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GRAPH THEORY

ISOMORPHISM
Definition. Let 1 = (1 , 1 ) and 2 = (2 , 2 ) be graphs.
The graphs 1 and 2 are isomorphic if there exists a
bijective function : 1 2 such that (, ) 1 if and only
if ( , ) 2 . The function is called an isomorphism
1 2 1 2
11
: 2 4
32
4 3 4 3 43
1 2
Exercise. Prove that the graphs below are isomorphic by
finding an isomorphism.
1
2
6


5 3

4
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

1
2
6


5 3

4
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

1
2
6


5 3


4
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

1

6
2

5 3


4
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

1

6
2

5 3


4
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

1

6


5 3


4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:


1

6


5 3


4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:


1

6

5 3


4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:


1

6

5 3


4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:


1

6

5 3


4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

1


6

5 3


4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

5 3

4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

5 3

4 2
Here is a good way of visualizing isomorphism:

5 3

4 2
Can you now see the similarity in structures of the graphs?

5 3

4 2