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CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Manufacturing Technology 4. Pyroprocessing

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Manufacturing Technology 4. Pyroprocessing –
CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Manufacturing Technology 4. Pyroprocessing –

Cement Manufacturing Technology

4. Pyroprocessing – raw mix to cement clinker. 4.2. Alkali cycles

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the exhaust
gases from the kiln and the resistance and pressure drop to that
venting caused by the preheater.
Cyclone 1
Feed
Any changes in the process which
restrict the preheater and increase
the resistance to venting the exhaust
gases from the kiln will be
detrimental to kiln operations.
Cyclone 2
Cyclone 3
Cyclone 4
Some minor components of the kiln
feed will melt and evaporate in the
burning zone of the cement kiln.
Cyclone 5
Rotary Kiln
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing
Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the exhaust
gases from the kiln and the resistance and pressure drop to that
venting caused by the preheater.
Cyclone 1
The minor components which
behave in this way are the chloride
and sulphate salts of the alkali
metals.
Feed
Cyclone 2
Cyclone 3
After evaporating in the burning
zone they are carried back to the
preheater in the exhaust gases where
they recondense on the feed and are
again carried back into the kiln.
Cyclone 4
Cyclone 5
Rotary Kiln
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

1

CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the exhaust
gases from the kiln and the resistance and pressure drop to that
venting caused by the preheater.
Cyclone 1
This causes them to concentrate in
the kiln in a so-called “alkali cycle”.
Feed
Cyclone 2
Some of the alkalis also condense
on the walls of the ducts in the
preheater, causing the feed to stick
to the walls and creating build-up
which restricts the gas flow through
the preheater.
Cyclone 3
Cyclone 4
Cyclone 5
Rotary Kiln
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing
Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the exhaust
gases from the kiln and the resistance and pressure drop to that
venting caused by the preheater.
Cyclone 1
In the worst cases this “alkali cycle”
can lead to clogging and blockage
of the preheater.
Feed
Cyclone 2
Cyclone 3
The kiln must then be stopped to
clear the preheater.
Cyclone 4
This is a dangerous task and also
means that the thermal energy
investment to raise the kiln
temperature above 1400°C must be
repeated.
Cyclone 5
Rotary Kiln
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing
Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
In session 4.1 we discussed the importance of venting the exhaust
gases from the kiln and the resistance and pressure drop to that
venting caused by the preheater.
Cyclone 1
Control of this “alkali cycle” is
therefore critical for stable cement
kiln operations.
Feed
Cyclone 2
Cyclone 3
We will explore the mechanism of
this “alkali cycle” in this session,
and also the means available to
control the cycle.
Cyclone 4
Cyclone 5
Rotary Kiln
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

2

CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows: Volatile
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:
Volatile species in the kiln feed
pass down the preheater and into
the rotary kiln.
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing
Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows: Volatile
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:
Volatile species in the kiln feed
pass down the preheater and into
the rotary kiln.
Some of the volatiles pass out of
the kiln in the clinker.
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:

The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:

Volatile species in the kiln feed pass down the preheater and into the rotary kiln.

Some of the volatiles pass out of the kiln in the clinker.

Some evaporate in the burning zone of the kiln and are carried away with the combustion product gases.

and are carried away with the combustion product gases. Cement Technology Training © 2 0 0

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

3

CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles The mechanism of the alkali cycle

The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:

Volatilised material from the feed is joined by any volatile material from the fuel.

the feed is joined by any volatile material from the fuel. Cement Technology Training © 2

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as

The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:

Volatilised material from the feed is joined by any volatile material from the fuel.

The combined volatilised material from the feed and fuel are carried to the preheater in the exhaust gases where they condense on the incoming feed and are carried back into the kiln.

on the incoming feed and are carried back into the kiln. Cement Technology Training © 2

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:

The cycle of volatile material builds up……

….until the amount of material exiting in the clinker equals the amount of material entering in the feed & fuel.

the amount of material entering in the feed & fuel. Concentration of recirculating volatile material is
the amount of material entering in the feed & fuel. Concentration of recirculating volatile material is

Concentration of recirculating volatile material is significantly higher than in either the feed, fuel or clinker.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

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CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:

Measurement of the input levels in feed and fuel…….

…….output levels in the clinker…

…….and the levels in the hot meal.

in the clinker… …….and the levels in the hot meal. Allows the volatility of each species
in the clinker… …….and the levels in the hot meal. Allows the volatility of each species
in the clinker… …….and the levels in the hot meal. Allows the volatility of each species

Allows the volatility of each species in the particular kiln to be estimated, and a model of the alkali cycle for the particular kiln to be constructed.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as

The mechanism of the alkali cycle is as follows:

The concentration of the volatile species in the hot meal at the bottom of the preheater increases the “stickiness” of the feed.

The hot meal can stick to the walls of the preheater ducts causing restrictions and in the worst cases cause blockage of the preheater.

and in the worst cases cause blockage of the preheater. Cement Technology Training © 2 0
and in the worst cases cause blockage of the preheater. Cement Technology Training © 2 0

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the
Cement Technology
4.2 Alkali Cycles
One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of
an alkali bypass or bleed.
Part of the exhaust gases
exiting the rotary kiln to the
preheater are extracted
before entering the
preheater…
…….and quench cooled to
precipitate the volatiles.
The effectiveness of alkali bleeds or bypasses is closely
connected with the cycle itself.
Cement Technology Training ©2005
4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

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CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

A

bypass relies on the concentration of

recirculating volatile material being significantly higher than in either the feed, fuel or clinker. This

recirculating volatile material being significantly higher than in either the feed, fuel or clinker.

This means that bleeding out a small proportion of the recirculating material……….

……………is sufficient to take out the equivalent amount that is entering in the feed and fuel.

material………. ……………is sufficient to take out the equivalent amount that is entering in the feed and

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

A

bypass relies on the concentration of

A bypass relies on the concentration of

recirculating volatile material being significantly higher than in either the feed, fuel or clinker.

The concentration in the recirculating material reduces, and with it the tendency for the preheater to block.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

The concentration factor of recirculating volatile material is the ratio of the quantity in the hot meal to the quantities entering the kiln in the feed and the fuel.

material is the ratio of the quantity in the hot meal to the quantities entering the

Concentration factor is directly related

to

the volatility of the recirculating

species in the burning zone.

Alkali bypasses are effective for highly volatile materials which have high concentration factors.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

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CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles One solution to this alkali cycle

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

Chlorides have a very high volatility in the burning zone (>97%), and therefore high concentration factors.

Alkali bypasses are very effective in reducing the cycle of chlorides, and alleviating chloride based clogging of the preheater.

and alleviating chloride based clogging of the preheater. If the raw materials and/or fuel have chloride

If the raw materials and/or fuel have chloride content in excess of 0.03% on clinker an alkali bypass will be required to allow the kiln to operate without preheater clogging problems.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles One solution to this alkali cycle problem can

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

Chlorides have a very high volatility in the burning zone (>97%), and therefore high concentration factors.

Alkali bypasses are very effective in reducing the cycle of chlorides, and alleviating chloride based clogging of the preheater.

and alleviating chloride based clogging of the preheater. When alternative fuels are burnt in a cement

When alternative fuels are burnt in a cement kiln, installation of an alkali bypass can be necessary to alleviate chloride based preheater clogging problems.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles One solution to this alkali cycle problem can

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

When a bypass is installed on a cement kiln the volatility of the potassium, K + , and sodium, Na + , in the feed can be increased by the addition of chloride to the feed as calcium chloride, CaCl 2 .

of chloride to the feed as calcium chloride, CaCl 2 . Potassium and sodium will preferentially

Potassium and sodium will preferentially combine with chloride in the hot meal of the kiln and their volatility will be boosted by the volatility of the chloride.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

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CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

When a bypass is installed on a cement kiln the volatility of the potassium, K + , and sodium, Na + , in the feed can be increased by the addition of chloride to the feed as calcium chloride, CaCl 2 .

Na + , in the feed can be increased by the addition of chloride to the

This means that a bypass can be used to produce low alkali clinker from high alkali raw materials if calcium chloride is added

to

the kiln feed.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles One solution to this alkali cycle problem can

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

However, alkali bypasses are not so effective as the solution for sulphate based recirculation problems and preheater clogging.

Provided oxidising conditions prevail in the kiln, sulphates have a low volatility in the burning zone.

This means the concentration in the recirculating material does not build up sufficiently for a bypass to be effective in bleeding out sulphates, unless very high bypass rates are used.

out sulphates, unless very high bypass rates are used. Cement Technology Training © 2 0 0

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

However, alkali bypasses are not so effective as the solution for sulphate based recirculation problems and preheater clogging.

alkali bypasses are not so effective as the solution for sulphate based recirculation problems and preheater

Provided oxidising conditions prevail in the kiln, sulphates have a low volatility in the burning zone.

Only if there are reducing conditions in the burning zone does the

concentration of sulphate in the hot meal build up sufficiently for

a

bypass to be effective.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

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CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology   4.2 Alkali

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology

 

4.2 Alkali Cycles

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

Reducing conditions and the presence of CO result in breakdown of sulphates in the burning zone.

Reducing conditions and the presence of CO result in breakdown of sulphates in the burning zone.

SO 3 + CO Æ SO 2 _ + CO 2 _

The volatilised SO 2 reacts with CaO and alkalis to form sulphates in the preheater.

 

Æ

Æ

SO 2 + CaO

CaSO 3 + _O 2

CaSO 4

Recirculating sulphates then build up sufficiently to make a bypass effective.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

 

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

However, the reducing conditions create the problem of high sulphate recirculation and also the circumstances where a bypass can solve the problem.

create the problem of high sulphate recirculation and also the circumstances where a bypass can solve

SO 3 + CO Æ SO 2 _ + CO 2 _

If the reducing conditions are eliminated the problems of high sulphate recirculation usually disappear.

The bypass is then not be needed.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles One solution to this alkali cycle problem can

One solution to this alkali cycle problem can be the installation of an alkali bypass or bleed.

The cause of reducing condition and attendant recirculating sulphate problem is usually the combustion in the main burner of the kiln.

SO 3 + CO Æ SO 2 _ + CO 2 _

Solving these combustion problems will solve the problems of recirculating sulphates.

will solve the problems of recirculating sulphates. Efforts should be focused on the main burner of

Efforts should be focused on the main burner of the kiln.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

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CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

Sulphides in the raw materials create an entirely different problem which require a different solution.

Sulphides in the raw materials oxidise and volatilise in the top stages of the preheater and escape the preheater in the exhaust gases as SO 2 .

S 2 - + O 2 Æ SO 2 _ SO 2 in the exhaust

S 2- + O 2 Æ SO 2 _ SO 2 in the exhaust gases is partially absorbed by the limestone in the raw mill to form calcium sulphite, CaSO 3, which is then readily oxidised to calcium sulphate, CaSO 4 .

SO 2 + CaCO 3 Æ CaSO 3 + CO 2

CaSO 3 + _O 2 Æ CaSO 4

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles Sulphides in the raw materials create an entirely

Sulphides in the raw materials create an entirely different problem which require a different solution.

Sulphides in the raw materials oxidise and volatilise in the top stages of the preheater and escape the preheater in the exhaust gases as SO 2 .

and escape the preheater in the exhaust gases as SO 2 . S 2 - +

S 2- + O 2 Æ SO 2 _

However, the raw mill will only absorb 80% of the SO 2 at best and the absorption rate falls off with decreasing moisture content in the raw materials .

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

Cement Technology

4.2 Alkali Cycles

5 4. Pyroprocessing Cement Technology 4.2 Alkali Cycles Sulphides in the raw materials create an entirely

Sulphides in the raw materials create an entirely different problem which require a different solution.

Sulphides in the raw materials oxidise and volatilise in the top stages of the preheater and escape the preheater in the exhaust gases as SO 2 .

and escape the preheater in the exhaust gases as SO 2 . S 2 - +

S 2- + O 2 Æ SO 2 _

When the raw mill is stopped virtually all the SO 2 will be lost from the kiln as emissions.

These, and other emissions from the cement kiln, and their mitigation, are the subject for the next session of the course.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

10

CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Manufacturing Technology 4. Pyroprocessing

CemNet Training - Course TCM01

Module 4 - Session 2

CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Manufacturing Technology 4. Pyroprocessing –
CemNet Training - Course TCM01 Module 4 - Session 2 Cement Manufacturing Technology 4. Pyroprocessing –

Cement Manufacturing Technology

4. Pyroprocessing – raw mix to cement clinker. 4.2. Alkali cycles.

Cement Technology Training ©2005

4. Pyroprocessing

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course TCM01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd © 2005 http://training.CemNet.com

11