirement
Product UnitProduced Gal./Unit Waterrequired /Gal./Day

Buildings
ld
Office Person 27to45
Hospital Bed 130to350
Hotel
Hotel Guest room
Guestroom 300 to 525
300to525
Laundries
Commercial 1b. Workload 5to8
Institutional 1b Workload
1b. Work load 1 to 4
1to4

Restaurants Meal 1to4


Meat
Packinghouse 100hogskilled 550 600
Slaughter house 100hogs killed 550600
Stockyard 1acre 160200
Poultry 1Bird 1
Oil
OilRefining 100bbl 75000 to80000
Product UnitProduced Gal./Unit Waterrequired /Gal./Day

Sugar
S
SugarRefinery
R fi 1b S
1b.Sugar 1
Paper
Paper mill 1ton 40,000
Paper Pulp
PaperPulp
Groundwood 1ton(dry) 5000
Soda 1ton(dry) 85,000

Sulfate 1ton(dry) 65,000

Sulfite 1ton(dry) 60,000

Textile
Cotton Bleacheries 1lb.double boil 25to40
Cottonfinishing 1Yard 10to15
SilkHosierydyeing 1lb. 3to5
Knitgoodsbleaching

hi l 1 lb 8
Chemicalcompatibility
Several sources are available to check the compatibility of

housings for use with fluids other than water.

Remember to check all materials in the cap, sump, Oring,

and cartridge.
cartridge
Chemical Temp %Conc. PPTP SAN NylonGP ABSGP Delrin BunaN Silicone Viton B60 300 SeriesSS
Acetic Acid 125 90 A A D A D C C
Acetone 125 100 A D B D B D B D A
Ammonium 125 100* A A A* A B A B A C
Compounds
Ammonium 125 10 A A A A D A A C
Hydroxide
Beer 125 Any A A D B A D C A A
Benzene 72 100 B D A D B D A B
Calcium Compounds 125 Any* A A A A A A C A B/C

Calcium Hypochlorite 68 20 A D D B C A D

CitricAcid 125 10 A A C B A D C A
CottonseedOil 125 A A A B A A A B
Detergents 125 2 A A A A A A A
EthylAlcohol 125 96 A B A B A A B A
Freon 68 25 B A D D
Fruit Juices 125 A A A A A A A A
Gasoline 125 100 C A A D B A D A A
Glucose 125 20 A A A A A A B A A
Glycerin 125 100 A A A B A A B A A
Glycol 125 A D D A A A
Hexane 125 100 C A D D A B A A
HydrochloricAcid 125 20 A A D B D C A
HydrofluoricAcid 68 40 A D A D D A
Chemical Temp %Conc. PPTP SAN NylonGP ABSGP Delrin BunaN Silicone Viton B60 300 SeriesSS
HydrogenPeroxide 68 30 A D D D A
Inks 125 A B A B A A A A
Ketones 68 D D B C D D A
LubricatingOils 125 100 C A A B A A C A A
Mercury 125 100 A A A A A A
MethylAlcohol 125 100 A D A D A B C
Mineral Oil
MineralOil 100 100 B A A A A A A A
Naphthalene 125 100 A B A C D B D A A
NitricAcid 68 10 A B D C D D A A
Olive Oil 125 100 A A A A A A C A A
_ _
Plating Solutions
PlatingSolutions 125 A A/D*
A/D A D A
SodiumCompound 125 Any A A A/C* C A C A B
Sodium 100 5 A A A B A A C A B
Hypochlorite
Sugar & Syrups
Sugar&Syrups 125 A A B A A A A A
SulfuricAcid 68 25 A A D B D C A
Toluene 100 D D A D D D D C A
Water(hot) 200 100 A C A B A
DI Water
DIWater 125 100 B A A A A A A A
Sea Water 125 100 A B A A C A A
Whiskey/Wine 125 A A A A A A A A
Xylene 100 100 C D A D D D D A A
Temperature

Standard polypropylene housings have a maximum


temperature rating
i off 125F (52C).
(52C)
Glass reinforced nylon housings have a maximum
temperature rating of 165F (74C).
All Housings should be protected from freezing.
Temperature
Buna N 250F(121C)
Eth l
EthylenePropylene
P l 350 F (177C)
350F
Gasket Material
Viton 450F (232C)
Teflon
Teflon 500FF (260
500 (260C)
C)
Polyester 300F(149C)
FilterMedia Polypropylene 200F(93C)
Nylon 300F (149C)
CarbonSteel 300F (149C)
304 St i l
304Stainlesssteel
t l 300 F (149C)
300F

Housingmedia 316Stainlesssteel 300F (149C)


PVC 150F
(65C)
( )
Polypropylene 125F(52C)
Filtrationefficiencyandmicronrating

Thereisabigdifferencebetweenabsoluteandnominalrating
Inmostcasesanominallyratedfilterisadequate.
Afiltersefficiencyisthepercentageofparticlesofaspecificsize(microns)
thatitwillremove
Filterefficiencyisdependentonflowrate
Anominalmicronratingisgenerallyacceptedtomeantheparticlesizeat
which the filter is 85% efficient
whichthefilteris85%
Anabsolutemicronratingisgenerallyacceptedtomeantheparticlesizeat
whichthefilteris99.99%efficient
MicronSize

74Microns
Particle Size
Table salt
Tablesalt 100 microns
100microns 44Microns
2Microns 325Mesh
HumanHair 40 70
microns 5Microns

Talcum 10microns 200Mesh


Powder 8Microns

145Microns
Finetest 0.5 microns 100Mesh

dust 25
Microns
Pseudomon 0.3 microns
as diminuta Magnified500times
FilterEfficiency Beta %
ratio Efficiency
y
Afiltersefficiencyis 1 0

afunctionofthebeta 2 50

ratio 4 75
5 80
10 90
20 95
50 98
75 98.67
100 99
1000 99.9
5000 99.98
10000 99.99
Infinity 100