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Focus and Motivate Comparing The Old Grandfather

Theme and His Little Grandson

Essential Course
Russian Folk Tale Retold by Leo Tolstoy of Study
RL 2 Determine a theme of a text and analyze its
development, including its relationship to the plot
The Wise Old Woman
Japanese Folk Tale Retold by Yoshiko Uchida
and characters; provide a summary of the text.
RL 5 Compare and contrast the structure of two
texts and analyze how the structure of each text
contributes to its meaning. W 2 Write
informative/explanatory texts to examine a
topic. W 2a Introduce a topic clearly, previewing
How well do we treat our
what is to follow. W 2b Develop the topic
with relevant, well-chosen information and
examples. W 2f Provide a concluding statement
or section that follows from and supports the
information or explanation presented. L 2c Spell
Think about all the things the elderly people you know have done
correctly. L 4b Use Latin affixes as clues to the in their long lives. Theyve probably cared for their families, made
meaning of a word. RL 2 Determine a theme of a text contributions on the job or in the community, and witnessed events
and analyze its development,
including its relationship to the plot that are now part of history. Do you think they get the respect they
and characters; provide a summary deserve from younger generations? The two folk tales you are about
summary of the text. RL 5 Compare and
to read explore reasons why our elders have earned special treatment.
contrast the structure of two texts
In The Old Grandfather and His Little Grand- and analyze how the structure
of each text contributes to its
son, an old man is mistreated by his son and meaning. LIST IT Create a list of three to five things that you can 1. Visit an elder
his sons wife. In The Wise Old Woman, a do to honor the wisdom and experience of someone neighbor
from an older generation. Remember that a small 2.
farmer hides his mother after a lord decrees
gesture can have a big impact. 3.
that old people must be sent away to die.

How well do we treat our

Discuss the question with students. Ask
students to suggest ways in which our society
respects people. Then have pairs work on the
LIST IT activity.

Selection Resources 486

See resources on the Teacher One Stop DVD-ROM and on thinkcentral.com. Find it Online!
Features on thinkcentral.com that
support the selection include
Plan and Teach, pp. 5158 Common Prefixes, p. E14 Teacher One Stop DVD-ROM PowerNotes presentation
Summaries, pp. 5960, Multiple Meanings, p. E31
Student One Stop DVD-ROM ThinkAloud models to enhance
6566* Cause-and-Effect Chain,
PowerNotes DVD-ROM comprehension
Reading Skill, pp. 6162* pp. B16, B39
Audio Anthology CD WordSharp vocabulary tutorials
Vocabulary, pp. 63*, 6970* Reporters Questions, p. C9
Common Suffixes, p. E15 GrammarNotes DVD-ROM interactive writing and grammar
Writing for Assessment, p. 71
Audio Tutor CD instruction
Selection Tests, pp. 127130 READER

* Resources for Differentiation Also in Spanish In Haitian Creole and Vietnamese

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Meet the Authors Teach
text analysis: universal theme Leo Tolstoy
Almost every culture has its folk tales, simple stories passed 18281910
down through generations by word of mouth. Folk tales Russian Novelist
typically express a universal theme, a message about life or Russian writer Leo Tolstoy wanted to produce
human nature that is so fundamental to human existence that literature that would help people adopt T E X T A N A LY S I S
it is true for all people of all time periods and cultures. simple, religious lives. Tolstoy created some RL 2
The two folk tales in this lesson express a similar universal of the worlds best-known novels, including Model the Skill:
War and Peace and Anna Karenina. He
theme. To identify this theme, pay attention to the characters, universal theme
also wrote short stories, dramas, essays,
their actions, and the consequences of their actions. and adaptations. As he grew older, Tolstoy
imposed increasingly strict
To model how to identify universal themes,
reading strategy: set a purpose for reading rigors on himself in order write these examples on the board:
In this lesson, your purpose for reading is to compare two folk to live what he saw as a
good life. He became
Good deeds are rewarded.
tales and to identify the universal theme they share. To do
this, as you read take notes in a chart like the one shown. Later isolated from his wife and Farming is hard work.
13 children. In 1910, while Leo Tolstoy wrote great novels.
on, you will be asked to do more with this chart. escaping his family by
train, Tolstoy developed Explain that only the first is a universal
The Old Grandfather The Wise Old pneumonia and died.
and His Little Grandson Woman theme because it reflects a basic message
His works live
Who are the elderly character: elderly character: on as literary that is considered true for all people.
important classics. GUIDED PRACTICE Ask students to sug-
characters, and
what are their unkind characters: unkind characters: gest other examples of universal themes.
other characters: other characters:
Yoshiko Uchida
Japanese-American Author R E A D I N G STR ATEG Y
How is the The daughter of Japanese immigrants,
elderly character Yoshiko Uchida grew up in California feeling
RL 5
mistreated? Model the Strategy: set a
different from her white classmates. This
What motivates difference became more obvious after the purpose for reading
characters bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941 ,
to stop this when Uchida and her family Remind students that comparing means
mistreatment? were sent to an internment looking for similarities. Point out that the
camp. Uchida wrote many chart shows that there are similar types
books for children that
vocabulary in context drew on her experience. of characters and actions in the folk tales.
In The Wise Old Woman, Yoshiko Uchida uses these words
She said, I want to Tell students to pause during reading to
dispel the stereotypic ask themselves questions about their read-
to describe a cruel lord and the people who suffer under his image still held by many
rule. Test your knowledge of each word by matching it with the non-Asians about the ing and to fill in their charts.
numbered term closest in meaning. Japanese and
GUIDED PRACTICE Ask students to sum-
write about them
word arrogant bewilderment deceive haughtily as real people. marize what to look for as they read the
list folk tales.
1. proudly 2. superior 3. astonishment 4. mislead
Authors Online Set a Purpose for Reading p. 61
Go to thinkcentral.com. KEYWORD: HML8-487 (for student use while reading
Complete the activities in your Reader/Writer Notebook.
the selections)

vocabulary in context
DIAGNOSE WORD KNOWLEDGE Have all deceive (dG-sCvP) v. to cause to believe what is PRETEACH VOCABULARY Have students use
students complete Vocabulary in Context. not true; to mislead this copy master to create a word map for each
Check students answers. (Answers: 1. haugh- haughtily (hPtE-lC) adv. proudly; scornfully boldfaced word.
tily; 2. arrogant; 3. bewilderment; 4. deceive)
Check their answers against these definitions: RESOURCE MANAGERCopy Master
Vocabulary Study p. 63
arrogant (BrPE-gEnt) adj. displaying a sense of
self-importance 1. Guide students in creating a word map.
bewilderment (bG-wGlPdEr-mEnt) n. the state of 2. Point out that students may not be able to
being confused or astonished fill in every section for every word.

the old gr andfather . . . / the wise old woman 487

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Practice and Apply

read with a purpose
Help students set a purpose for reading.
Tell them to read the two folk tales to

identify which characters they find
sympathetic and to understand why.


a Model the Skill:

universal theme
RL 2
and His
Read the first two paragraphs aloud, paus-
ing to point out details that show how the
couple treats the grandfather. Remind
students that a universal theme is a mes- Retold by Leo Tolstoy
sage about life that is true for all people.
Explain that they will have to read on to
see how these details fit into a theme.
Possible answer: The couple treat him with
coldness, cruelty, and disrespect.
T he grandfather had become very old. His legs would not carry him, his
eyes could not see, his ears could not hear, and he was toothless. When
he ate, bits of food sometimes dropped out of his mouth. His son and his sons How does color affect
wife no longer allowed him to eat with them at the table. He had to eat his the mood of this
meals in the corner near the stove.
One day they gave him his food in a bowl. He tried to move the bowl closer;
T E X T A N A LY S I S it fell to the floor and broke. His daughter-in-law scolded him. She told him
RL 2 that he spoiled everything in the house and broke their dishes, and she said
b universal theme that from now on he would get his food in a wooden dish. The old man sighed
10 and said nothing. a a UNIVERSAL THEME
Possible answer: They realize that they, How do the man and
A few days later, the old mans son and his wife were sitting in their hut,
too, will be old one day and will want to be resting and watching their little boy playing on the floor. They saw him his wife treat the
treated with respect instead of scorn. They grandfather?
putting together something out of small pieces of wood. His father asked him,
also realize that their cruel example has What are you making, Misha? 1 Targeted Passage
taught their son the wrong lesson about The little grandson said, Im making a wooden bucket. When you and
how elders should be treated. Mamma get old, Ill feed you out of this wooden dish.
The young peasant and his wife looked at each other and tears filled their b UNIVERSAL THEME
Extend the Discussion Do you think the eyes. They were ashamed because they had treated the old grandfather so What have the man and
man and his wife would have had this real- meanly, and from that day they again let the old man eat with them at the his wife realized about
ization on their own? Why or why not? 20 table and took better care of him.  b themselves?

Beggar and a Boy (1903), Pablo Picasso. Oil on

canvas, 125 cm 92 cm. Pushkin Museum, Moscow.
Bridgeman Art Library. 2007 Estate of Pablo
488 unit 4: theme and symbol Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

differentiated instruction
for struggling readers
In combination with the Audio Anthology CD, Why does the daughter-in-law decide that the Develop Reading Fluency Have students use
use one or more Targeted Passages (pp. 488, grandfather must get his food in a wooden this short folk tale to practice reading narra-
490, 494, 496) to ensure that students focus on dish? (lines 69) tion and dialogue. Point out that there are two
key story events, concepts, and skills. What does the grandson do and say? How different speakers for the dialogue. Encourage
students to modify their tone to reflect when
1 Targeted Passage [Lines 620] does this make his parents feel? (lines 1516)
the narrator is speaking and when the father
This passage shows the turning point of How are things different at the end of
and son are speaking. Have students practice
the story. the story? (lines 1820)
reading the tale in threes and then present it to
the class.
Reading Fluency p. 64
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Comparing Theme

Reading Support
This selection on thinkcentral.com includes
embedded ThinkAloud modelsstudents
thinking aloud about the story to model the
kinds of questions a good reader would ask
about a selection.

Folk Tales Folk tales began as an oral tradi-
tion and continue to be a vital part of many
cultures today. Folk tales spread around the
world as people moved from one place to
another and the tales blended with folk tales
people heard in the new locations. Interest-
ingly, many cultures that have never inter-
acted have folk tales with similar plots, motifs,
and universal themes. This shows that no
matter how different people are, they share
basic experiences, concerns, and values.

Analyze Visuals
Possible answer: The dark, bluish-gray color
creates a somber mood.
About the Art Spanish artist Pablo Picasso
(18811973) was one of the 20th centurys most
prolific artists. Picasso was influential in the
development of Cubism and Surrealism, and
during his long career he created sculptures,
book illustrations, and murals. Beggar and a
Boy was painted during his Blue Period (1901
1904), which was characterized by melancholy
themes. This painting captures the universal
quality of affection experienced by many
grandparents and their grandchildren.
It also conveys the vulnerability of old age.
the old grandfather and his little grandson 489

for english language learners for advanced learners/preap

Comprehension Support Have students read the Summary for the first folk tale. Draw the chart from Research Folk Tales Have students work in
page 487 on the board. Read the first folk tale, or listen to the Audio Anthology CD, stopping to identify pairs or small groups to research another
elements for the chart. Have students read the Summary for the second folk tale, then listen to the CD folk tale from around the world that deals
for The Wise Old Woman, and complete their charts. Ask students to focus on the following: with some aspect of aging, such as becom-
beginning intermediate advanced advanced high ing an adult or growing old. Encourage
students to present their research as a skit
Look for characters. Look for how the elders Look for the reactions of Look for motivation
or multimedia presentation.
are treated. the elders. of characters to stop


Summaries pp. 5960, 6566 the old gr andfather and his little gr andson 489

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revisit the big question
How well do we treat our
Discuss In lines 36, the young lord says
he does not respect old people because he
believes they are not able to work for a living
and are not useful. In addition to working for
a living, how else can people be useful?
Possible answer: Working for a living is not the
only way a person can be useful. We respect
people for what they have accomplished in
their lives, for the knowledge and wisdom that
they have, and for the kindness that they show
to others. Retold by Yoshiko Uchida

any long years ago, there lived an arrogant and cruel young lord who arrogant (BrPE-gEnt) adj.
M ruled over a small village in the western hills of Japan.
I have no use for old people in my village, he said haughtily. They
displaying a sense of
are neither useful nor able to work for a living. I therefore decree1 that haughtily (hPtE-lC) adv.
anyone over seventy-one must be banished 2 from the village and left in the proudly; scornfully
mountains to die.
What a dreadful decree! What a cruel and unreasonable lord we have, the
2 Targeted Passage
RL 2
people of the village murmured. But the lord fearfully punished anyone who
c universal theme disobeyed him, and so villagers who turned seventy-one were tearfully carried How would you describe
10 into the mountains, never to return. the setting shown in
Possible answer: He says he has no use for
Gradually there were fewer and fewer old people in the village and soon this picture?
old peoplethey are neither useful nor able they disappeared altogether. Then the young lord was pleased.
to work. He wants the village filled with What a fine village of young, healthy and hard-working people I have,
young people. he bragged. Soon it will be the finest village in all of Japan. c c UNIVERSAL THEME
Why does the young lord
decide that old people
must be banished?

L4 1. decree (dG-krCP): to make an order; an order that has the force of law.
own the word 2. banished: forced to leave a country or a place.
Village Street (1875), Hiroshige III. From the series
arrogant: Ask students to applaud to Famous Places on the Tokaido: a Record of the Process
490 unit 4: theme and symbol of Reform. Asian Art & Archaeology, Inc./Corbis.
indicate how much they would like to be
described as an arrogant person.
Possible answer: Students do not applaud
and explain that they do not want to be
differentiated instruction
considered arrogant.
for struggling readers for advanced learners/preap
haughtily: Explain that the French root
for haughtily is haut, which means
2 Targeted Passage [Lines 112] Predict [small-group option] Have students
make predictions about what will happen
high. People who act haughtily think This passage sets the stage for the conflict in
in the story, based on the title, their reading
they are higher or better than others. the folk tale.
of the first page, and their understanding of
Ask students why haughtily describes the What does the lord who rules the village
universal themes in folk tales. Have them
young lords tone. Possible answer: He think about old people? (lines 34)
write their predictions in their notebooks,
thinks he is better than the villagers. What does he order the villagers to do? along with a statement of the universal
How do the villagers feel about the lords theme that would be expressed in their pre-
order? Do they obey him? (lines 46, 710) dicted story. When they finish the story, ask
In what way does the village change as a students to share their predictions in small
result of the lords order? (lines 1112) groups and discuss how accurate they were.
490 unit 4: theme and symbol

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Comparing Theme

Reading Support
This selection on thinkcentral.com includes
embedded ThinkAloud modelsstudents
thinking aloud about the story to model the
kinds of questions a good reader would ask
about a selection.

Ubasuteyama In the time period during
which this folk tale is set, Ubasuteyama (liter-
ally, old woman-abandoning mountain) was
practiced. Elderly family members, sometimes
at the orders of village officials, were carried
away to a mountain and left to die from ex-
posure, starvation, and dehydration. Drought,
a shortage of food, and overpopulation were
some of the reasons for this practice.
Many Japanese legends and poems are based
on Ubasuteyama. It was also the subject of a
1958 film by director Kinoshita Keisuke titled
The Ballad of Narayama, based on a book by
Shichiro Fukuzawa.

Analyze Visuals
Possible answer: The setting is a busy street in
a Japanese village. The street, lined with huts,
slopes down toward a lake, and small moun-
tains lie in the distance.
About the Art This woodblock print of a vil-
lage street was created by the artist Hiroshige
III, who became well known for his prints of
Japanese landscapes. He is also known for his
depiction of modernization in the 19th cen-
tury. Hiroshige III was the pupil of the master
the wise old woman 491 Hiroshige I, who died in 1858.

for english language learners for struggling readers

Vocabulary: Prefixes Remind students that Reading Strategy Follow-Up: Set a Purpose for
the prefix dis- indicates a reversal or absence. Reading Read lines 118 aloud. Ask students
Examples of words with this prefix are dis- to identify the important characters in the
obeyed (line 9) and disappeared (line 12). Use folk tale and their qualities, and have them
Common Prefixes to help students identify record the information in the chart from page
the meanings of additional prefixes as they 487. As they continue to read, have students
read, such as un-, which means not. answer the other questions in the chart.
Common Prefixes p. E14

the wise old woman 491

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Now there lived in this village a kind young farmer and his aged mother.
They were poor, but the farmer was good to his mother, and the two of them
lived happily together. However, as the years went by, the mother grew older,
SOCIAL STUDIES CONNECTION and before long she reached the terrible age of seventy-one.
If only I could somehow deceive the cruel lord, the farmer thought. deceive (dG-sCvP) v. to
Most Japanese live in the lowlands, near rivers
20 But there were records in the village books and every one knew that his mother cause to believe what is
or the ocean. The majority of Japans large cit- not true; to mislead
had turned seventy-one.
ies began as ports (Kobe, Yokohama, Nagasaki) Each day the son put off telling his mother that he must take her into the
or as castle towns (Tokyo). The location of mountains to die, but the people of the village began to talk. The farmer knew
castle towns made it possible for rulers to that if he did not take his mother away soon, the lord would send his soldiers
oversee and control major transportation and throw them both into a dark dungeon to die a terrible death.
routes. The towns profited from trade and Mother he would begin, as he tried to tell her what he must do, but
he could not go on.
were well defended against invaders.
Then one day the mother herself spoke of the lords dread decree. Well,
my son, she said, the time has come for you to take me to the mountains. SOCIAL STUDIES
30 We must hurry before the lord sends his soldiers for you. And she did not CONNECTION
seem worried at all that she must go to the mountains to die.
RL 2
d universal theme Forgive me, dear mother, for what I must do, the farmer said sadly, and
the next morning he lifted his mother to his shoulders and set off on the
Possible answer: The son cannot bear to steep path toward the mountains. Up and up he climbed, until the trees
leave his mother alone in the mountains to clustered close and the path was gone. There was no longer even the sound
die, especially when she shows her love for of birds, and they heard only the soft wail of the wind in the trees. The son
him by marking the path so he will not get walked slowly, for he could not bear to think of leaving his old mother in
lost on his way back. the mountains. On and on he climbed, not wanting to stop and leave her Japan is
behind. Soon, he heard his mother breaking off small twigs from the trees a string of
40 that they passed. several thousand islands
Mother, what are you doing? he asked. off the east coast of the
Do not worry, my son, she answered gently. I am just marking the way continent of Asia. Much
VOCABULARY of Japan consists of hills
so you will not get lost returning to the village. and mountains.
own the word The son stopped. Even now you are thinking of me? he asked, wonderingly.
The mother nodded. Of course, my son, she replied. You will always
deceive: Ask: Why might one person de- d UNIVERSAL THEME
be in my thoughts. How could it be otherwise? Why does the son decide
ceive another? Why might one person be At that, the young farmer could bear it no longer. Mother, I cannot leave to disobey the decree
deceived by another? Student responses you in the mountains to die all alone, he said. We are going home and no even though he might
should show that they understand the matter what the lord does to punish me, I will never desert you again. d be punished?
differences in meaning and connotation 50 So they waited until the sun had set and a lone star crept into the silent
sky. Then in the dark shadows of night, the farmer carried his mother down
for deceive.
the hill and they returned quietly to their little house. The farmer dug a deep
hole in the floor of his kitchen and made a small room where he could hide
his mother. From that day, she spent all her time in the secret room and
the farmer carried meals to her there. The rest of the time, he was careful to Based on this picture,
work in the fields and act as though he lived alone. In this way, for almost what can you conclude
two years, he kept his mother safely hidden and no one in the village knew about the journey up
that she was there. the mountain?

492 unit 4: theme and symbol

differentiated instruction
for english language learners
Vocabulary: Homographs and Multiple- bear (line 37): often used to mean a large
Meaning Words Have students use Words animal, here it means tolerate or endure
with Multiple Meanings to figure out the desert (line 49): often used to mean a dry,
correct meanings of these words in the barren region, here it means to leave
context of the folk tale:
Point out the different pronunciations of
fine (line 13): often used to mean a sum of close and desert when the meaning changes.
money imposed as a penalty, here it means
of superior quality BEST PRACTICES TOOLKITTransparency
Words with Multiple Meanings p. E31
close (line 35): often used to mean to shut,
here it means with little space between
492 unit 4: theme and symbol

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Comparing Theme

tiered discussion tasks

In lines 1518, use these prompts to help
students understand the motivations and
consequences of the farmers actions:
Connect The son puts off taking his mother
into the mountains to die. Then, after they
set out, he walks very slowly. How do you
feel when you are forced to do something
you dont want to do? Students may reply
that they feel uneasy, unhappy, and filled
with guilt, like the farmer in the story.
Infer What can you infer from this passage
about the relationship between the farmer
and his mother? How does this help you
understand the farmers internal conflict?
Possible answer: The farmer and his mother
love each other and take care of each other.
The farmer is forced to abandon his mother
rather than take care of her. This makes him
feel desperate and guilty.
Speculate Why do you think the author
includes the details that describe the sound
of the wind in the trees (line 36) and the im-
age of the star rising in the sky (lines 5051)?
Possible answer: The wailing wind mirrors
the farmers feelings of sadness, and the star
creeping into the silent sky mirrors the way
he and his mother return to the village.
Question Why do you think the author
includes the details that describe the sound
of the wind in the trees (line 36) and the im-
age of the star rising in the sky (lines 5051)?
Possible answer: Should children help their
parents even if the children risk their own
lives by doing so? This selection suggests that
they should.
The Moon and the Abandoned Old Woman (1891), Yoshitoshi. Asian Art & Archaeology, Inc./Corbis.
the wise old woman 493

Analyze Visuals
Possible answer: The way is steep, and the
for struggling readers for advanced learners/preap moon shows that it is nighttime.
Comprehension: Cause and Effect Review Synthesize Challenge students to write a About the Art The subject of this woodblock
cause and effect, and then distribute the poem based on the images in this woodblock print by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (18391892) is
Cause-and-Effect Chain for students to fill print. They can write the poem from the exactly the same as that of the folk talethe
out. Help students understand the chain of first- or third-person point of view, in either Japanese practice of Ubasuteyama. For more
events leading to the farmers decision to a narrative or a free-verse form. When they information, see the Background note on page
return with his mother to the village. have finished, invite volunteers to share their 491 of the teachers edition.
poems. Discuss how the poems capture or
complement the mood of the image.
Cause-and-Effect Chain pp. B16, B39

the wise old woman 493

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Analyze Visuals
Possible answer: The man has an aggressive
stance, leaning forward with his hands on his
hips. He has a furrowed brow, staring eyes, and
a frown. These details give the impression that
he is fierce and aggressive.
About the Art This woodcut print of a Japa-
nese actor playing the role of a pirate, also by
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi, shows what Lord Higa
might have looked like.

tiered discussion tasks

In lines 5979, use these prompts to help Moon, Tsukioka Yoshitoshi. From the Snow, Moon and Flower Series. Christies Images Ltd.
students understand the plots rising action:
Then one day there was a terrible commotion among the villagers for Lord
Recall What task does Lord Higa give the 60 Higa of the town beyond the hills threatened to conquer their village and
villagers? What does he say will happen if make it his own. What details about the
Only one thing can spare you, Lord Higa announced. Bring me a box mans appearance affect
they are unable to complete the task? your impression of his
Answer: He tells them to bring him a box containing one thousand ropes of ash and I will spare your village.
The cruel young lord quickly gathered together all the wise men of his
with a thousand ropes of ash. If they cannot
village. You are men of wisdom, he said. Surely you can tell me how to meet
do this, he will conquer the village. Lord Higas demands so our village can be spared. 3 Targeted Passage
Draw Conclusions Why do you think the But the wise men shook their heads. It is impossible to make even one rope
wise men are unable to solve the problem of ash, sire, they answered. How can we ever make one thousand?
Fools! the lord cried angrily. What good is your wisdom if you cannot Language Coach
posed by Lord Higa? Possible answer: They
70 help me now? Antonyms Antonyms
are young and dont have the wisdom of And he posted a notice in the village square offering a great reward of gold are words that are
experience that comes with age. to any villager who could help him save their village. opposite in meaning.
The word fools, which
Evaluate When faced with the prospect But all the people in the village whispered, Surely, it is an impossible thing,
appears in line 69,
of a new lord, the farmer worries about his for ash crumbles at the touch of the finger. How could anyone ever make means the opposite
a rope of ash? They shook their heads and sighed, Alas, alas, we must be of wise men, which
mother. Do you think his worry is justified?
conquered by yet another cruel lord. appears in line 64.
Why or why not? Possible answer: It is justi- The young farmer, too, supposed that this must be, and he wondered what What does the word
fied because the new lord might impose even would happen to his mother if a new lord even more terrible than their own fools mean?
more suffering on the people of the village. came to rule over them.
Both lords are cruel. 80 When his mother saw the troubled look on his face, she asked, Why are
you so worried, my son?

494 unit 4: theme and symbol

differentiated instruction
for english language learners for struggling readers
3 Targeted Passage [Lines 5976]
Language Coach
Antonyms Read lines 6770 aloud to This passage introduces a problemLord
give students a context for the use of Higa threatens the village.
wise men and fools. Explain that the What threat does Lord Higa make? What
literal meaning of fools is unwise men. demand does he make? (lines 5963)
Ask students to think of a more informal Whom does the young lord ask for help in
meaning that fits the context. Possible meeting Lord Higas demand? What is
answer: stupid people, idiots the result? (lines 6468)
What do the villagers predict will happen
next? (lines 7576)
494 unit 4: theme and symbol

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Comparing Theme

So the farmer told her of the impossible demand made by Lord Higa if the
village was to be spared, but his mother did not seem troubled at all. Instead
she laughed softly and said, Why, that is not such an impossible task. All one
has to do is soak ordinary rope in salt water and dry it well. When it is burned,
it will hold its shape and there is your rope of ash! Tell the villagers to hurry
and find one thousand pieces of rope. T E X T A N A LY S I S
The farmer shook his head in amazement. Mother, you are wonderfully RL 2
wise, he said, and he rushed to tell the young lord what he must do. e e UNIVERSAL THEME e universal theme
90 You are wiser than all the wise men of the village, the lord said when he What do you learn about
heard the farmers solution, and he rewarded him with many pieces of gold. the old woman from Possible answer: The old woman is wise
the way she solves the and clever.
The thousand ropes of ash were quickly made and the village was spared.
villages problem?
In a few days, however, there was another great commotion in the village as
Lord Higa sent another threat. This time he sent a log with a small hole that
curved and bent seven times through its length, and he demanded that a single
piece of silk thread be threaded through the hole. If you cannot perform this revisit the big question
task, the lord threatened, I shall come to conquer your village. How well do we treat our
The young lord hurried once more to his wise men, but they all shook their
heads in bewilderment. A needle cannot bend its way through such curves, bewilderment ELDERS?
100 they moaned. Again we are faced with an impossible demand. (bG-wGlPdEr-mEnt) n. the
state of being confused Discuss In lines 112114, does the young lord
And again you are stupid fools! the lord said, stamping his foot
impatiently. He then posted a second notice in the village square asking the
or astonished respect the farmer? Explain. Possible answer:
villagers for their help. Yes. Because the farmer has saved the village
Once more the young farmer hurried with the problem to his mother in her twice, the young lord rewards the farmer with
secret room. gold and tells him he is brilliant.
Why, that is not so difficult, his mother said with a quick smile. Put
some sugar at one end of the hole. Then, tie an ant to a piece of silk thread and
put it in at the other end. He will weave his way in and out of the curves to get VOCABULARY
to the sugar and he will take the silk thread with him. L4
110 Mother, you are remarkable! the son cried, and he hurried off to the lord own the word
with the solution to the second problem. bewilderment: Ask students to use
Once more the lord commended the young farmer and rewarded him with the definition in the student edition to
many pieces of gold. You are a brilliant man and you have saved our village
again, he said gratefully.
suggest one-word synonyms for bewil-
But the lords troubles were not over even then, for a few days later Lord derment. Possible answers: confusion,
Higa sent still another demand. This time you will undoubtedly fail and then astonishment
I shall conquer your village, he threatened. Bring me a drum that sounds
without being beaten.
But that is not possible, sighed the people of the village. How can anyone
120 make a drum sound without beating it?
This time the wise men held their heads in their hands and moaned, It is
hopeless. It is hopeless. This time Lord Higa will conquer us all.

the wise old woman 495

for struggling readers for advanced learners/preap

Comprehension Support Have students Synthesize [paired option] Breaking news!
create drawings or models of the three Have students work with a partner to write a
problems and solutionsthe ropes, the log, television news Special Report, describing
and the drum. Ask students if they can think the threat by Lord Higa and how the young
of other possible solutions to the problems. lord, the wise men, and the villagers respond
Discuss their answers. to the threat. To organize the report, have
students develop a list of Reporters Ques-
Reporters Questions p. C9
the wise old woman 495

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The young farmer hurried home breathlessly. Mother, Mother, we must
solve another terrible problem or Lord Higa will conquer our village! And he
quickly told his mother about the impossible drum.
His mother, however, smiled and answered, Why, this is the easiest of them
T E X T A N A LY S I S all. Make a drum with sides of paper and put a bumblebee inside. As it tries to
RL 2
RL 2 escape, it will buzz and beat itself against the paper and you will have a drum
f universal theme that sounds without being beaten. f f UNIVERSAL THEME
130 The young farmer was amazed at his mothers wisdom. You are far wiser Stories can
Point out that both elderly characters communicate the
than any of the wise men of the village, he said, and he hurried to tell the
are mistreated simply because they are young lord how to meet Lord Higas third demand. same universal theme
old. This similarity suggests the univer- in different ways. For
When the lord heard the answer, he was greatly impressed. Surely a example, the elderly
sal theme. Ask students what universal young man like you cannot be wiser than all my wise men, he said. Tell me characters in these
questions they have about the role of the honestly, who has helped you solve all these difficult problems? folk tales dont share
The young farmer could not lie. My lord, he began slowly, for the past the same qualities.
elderly in society. How does this selection
two years I have broken the law of the land. I have kept my aged mother The old grandfather is
help them to answer those questions? nearly helpless. The old
hidden beneath the floor of my house, and it is she who solved each of your
woman is perceived as
Possible answer: The old woman has the problems and saved the village from Lord Higa. solving problems. Why
wisdom of experience, which allows her to 140 He trembled as he spoke, for he feared the lords displeasure and rage. Surely do you think the old
solve the problems. now the soldiers would be summoned to throw him into the dark dungeon. woman is able to solve
But when he glanced fearfully at the lord, he saw that the young ruler was not all the problems created
angry at all. Instead, he was silent and thoughtful, for at last he realized how by Lord Higas demands?
much wisdom and knowledge old people possess.
I have been very wrong, he said finally. And I must ask the forgiveness
of your mother and of all my people. Never again will I demand that the old 4 Targeted Passage
T E X T A N A LY S I S people of our village be sent to the mountains to die. Rather, they will be
RL 2 treated with the respect and honor they deserve and share with us the wisdom
g universal theme of their years. g g UNIVERSAL THEME
150 And so it was. From that day, the villagers were no longer forced to abandon What lesson does the
Possible answer: The young lord learns that young lord learn?
their parents in the mountains, and the village became once more a happy,
old people possess wisdom and experience
cheerful place in which to live. The terrible Lord Higa stopped sending his
and should be valued and treated with impossible demands and no longer threatened to conquer them, for he too was
respect. impressed. Even in such a small village there is much wisdom, he declared,
and its people should be allowed to live in peace.
And that is exactly what the farmer and his mother and all the people of the
village did for all the years thereafter. 
selection wrapup
READ WITH A PURPOSE Now that students
have read the folk tales, ask them which
character they find most sympathetic and
why. Possible answer: Students should identify
a character they have positive feelings about
and give reasons for their connection to that

CRITIQUE Point out that both folk tales 496 unit 4: theme and symbol

have happy endings. Ask students to imagine

an alternate ending to either or both of the
folk tales. Would such an ending support the differentiated instruction
universal theme? Why or why not?
for english language learners for struggling readers
INDEPENDENT READING Vocabulary: Suffixes Point out examples of 4 Targeted Passage [Lines 136155]
Students may also enjoy reading African words on this page with the suffix -ful, which
This passage presents the folk tales
Folk Tales, edited by Hugh Vernon-Jackson, means full of (fearful[ly], thoughtful, cheer-
a collection of eighteen traditional African ful) and identify the base words. Explain that
the addition of this suffix changes nouns to What does the farmer admit to the young
adjectives. Challenge students to create new lord? (lines 136139)
words by adding this suffix to other nouns. How does he think the lord will respond?
Then use Common Suffixes to help them How does the lord respond? (lines 140149)
identify the meanings of other suffixes. How is life in the village different after the
BEST PRACTICES TOOLKITTransparency young lord lifts his decree? (lines 150152)
Common Suffixes p. E15
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After Reading
Practice and Apply
1. Recall In The Old Grandfather and His Little Grandson, whose action RL 2 Determine a theme For preliminary support of post-reading
of a text and analyze its
shames the couple into treating the grandfather better? development, including its questions, use these copy masters:
relationship to the plot and
2. Recall In The Wise Old Woman, what is the young lords decree? characters; provide a summary
of the text. RL 5 Compare
and contrast the structure of Reading Check p. 67
Text Analysis two texts and analyze how
the structure of each text Question Support p. 68
3. Analyze Motives In The Old Grandfather, why do you think the son and contributes to its meaning.
his wife react so negatively to the grandfathers accident? For additional questions, see page 55.
4. Interpret Theme Summarize the role of the farmers mother in this story. answers
In what way does the title of The Wise Old Woman reflect the theme of
the folktale? Comprehension
5. Evaluate Parallel Episodes In folk tales, events often happen in threes. 1. The young grandsons action shames his
There may be three wishes or three tasks, for example. These repeated events parents into treating the grandfather better.
are called parallel episodes. Find the parallel episodes in The Wise Old
2. The young lord decrees that when villagers
Woman. What do these parallel episodes contribute to the folk tale?
reach the age of 71, they must be taken into
Comparing Universal Theme the mountains to die.
6. Set a Purpose for Reading Finish filling in your chart. Then add the question
about universal theme to your chart and write your answer. Text Analysis RL 2, RL 5

The Old Grandfather

Possible answers:
and His Little Grandson The Wise Old Woman 3. The son and his wife might be angry that
Who are the elderly character: elderly character: they have to care for and clean up after the
important grandfather, whom they regard as useless.
characters, and unkind characters: unkind characters:
what are their other characters: other characters:
qualities? 4. common core focus Interpret
Theme The lord said the farmers mother
How is the
elderly character was too old to be useful, but in the end, she
mistreated? was the only one with the knowledge to save
What motivates the village. The theme of the tale is that old
characters people have gained wisdom over the years
to stop this
mistreatment? and have a lot to teach others. The use of
the word wise in the title reflects this theme.

What is the 5. With each of Lord Higas demands, the wise

universal theme? men and the villagers fail to find a solution,
the farmer asks his mother, and the mother
How well do we treat our ELDERS? solves the problem. The parallel episodes
Do you think our culture treats elderly people well, or poorly?
help to draw attention to the theme and
Explain your answer. create suspense.

the old gr andfather . . . / the wise old woman 497

Comparing Universal Theme
6. common core focus Set a Purpose
The Wise Old Woman for Reading
How well do we treat our
How is the elderly character mistreated?
The young lord decrees that she must leave
ELDERS? Accept all reasonable The Old Grandfather and His Little Grandson
answers for which students provide valid How is the elderly character mistreated?
the village at age 71 to die in the mountains.
supporting details. Encourage students to He is scolded and made to eat from a wooden
What motivates characters to stop this first list examples of positive and negative bowl.
mistreatment? The young lord reverses his treatment of elderly people before they
decree when the old woman solves three respond. What motivates characters to stop this mis-
problems, thus saving the village.
treatment? The grandson makes a wooden
Both bucket for his parents to eat from when they
What is the universal theme? Our elders are older, thus shaming them.
deserve to be treated with respect.

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Vocabulary in Context
answers vocabulary practice
Choose the word in each group that is most nearly opposite in meaning arrogant
Vocabulary in Context to the boldfaced word.
vocabulary practice 1. haughtily: (a) snobbishly, (b) modestly, (c) indifferently
1. (b) modestly 2. bewilderment: (a) understanding, (b) confusion, (c) shock deceive
3. arrogant: (a) smug, (b) humble, (c) aloof
2. (a) understanding
4. deceive: (a) outsmart, (b) scam, (c) guide haughtily
3. (b) humble
4. (c) guide
academic vocabulary in speaking
comment community criteria perspective technique
Vocabulary Practice p. 69 The young lord owes the villagers an apology and an explanation. Give a speech
from his perspective, explaining what he has learned. Use at least one Academic
academic vocabulary in speaking Vocabulary word in the speech.

Invite students to consider how the young vocabulary strategy: the suffix -ly
lords perspective about the community com- A suffix is a word part that can be added to the end of a root or base word. L 2c Spell correctly. L 4b Use
pares to the villagers perspective. Encourage Sometimes a suffix is used to change a words part of speech. For example, Latin affixes as clues to the
meaning of a word.
them to provide as much detail as possible in when the suffix -ly is added to the end of the word haughty, it forms the adverb
their speeches. haughtily. When an adjective ends in -y, as haughty does, the y changes to i
before -ly is added.

vocabulary strategy: PRACTICE Change each boldfaced adjective to an adverb by adding the suffix -ly.
L 2c, L 4b
the suffix -ly Then rephrase each sentence so it makes sense.

Remind students that the spelling of some 1. In the beginning of the story, the young lord was cruel.
words changes when the suffix -ly is added 2. The tearful son had to take his mother into the mountains. Vocabulary
to form an adverb. For example, when -ly is 3. The angry lord asked the villagers for help. Go to thinkcentral.com.
added to the word happy, the y is replaced by 4. The old woman was happy to provide her son with the answers.
an i to form happily. Remind students to use
a dictionary to check spelling when they are
using suffixes to create new words.
Possible answers:
1. cruelly; In the beginning of the story, the
young lord acted cruelly.
2. tearfully; Tearfully, the son took his mother
into the mountains.
3. angrily; The lord angrily asked the villagers
for help.
4. happily; The old woman happily provided
her son with the answers. 498 unit 4: theme and symbol


Vocabulary Strategy p. 70
differentiated instruction
Interactive Vocabulary for english language learners for advanced learners/preap
Keywords direct students to a WordSharp Vocabulary Practice [mixed-readiness pairs] Vocabulary Strategy Tell students that not
tutorial on thinkcentral.com or to other types 1. Pair students with more fluent readers to all words ending in -ly are adverbs. Challenge
of vocabulary practice and review. define all of the words in each set. students to think about what they know about
2. Then have students locate each boldfaced language and to use the Quick Reference:
word in the folk tale and replace it with the Parts of Speech guide on pages R46R47 of
words in the set. the Grammar Handbook to list examples of
-ly words that are not adverbs (for example,
3. Use the context clues to help them choose
portly, which is an adjective, and apply, which
the word in each set that differs most from
is a verb).
the meaning of the boldfaced word.

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Comparing Theme

Writing for Assessment RL 2, W 2, W 2ab, f

1. read the prompt Writing for

RL 2, W 2, W 2ab, f
In writing assessments, you will often be asked to compare and contrast
two works that share a similar theme.
The folk tales The Old Grandfather and His strategies in action Read the task aloud. Ask volunteers to
Little Grandson and The Wise Old Woman 1. I have to make sure I understand the identify key words and phrases that define
express the same universal theme in different message expressed by these folk tales. the task (compare and contrast, references to
ways. In four to five paragraphs, compare and 2. I need to identify the similarities and
contrast the ways in which the folk tales convey
both texts).
differences in how the tales get the
their message. Support your judgments with message across. 2. PLAN YOUR WRITING
references to both texts. 3. I should support my ideas using
information from the two tales.
Have students refer to the chart they have
completed as they plan their writing.
After students have decided how to organize
2. plan your writing
their response, have them write key details
Review your chart to identify the universal theme and the way in the appropriate sections of their outlines.
each folk tale expresses it. Then think about how you will set 1. Introduce ta
up the body of your response. thesis statement d
II. How first ta
Option A: In one paragraph, describe how the universal expresses them
le Have students use their outline to create a
theme is conveyed in the first folk tale; in the next paragraph, III. How second
tale strong thesis statement. Give them an ex-
expresses them
describe how this theme is conveyed in the second folk tale;
IV. Comparison e ample: The universal theme in the folk tales
in a third paragraph, discuss similarities and differences. of tales
V. Conclusion is conveyed through the actions the charac-
Option B: In one paragraph, compare the elderly characters; ters take in response to conflict.
in a second paragraph, compare the mistreatment of
Remind students to begin each body para-
the elderly characters; in a third paragraph, compare the
motivations for ending the mistreatment. graph with a strong topic sentence.
Once you have decided on the organization, outline your essay. List transitions on the board that can be used
Then write a thesis statement that describes the main idea of your essay. to strengthen the unity within each para-
graph and between paragraphs, such as in
3. draft your response addition, on the other hand, in contrast, and
Introduction Give the titles and authors of the tales. Provide a sentence telling what
each tale is about. State the universal theme and include your thesis statement. RESOURCE MANAGERCopy Master
Body Using your outline as a guide, discuss how each folk tale conveys the universal Writing for Assessment p. 71
theme. Use details from the tales to support your ideas.
Conclusion End each essay by restating the universal theme and your thesis statement.
Explain whether the values conveyed by these tales are still important.
Revision Make sure you clearly identify the tale you are discussing in each paragraph.
Assess and Reteach
the old gr andfather . . . / the wise old woman 499 DIAGNOSTIC AND SELECTION TESTS
Selection Test A pp. 127128
Selection Test B/C pp. 129130
Interactive Selection Test on thinkcentral.com
for struggling writers Reteach
Draft Your Response Provide students with a Repeat the previous step for the second folk
Level Up Online Tutorials on thinkcentral.com
template to structure their responses: tale.
Reteaching Worksheets on thinkcentral.com
Introduction Compare and contrast how each folk tales
Give titles of folk tales. Literature Lesson 13: Theme
message is conveyed.
Make thesis statement. Reading Lesson 12: Compare/Contrast
Body Restate thesis. Vocabulary Lesson 1: Word Parts
Explain how the universal theme is conveyed Draw conclusions about universal theme.
in the first folk tale: describe the elderly char-
acters, their mistreatment, and the motiva-
tion for ending it.

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