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IDL - International Digital Library Of

Technology & Research

Volume 1, Issue 4, Apr 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

Intelligent Helmet for Road Safety

Naveena Pai G

Assistant professor
Yenepoya Institute of Technology,Moodbidri

AbstractAn accident is a specific, unexpected, unusual principles: They will invest authority and responsibility in
and unintended external action which occurs in a particular people and organizations at all levels, local to national,
time and place, with no apparent and deliberate cause but with because drunken driving control
marked effects. Carelessness of the driver is the major factor
of such accidents. The traffic authorities give a lot of
instructions to the vehicle operators. But many of them do not [6] requires action at all levels. They will operate in the
obey the rules. Nowadays most of the countries are forcing the public eye, using the media to report on problems and
motor riders to wear the helmet and not to use the vehicles
solutions, because ultimate decisions on priorities and
when the person is in drunken condition. But still the rules are
being violated by the users. In order to overcome this we
resources to control drunk driving must have public support.
propose a new intelligent helmet system, which automatically They will not promise instant solutions based on a single
checks whether the person is wearing the helmet and has non- action but rather will take steady steps towards long-term
alcoholic breath while driving. Here we have a transmitter at improvement. And they will establish mechanisms for
the helmet and the receiver at the bike .The project aims at the identifying and solving problems rather than attempting to
security and safety of the bikers against road accidents. The apply one-size fits- all methods.
circuit is so designed that the bike wont start without wearing
Application of electronics in the automobile field is very
helmet. Also, if the driver is drunk, the bike will not start
thereby preventing drunken drivers. And in case of accident,
much popular now. Because of the low prices and various
immediate message will be sent to the family members about varieties available in the market people prefer motorbikes to
the accident using a GSM modem. buy over 4 wheelers. Hence Road Safety becomes a major
issue of concern. Therefore it becomes necessary to
KeywordsHelmet, Accident, Alcohol detection, GSM implement such a technique which is not easy to bypass the
Modem. basic rule of wearing helmet and to avoid drunken driving.


A traffic accident is defined as any vehicle accident This system consists of mainly two hardware parts.
occurring on a public highway (i.e. originating on, Transmitter section comprises of helmet in which position
terminating on, or involving a vehicle partially on the sensor and alcohol sensor are placed. In receiver section a
highway). These accidents therefore include collisions PIC microcontroller is used which will receive the signals
between vehicles and animals, vehicles and pedestrians, or through RF receiver.
vehicles and fixed obstacles. In higher-income countries, Here we designed a system which checks the two
road traffic [1] accidents are already among the top ten conditions before ignition of the engine. The first condition
leading causes of disease burden in 1998 as measured in is whether the rider is wearing helmet or not and it is
DALYs (disability-adjusted life year). detected by a position sensor. The second condition is
In less developed countries, road traffic accidents were detection of alcohol content in riders breath with the help of
the most significant cause of injuries, ranking eleventh an alcohol sensor. If any of the two conditions are violated
among the most important causes of lost years of healthy then the bike will not start. If the rider is wearing helmet and
life. In Indian road system, widening of the road is not an the alcohol content is not detected then ignition of engine
alternative solution to avoid traffic in such a cities [2]. The starts. If any accident occurs then a piezoelectric sensor
problems with state drunk driving control systems can be detects it and short message service will be send to the
solved in many ways. The most effective will follow several predefined numbers using GSM modem .If there is no

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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 4, Apr 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

accident then vehicle reaches its destination. This system

first checks wearing of helmet with the help of 3 axis
accelerometer and if the rider is wearing the helmet system
checks for content of alcohol in riders breath using an
alcohol sensor MQ3.In case the alcohol content is not
detected pic microcontroller receives data from these sensors
and gives digital data to the RF transmitter connected to
it.RF transmitter will send this data to the RF receiver which
is connected to another pic microcontroller this in turn runs
the motor connected to it.
If any of the above two conditions are violated motor
which is connected to the pic microcontroller wont work
and this will be indicated by a beep sound.
A Piezoelectric sensor is used here to detect the accident
which works on the principle of piezoelectricity. In this
system Analog pin of PIC reads the data from this sensor and
converts 0-5volts into 0-1023 divisions from the internal
ADC. If the sensors output is stronger than a certain
threshold, then the PIC microcontroller reads it as a crash.
GSM SIM-900A is used in this system that works on
frequency 900/1800MHz and 4.5-12v power supply. The
GSM module receives the information when an accident
Fig. 1. Functional block diagram of Intelligent Helmet
occurs and sends a message to a predefined mobile number.
To perform this operation a helical antenna is used that
receives the signals at the range of 925 to 960MHz and
transmits the signal at the range of 880 to 915MHz. Using
this modem, we can make audio calls, SMS, Read SMS,
attend the incoming calls and internet etc. through simple AT
commands. Unlike mobile phones, a GSM modem doesnt
have a keypad and display to interact with. It just accepts
certain commands through a serial interface and
acknowledges for those. These commands are called as AT
commands. There are lists of AT commands to instruct the
modem to perform its functions as listed below.
AT+CMGF=1; This command is used to initialize the
text message.
AT+CMGS =\phone no.\; This command is used to
send the message.
AT+CMGR=1; This command is used to receive the text
Every command starts with "AT". Thats why they are
called as AT commands. AT stands for attention. The baud
rate is set to 9600bps. The program waits for the mobile
number to be entered through the keyboard. When a ten digit
mobile number is provided, the program instructs the modem
to send the text message using a sequence of AT commands.

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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 4, Apr 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

due to drunken driving. A GSM modem is used in this

system that will send a message to the predefined numbers
that are programmed using microcontroller in case of any
accident. We have a tendency to introduce advanced sensors
techniques and radio frequency wireless communications are
included in this project to make it a good one.
In future we have a tendency to planned to construct our
intelligent system during a compact size. And additionally as
globally acceptable to notify the No entry and No parking
areas. Government should enforce laws to install such
system in each 2 wheeler. By implementing such mechanism
in 2 wheelers, the deaths attributable to due to driving and
alternative road fatalities are often brought to zero p.c. And
also indicates No parking area which would reduce the
crowd of the vehicle in those areas. No entry area is mainly
allocated during the development or repairing of the road, if
the rider enters in such area this system would immediately
intimate as No entry area and vehicle can stop automatically.
in case of any accident it might send the messages to the
friends continuously about the location of the accident
happened until the first aid reaches the rider. Our system
helps to know the location of the vehicle for rescuing in the
case of theft incidents.

We sincerely appreciate the encouragement extended by
the Head of the Department, Electronics & Communication
Engineering, Dr. MVSIT, Prof. Gangadhar G and our
Fig. 2. Helmet Flowchart of intelligent helmet system beloved principal, Dr. Sandeep J Nayak.

The device provides a better security to the biker.
In the case of accidents, where every minute is References
important, the user can be traced within a second.
The device also reduces the accident rate due to [1] Alcohol sensor and Automatic control system for bike, Volume 2,
drunken driving. Issue ICRAET12, May 2012
[2] Baird, T., & Hardy, E. Concerning Car Collisions and Motorcycles.
The device decreases the head injuries throughout Motorcycle Action Group, 2006.
accidents. [3] Gotoh, M., Watanabe, H., Takashiba, h., &Kakizoe, Development
Of The Advanced Safety Vehicles, 8th ITS World Congress,
IV. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Sydney, Australia, 2001.
Nowadays, most cases of accidents area unit by motor [4] Hurt, Motor cycle accident cause factor and identification of
countermeasures, 1981.
bikes. The severities of those accidents are increased because
of the absence of helmet or by the usage of alcoholic drinks. [5] Nissan, To Drink Drive-Proof its Vehicle, September 2006.
In our project we have a tendency to develop an electronic [6] Ms. Namrata D.Ghuse, Intelligent Helmet For Two Bikers, volume
6, 2006
intelligent helmet system that efficiently checks the wearing
[7] Olssen,T.,Truedsson,N.,Xafis,V.,Tomasevic,N.,Logan,D.,Flides,B.,&
of helmet and drunken driving. By implementing this system Kullgren,A Review and Evaluation of Vehicle Safety Features and
a safe 2 wheeler journey is possible which would decrease Systems, 2006.
the head injuries throughout accidents caused from the Sudharsana Vijayan, Alcohol detection using smartHelmet system,
absence of helmet and additionally reduce the accident rate 0976-1353 Volume 8, APRIL 2014

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IDL - International Digital Library Of
Technology & Research
Volume 1, Issue 4, Apr 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

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