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Johann Wolfgang Dbereiner

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Johann Wolfgang Dbereiner

13 December 1780
Born
Hof, Bayreuth
24 March 1849 (aged 68)
Died Jena, Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-
Eisenach
Nationality German
Fields Chemistry
Dbereiner's triads
Known for
Dbereiner's lamp

Johann Wolfgang Dbereiner (13 December 1780 24 March 1849) was a German
chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical
elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Dbereiner's lamp.[1] He
became a professor of chemistry and pharmacy at the University of Jena.

Life and work


As a coachman's son, Dbereiner had little opportunity for formal schooling. So he was
apprenticed to an apothecary, reading widely and attending science lectures. He
eventually became a professor at the University of Jena in 1810; he also studied
chemistry at Strasbourg. In work published in 1829,[2] Dbereiner reported trends in
certain properties of selected groups of elements. For example, the average atomic mass
of lithium and potassium was close to the atomic mass of sodium. A similar pattern was
found with calcium, strontium, and barium, with sulphur, selenium, and tellurium, and
also with chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Moreover, the densities for some of these triads
followed a similar pattern. These sets of elements became known as "Dbereiner's
triads".[3][4]

Dbereiner's lamp
Dbereiner also is known for his discovery of furfural,[5] for his work on the use of
platinum as a catalyst, and for a lighter, known as Dbereiner's lamp.

The German writer Goethe was a friend of Dbereiner, attended his lectures weekly, and
used his theories of chemical affinities as a basis for his famous 1809 novella Elective
Affinities

Works
Deutsches Apothekerbuch . Vol. 1-3 . Balz, Stuttgart 1842-1848 Digital edition by
the University and State Library Dsseldorf

In the history of the periodic table, Dbereiner's triads were an early attempt to sort the
elements into some logical order by their physical properties. In 1829, the German
chemist Johann Wolfgang Dbereiner published[1] a report of his previous observations
that there were groups of three elements (hence "triads") which had similar physical
properties. He also noted that some quantifiable properties of elements (e.g. atomic
weight and density) in a triad followed a trend whereby the value of the middle element
in the triad would be exactly or near exactly predicted by taking the arithmetic mean of
values for that property of the other two elements.

Predicted vs actual atomic mass of the central atom of each triad[verification needed]
Element 1 Element 2 Element 3
Atomic mass Actual atomic mass Atomic mass
Mean of 1 & 3
Lithium Sodium Potassium
6.9 23.0 39.1
23.0
Calcium Strontium Barium
40.1 87.6 137.3
88.7
Chlorine Bromine Iodine
35.5 79.9 126.9
81.2
Sulfur Selenium Tellurium
32.1 79.0 127.6
79.9
Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen
12.0 14.0 16.0
14.0
Iron Cobalt Nickel
55.8 58.9 58.7
57.3
Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner (1780 1849) adalah seorang ahli kimia Jerman yang
mendapati pada tahun 1829 bahawa unsur boleh dibahagi kepada beberapa kumpulan.
Setiap kumpulan mempunyai tiga unsur tertentu yang mempunyai sifat-sifat kimia yang
sama. Beliau telah menamakan setiap kumpulan tiga unsur ini sebagai triad.

Dalam setiap triad, jisim atom bagi unsur tengah (unsur kedua) adalah hampir sama
dengan jisim atom purata bagi dua unsur yang lainnya.

Sebagai contoh:

Jisim atom relatif bagi Litium ialah 7.

Jisim atom relatif bagi Natrium ialah 23.

Jisim atom relatif bagi Kalium ilah 39.

Purata jisim atom felatif bagi Litium dan Kalium ialah 23.

Pengelasan unsur-unsur kepada triad oleh Dobereiner kurang berjaya kerana pengelasan
ini hanya terhad kepada beberapa unsur sahaja.

Walaubagaimanapun, hukum triad yang dikemukan oleh beliau telah mencadangkan satu
perhubungan antara sifat kimia dan jisim atom unsur untuk perkembangan Jadual Berkala
Unsur pada masa kini.alba gili

Johann Dobereiner
In chemistry, Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849) was a German chemist called the 'founder
of the study of catalysis' (1823), developer of theory of triads (1817), a precursor to the
periodic table, and most noted for his association with German polymath Johann Goethe
(1810-32). [7]

Education
Dobereiner, the son of a coachman and servant, had little formal education and little
money for formal education. From age 15 to 17, Dobereiner worked as an apprentice at
an apothecary named Lotz in Munchberg, after which he attended college lectures on
chemistry, botany, and mineralogy, and studied on his own, but was unable to afford
college.

In 1802, although now an apothecary, Dbereiner had neither the money nor license to
buy a pharmacy. He opened an
agricultural produce business (Landesproduktenhandlung) and small chemical factory in
the small town of Gefree near
Bayreuth, and he began to produce pharmaceutical-chemical preparations, publishing the
reports of his experiments in the Neues allgemeines Journal der Chemie, edited by
Adolph Ferdinand Gehlen (17751815). [8] It was Gehlen who later proposed his name
for professor of chemistry at the University of Jena.

In 1810, Dobereiner became professor of chemistry at Jena, teaching there for thirty-nine
years. Dobereiner's publications include Essays on Physical Chemistry (1824-36) and
Principles of General Chemistry (1826, 3rd ed.). [6]

Triads
for his 1817 observation that in certain groups of three elements, such as Ca (40), Sr (88),
Ba (137), the atomic weight of the middle element was approximately the mean of those
of the first and third, e.g. (40+137)/2=88. [1] These groupings were known as the
Dobereiners triads, a concept that was a forerunner to the 1869 periodic table made by
Dmitri Mendeleyev. [2]

Ferments
In 1823, Dobereiner discovered that platinum sponge could cause the combustion of
hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature, which was considered as a ferment effect a
precursor to the theory of catalysis and the 1835 term catalyst coined by Swedish chemist
Jacob Berzelius. In short, what Dobereiner discovered was the property of spongiform
platinum to inflame hydrogen. [6]

Goethe
A famous student
and life-long
friend of
Dobereiner was
German
polymath Johann
Goethe, the
founder of human
chemistry, who attended Dobereiners
weekly lectures, teaching Goethe about
Dobereiners tombstone in Jena bearing the chemical analysis. [3]
inscription: Goethes advisor, creator of the rule of
triads, discovery of platinum catalysis. [8] In the 1951 book Dobereiner, Goethe und
die Katalyse, author Alwin Mittasch documents the exchange of letters between Goethe
and Dobereiner who kept Goethe informed about the progress of his researches in
chemistry. The book includes the letters in which he explained his results and Goethes
replies. In a review of the book by American historian Henry Leicester, he explains that

Mittasch traces the concept of ferments, in the works of Goethe, who was often
incorporated chemical ideas into his writings, arguing that Goethe in 1823, the age of 74,
could not accept the new concept proposed to him by Dobereiner. [4]

It is argued that Dobereiner served as a model for the Captain in Goethe's 1809 Elective
Affinities. [5] This, however, may by incorrect as Dobereiner was only 28 in 1808 the
time of conception of Goethe's novella and still earliest date of association of Goethe
with Dobereiner needs to be ascertained. Author Donald McDonald notes that in 1810 it
was Goethe, then head Minister of the independent German state of Saxe-Weimar, who
approved the appointment of Dobereiner as professor of chemistry at the University of
Jena, after which Dobereiner became Goethe's chemical assistant. [7] American chemist
George Kauffman states that Dobereiner first met Goethe on September 08, 1810 at
Weimar. [8] The two then had a close interrelationship in years to follow, Goethe
attending his lectures, reading his textbooks, studying his stoichiometry, funding his
researching, designing and building his laboratories, etc., and Dobereiner reporting all his
experimental finds to Goethe, conducting chemical research for him, e.g. searching for
experimental chemical support of Goethe's color theory, etc. [8]