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Mission Report

Borobudur Temple Compound,


Central Java, Indonesia
UNESCO ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring Mission
16 20 April 2003

Richard Engelhardt
Graham Brooks
Alexa Schorlemer
Mission Report
Borobudur Temple Compound, Central Java, Indonesia

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 3

1.0 Background to the Mission 13

2.0 Analysis of the Current Development Proposals 19

3.0 State of Conservation Issues 23

4.0 Site Management Issues 25

5.0 Tourism Management Issues 30

6.0 Communication of Significance 37

7.0 A New Future for Borobudur 41

8.0 Three Project Proposals to Enhance Community 42


Benefit

9.0 Bibliography 46

10.0 Attachments 48

Photo Credits cover page


Aerial Photo by Luca Invernizzi, published in Borobudur Golden Tales of the Buddhas

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Mission Report
Borobudur Temple Compound, Central Java, Indonesia

Executive Summary
Introduction
A UNESCO ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring Mission to the World Heritage Listed
Site of Borobudur Temple Compounds in Central Java, Indonesia (hereinafter
referred to as the Mission) was undertaken at request of the Director of the
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. It arose in response to a direct request for
assistance by the Government of Indonesia to the Director General of UNESCO.
The Mission was undertaken between 16 and 20 April 2003. Three international
experts comprised the Mission Team:

Richard Engelhardt, UNESCO Regional Advisor for Culture in Asia and the
Pacific.
Graham Brooks, Chairman, ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee
Alexa Schorlemer, Culture Intern, UNESCO Jakarta, standing in for Mr Philippe
Delanghe, Culture Officer.

Terms of Reference for the Mission


The substantive terms of reference for the Mission were:

(i) Examine the state of conservation of this property;


(ii) Hold consultations with the Indonesian authorities in examining the
proposed tourism development project at this World Heritage site and
assess the potential positive and negative impacts such a project
would have on the World Heritage values of the property and the site
as whole;
(iii) Assist the Indonesian authorities in finalising the proposed tourism
development project at this site to ensure that the heritage
conservation needs are compatible with the tourism development
needs;
(iv) Make recommendations to the Government of Indonesia and the
World Heritage Committee for enhanced conservation and
management of the site;

Background to the Mission


Over recent years the economic situation in Indonesia has encouraged many people
to seek an income by becoming informal vendors or retailers at the Borobudur World
Heritage Site. The site attracts some 2.5 million visits per annum, representing a
significant market catchment for those who wish to sell products at the entry/exit to
the site. There has been a large increase in vendor numbers around the site entry,
and their aggressive marketing tactics, have created potential threats to the
safeguarding and conservation of the site. They have also caused the presentation
of the site to suffer and the potential visitor experience to be degraded, even before
the visit begins.

A primary task of the Mission was to examine several proposals currently under
discussion for upgrading and re-organizing the entry/exit to the site. These seek to
re-organise the chaotic retail area at the entry/exit point and to increase the
economic benefit for the local community. The primary proposal, known as Jagad
Jawa, is to create a new entry/exit complex to the west of the site, combined with a

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Mission Report
Borobudur Temple Compound, Central Java, Indonesia

new on-site visitor transport system and the re-landscaping of the current entry area.
The second proposal, known as the Grand Strategy, is exploring means for tourism
at the site to more successfully generate income for the vendors, retailers and the
surrounding community.

The Jagad Jawa proposal in particular provoked concerns and negative reaction from
both local stakeholder groups and the international conservation community.
Therefore, provision of expert advice leading to the solution of this issue -- and
related matters affecting the safeguarding of the site -- was the central mandate of
the Mission. During the Mission, the problems and proposed solutions were
examined at length, in the field and in discussion with all concerned stakeholder
groups.

The Mission team approached the problems and their resolution from the
perspectives of (a) the state of conservation of the fabric of the monument itself, (b)
historical authenticity of the site, its boundaries and interpretation, (c) proposed
tourism development projects and their impact on the World Heritage values of the
site, and (d) related management issues.

Conservation of the Fabric of the Monument


Apart from the long-term problems of stone scaling, water seepage and possibly
over-cleaning, the state of conservation of the monument was found to be generally
good. However, the understanding and presentation of the historical, religious and
cultural context of the monument is not well developed, and this affects decisions
taken about material conservation practices and particularly about management
practices aimed at preventive conservation. For example, the lack of understanding
of the meditative and spiritual values of the site has led to the construction of a
parking lot within Zone 1 protection area and other facilities aimed at accommodating
ever larger concentrations of visitors. This has increased the thermal gradient within
the monuments micro-environment, potentially leading to an increase in the scaling
of the surface of the stone bas-reliefs.

Historical Authenticity
There is a strong need to upgrade the work of the on-site conservation research
centre, which has been allowed to lapse in many functions.

The most important research areas which needs to be addressed is the


comprehensive GIS-based archaeological mapping of the area, to enable further
studies within and outside the sites current zones. This will elaborate the thesis that
Borobudur is part of a greater landscape mandala, containing numerous other
smaller monuments and natural landscape features up to and including the ancient
sacred volcano of Mt. Merapi lying directly on the sites east-west axis. The result of
this research will have important and long-term implications for site conservation and
management and may require a re-definition of the World Heritage boundaries of the
site.

There is also a need to improve on-site interpretation and presentation of the


heritage values for which Borobudur has been inscribed on the World Heritage List.

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Site Management Issues


Impact of the Policy of Decentralization
To understand the complexity of site management issues, the Mission Team first of
all draws attention to the potential impact of Indonesias recent general introduction
of decentralization policy on conservation in general and on future World Heritage
Site management in particular, and the need therefore to monitor management
carefully.

Policy to decentralize government decision making and administration was


introduced by the Government of Indonesia in 1999 as a reform measure to counter
the centrist policies of the previous New Order Government of President Soeharto.
Under this new policy, regional governments were given the authority to manage
natural resources as well as to take responsibility for environmental conservation.
The new responsibilities posed a significant challenge for local authorities who, with
little opportunity for prior consultation on implied international obligations, were
neither fully prepared nor trained for the new tasks. Consequently, whilst
management of existing World Heritage sites remains in the hands of central
government, the management of surrounding zones which impact on these sites is in
the hands of local government. Similarly the management and conservation of
potential World Heritage sites, eg: of natural forestry landscapes, is now under the
control of local government who may well make decisions, eg: concerning the
building of access roads, that could directly impinge on later World Heritage
nomination status.

In parallel, application of the convention obligations of the UNESCO Convention


Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage has proven
difficult at sub-national levels, not only in Indonesia, but generally. The obligation is
accepted at the level of the State, but application requiring understanding, linkage,
visibility and accountability in relation to internationally mediated conventions, may be
carried out at levels of governance that are not directly linked to the international
communities involved. At local level in Indonesia, the authorities are meanwhile
confronted with conflicting priorities of, for example, local economic recovery and
development.

As a result of these factors local commitment to World Heritage conservation


conventions may in some instances at this point in time, be weak, uninformed or
confused, and actions may well be taken that, perhaps unintentionally, impinge
negatively on current or potential World Heritage sites and may run contrary to the
Indonesian States ratification of international commitments.

The tensions that underscore conservation within the context of Indonesias


decentralization policy are evident in the present debates concerning the future of
Borobodur and may affect future management as well as tourism programme
planning. Attention should be paid to resolution of these tensions in future actions in
support of the Sites World Heritage status.

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Zoning System
There is no clear definition of the actual property boundary that is inscribed on the
World Heritage List. This is a major weakness for site management.

The overall site is divided into five zones, of which the two inner zones constitute the
Archaeological Park immediately surrounding the monument, and the Tourism Park
that contains the landscaped buffer and various tourism and site management
facilities. Zone 1 is managed by the National Directorate of Archaeology and
Museums, which reports to the Minister of Culture and Tourism. Zone 2 is managed
by a government owned company that reports to the Ministry of Finance. There
appears to be almost no common management vision for the two Zones and very
little coordination of management practice between the two zones. An inadequate
amount of the money raised from site entry and other tourism revenue is made
directly available for the archaeological management of the monument itself.

Zones 3, 4 and 5 encompass the communities that surround the monument, several
smaller nearby temples and then the wider landscaped and archaeological setting of
the monument, stretching out for a radius of several kilometres. These areas are
managed within a framework of Local Government and village hierarchies.

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Site Plan of Zones 1 and 2 at the Borobudur Temple Compound


Note the Existing Entry Area with associated parking areas, and the proposed Jagad Jawa
site to the north west, just beyond Zone 2
Site Plan provided by Borobudur Studies and Conservation Institute

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Large numbers of tourists arrive


at the site by bus, and must move
through the busy crowd of
vendors to reach the main entry
Photo by Graham Brooks

The main entry to the site is


obscured by the crowded retail
stalls and vendors. This
diminishes the visitors enjoyment
and appreciation of the site even
before the entry is reached.
Photo by Graham Brooks

A recent attempt to improve the


retail area has seen the
construction of several streets of
retail stalls near the front entry.
Photo by Graham Brooks

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Most visitors are attracted by the


challenge of reaching the top of
the monument and simply climb
straight past the terraces with
their bas-reliefs. This diminishes
their understanding and
appreciation of the monument
and its cultural significance.
Photo by Graham Brooks

Crowding on the upper terraces


can be a problem in terms of the
visitors appreciation of the place
and possible damage to the fabric
of the monument.
Photo by Graham Brooks

To many the monument is simply


a recreational photo opportunity.
More needs to be done to
communicate the significance of
the place to the visitor.
Photo by Graham Brooks

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Repeated scrubbing and salt attack has


caused deterioration of the bas-reliefs
Photo by Alexa Schorlemer

Severe staining on the face of the bas-


reliefs apparently caused by salts
leaching from the concrete sub-
structure that was built during the 1970s
restoration programme.
Photo by Alexa Sc horlemer

Ochre coloured wash applied to the


face of some of the bas-reliefs to
improve early photography has caused
severe staining.
Photo by Alexa Schorlemer

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Tourism Development
Two proposals have recently been explored to reduce the overcrowding that is taking
place at the entrance to the site and to use tourism to benefit the surrounding
communities.

Jagad Jawa.
This is a proposal for the development of a new site entry and retail shopping
complex in Zone 3, west of the main monument, on the opposite side of the site from
the present entry and current concentration of retail activity. This proposal is not
supported by ICOMOS Indonesia as it encroaches upon the environmental buffer
zone of the site, and it increases the percentage of the site perimeter that would be
filled with non-formal and/or low-end commercial activity. In addition, the proposal
would require the construction of a new entrance to the site, and the addition of a
light rail system to move visitors around the area. The proposal initially generated a
lot of concern from the current vendors and retailers who imagined that they would
be left behind at the former entry area, but be devoid of customers.

The Grand Strategy.


This is a proposal for undertaking PRA analysis of the wants of the community of
informal vendors around Borobudur and then re-zoning the area to meet those
wants. Its basic purpose is political and ignores conservation issues altogether. This
proposal is not supported by the Department of Archaeology as it involves shrinking
protection Zone 2. Furthermore it is not at all clear that the informal vendors at the
site are indeed inhabitants of the surrounding community the intended beneficiaries
of the scheme -- or if they are migrant vendors from Yogyakarta, other nearby urban
concentrations of population and elsewhere in Indonesia.

Upon examination of these two proposals, it became clear that it was not desirable
for the Mission team to recommend to UNESCO that either proposal be endorsed in
its present form.

Site of the Jagad Jawa


proposal, situated to the north
west of the Zone 2 curtilage
around the monument and
screened by the intervening
hill. The site has apparently
been prepared for some form
of development. Development
of a new entry area in this
location would require the
construction of a major on-site
transportation system to take
visitors back to the monument.
Photo by Graham Brooks

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Experts Meeting
To celebrate the first 20 years since the completion of the major international
restoration project of the Borobudur monument an Experts Meeting has been
scheduled for 4 8 July, to coincide with the visit by the Director General of
UNESCO. Initially this Experts Meeting was intended to focus on a review of the
stonework conservation measures and the management of the actual fabric of the
monument. This would essentially be an historical overview.

It became clear during meetings held as part of the Mission, that the Minister for
Culture and Tourism is keen to set out a new programme that will look to the next 20
years. He recognises the problems that have arisen with the dual management of
the monument and its setting, with the proposed new entry development and would
like to see the site managed for both its heritage values and its potential to provide
benefit for the local community. The Minister proposed a national steering committee
to set out a vision for the site and a local steering committee to manage the
implementation of the vision.

It became clear to the Mission members that the recommendations arising from the
Mission should be used to inform the Agenda for the July Experts Meeting and that
this Meeting should then develop ideas for the two steering committees. In that way
the Mission activities and recommendations would feed into a longer term process,
and not be confined to a short term reactive matter.

Recommendations
The primary recommendations arising from the Mission are:

With regard to the issue of overcrowding at the site entry:


The existing site entry area should be retained and upgraded with retail
activities reorganised into a structured bazaar style facility, offering an
expanded range of traditional arts and crafts, and other appropriate high
quality merchandise. The proposal to relocate the main entry of the site to the
Jagad Jawa development should be abandoned.

With regard to the identification of the local community and to improve its long term
livelihood through tourism related activity:
It is essential that a detailed socio-economic mapping of the local community
and the GIS based survey of surrounding historical landscape be undertaken

With regard to the communication of the heritage values of the place:


The cultural, historical, spiritual and educational values of the site have to be
strongly emphasised to improve the visitors as well as the communitys
understanding of the significance and the authenticity of the monument as a
World Heritage site.

With regard to the July Experts Meeting:


The Agenda for this meeting should be expanded to consider how the overall
site can be comprehensively managed into the long term to conserve the
heritage values of the monument and its historic cultural setting, to
communicate the significance of the place to visitors and to improve the
livelihood of the local community through income derived from tourism. This
plan should take account of historical, cultural, environmental, archaeological,
management and tourism issues.

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1.0
Background to the Mission
1.1 Reasons for the Mission
Due to poor economic conditions in Indonesia over recent years, the decreasing
number of international visitors and the increasing problems with aggressive vendors
at the entry/exit point, the visual quality of the entry to the monument has been
severely degraded. The visitor experience is therefore poorly managed, even before
the visitor has entered the site. There have been several attempts to address this
problem in recent times and to propose a concept to improve the quality of both the
physical and non-physical elements of Borobudur temple complex.

Since the beginning of January a controversial proposal has been put forward by the
Government of Central Java which erect a new site entry and shopping centre
(Jagad Jawa) in Zone 3 of the Borobudur World Heritage Temple Compounds
protected area. The relatively remote location of this project would require a
concurrent proposal to construct an on-site visitor movement system, possibly
including a light rail connection back to the main entry area. Several local
communities, NGOs, scholars and ICOMOS Indonesia have protested strongly
against this initiative, which was also on several occasions described as an act
against heritage conservation in the press. The vendors and retailers at the existing
site entry expressed their opposition, believing that they would be left at the disused
entry and be cut off from the large numbers of visitors. This would severely impact
on their livelihood.

A UNESCO ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring Mission to the World Heritage Listed


Site of Borobudur Temple Compounds in Central Java, Indonesia (hereinafter
referred to as the Mission) was therefore undertaken at request of the Director of
the UNESCO World Heritage Centre. It arose in response to a direct request for
assistance by the Government of Indonesia to the Director General of UNESCO.
The Mission was undertaken between 16 and 20 April 2003. Three international
experts comprised the Mission Team:

Mr Richard Engelhardt, UNESCO Regional Advisor for Culture in Asia and the
Pacific.

Mr Graham Brooks, Chairman, ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism


Committee

Ms Alexa Schorlemer, Culture Intern, UNESCO Jakarta, standing in for Mr


Philippe Delanghe, Culture Officer

1.2 Terms of Reference


According to the letter of instruction from the Director of the World Heritage Centre,
the terms of reference of the mission were as follows:

Undertake a UNESCO/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring Mission between 16 and 20


April 2002 in Indonesia to the World Heritage property of the Borobudur Temple
Compounds.
The mission should:

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Borobudur Temple Compound, Central Java, Indonesia

Examine the state of conservation of this property;

Hold consultations with the Indonesian authorities in examining the proposed


tourism development project at this World Heritage site and assess the
potential positive and negative impacts such a project would have on the World
Heritage values of the property and the site as whole;

Assist the Indonesian authorities in finalising the proposed tourism


development project at this site to ensure that the heritage conservation needs
are compatible with the tourism development needs;

Make recommendations to the Government of Indonesia and the World


Heritage Committee for enhanced conservation and management of the site;

Prepare a report on the findings recommendations of this reactive monitoring


mission and submit it to the UNESCO Word Heritage Centre by 16 May 2003 in
three hard copies and a diskette or CD-ROM.

1.3 Indonesian Participants


Mr. I Gede Ardika, Minister for Culture and Tourism, Republic of Indonesia

Mr. Mardiyanto, Governor of Central Java

Mr. H. Achmad, Vice-Governor of Central Java

Mr. Hasyim Afandi ,Mayor (Bupati) of Magelang, Central Java

Dr. Arief Rachman, Exec Chairman, Indonesian National Commission for


UNESCO

Ms. Hasnah Gasim, Indonesian National Commission for UNESCO

Mr. Henky Hermantoro, Director, Central Java Tourism Office

Ms. Wiendu Suryanti, Director, International Centre for Culture & Tourism,
Yogyakarta

Mr. Dukut Santoso, Head for Borobudur Studies and Conservation Institute

Mr. Guntur Purnomo Adi, Director for Operational Division, PT. Taman Wisata
Candi Borobudur

Mr. Yunus Satrio Atmodjo, Head, History and Museum Culture and Tourism
Board Ministry of Culture and Tourism

Mr. Gatot Ghautama, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Jakarta

Mr. Nurdien H Kistanto, Ms . Ari Pradhanawati, Mr. Djoko Suwandono, and Mr.
Darmanto Jatman, Borobudur Mediation Group, Semarang
1.4 Mission Programme

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16 April 2003

After arriving in Semarang, the Mission team members were invited to a dinner
hosted by the Governor of Central Java. On behalf of the Governor, the Vice
Governor, H. Achmad, expressed his greetings to the participants of the mission and
formally presented two requests from the Governor of Central Java. These were for
a revision of the existing zoning layout to downsize Zone 2 and enlarge Zone 3, and
for an endorsement of the Jagad Jawa proposal to build a new commercial shopping
facility behind Dagi Hill, immediately outside the western boundary of Zone 2.

The Mediation Group, a team of 4 university professors working together on a


development strategy for the site, under the auspices of the provincial government,
presented their Grand Strategy. This project is a response to the community
opposition to the Jagad Jawa concept. Their presentation was followed by a
discussion of the proposals they put forward in the Grand Strategy.

17 April 2003

The Mission team proceeded to Borobudur for on-site inspection and discussion with
local stakeholders. The Mission was accompanied throughout their on-site visit by
Mr. Henky Hermantoro, Director, Central Java Tourism Office.

After arrival at Borobudur, the Mission team was briefed by Mr Dukut Santoso, Head
of Borobudur Studies and Conservation Institute (Zone 1) and representatives of the
management of PT Taman Wisata, the national government owned management
company responsible for managing the sites visitor facilities (Zone 2). The meeting
provided some information on the responsibilities and the handling of different issues
concerning Borobudur such as differing zone management, conservation &
landscape, management & revenue, tourism & economy.

After the briefing the members of the Mission inspected the site and monument at
great length to examine its condition and the state of conservation generally. One
issue of grave concern to the Mission is the paving work that is underway to establish
a large parking area for the VIPs expected at tourism festivities planned for June and
July 2003. This parking area is being constructed immediately to the north west of
the temple, within Zone 1 where no construction of any type is supposedly allowed.
The construction work is being carried out by the Conservation Institute.

Subsequent to the inspection of the main monument and Zone 1, the retail areas in
Zone 2 and 3, the entry/exit points, the car parks and the museum were inspected.
New kiosks have been built within Zone 2 to accommodate the large increase in
vendors.

This visit was followed by a trip to the proposed Jagad Jawa site, which is owned by
the Government of Central Java. It is located approximately 1.5 km to the west of the
temple, immediately outside Zone 2, and within Zone 3. It is apparent that the land
has already been prepared for construction as the area has been fenced, cleared,
levelled and contains a drainage system.

The Mission team also visited the near-by temples Candi Mendut and Candi Pawan,
as well as the 30-year-old Buddhist monastery next to Candi Mendut.

18 April 2003

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In the morning the members of the mission had an in-depth briefing with Dr. Wiendu
Nuryanti, Director of the International Centre for Culture and Tourism of Yogjakarta
who is one of the architects involved in the Jagad Jawa proposal, together with Dr.
Arief Rachman, Secretary-General of the Indonesian National Commission for
UNESCO.

Although Dr. Wiendu Nuryanti had been instrumental in developing the Jagad Jawa
proposal, she was not strong in advocating for its implementation. Her main concern
was to bring some order into the now chaotic commercial situation of vendors at the
extry/exit to the site and to ensure that while preserving the spiritual atmosphere of
the temple, Borobudur should benefit the local community economically. She felt that
the economic potential of the site to benefit the local community has not been fully
realized and that a new-built retail area which showcased local handicrafts and
products could be an attraction in itself, especially for the large number of domestic
visitors to the site

Dr Arief Rachman outlined what he felt were the major key-points which should guide
the development of Borobudur, consisting of:: moral (education, spiritual values),
mandate, management, training for man-power, money and planning. He
expressed the opinion that the current visitor management of Borobudur lacks a
focus on the heritage values of the site, and thus the site is managed primarily for its
recreational and commercial values. Prior to lunch, Dr Rachman accompanied
Graham Brooks and Alexa Schorlemer on an inspection of Zone 2, the proposed
Jagad Jawa site, surrounding villages and the nearby Amanjiwa resort. Mr
Engelhardt prepared his presentation material for the afternoon meeting.

Lunch was hosted by the Minister of Culture and Tourism, who outlined his visions of
a 2nd phase of restoration of Borobudur. He focused on spiritual and educational
issues and explained his attempts to encourage the surrounding villages to be more
attractive for tourists.

After lunch Richard Engelhardt presented the preliminary results of the Mission to the
a meeting of local stakeholders and site managers, chaired by the Minister of Culture
and Tourism and co-chaired by the Governor of Central Java Province and the
Secretary-General of the Indonesian National Commission for UNESCO. In his
presentation, Mr. Engelhardt focused on six major topics: (1) tourism development,
(2) the state of conservation of the site, (3) management issues, (4) site interpretation
(5) assessment and management of long-term risk and (6) the development of
agenda topics for the July Experts Meeting. He emphasized that the Mission team
did not support the request for decreasing the area of Zone 2, nor could the Mission
endorse either the Jagad Jawa or the Grand Strategy, finding both proposals
inadequate. He pointed out that both proposals lacked grounding in research and
data, on both how they would benefit the local community and how the proposals
would effect the conservation of the world Heritage site. However, he elaborated
several recommendations for ways to meet the development and conservation needs
of the site. These recommendations will be discussed in the following chapters.

The Governor expressed his gratitude towards the Mission for their assessment, but
emphasised the need he felt to combine the Jagad Jawa proposal with the Grand
Strategy and to carry on with their implementation.

The Minister fully supported Mr Engelhardts conclusions and offered his support in
collecting the socio-economic and archaeological data needed to undertake informed

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development planning. He emphasised the importance of the site as an educational


resource for the community and the need to restore the intangible heritage
associated with the site and its setting. He invited UNESCO to participate in a 2nd
Phase of Restoration of Borobudur and explained that in this context he is planning
to create a National Steering Committee for Borobudur to develop and coordinate a
vision for the long-term development of the site. A second steering committee would
manage the implementation of the vision.

After the briefing the Minister suggested that the mission visit the Losari Coffee
Plantation and Resort, which will open in mid 2003. The resort is based on an early
19th century coffee plantation and has reassembled components of traditional
Javanese houses to provide the basis for the character of the various lodges. The
Minister considers that this style of development can be a good example of
revitalising traditional architectural images for new hotels in the vicinity of Borobudur.

In the evening the mission was invited by the Minister and the Governor to attend a
village festival in Candi Rejo close to Borobudur. This festival had been organised by
the Patra-Pala Foundation (a local NGO supported by JICA) which is trying to
reinforce traditional crafts and the use of natural resources as a basis for local
community development.

20 April 2003

Back in Jakarta the Mission participants reported to the Director of UNESCO Jakarta
Office, Mr Stephan Hill. Mr Hill asked the Mission to include in its recommendations
project proposals that could be submitted to donors for funding and which would
kick-start the Ministers 2nd Phase of Restoration.

21 April 2003

As the Mission will make recommendations to the agenda of the Experts Meeting, the
members of the Mission met to discuss the agenda with Dr Arief Rachman, and Mr.
Yunus Satrio Atmodjo, Deputy of Mr Anom, Director-General of the Department of
Archaeology and Museum, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, who is in charge of the
agenda, as well as Mr. Gatot Ghautama representing the Culture and Tourism Board,
Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The Mission team commented on the state of
conservation of the site and suggested adding several management issues to the
meetings agenda, which in its first draft is limited to technical issues of stone
conservation only. Mr. Yunus replied that the agenda would be revised and also
mentioned that the Department already has some data on the communities
surrounding Borobudur that could be incorporated into the proposed data base.

Unfortunately, due to the tight Mission programme and other difficulties, it was not
possible for the Mission members to meet with representatives of ICOMOS Indonesia
during the Mission. Extensive discussions were however undertaken both in the lead
up and following the Mission, and during the preparation of this report.

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1.5 Current Management Zones around Borobudur Monument


The Borobudur Monument is managed by means of a series of Zones that surround
the monument and extend out into the larger landscape and archaeological setting.
These Zones were established as part of the 1992 Presidential Degree that
established the Borobudur Tourism Park, as the site is officially known.

Zone 1:

This is the zone of highest protection in which the main monument of Borobudur is
located. It is a small area, consisting of the monument itself and the hill on which the
monument is situated. Land in this zone is owned by the national government and
managed by the Conservation Institute, the local arm of the Department of
Archaeology and Museums.

Zone 2:

This is the site management support zone, in which facilities such as the
Conservation Institute offices, the site museum and visitor facilities are located. In
this zone, land owned by the national government and managed under contract by
PT Taman Wisata, a government-owned tourism management company expressly
set up to manage the site.

Zone 3:

This zone encompasses the local communities most directly associated with the
monument, including those who were relocated when the parkland around the
monument was established. It also includes the nearby temples of Candi Mendut
and Candi Pawon. The village area to the east and north east of the site provides a
space for the development of community based and privately operated commercial
and tourism infrastructure. Here land is under a combination of public and private
ownership, and managed through provincial and local government regulations.

Zone 4:

This, in theory, is a landscape protection zone, intended to protect the setting and
view of Borobudur main temple. In this zone land is under a combination of public
and private ownership, but is not managed specifically for conservation.

Zone 5:

Although defined as the area of the Borobudur Archaeological Park, this zone is not
clearly delineated and apparently unmanaged for heritage conservation, except for
individual subsidiary temple sites and some other areas which may be subject to
national and provincial environmental protection regulations.

The actual boundaries of the World Heritage site need to be established agreed.
Clear management obligations and objectives need to be established and agreed for
the site between UNESCO and the Government of Indonesia. This will enable all
parties to monitor the management processes and the achievement of agreed
objectives.

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2.0
Analysis of the Current Development
Proposals
2.1 Background
In this section we review the two proposals that have been put forward by the
provincial government authorities for the development of the commercial potential of
the World Heritage property. These proposals have as their objective to improve the
presentation and retailing facilities at the site entry and the development of the
commercial potential of the site to generate income for the surrounding community.

In recent years the economic situation in Indonesia has encouraged many people to
seek an income by becoming informal vendors or retailers at the Borobudur World
Heritage Site. The site attracts some 2.5 million visits per annum, representing a
significant market catchment for those who wish to sell products at the entry/exit to
the site. The large increase in vendors around the entry, and their aggressive
marketing tactics, have created potential threats to the safeguarding and
conservation of the site and have caused the presentation of the site to suffer and the
potential visitor experience to be degraded, even before the visit begins.

In order to re-organise the now-chaotic retail area at the entry/exit point and to
increase the economic benefit for the local community, several proposals have been
put forward. The first of these proposals provoked negative reaction from one
stakeholder group or another, without satisfactory resolution. Information on the
proposals is contained in the Appendices to this report.

The two proposals which are currently on the table are:

2.2 Jagad Jawa.


This is a proposal for the development of a new retail shopping complex in Zone 3,
about 1.5 km to the west of the main monument, on the opposite side of the site from
the present entry and current concentration of retail activity. The large number of
visitors who are attracted to the site will then require some form of on-site
transportation back to the base of the monument, as it is too far to walk in the tropical
heat. A light rail system supplemented by horse drawn carriages has been
suggested in this regard.

This proposal is not supported by ICOMOS Indonesia as it threatens upon the


environmental buffer zone of the site, and it increases the percentage of the site
perimeter that would be filled up with non-formal and/or low-end commercial activity.
In addition, the proposal would require the construction of a new entrance to the site,
and the addition of a light rail system to move visitors around the area.

The Mission team carefully examined this proposal, visited the site, and spoke with
the head of the design team which drew up the proposal. While agreeing with the
analysis that the commercial potential of the site is underdeveloped in terms of retail
marketing potential, the Mission team does not endorse the Jagad Jawa proposal as
currently designed, for the following reasons:

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The proposed location of the Jagad Jawa shopping complex is not acceptable
for reasons of archaeological protection. The proposed location is within one of
the conservation buffer zones of the site, and in the vicinity of known
archaeological deposits.

The proposed location of the Jagad Jawa shopping complex is not acceptable
for reasons of environmental protection. The proposed location would draw
vendors in both the formal and informal sectors to set up their concessions
along the perimeter of Zone 2, further ringing the site with shops.

The proposed location Jagad Jawa shopping complex is not acceptable for
reasons of financial management. The proposed location would necessitate
investment in new, potentially unnecessary and extensive visitor facilities at the
site, and in a new light rail or other sort of public transport system. The capital
and on-going maintenance funds required for such an investment are high, and
if available, should be used instead to improve site conservation, interpretation
and educational services available on the site.

The proposed architecture of Jagad Jawa is unacceptable from an aesthetic


point of view. It does not compliment, but competes with that of the historic
monument, thus detracting from the monument and reinforces the incorrect
concept that the value of the World Heritage monument is primarily
commercial.

The proposed architecture of Jagad Jawa is also unacceptable from an


engineering point of view. Piling required for the complex threaten disturb the
foundations of the nearby main monument, it being remembered that the area
is volcanic in origin with a turbercular geology which transfers stress very
efficiently over long distances, making heavy piling dangerous to existing and
ancient structures.

The concept of Jagad Jawa as a shopping mall (i.e. a concentration of shops in


one remote location) does not meet the identified economic or social objectives
which the proposals aims to address. The shopping mall concept will benefit
primarily the property owner/developer. A better solution is to encourage the
development of many small independent specialized shops within the existing
township of Borobudur and other settlements along the road from Borobudur to
Candi Mendut and Candi Pawon. On-site retailing at the current entry area
should also be improved to form a bazaar style complex.

2.3 The Grand Strategy for the Development of Borobudur


Tourism Area
This proposal has been drawn up by a group of local university sociologists called
The Mediation Group under contract to the provincial government, in order to
counter the negative response of the vendor community to the proposal to relocate
retail marketing at Borobudur through the Jagad Jawa scheme discussed above.

The so-called Grand Strategy consists principally of undertaking PRA (participatory


rapid appraisal) analysis of the wants of the community of 2000+ informal vendors
currently plying their wares at the entry/exit to Borobudur (within Zones 2 and 3). It is
then implicit in the proposal (and explicit in the proposals authors explanation of their
expectation of the use of the PRA analysis) that Zone 2 of the site will be re-

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configured to comply with the wishes of the vendors. No stakeholders other than the
vendors are apparently included in the proposal as beneficiaries.

The proposal does outline an ambitious possible long-term agenda that includes
development of provincial irrigation works and a host of other rural infrastructure
development projects to improve the economic conditions in the countryside.
However, these projects are only mentioned in briefest outline and have apparently
arisen through local consultation, possibly in the form of a wish list. There is no
explanation of the links between the PRA stakeholder analysis around Borobudur
and these grander schemes. Neither is there any consideration as to whether the
process or resultant proposals for development action would affect the conservation
of the World Heritage site or the heritage values of the site. Also implicit in the
Strategy are adjustments in the site zones to suit these desired outcomes . All this is
probably moot, as the Grand Strategy proposal does not address the issue of how
any of the projects proposed large or small will be financed or managed.

The proposals basic purpose is political to meet the demand for community
consultation. However, it is not at all clear that the informal vendors at the site are
indeed inhabitants of the surrounding community the intended beneficiaries of the
scheme -- or if they are migrant vendors from Yogyakarta, other nearby urban
concentrations of population or elsewhere in Indonesia.

However, stakeholder consultation is a desirable and necessary part of any


development proposal. It is good that such a process has commenced for Borobudur
and the Mission team recommends that the assistance of The Mediation Group
should be sought in the socialization of any future development projects proposed for
the area around Borobudur. However, as it stands in the documents presented to
the Mission team, the so-called Grand Strategy is neither grand nor a strategy.
There is nothing of substance in its current format for UNESCO to endorse.

The only comment about the proposal which should be made, is that implicit in the
Grand Strategy proposal appears to be a recommendation to shrink Zone 2 to allow
for more of the current Zone 2 to be used for commercial purposes (more vendors
stalls). The Department of Archaeology and Museums does not agree to the proposal
to shrink Zone 2 as it would affect the landscaped setting and conservation of the
site. The Mission team supports the Department of Archaeology and Museums and
does not endorse any proposal to shrink or otherwise change the boundaries of
Zones 1 or 2.

To summarize the Mission teams recommendations concerning the Grand Strategy


are as follows:

The Grand Strategy proposal should not be mistaken as a grand strategy. It


is too sketchy in outline to guide any development action. It is, in fact, a
background consultation process that may feed useful community information
into the longer term formulation of development actions.

If the Grand Strategy proposal is to be further developed, it will need more


structured and professional guidance from a wider range of professional
disciplines.

The process of stakeholder consultation is a positive approach and should be


used in the socialization of any proposed development project affecting
Borobudur.

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The selection of stakeholders in the Grand Strategy is too limited. It does not
involve any of those persons or agencies responsible for (with a stake in) the
protection of the physical fabric of the World Heritage monument, its
environmental buffer zone, or its intangible heritage values.

Care must be taken, when dealing with the development of a World Heritage
site, not to fall into the error of assuming that whatever one, vocal group of
stakeholders wants is what must be done. The management of a World
Heritage site is a public trust held for future generations. As with all public
trusts concerning the long-term conservation of assets, demands for non-
sustainable exploitation of a World Heritage site are unacceptable.

It is in this light, that the proposal to shrink the Zone 2 protection area is not
acceptable and must be rejected.

2.4 No Endorsement of Either Proposal


Upon examination of these two proposals, it became clear that it was not desirable
for the Mission team to recommend to UNESCO that either proposal be endorsed in
its present form.

As an alternative course of action, the Mission team recommends:

To re-organise the retail area in-situ into a structured bazaar offering traditional
arts and crafts, not to attempt to transfer the problems to the proposed Jagad
Jawa site.

To do a detailed socio-economic mapping of the community and the landscape


in order to develop a long-term programme to improve the communitys
livelihood.

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3.0
State of Conservation Issues
3.1 Background
In this section we examine the issues related to the state of conservation of the stone
architecture and sculpted bas-reliefs of the main monument at Borobudur.

The Mission team was accompanied by the Director of the Conservation Institute in a
lengthy on-site examination of the monument. However, a one-day site visit is not
enough to deal in depth with the technical aspects of conservation of the stone
architecture of the site. Such matters require on-going monitoring, and a programme
of scientific research and analysis. This type of work is being carried out by the
Conservation Institute and will be examined in depth at the upcoming Experts
Meeting scheduled for 4-8 July 2003. Therefore the observations and
recommendations made by the present Mission team will be limited to issues related
to management of the conservation process.

3.2 Micro Climate Change


The Department of Archaeology reports that deforestation of the surrounding area,
especially in Zones 4 and 5, but also in the hills and mountains beyond, due to
population pressure and increasing urbanization has contributed to a micro-climate
change around the monument.

3.3 Scaling of the Stone Surfaces


Increasing mean temperature, plus greater fluctuation in temperature has had a
measurable negative impact on the conservation of the stone of the monument,
increasing the thermally-induced travel of water containing dissolved salts through
the stone. When this water reaches the surface of the stone, it evaporates and the
dissolved mineral salts crystallize forming rigid crystal lattices that crack or scale
the stone surface and obliterate the bas-relief sculpture. The problem of scaling has
been acknowledged as one of the major and still unsolved --conservation problems
of the monument from the beginning of conservation work in the early part of the 20th
century, and the problem has become worse in recent years due to the
environmental changes that have been induced by improper management of the
protection zones.

3.4 Deposition of Calcium Carbonate Leached from Concrete


Substructure
There also appears to be some calcium carbonate salt staining on the surface of the
stone, apparently caused by water leaching this salt from the underlying concrete
substructure that was installed in the major UNESCO reconstruction campaign. The
Mission team has no recommendation to counter this problem, only to point out the
problem as a cautionary tale that the use concrete should be avoided in the
conservation of ancient stone monument.

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3.5 Penetration of Ochre Wash


Another unsolved problem is that of the ochre wash apparently applied to the surface
of some of the bas-relief sculpture in the early 20thy century, possibly to facilitate
enhanced photography. This ochre wash has penetrated some 2mm into the face of
the stone and a solution for removal has never been identified. Where seepage
occurs across the face of ochre coloured sculpture, the staining effect is visually
enhanced. Experiments should be conducted as to non-destructive methods to
remove the ochre stain, which if not removed will eventually lead to the complete loss
of the bas-reliefs.

3.6 Over-cleaning
There also appears to be a problem of excessive scrubbing of the sculpture to
remove the staining or salt build up. Some sculpture is scrubbed twice per year both
mechanically and with high-pressure water spray. This abrasion is having a negative
physical effect on the integrity of the detail, and is increasing the porosity of the stone
surface leading to even further damage due to scaling. The current cleaning regime,
which has been in place since 1982, should be re-examined by the Experts Meeting
with a view to reducing the physical damage

3.7 Long-term Environmental Controls


Localized treatment of the stone has proven not to be totally effective in meeting the
above-identified conservation problems. Therefore more attention should be given to
long-term environmental controls. The environmental controls that are in place,
consisting of a series of five concentric rings of zones of decreasing protection, are
not adequate. Furthermore, the induced micro-environmental changes have been
recently worsened by several inappropriate management actions that have occurred
in the propertys concentric protection zones.

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4.0
Site Management Issues
4.1 Separation of the Site into Zones
The land within Zones 1 and 2 is owned by the National Government, but is managed
by two separate government entities, each with a different set of management
objectives. There is no clear definition of what constitutes the boundaries of the
World Heritage Site, but it is generally understood to be limited to Zones 1 and 2.
The 1992 declaration of the place, which changed its name from an Archaeological
Park to a Tourism Park, included expanded buffer zones beyond the immediate
landscaped park. These stretched out to embrace the immediately surrounding
communities (Zone 3), the landscaped context of the valley (Zone 4) and a much
larger archaeological zone (Zone 5). Both these larger zones were simply defined as
circles beyond the site.

There is no clear definition of the actual property boundary that is inscribed on the
World Heritage List. It appears to be only Zones 1 and 2, but there was no clear or
formal definition in the original inscription documentation.

Prior to 1992, Borobudur was known as an Archaeological Park. This emphasis was
changed to Taman Wisata, or Tourism Park. It is clear from many of the
management activities taking place in Zone 2 that there is a significant emphasis on
the recreational values of the site in preference to the cultural heritage values. The
tourism activities are not being managed in a manner that is subservient to the
heritage values.

4.2 Management of the Different Zones


Zone 1, is the small central zone around the temple. It is managed by the Borobudur
Studies and Conservation Institute, located in Zone 2, which reports to the Culture
and Tourism Board of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Jakarta. Development
within Zone 1 is forbidden. It is separated by a low fence from Zone 2.

Zone 2 is regarded as the landscaped buffer zone in which both conservation and
tourism support services are located, providing activities for the visitors to learn more
about the site. This area is therefore intended to regulate and control the visitation of
the site. Zone 2 is managed by PT. Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan
and Ratu Boko, a national government owned corporation reporting to the
Department of Finance in Jakarta. PT Taman Wisata is in charge of operating the
visitor facilities such as entry/exit points, car and bus parking, orientation centre,
museum, public toilets, security etc. There is a small Study Centre within this
precinct that is also used as a low key hotel. The offices and workshops for the
Archaeological Management of the monument and the Landscape Maintenance
facilities are also located in Zone 2. All of the on-site sales activities by established
shops, informal retail shelters, and strolling vendors takes place within the area
around the parking areas. This has been differentiated as Outer Zone 2, to
distinguish it from Inner Zone 2, which comprises the landscaped buffer zone and
other visitor facilities.

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Zone 3 is administrated by the local government, the Bupati of Magelang, and also
includes the two smaller temples, Candi Mendut and Candi Pawan, to the east. It is
an extended area that comprises the villages and agricultural land that surround the
monument. The communities in this precinct are supposed to be able to benefit most
from the nearby presence of the site through the provision of additional retailing,
home-stay accommodation, craft and tourism merchandise production and
performance venues. tI appears that some of the families and their community
facilities such as a mosque and school, which were relocated from Zone 2 when the
Archaeological Park was established, were moved into this precinct. They therefore
have a very close connection with the monument. Zone 3 should also protect the
environment around Borobudur, i.e. prohibit the building of multi-storey houses or
uncontrolled tree cutting.

Zone 4, also administrated by the local government, is supposed to maintain the


historical scenery and to protect the view zone of Borobudur.

Zone 5, administrated by the local government, is considered a national


archaeological park to protect the discovered as well as the undiscovered
archaeological monuments in order to enable future surveys. There seems to be
little active management policy for the archaeological resources in Zones 4 or 5.

The issue of zone definition, boundaries and management regimes is a key issue for
successful management of the site and for the safeguarding of the values for which
the property is inscribed on the World Heritage List. There needs to be a clear
agreement between UNESCO and the Government of Indonesia as to the actual
World Heritage site boundary, and clear management obligations within the agreed
site. All parties will then be able monitor the achievement of these obligations.

4.3 Income Generation Not Applied to Monument Conservation


PT also manages the income from ticket sales (around 10 billions RP per year,
equivalent to about US$ 1 million), 25% of which is paid to the local government as
tax revenue, while the rest is used to cover the costs of site management incurred by
PT.. Profit is paid to the national government, thus there is virtually no income from
ticket sales provided directly for monument site conservation needs.

4.4 Management Issues Impacting on the Conservation of the


Monument
There are a number of issues related to site management that were observed by the
Mission team members as having a direct effect on the heritage values of the site.

In Zone 1, the small zone of highest protection immediately surrounding the


monument itself, where no construction of any type is permitted, the Department of
Archaeology has cleared trees, shrubbery and grass and is in the process of
constructing a concrete block paved parking lot for VIPs, which can accommodate
50-100 vehicles. The construction of such a large paved area adjacent to the
monument is a principal contributor to the increase in temperature, and temperature
gradient within the monuments micro-climate. It will also cause visual pollution
within close proximity of the monument. The Mission team recommends that work on
this parking lot be stopped and that the entire area be returned to its original state of
grass and shrubbery.

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The recently grassed former


roadway to the base of the
monument has greatly improved
the immediate context.
Photo by Graham Brooks

Current construction work on a


concrete block paved parking
area for VIP cars. This parking
area is being constructed within
the immediate visual context of
the monument. It is very large in
scale and will detract from the
setting. It should be reduced in
scale to a simple drop off facility
with the cars waiting below the
hill.
Photo by Graham Brooks

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In Zone 2, the site management support zone, the number of commercial vendors
has been allowed to grow uncontrolled from the planned original 70 kiosks to
something like 2000, primarily due to the poor economic conditions elsewhere in
Indonesia, which encourages vendors to try to earn income from the high levels of
domestic tourism at the site. This has led to overcrowding at the entry the site, solid
waste pollution, and social friction among the petty vendors who compete very
aggressively for visitor attention. In addition, the capacity of the vehicle parking lots
has been greatly exceeded, with consequent crowding of the designated parking
areas, and unregulated spill-over into other parts of Zones 2 and 3, and an overall
increase in both temperature and air-borne pollutants, negatively affecting the
monument.

In Zone 3, the surrounding residential village and agricultural zone, there is work
underway to improve the main road presentation that leads towards the site. This is
being prepared for the June International Borobudur Festival. Zone 3 is dedicated to
providing the social and community context for Borobudur as well as the immediate
landscape and historic cultural backdrop. In general Zone 3 is intended for the
development of community based activities that can benefit from the tourism
activities at the monument. These include homestay, retail shops, small craft
production centres, performance centres and food outlets. At present these tend to
be concentrated along the main approach road from Candi Mendut and on the two
roads that define the northern and eastern edges of the main site. While there is one
small hotel in this zone, the Mission team was advised that the construction of hotels
in Zone 3 is discouraged by the Ministry of Culture, primarily as it could lead to the
area being over developed for this form of accommodation.

The proposed Jagad Jawa shopping centre and new entry area, are located in Zone
3, immediately to the west of the Zone 2 boundary.

There is no significant attempt at any sort of management in Zones 4 or 5, which


would actively complement the heritage values of the monument. This is in itself
problematic, because of the environmental issues raised and because, as explained
elsewhere in this report, recent research has shown that the mandala construction of
the main monument is repeated in the landscape engineering of the surrounding
countryside up to and including the ancient sacred volcano, Mt. Merapi, lying on the
east-west axis of the monument.

4.5 Proposals to Shrink the Protected Area


The pressure to shrink the area under active protection management, specifically to
shrink the boundary of Zone 2, thereby enlarging the areas of Zone 3, comes from
both the PT management agency and the provincial government.

By shrinking Zone 2 beyond the line of encroachment by non-formal vendors, the de


facto situation will be de-jure, thus the criticisms of poor management which have
been levelled against those responsible for Zone 2 management will be rendered
moot. No on-site problem will be solved by this purely cosmetic solution. Instead,
the main monument will be placed under increased threat by the continued
encroachment of commercial vendors and the issues of environmental pollution.

The Mission team therefore does not endorse the request by the Governor to shrink
Zone 2.

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4.6 Proposed Steering Committee


The most important site management issue facing the Borobudur World Heritage Site
is the division between the management of the two inner Zones.

Not only are the two inner zones under differing agencies within the national
government structure, they operate in quite different ways with regard to the raising
and allocation of revenue. Zone 1 is essentially financed directly from central
government funds, through the History and Museum Culture and Tourism Board
Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Zone 2 is financed from ticket sales, with a portion
of the surplus funds being paid to the local government and a portion to the
government.

There is no clear or common management vision for the operation of the two zones.
Zone 1 is focussed on the conservation of the monument, while Zone 2 provides all
of the tourism support services and funnels visitors into Zone 1.

As part of his formal response to the presentation by the Mission members of their
initial findings and recommendations, the Minister for Culture and Tourism stated that
it was his intention to establish a national steering committee, which he would chair.
This committee will guide the formulation of a common vision for the next 20 years of
Borobudur, during which the site would be managed to both conserve its heritage
values and develop the ability of tourism to benefit the local community. The Minister
also announced that he would establish a local committee, chaired by the Governor
of Central Java, which would implement the common vision.

The Mission members strongly endorse the establishment of these two committees.

The Mission also recommends that the July Experts Meeting be charged with
formulating long term objectives for the operation of these two committees.

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5.0
Tourism Management Issues
5.1 Background
Borobudur attracts approximately 2.5 million visitors per annum, of which the vast
majority are domestic tourists from Java and other parts of Indonesia. Indonesians,
the majority of whom do not worship in the Buddhist faith, see Borobudur as a major
component of their richly layered and varied cultural history. It is a place of great
national pride. There are relatively small numbers of Buddhists who look to the
monument as a place of special value, despite the fact that the particular form of
Buddhism practiced in the 9th century when the monument was built, is no longer
practiced.

In the interests of establishing a standardised evaluation of the tourism management


issues at sites of cultural heritage value, ICOMOS has developed the ICOMOS
International Cultural Tourism Charter. The Principles of the Charter will be utilised
below to evaluate the tourism management issues at Borobudur.

5.2 Narrow Focus on Significance


Borobudur is located in the Kedu Valley in Central Java province, within sight of
Mount Merapi, the largest and most active of the volcanoes that dot the Island of
Java. The area receives very heavy annual rainfall and is rich with volcanic deposits,
providing a rich agricultural basis for the peoples who have inhabited the area since
the earliest times of human history in Java.

Borobudur temple was erected in the 8th century CE, at a time when Hinduism was
making way for Buddhism in the area, and when central Java was the major political
power in the region. Within about one hundred years that power base had shifted to
east Java and the communities that supported Borobudur declined. The monument
faded into the mists of time and was not rediscovered by westerners until 1814. As a
result of this historical background there is very little supporting documentation about
the historical and cultural context of the original monument and its role in early
Buddhist worship. The monument is the primary source of information about its
history and significance, with the hundreds of richly carved bas-reliefs and the
pyramidal architectural composition providing a rich source of research, speculation
and debate for scholars.

With the overwhelming architectural power of the monument and the traditional focus
on archaeology in European research methodology during the 19th and 20th
centuries, the majority of the focus on Borobudur has been on the physical
monument itself. Insufficient research has been undertaken into the larger
landscaped historical cultural context of the place. There are strong messages in the
contextual relationships with the nearby Mount Merapi and nearby smaller temples at
Candi Mendut and Candi Pawon, combined with a rich but largely undiscovered
archaeological resource in the wider region.

As discussed in a later section of this report, there needs to be more research


undertaken into the wider context of the monument, if our understanding of its
significance is to expanded and communicated to others.

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5.3 The Currrent Tourism Context


Borobudur attracts in the order of 2.5 million visitors per annum, the vast majority
being from Java and elsewhere in Indonesia. As the general population of Indonesia
becomes progressively more wealthy, this trend can be expected to increase. In
addition, Borobudur is widely regarded within Indonesia as a major symbol of the
richly layered and complex cultural history of the nation. As Indonesia reaches to
consolidate its nationhood at a time of many internal and external strains, sites such
as Borobudur make an important contribution to the national self identity.

Although located within the province of Central Java, Borobudur is unable to capture
a significant proportion of the wealth generated by tourism for its own population.
The most popular means of travel to the site is from the nearby city of Yogyakarta, by
either bus or car, and mostly in groups. School visits are very popular. There is a
major airport there and a combination of heritage attractions including another world
heritage listed site at Prambanan, the historic Kraton or Royal City and a rich cultural
and student life in this large city. By comparison, Semarang, the provincial capital of
Central Java is two hours away by car and Solo the second city is also relatively
remote from Borobudur. Consequently the majority of domestic and international
tourists tend to stay in Yogyakarta and make day visits to Borobudur and the other
sites. Yogyakarta has a large tourism hotel capacity that can cater for a wide range
of tourist budgets. It is generally assumed to be the gateway to the site.

In recent years the economic crisis throughout Asia, coupled with internal unrest and
some terrorism activity within Indonesia has combined to place great strains on the
economic livelihood of the population. Many people are therefore attracted to a
major tourism site such as Borobudur in the hope of earning a living by being a
vendor or retailer, selling merchandise to the visitors. Over recent years this trend
has become a flood, with the number of informal vendors congregating in the entry
area of the site increasing dramatically. Their competitive and aggressive behaviour,
combined with the generally poor quality of the merchandise for sale, has lead to a
serious decline in the presentation of the site and therefore of the visitor experience.
In addition, there appears to be very little benefit flowing back to the local population
from these activities. Most of the merchandise is typical of that found in any market
place and has virtually nothing to do with the local cultural traditions. With a rising
level of wealth among the domestic visitors and greater discernment among foreign
tourists, there is a considerable shortfall in the quality of the merchandise that could
be for sale at the site. As a very simple example, there are no books or other forms
of literature about the site available for purchase at the site.

The concept of retailing at heritage sites is now readily accepted by site managers,
conservationists and visitors. Retailing can provide a useful source of income for the
site or for the local community and it can provide the visitor with both souvenirs and
material that expands their awareness and understanding of the significance of the
site and the local community. This capacity is greatly under-utilised at Borobudur.

The Mission strongly supports the role of retailing within the site, but is very
concerned about the quality and presentation of the retailing activities, including the
aggressive behaviour of an excessive number of vendors. These combine to
degrade the visitor experience and the overall world heritage values of the site. By
contrast the proposed Jagad Jawa project will not solve this problem, only move it to
another location and generate an equally detrimental effect from the consequent
need for on-site visitor transportation. The preferred option is for the entry retail area
to be upgraded.

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5.2 Charter Principle 1


Since domestic and international tourism is among the foremost vehicles for cultural
exchange, conservation should provide responsible and well managed opportunities
for members of the host community and visitors to experience and understand that
communitys heritage and culture at first hand.

As noted above, there is a very narrow focus at Borobudur on the architectural and
artistic qualities of the actual monument, which is presented to the visitor as a huge
and exotic structure located in a pleasant landscaped setting. By contrast there is
very little presentation of the larger landscaped, historical cultural context of the place
and very little encouragement for visitors to explore the surrounding area. Some
visitors stop to inspect Candi Mendut and Candi Pawon, as they are located near to
the main access road from Yogyakarta.

The Borobudur site is physically accessible to every visitor, both domestic and
international who wishes to visit the place. The significance of the place is also
accessible to the wider public through an extensive range of books and publications
that present its history, architecture, inscriptions and meaning within the historical
and cultural context of Java and Indonesia. The history of the rediscovery of the
place by Europeans at the beginning of the 20th century and the reconstruction of the
monument in the 1970s and early 1980s has also been well recorded.

The mystical meaning of the monument is not well understood, even by scholars, as
there is little supporting documentation available to explain the direct context of the
place. The vast amount of carvings and inscriptions on the monument are the
primary source of information about the monuments role in Buddhism in Java.

There is a growing but under presented understanding of the relationship between


Borobudur and the wider cultural landscape context of the site within the Kedu Valley
and in relation to Mount Merapi. This issue is discussed elsewhere in this report.

Within the site there is little direct interpretation of the significance of the place
actually presented to the visitor. There is an orientation video at the entry, but most
visitors do not seem to take the time to watch the presentation. There is a severe
lack of interpretive signage or other media to explain the monument. Some guides
are available for personal tours, but these seem more aimed at non Indonesian
visitors. As a result most visitors simply climb to the top of the monument for the
excitement of the challenge and the photo opportunity.

A percentage of the visitors walk slowly around some of the terraces to view the large
number of very famous bas-reliefs. Some of these people are accompanied by
personal guides, some appear to have read background material before the visit.
Given the scale of the terraces, and the tropical climate, it is unlikely that many
visitors actually traverse all of the terraces as they climb towards the summit of the
monument.

There needs to be a greater level of concise interpretation and presentation of the


spiritual values of the monument, supported by more focussed guided tours for a
greater number of visitors. The on site museum does not present the significance of
the site in a meaningful way. It appears to be more of a large collection of stone
sections and carvings from the restoration phase.

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Access to the site is affordable, as evidenced by the large number of Indonesian


families and school children who visit the place. A different and considerably higher
entry fee is paid by non Indonesians.

It is unlikely that most visitors are informed of any differing cultural values that may
be ascribed to the place.

5.3 Charter Principle 2


The relationship between Heritage Places and Tourism is dynamic and may involve
conflicting values. It should be managed in a sustainable way for present and future
generations.

When the landscaped park around Borobudur was created, those people who were
living in the immediate context of the monument were resettled in nearby areas.
Borobudur is officially classified as a dead monument and contemporary religious
practice is not encouraged within the central zone of the site. The immediate
connections between the monument and the surrounding community are therefore
less tangible than might be the case with a place of continuing religious respect.

As a place with a high level of tourism, Borobudur provides many opportunities for
the local people to generate a livelihood from tourism. This situation has broken
down in recent years with the influx of people from elsewhere in Java and Indonesia
trying to compete with the local people for income based on selling merchandise to
the visitors. There is little evidence of locally produced merchandise at the site.

The only planned tourism project currently being considered is the Jagad Jawa
project, which has been discussed elsewhere in this report. This project is clearly not
based on any understanding of the significance of the site and is aimed primarily at
solving the excessive vendor crowding that is taking place at the site entry.

There is a lack of planned projects that are aimed at sustaining the local community
or at developing a greater understanding of the cultural values of the site.
Conservation works on site are primarily aimed at the physical protection and
cleaning of the stonework, not at conserving any wider cultural values.

The design of the proposed Jagad Jawa centre was based more on emulating the
pyramidal architecture of the monument than on reflecting the traditional domestic
architecture of Java. The small study centre (hotel) and the archaeological
management centre are well designed in this idiom, but the site entry pavilion is not.

There are no programmes to evaluate the progressive impacts of tourism on the local
community. The Grand Strategy that is discussed elsewhere in this report could
become the basis of such consultation, if it was given a different focus.

5.4 Charter Principle 3


Conservation and Tourism Planning for Heritage Places should ensure that the
Visitor Experience will be worthwhile, satisfying and enjoyable.

The lack of suitable information available on site, where there are no bookshops,
prevents any optimisation of the visitors understanding of the place. The inherent
power of monument encourages visitors to respect it, but there is no formal
programme that would encourage this. Signs are located at various places on the

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upper terraces encouraging good behaviour. Rubbish receptacles are placed at


intervals around the upper terraces. The entry area of the site itself is heavily
degraded by litter, while the majority of the landscaped curtilage within Zone 2 is well
maintained.

There are no specific circulation routes for visitors, despite the traditional clockwise
circulation of Buddhist monuments, as the visitor climbs progressively upwards.
Most visitors simply climb directly up one of the four the main axial staircases to the
summit.

The visitor can experience the place at their own pace, and the majority appear to do
so. There are few guides and these tend to be mostly for small groups of more
wealthy visitors. School groups are guided by teachers.

There is very little contact with the local communities in the surrounding areas. Most
visitors arrive and depart by either bus or private car, go straight to the site parking
areas and leave as soon as the visit is completed. There is some emerging retail
activity in the streets surrounding the site, but this is not a major focus of pedestrian
activity before or after the visit. Handrails are provided for visitors accessing the
steep stairways. There is also a rubber tyred tourist train that circulates the base of
the monument, on the roadway in Zone 2, that provides additional viewing
opportunities for the physically impaired and other visitors.

There is no access provided to the monument for the physically impaired, particularly
in relation to the very steep stairs that lead between the upper terraces. Vehicle
access is available to the elevated platform on which the monument is located,
combined with a large area of grass that forms the immediate context of the
monument itself.

Public toilets are located at intervals around the landscaped buffer zone. There are
no appropriate food and beverage or retail opportunities within the site that do not
adversely impact on the presentation of the place and the visitor experience at the
entry. The weaknesses in the current situation are discussed elsewhere and are the
major problem with tourism management for the site at present.

There is little opportunity for any visitor to contribute directly to the conservation of
the site. Virtually none of the income generated through ticket sales is applied to the
conservation works, although it does sustain the generally fine landscaped curtilage
that is the majority of Zone 2. It appears that none of the income derived from the
retail activity at the entry of the site goes to the managing agency or is applied to the
conservation of the place.

5.5 Charter Principle 4


Host communities and indigenous peoples should be involved in planning for
conservation and tourism.

It is apparent that the host community, being the people who live within Zone 3 are
not consulted in any formal manner about the future of the site or its general planning
and development. There is potential within the Grand Strategy for this process to
commence.

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It is part of the proposed new planning vision set out by the Minister for Culture and
Tourism, that the local community should benefit from the tourism activities at the
monument.

5.6 Charter Principle 5


Tourism and conservation activities should benefit the host community.

At present there are few programmes that are designed to provide any direct benefit
to the local community. The only direct benefit comes from the income that they earn
as vendors and retailers in the vicinity of the site entry.

5.7 Charter Principle 6


Tourism promotion programmes should protect and enhance Natural and Cultural
Heritage characteristics.

The primary image presented to potential national and international tourists is of


Borobudur as the exotic historic monument, full of mystery and filled with richly
carved bas-reliefs. There is no presentation of the surrounding historic or cultural
context and nothing about the local community in which the monument is situated.
As a result, when visitors arrive they have poorly informed expectations of the place
and little background in how to respect or appreciate the cultural heritage values.
Consequently, most visitors are simply motivated to climb to the top for a photo
opportunity. Thus visiting the monument is widely regarded as a recreational outing,
not a cultural, educational or contemplative experience.

There is virtually nothing within the boundaries of the site to change this expectation
in the mind of the visitor. By contrast, the monument emerges from the surrounding
landscape in a manner that reinforces that human instinct to conquer the heights.

There is nothing at the site or widely published in the relevant media to celebrate or
acknowledge that Borobudur is inscribed on the World Heritage List. The potential
for the visitor to gain an added degree of respect for the place, that is inherent in
such an inscription, is lost. Visitor behaviour at the monument is therefore left
without any sense of direct encouragement to respect the place.

There is nothing apparent in the tourism management programmes that seek to


minimise or reduce the scale of fluctuations in visitor numbers across seasons, days
of the week or times of the year. A recent Australian newspaper article about how
Yogyakarta is responding to a combination of SARS and the perception of
heightened Islamic radicalism, noted that Indonesia has recently moved some of the
national holidays to coincide with extended week ends, to encourage domestic
tourism to places such as Yogyakarta and Borobudur.

The range and quality of the majority of the merchandise for sale at Borobudur is
very poor and does not reflect the cultural characteristics of the monument or the
local community. The majority is very cheap generic merchandise of the type that
can be found in any local market in Indonesia. This represents a major lost
opportunity both in terms of income generation and cultural expression. Many
Indonesians are enjoying increasing wealth and will naturally be looking for an
improved quality of merchandise (cultural and educational products, books, graphics,
home wares, exotic foods, crafts, textiles and clothing). Virtually none of this is on
sale at the site.

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There is some indication that local efforts are beginning to emerge in this regard.

A Japanese NGO has been working with the people in the nearby village of Candi
Rejo, to train them in merchandise production and retailing. Much needs to be done
to improve the product design and selection, but the essential quality of production is
emerging. Another NGO is working on the Mandala concept of the monument as a
way of linking local villages. The tourist would be taken to individual villages where
each offers something unique by way of products, crafts, merchandise, or
performance. All of the villages are located in relatively close proximity to the
monument, reflecting a similar pattern of settlement that is implied in the Mandala
itself.

Such concepts deserve considerable support and nurturing if they are to flourish.
They hold the potential to support the longer term vision espoused by the Minister for
the way that tourism to the monument can benefit the surrounding community.

5.8 Developing a Cooperative Relationship with Conservation


The ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Charter provides an umbrella statement
of Principles that guide the dynamic relationships between tourism and places or
collections of heritage significance. It can provide the basis of a dialogue and a
common set of principles to manage these relationships.

Given that it has been prepared within an international conservation framework the
Charter addresses the primary relationships between the cultural identity and cultural
heritage of the host community and the interests, expectations and behaviour of
visitors, both domestic and international. It promotes the engagement of the host
community, including indigenous and traditional custodians in all aspects of planning
and managing for tourism, particularly at heritage sites, within cultural landscapes
and in historic towns.

In addition to recognising the need to safeguard the enormous breadth, diversity and
universal importance of cultural heritage, both tangible and intangible, the new
Charter promotes two major concepts:

That one of the major reasons for undertaking any form of conservation is to
make the significance of the place accessible to visitors and the host
community, in a well managed manner.

That both the conservation community and the tourism industry must work
cooperatively together to protect and present the world's cultural and natural
heritage, given their mutual respect for it and their concern for the fragility of the
resource.

The revised Charter has adopted a co-operative approach to the relationship of the
conservation community with tourism issues and the tourism industry, avoiding the
traditional tensions while protecting those issues of concern. It recognises that
greater progress will be made by establishing a positive dialogue than for
conservationists to simply regard tourism primarily as something to be tolerated under
duress. It is within this context that the above analysis has been undertaken, and in
which we must now examine the broad issue of communicating the many facetted
layers of heritage significance of Borobudur to the visitor.

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6.0
Communication of Significance
6.1 On Site Visitor Interpretation
The area surrounding Borobudur needs a comprehensive tourism development
programme that should eventually also benefit the local communitys livelihood.
Meanwhile the cultural, historical, spiritual and educational values of the site, its
significance and authenticity, have to be further emphasised in order to prevent the
trivialization and misunderstanding of the site as recreational place, or a place that
has commercial value alone and should be exploited exclusively for this purpose.

As there are no signs on the temple compound stating the history or even the major
key-dates of the temple, signposting is strongly recommended. These signs should
reveal the key-facts of the history of the site in Bahasa as well as in English and
indicate the way to clockwise climb and circumambulate the monument. They should
not obstruct the visitors view or way to the temple but be posed at the bottom of the
site. For example the use of big rocks with a metal inscription might be considered.

The idea of encouraging 2.5 million visitors to walk around the terraces to see the
bas-reliefs may add to the quality of their visit and understanding but may also
greatly increase the risk of damage to the inscriptions. Therefore tour groups will
need to be spaced and guided during their visit by trained guide who also are aware
of conservation issues and can enforce them. Additional tourism management tactics
may also need to be introduced including, for example, the removal of shoes or the
wearing of disposal gloves. Measures such as these not only help protect the most
fragile elements of the monument, they also add a measure of psychological respect
for the sites fragility.

The training of the tour guides, who at the moment seem to be primarily available for
foreign visitors, has to be improved. The guides should be able not just to quote the
hard facts, but also to outline a spiritual and religious approach towards the
monument. This would certainly also lead to a much more respectful behaviour of the
visitors towards the temple.

In order to protect the sculptured bas-reliefs, it may be necessary in the future to only
allow guided tours consisting of approximately 20 people on the monument terraces.
An additional charge could be levied for those who wish to take guided tours of the
terraces contained the bas-reliefs.

Especially for the domestic tourists, who might visit the site not only once, a choice of
different tours should be provided. As the bas-reliefs of the temple tell so many
stories about the life in the 8th century, several thematic tours i.e. on ancient
jewellery, crafts, clothing, cooking, architecture, music or dancing as well as on
vegetation and animal-life should be offered.

To prevent the children from just climbing to the top of the monument without looking
at the rest, a special questionnaire for children could be worked out in order to help
them to explore the monument in an appropriate and playful way.

Furthermore, the establishment of a bookshop at the site is strongly recommended in


order to provide introductory as well as additional information on the monument, its
history and context.

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The study centre, which is nowadays often used as a hotel, should be re-activated to
facilitate continuing study of the site and its context.

The souvenirs sold by the vendors have to be related to the monument. The
construction of a crafts village close to the site or at least craft shops -
demonstrating the traditional way of using the natural resources by producing
souvenirs, would certainly attract more visitors to buy gifts and guarantee local labour
and income. A thematic tour could also include a workshop in one of the crafts-
shops.

In this context the establishment of a centre for traditional music and dance, offering
workshops and organising performances, should be provided. Accordingly, a
meditation centre that also teaches the visitors how to meditate would be essential to
encourage the tourists to spend more time at the site and to become acquainted with
the spirituality of the site.

For the local community as well as for the tourists it is of great importance to
understand the relevance of the landscape surrounding Borobudur and the necessity
to preserve it, i.e. as a landscape mandala. To motivate the tourists to explore the
area and to also encourage environmental tourism, guided tours within the area
should be organised and tour guides have to be trained accordingly. In this context
the local community might also set up bike or car rentals. The existing tour guides
and travel companies who bring the day trip visitors from Yogyakarta should be given
more information and opportunities to expand out the activities that they build into the
Borobudur tour packages.

There needs to be a more aggressive programme to encourage visitors to spread out


from the current focus on just the monument. As most visitors, both international and
domestic apparently stay overnight in Yogyakarta, the potential for extended day
visitation in the vicinity appears to be relatively limited. Most visitors appear to spend
only half a day on the journey to and from Yogyakarta to visit Borobudur. Extending
the visit to a full day will generate a need for more food services and other
merchandising, adding economic benefits to the local community.

Finally, to encourage the tourists to stay longer at the site, adequate


accommodations and restaurants have to be provided. There is a preference for
home stay style accommodation, where the architectural expression could adopt
natural materials and traditional Javanese styling. If possible, such hotels should
also provide a spa, offering traditional massages and health treatments whereas
restaurants should mainly serve traditional, Javanese dishes. There are apparently
some restrictions contained in the 1992 Presidential Decree on the construction of
hotels within Zone 3. These need to be clarified before any suitable developments
are considered.

6.2 The Authenticity of the Spiritual Message of Borobudur


Research over the past 15 years in the area of Borobudur has revealed a pattern
within the historical cultural landscape which previously was not sufficiently
understood. In short, it now appears that Borobudur (which is itself built in the form
of a sacred mandala or cosmic diagram with a symbolic representation of the Mt.
Meru, mountain at the centre of the universe at the centre of the monument) is, in
fact the central point of a larger landscape mandala consisting of hills, streams and
other landscape features, sacralized by many small temples, the whole of which is

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intended to bring replicate on earth the universal mandala of the cosmos, with Mt.
Merapi at its centre. This interpretation is based on three points of scholarly research
into the archaeology of the area.

The first finding of this research is the documentation of a ancient road leading due
east from Borobudur on the axis leading to Mt. Merapi, a volcano which has been
considered sacred to the local population since pre-Buddhist times. Along this route,
several important temples are laid out, the most significant of which are the well-
known and restored Candi Mendut and Candi Pawon. These temples date from the
same period as the main temple at Borobudur and apparently were stations on a
pilgrimage route from Borobudur to Mt. Merapi. However, while located within Zone
3, these temples and others along the pilgrimage route are not presently managed as
part of the site.

The second finding, reinforcing the interpretation of the monument as part of a larger
sacred landscape, is revealed in a mapping of all of the archaeological remains of
Buddhist and Hindu temples from the 5-10th centuries in the Kedu Valley. What
emerges is a pattern of more than 40 temples or ritual sites in the catchment area
between Borobudur and Mt. Merapi. These temples are located along water courses
in a pattern that is reminiscent of the area around Mt. Besaki in Bali, suggesting that
the ritual pattern of a cultural landscape centred on Borobudur has even more
ancient pre-Buddhist roots based on indigenous philosophical traditions based on a
mountain-water.

The third element, suggested by the evidence of the first two findings, is based on
historical and anthropological analogy. Typical of prehistoric Southeast Asian
thought concerning mans relationship with nature, the sacred volcano of Mt. Merapi
is conceived of in local knowledge systems as the central point of a sacred and
magical landscape representing the creative forces of the universe. This is the place
where what is divine and eternal is revealed as human and temporal. A volcano, with
its simultaneous demonstration of both destruction and creation is an obvious
revelation in the landscape of these concepts. When the Indian philosophical and
scientific systems entered the area, these ideas were refined and renamed. In Hindu
thought, the volcanic Mt. Merapi becomes Mt. Kailasa, the mythical home of the Siva,
god of destruction and creation, located at the edge of the world high in the
Himalayas, above but not apart from human settlement.

In Buddhist thought (Hindu and Buddhist thought coexisted in monastic universities


during the 8-12th centuries across South and Southeast Asia), Mt. Merapi is
understood as Mt. Meru, the fulcrum at the centre of the universe, home of all gods,
from which the sustenance of life flows in the form of water. Mt. Meru is at the centre
of every Buddhist mandala, whether painted, made from sand, or represented in
architecture. Mandala are abstract representations of the universe understood as
having both physical and metaphysical manifestation. Mandala are intended as aids
to guide meditation on the dharma or laws determing existence. Both their
architectural form and the didactic sculpture of the bas-reliefs is meant to educate the
student/worshipper. Therefore not only is every Buddhist temple conceived of in the
form of a mandala, but these same principles of architecture and land-use planning
being considered universal and absolute were also used to construct homes,
design cities, and lay out roads, canals and other works of landscape engineering.
Water is crucial to this landscape interpretation, because water is poured as libation
to the gods; a sacred landscape must therefore have flowing water across it as a
perpetual offering to the divine.

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Therefore, the temple of Borobudur cannot be properly understood in isolation. It


must be understood as the symbolic and didactic part of a larger mandala in the
landscape, with the natural volcanic mountain, Mt. Merapi, as the most scared and
important element. Borobudur is the man-made temple where study and ritual
homage takes place, but what is actually sacred is revealed in the landscape.

This reconceptualization of the role of the temple of Borobudur, has


implications for conservation management of the site, as a World Heritage
monument within a cultural landscape and should be the guiding concept
behind the development of the site and its surrounding environment into the
21st century.

The management of the main monument will, of course, remain the focus of both
architectural conservation and visitation. But the interpretation of the monument and
the conservation of the sacred landscape features will both need to undergo revision
and development. There are also interesting possibilities for expansion of visitor
activities to associated temples as well as natural sites within the larger cultural
landscape, thus relieving some of the tourism pressure on the main monument,
which is already very much overcrowded beyond the point of its long-term carrying
capacity. All of this suggests that the boundaries and management regimes of Zones
4 and 5 (which now exist only on paper) need to be thoroughly reviewed and revised
with a view to pro-active conservation management of the entire cultural landscape.

Many of the bas-reliefs can provide


ideas and opportunities for
developing tourism services and
merchandise within the local
community, in a manner that
reflects the significance of the
monument.
Photo by Graham Brooks

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7.0
A New Future for Borobudur
Whereas for the last twenty years the restoration of the temple as well as the
conservation problems have been major issues, for the next twenty years there
should be a strong emphasis on the understanding of the cultural context of
Borobudur. As it is already indicated by the intended foundation of the so-called 2nd
phase of restoration of Borobudur From Restoration to Creation, espoused by the
Minister, it will be essential to focus on the educational and spiritual values of the site
in the future.

Therefore it is strongly recommended to re-activate the on-site conservation research


centre and to enable further studies within the current zones to elaborate the thesis
that Borobudur might be part of a great landscape mandala. In this context it would
also be necessary to solve the present lack of a common vision and co-ordination
between the different zone management agencies and to strictly enforce the current
zone boundaries as well as zone management guidelines.

Tourism programme planning has to focus on the attempt to extend the length of the
visitors stay at the site and to find alternatives for Yogyakarta as an entry/exit point
for a visit to Borobudur. Therefore long-term tourism planning might start thinking in
terms of routing, integrating the site either in national routes (i.e. Bali Solo -
Borobudur Yogyakarta) or even international routes along other World Heritage
Sites with a Buddhist tradition, such as those in Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia.

However, it is essential that any kind of tourism programme planning will be related
the significance of the site and its surrounding landscape. Its significance and its
authenticity have to be communicated to the local community as well as to the
tourists and cultural, historical, spiritual and educational values have to be
emphasised.

The future for Borobudur will be discussed at the July Experts Meeting, when the first
20 years since the completion of the restoration program will be celebrated. The
Mission strongly urges that the Agenda for this meeting be expanded and charged
with setting out a broad framework for the conservation and management of
Borobudur and its wider historical cultural context, in a manner whereby tourism can
benefit the local community.

The July Experts Meeting should formulate a broad direction for the proposed
National Steering Committee that will guide the management of Borobudur for the
next 20 years.

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8.0
Three Project Proposals to Enhance
Community Benefit
8.1 Background
The Indonesian Ministry of Culture and Tourism aims to develop a new programme
for the conservation and tourism management of the World Heritage site at
Borobudur for the next 20 years focusing on spiritual and educational issues. The
programme, which follows the celebration of the first 20 years since the completion of
restoration works in 1983, will enable the local community in the vicinity of the site to
benefit from its cultural and tourism activities.

The completion of the first 20 years phase of the monument restoration will be
celebrated during the Borobudur International Cultural Festival in June 2003. The
second 20 year phase of the programme will be launched by the Director General of
UNESCO during an International Experts Conference in early July 2003.

Three major opportunities for immediate funding were identified by the Mission. The
following summary points outline some of the components that might be included in
such projects.

8.2 Project Proposal: Community Catchment Analysis


Some survey work within the local community and the vendors at the site has been
undertaken during a Rapid Rural Appraisal conducted in March and April 2003. This
Appraisal was undertaken by The Mediation Team appointed by the Office of the
Governor of Central Java. It identified some of the cultural products and services
that are currently being sold at the site and produced in the local villages. It also
summarised some of the tourism attractions that are located within a 12 km radius of
Borobudur, which might complement and expand the tourism activities that currently
focus on the World Heritage Site. The Appraisal report also addressed other
management issues at the site regarding the aspirations of vendors and other
retailers. These issues form part of the wider opportunities identified in this paper.

The study team preparing the Appraisal Report did not have the resources to
coordinate its findings with specific planning information or socio-economic data for
the study area. Such coordination would greatly enhance the value of the
information, which should be complemented by additional research and data. It is
likely that some of the socio economic data for the community will currently be
available within the relevant departments of either the Provincial Government of
Central Java, or in the Local Government Regency of Magelang.

Information that could be gathered as part of this Analysis includes:

Aerial or satellite photography of the Kedu Valley, a five km radius of the site,
the nearby context extending east to Candi Mendut and the immediate
surroundings of the monument.
Aerial of satellite photography of the Kedu Valley including Mount Merapi to
also provide profound data for a further archaeological mapping

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Within the context of the communities most associated with Zone 3 surrounding the
monument:

GIS topographical base maps, including the river systems.

Data analysis of existing socio-economic statistics held by the Local


Government.

Land Use mapping, including agricultural land and forests.

Mapping of Population centres and villages.

Mapping of existing tourism facilities, i.e. hotels, guest houses, home stays

Vendors:
Socio-economic data of the vendors and retailers who service the tourists at
Borobudur, including their home locations.

Economic profile of the vendors at the site, to determine the mix of retail levels
between fixed shops, casual outlets and strolling vendors.

Merchandising mix of the tourism merchandise and products currently sold at


the site and in the surrounding village: What kind of products a sold, where
were the products produced and where do the vendors get the products

8.3 Project Proposal : Rationalisation of the Monument Site


Entry Area

The character and visual presentation of the entry area to the Monument site has
been severely degraded by the progressive installation of numerous formal and
informal retail outlets, including those surrounding the car and bus parking areas, and
the large numbers of strolling vendors. As a result the visitor experience is severely
impacted upon before they enter the actual site. This reduces their opportunity to
enjoy and appreciate the quiet meditation aspects of this former sanctuary.

It is recognised that retailing opportunities are a normal part of any historic site or
museum, and can complement the tourism experience through the recreational
purchase of well designed and related merchandise. Sales income can also benefit
both the site management programmes and the livelihood of the vendors.

Ideas that need to be considered in any replanning and reorganisation of the retail
area at the existing entry to the site include:

Design and construction of a new bazaar, or bazaars, in the areas around the
parking lots and entry forecourts. These should be designed to suit different
market categories, such as food, cultural goods, flowers and other forms of
merchandise. Some allowance should also be made for integrating the areas
for the strolling vendors as these will always be present.

It must be stressed that the physical design and construction of a new bazaar area
that can replace the current informal or less structured retail areas, must be done in
conjunction with a programme to improve and extend the range of locally produced

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merchandise and in consultation with the various groups of vendors. There must be
new merchandise opportunities developed simultaneously with the design and
construction of new retailing facilities, if the project is to be successful.

Improved Borobudur monument site and World Heritage identification signage.

Clearer site entry points for pedestrians coming from the nearby village, for
cars and buses from elsewhere.

Rationalised car and bus parking areas and clearer paths of movement from
these areas to the actual monument or archaeological zone (Zone 1) entry
point.

Rationalised and more open forecourt in front of the entry point.

Improved site orientation and cultural information centre within the entry area.

Improved site interpretation techniques through signage, models and sculpture


within the entry area or on the pedestrian way to the monument.

8.4 Project Proposal: Expanded Merchandising Opportunities


It is essential that there is an expanded range of merchandise available for purchase
at the monument. This is important as it will improve the satisfaction of the visitor
(both domestic and international), will enhance the presentation of the cultural
significance of the monument through the sale of related merchandise and literature,
will provide opportunities for the local crafts and artistic traditions to find an outlet and
will improve the economic activity in the local communities.

There is currently a programme operating through a local NGO and JICA in the
nearby village of Candi Rejo. This could form the basis for training local people
in production and retailing. However, there is still a great need for enhanced
product design and selection.

Programmes that could enhance the local efforts and communicate the significance
of the monument to the visitor include:

Research of the existing sculpture and reliefs on the monument to identify


aspects of life contained in the scenes, such as costumes, jewellery, furniture,
food, bird and animal life, flowers and other natural materials, lifestyle activities,
transportation and architectural designs. All these could form the basis for new
product and merchandise design for sale at the monument.

Identification and merchandising of other locally produced materials, foodstuffs,


and specific cultural products from the region.

Enhanced product selection and design to suit contemporary markets. Many of


the visitors to Borobudur are now reasonably wealthy and educated people
from all parts of Indonesia and abroad. They are more interested in purchasing
special merchandise than the sort of cheap products that are available in any
local market elsewhere.

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Enhanced production of literature, books, photos, post cards, multi media


presentations of the heritage and significance of Borobudur and its cultural
context. These can then be sold at other outlets in Indonesia, including city
bookshops, other heritage sites and airports.

Enhanced retail management and sales training programmes for the local
people, including the strolling vendors.

Coordination of retail/production/education/training programmes for the local


people.

Retraining of some of the strolling vendors as cleaning staff for direct


employment by the Site Managers. This would not only reduce the numbers of
vendors while still providing income generation, but would provide a significant
increase in the presentation of the entry areas of the site.

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9.0
Bibliography
9.1 Published Books
Boeles, Jan J. (1989) The Secret of Borobudur according to The Lotus of the
True Law or the saddharma-pundarika, 2nd ed. Bangkok

Dumarcay, J. (1986) The Temples of Java, Oxford University Press, London.

Gomez, Luis O. and Hiram W. Woodward, Jr., eds. (1981) Barabudur: History and
Significance of a Buddhist Monument, Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series,
University of California, Berekely.

Grabsky, P. (2000), The Lost temple of Java, Seven Dials, Cassel & Co, London

Groslier, Bernard P. (1968) Borobudur, UNESCO Courier, Paris.

Hiroshi Daifuku (1970) The Art and Monuments of Java, UNESCO Courier, Paris.

Miksic, John (1990) Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddhas, Periplus Editions,
Berkeley and Singapore.

Soekmono, J.G. de Casparis, and Dumarcay (1990), Borobudur: Prayer in Stone ,


Editions Didier Millet, Paris and Archipelago Press, Singapore

UNESCO (1997) Borobudur: Beaute en Peril, Paris.

9.2 Unesco Documents


Hyvert, Giselle (1972) The Conservation of the Borobudur Temple,
RMO.RD/2646/CLP, UNESCO, Paris. 2 vols: text and annexes i-vii.

Hyvert, Giselle (1977), Borobudur Restoration Project, mission report,


BKCU/77/D/1060-25, UNESCO, Paris.

Nakano, M. (1992) Maintenance of Borobudur FIT/303/INS/70 Technical Report for


Borobudur Safeguarding Campaign, Serial No. FMR/CLT/CH/92/230 (FIT),
UNESCO, Paris.

Agreement Between UNESCO and the Government of the Republic of


Indonesia concerning the Preservation of the Temple of Borobudur (1973),
UNESCO Paris.

Report of the First Meeting of the Consultative Committee for the Safeguarding
of Borobudur 6-8 February 1973, Borobudur Restoration Project, CC/1973/19,
UNESCO, Paris.

Report of the 11th Session of the Executive Committee of the International


Campaign to Safeguard the Temple of Borobudur 21-22 February 1983,
UNESCO/BOROBUDUR/EC/XI/REP, UNESCO, Paris.

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Report of the Experts Meeting on the Conservation of Borobudur 4-8 August


1986, Borobudur Conservation Project, Ministry of Education and Culture
(Indonesia), BCP/1986, UNESCO, Paris.

Report of the International Experts Meeting on the Conservation of Borobudur 7-11


August 1989, Borobudur Conservation Project, Directorate General of Culture,
Ministry of Education and Culture (Indonesia), UNESCO, Paris.

World Heritage Nomination Documentation (1991), Borobudur Temple


Compounds, prepared for the World Heritage Convention (sic) by the Ministry of
Education and Culture (Indonesia), UNESCO, Paris.

Periodic Reporting Exercise on the Application of the World Heritage


Convention (2003), Section 1: Indonesia; Section 2: Borobudur Temple Compounds
World Heritage Site, prepared by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Indonesia),
UNESCO, Paris.

Saving Chandi Borobudur for 1000 Years More (2001)- Final Report on The
Restoration of Borobudur 1969-1982, by the Directorate for Archaeology, Directorate
General for History and Archaeology, Jakarta

9.3 Other Documents


Anom and Samidi (1995), Preservation and Presentation Management of
Borobudur, paper presented in the International Conference on the Preservation of
the Architectural Heritage of Asia, The Future of Asias Past, organized by The Asia
Society, The Siam Society, and UNESCO, Chiang Mai (Thailand).

Background Concept for Borobudur Area Revitalization Program: Jagad Jawa


Spirit World of Java (February 2003)

Grand Strategy of the Development of Borobudur Tourism Area (April 2003),


prepared by The Mediation Group, for the Regional Government of Central Java, The
Republic of Indonesia, Semarang.

PATRA-PALA Foundation (2003), Natural Resources Management for Local


Community Empowerment, Menorah Mountain Range, Borobudur, Magelang,
Central Java, Indonesia

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10.0
Attachments
The following documents are relevant to the overall findings and recommendations of
the Mission. They are attached to the Mission report.

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10.1 Jagad Jawa Proposal

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10.2 Grand Strategy Proposal

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