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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

1. PREHISTORIC TIME.
Prehistory is the period that begins with the
emergence of the human being, about five million years
ago, and finishes with the invention of writing, about
6,000 years ago.
Prehistory can be divided into the Stone Age and
the Metal Age.
The Stone Age began two and half million years
In the Stone Age people
ago. Stone tools were used. used stone tools.
The early Stone age is called the
Palaeolithic period. People move from place to place.
They lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants.
Later in the Neolithic period, which began about
10,000 years ago people lived permanently in a place.
People were farmers and they learned to cultivate plants
and had domestic animals. Human beings lived in
villages
The Metal Age is a period beginning about 7,000
years ago, when human beings started to make objects
In the Neolithic period
out of metal. people lived permanently
in a place.

Prehistory is
divided into three
stages.
PREHISTORY
STAGES

PALAEOLITHIC NEOLITHIC METAL


AGE AGE AGE

By MACS 2
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

1.1. The first humans.


1.1.1. The time of the hunters.
The first humans survived by hunting, fishing, and
eating the wild plants they collected. From the animals they
hunted, the prehistoric humans were able to use the meat
for food and the animal skins for clothing.
The people were organized into small groups called
tribes and were nomad. The nomads were people who did
not live in one fixed place, but when they had finished
hunting in one place, they travelled to a new land to look The first humans lived outdoors
or in caves
for more animals and food.
The nomads lived outdoors or in caves and used simple
tools made from stone, wood, or bone.

By MACS 3
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

1.1.2. Agriculture and Farming


Millions of years later, men and women learned
how to cultivate plants, like wheat, and domesticate
animals, like sheep.
The first humans were sedentaries and built
villages in order to live in one place permanently.
They also perfected the earlier tools made from
stone and bone, produced fabric with the wool from
different animals, made ceramic vessels and learned In this time they made
how to melt metal in order to make weapons and ceramic vessels

jewellery from wood or bone.

1.1.3. The first craftsmen


The Palaeolithic period (The Stone age):
craftsmen made tools and weapons by hitting one
stone against another.
The Neolithic period (The Stone age):
craftsmen made stone tools and weapons much
better than before. They also made cloth.
Craftsmen made cloth in
the Neolithic period. The Metal age: craftsmen made metal tools,
weapons and jewellery.

1.1.4. The first artists


There are very important and unuasual works of
art from Prehistory.
Cave paintings, for example, in the Altamira
cave in Cantabria (Spain) are magnificent works of
art from this period. Artists painted different Cave paintings in the caves of
Altamira. Cantabria.
animals like bison and deer.

By MACS 4
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

Learning
more!! Fire was discovered about
half a million years ago. For
human beings in the Palaeolithic
Age, it was one of the most
important discoveries.
The climate was extremely
cold and with fire they could heat
and light their caves,, cook their
food and frighten wild animals
away.

Prehistory is the period that begins with the emergence of the human
being, about five million years ago, and finishes with the invention of writing,
about 6,000 years ago.
Prehistory can be divided into The Stone Age and the Metal Age.
The Stone Age is divided into two periods: The Palaeolithic period and
The Neolithic period.
In the Palaeolithic period, craftsmen made tools and weapons by hitting
one stone against another. In the Neolithic period, craftsmen made stone tools
and weapons much better than before and in the Metal age metal tools were
used.
Cave paintings in the Altamira cave in Cantabria (Spain) are magnificent
works of art from this period.

By MACS 5
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

ACTIVITIES
1. Answer these questions.
a) What is Prehistory?
b) What ages is Prehistory divided into?
c) What does nomad mean? And sedentary?
d) Why were the first humans nomads in the beginning?
e) What did the first humans eat? What did they wear?
f) What invention separates Prehistory from History?
g) When were prehistoric people sedentary?
h) What did these people make?
i) What animals do you think lived in this age?
j) What was the main discovery at this time?

2.- Write the answer to the clue.

The lived in caves


They made metal tools
They lived in villages permanently
They made ceramic things
They were organized in nomadic tribes
They ate what they hunted or fished

The time of the The time of agriculture


hunters and farming

3.- Think and answer.

Imagine that you live in Prehistoric times

How would you illuminate your cave?

How would you protect yourself from


wild animals?

What would you manufacture your own


clothes with ?
By MACS 6
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

4. Look at the picture and answer.

Are these human beings nomads or sedentaries?

How do you know??

5. Read, match and say.

In the Palaeolithic period craftsmen made simple tools and weapons

In the Neothithic period craftsmen also made jewellery

In the Metal Age are magnificent works of art

Cave paintings craftsmen also made cloth

By MACS 7
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

6. Read and fill in the chart below.

Prehistory

_________________Age _________________Age

______________years ago _____________years ago

__________period __________period used ___________


tools

People were nomadic. People were settlers. Invented:

_____________

They: They: _____________


_____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ 1st __________

_____________ were built

Craftsmen made: Craftsmen made: Craftsmen made:


_____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________

7. Listen to the descriptions of daily life, write and say.

Do you think that it is the Paleothic period, the Neolithic period or the Metal age?

a. .. b. .. c. ..

By MACS 8
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

2. THE BEGINNING OF HISTORY.


History is the period of time which started with the developmentof writing. Its the
easiest period to study because of the existence of written documents.
2.1.The development of Writing.
More than 5,000 years ago, writing was invented. At first, the people
used hieroglyphic writing. Hieroglyphics are pictures that represent words or ideas.
Much later, they invented the alphabet which was a collection of letters combined to
form words. The invention of writing is very important because it marks the beginning of
history. The prehistoric times consists of everything that occurred before the invention
of writing.

2.2. The old civilizations.


The first civilizations in history were
developed 5,000 years ago. Among these civilizations,
the most important were the Egyptian, Indian, Chinese,
Greek, and Roman.
A civilization is a collection of people that share
the same ideas and ways of life. For example, the people
that belong to a civilization have the same language, Reliefs of Karnak Temple.
Egypt
religion, institutions, etc .

By MACS 9
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

2.3. The first States.


At the beginning of history, some cities
were united with others in order to create the first
states. In the cities they built palaces for the
government, temples for the gods, and other
monuments.
They also wrote laws for the government
and formed armies in order to help them defend
themselves against enemies.

Esparta was a very important


State in ancient Greece.

2.4. Roman Spain, some facts.


Two thousand years ago, the Romans arrived at the
Iberian Peninsula and changed the way of life for its
inhabitants.
They built cities, like Italica or Merida.
They constructed a network of stone roads for uniting
the cities and developing commercialism.
They also built many different constructions, like
aqueducts, water baths, and theatres
They extended the use of their language, Latin. Many
other languages were developed from Latin and have
Latin roots, such as: Castilian, Catalan and Galician.
At this time Christianity was important in the
Peninsula.

By MACS 10
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

A Roman bridge. A Roman aqueduct. Segovia. A Roman road.


Salamanca. Spain. Spain.

A Roman mosaic.Birds house. Mrida Theatre. Spain


Ruins of Italica. Santiponce.
Seville.

History is the period of time which started with the development of writing.
The first civilizations in history were developed 5,000 years ago, the most
important were from Egypt, India, China, Greece, and Rome.
A civilization is a collection of people that share the same ideas and ways of life.
At the beginning of history, some cities were united with others in order to
create the first states.
Two thousand years ago, the Romans arrived at the Iberian Peninsula and they
built cities, constructed roads, built aqueducts, water baths, monuments,
temples and extended the use of their language (Latin).

By MACS 11
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

ACTIVITIES
10. Answer these questions after reading.

a) What is History?
b) Why is the development of writing very important?
c) List some old civilizations.
d) When did the Romans arrive at the peninsula?
e) What elements of Roman civilization can still be seen?

11. Find the five old civilizations.

Q G H J K L M K H U C

H Y R I L P K G V H Y

S D G O J O P L I M N

V I B F M R E N C X D

S N W R T E A O I L C

S D R F G G R E E C E

Y I T G N Y K O H G W

B A J K L P I P J G R

R E G J L T V C S J K

12. Find the mistakes, underline them and correct the text.

History is the period of time which started with the emergence of


farming. More than 2,000 years ago writing was invented. At first, the people used the alphabet.
Much later, they invented hieroglyphic writing. A civilization is a collection of people that share
different ideas and ways of life. Many important civilizations appeared in places such as: Spain,
Rome, Egypt, China and Greece. At the beginning of history, some cities were united with others in
order to create the first tribes. Three thousand years ago, Greeks arrived at the Iberian Peninsula
and changed the way of life of its habitants. They built cities, like Badajoz or Merida. They
constructed a network of stone roads for uniting the cities and developing tourist. They also built
many different mosques, aqueducts, water baths, and theatres

By MACS 12
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

Egypt lies in the northwestern corner of Africa,


and partly in Asia. Its official name is the Arab
Republic of Egypt. It is bordered by Libya to the
west, the Sudan to the south, the Mediterranean
Sea to the north, and the Red Sea to the west.
Egypt is the gate way between Europe and Asia,
and represents the entrance to central Africa.
The population in 2003 was estimated
to be sixty million people, most of whom live
in the Nile Valley and the Nile delta.
Two principal cities, Cairo and Alexandria,
are located there. The country is about one million square kilometers in size. Islam
is the official religion of Egypt. Arabic is the major language spoken in Egypt, but
you can usually be understood in English or French.
The country is rich in tradition and
culture. A great number of the worlds
cultural monuments are in Egypt.
These monuments date back to the
early history of mankind. Foreigners
coming to the Nile Valley are surprised
by the scenery they can observe.
Despite its natural and historical
beauty, Egypt has limited natural
resources, and must import many raw
materials used in manufacturing. The Egyptian economy is trying to catch up
with other developed countries.

By MACS 13
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

13. Choose the correct option.

1. The official name of Egypt is


a. the Islamic Republic of Egypt
b. the Egyptian Republic
c. the Arab Republic of Egypt
d. Egypt

2. It is located mainly in
a. the northeastern part of Africa
b. the south of Africa
c. Asia
d. inner Africa

3. Which waterway is Egypt not directly connected with?


a. the Red Sea
b. the Mediterranean Sea
c. the Nile
d. the Atlantic Ocean

4. Which two countries share a border with Egypt?


a. Iraq and Iran
b. Libya and the Sudan
c. Africa and Asia
d. Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia

5. The most populated part of Egypt is


a. Alexandria
b. the western desert area
c. the Red Sea coast
d. the Nile Valley

6. The official language of Egypt is


a. Islam
b. English
c. Arabic
d. French

7. Visitors to Egypt most admire its


a. cultural monuments
b. developing industry
c. Egyptian agriculture
d. evenings in the desert

By MACS 14
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

14. Search for information about Egypt to share with your classmates. Take
into account famous monuments, places and famous people throughout its history.
Writing a composition of 150 words.

By MACS 15
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

3. Pre-Roman times
In pre-Roman times, the peninsula was inhabited by
Iberian and Celtic tribes. Later, Phoenicians, Greeks and
Carthaginians sailed across the Mediterranean Sea to the
peninsula and established colonies.

Celtic tribes

3.1. The Iberian and Celts


Iberians and Celts lived together on the Iberian peninsula,
abot 3000 years ago.
The Iberians lived in the east and south of the
peninsula. They live in walled settlements with rectangular
houses. The Iberians were divided into tribes. They were herders,
farmers, traders and craftsmen.
They have a great work of art, the masterpiece Lady of Elche
The Celts lived in the centre and north of the

Lady of Elche a masterpiece Peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with round houses,
of Iberians
they were also divided into tribes. They were herders, farmers
and metal workers.

Iberians

. Celts

By MACS 16
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

3.2. Colonies
Many ancient civilizations established colonies on the
Iberian peninsula.
The Phoenicians came from Asia, and settled
on the southern coast. They founded the cities of Cadiz and
Almunecar.
The Greeks came from Greece, and settled on
The Mediterranean coast. They founded the cities of Denia
and Ampurias.
The Carthaginians came from North Africa,
and also settled on the Mediterranean coast. They founded
the city of Cartagena.

Rosas
Ampurias

Sagunto

Denia Ibiza

Akra Leuke Alonis

Cartagena
Baria
Mainake Adra
Phoenician Colonies
Cadiz Malaga
Greek Colonies
Almunecar
Carthaginian Colonies

By MACS 17
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

In pre-Roman times, the peninsula was inhabited by Iberian and Celtic


tribes. Later, Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians sailed across the Mediterranean Sea
to the peninsula and established colonies.

4. Roman times
About more than two thousand years ago, the Romans
defeated the Carthaginians and conquered the Iberian peninsula.
The Peninsula became part of the Roman Empire. The
Romans called it Hispania.
The language of the Romans was Latin, many tribes
adopted it.
Many people from Hispania, such as the philosopher
Seneca, became important figures in the Roman Empire. The
emperors Trajan and Hadrian were also from Hispania. Hispania
was Roman for 600 years. Eventually, the Visigothic invaders The emperor Trajan

defeated Romans.

4.1 Roman times


The Romans founded many cities in their empire. In Hispania, important cities
were: Tarraco (now Tarragona) and Sagunto in the east, Hispalis in the south, Merida
and Italica.
They constructed temples which were used for religious purposes.
For entertainment they constructed theatres, amphitheatres and circuses.
They also constructed aqueducts to transport water to the cities and public baths.
They constructed a network of stone roads for uniting the cities and developing
commercialism.

By MACS 18
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

ACTIVITIES

15. Read and write true (T) or false (F).


- Iberians and Celts lived together.
- The Celts live in the south of the peninsula.
- The Greeks came from Asia.
- Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians established colonies.

16. Read the following information. Does it relate to the Iberians or Celts ?
Write the name of the correct tribe next to each sentence.

1. _____________________ They lived in the east and south of the peninsula.


2. _____________________ They lived in walled settlements with round
houses.
3. _____________________ They were herders, farmers and expert
metalworkers.
4. _____________________ They lived in the centre and north of the
peninsula.
5. _____________________ They lived in walled settlements with rectangular
houses.
6. _____________________ They were herders, farmers, traders and
craftsmen.

17. Listen and say what group is being described; Phoenicians, Greeks or
Carthaginians.

a. .. b. .. c. ..

By MACS 19
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

18. Read and fill in the chart with the correct information.

Phoenicians Greeks Carthaginians


Came from

Settled in

Founded

19. Read the following questions and circle the best answer.

1. The Romans called the peninsula

a. Hispanic c. Espaa
b. Mexico d. Hispania

2. The conquered tribes adopted the Roman language

a. English c. Spanish
b. Latin d. French

3. Important figures from Hispania include

a. Michael Jackson, Seneca, c. Seneca, Trajan, Hadrian


Trajan d. Seneca, Hadrian, Fernando
b. Hadrian, Trajan, Socrates Alonso

4. Hispania was Roman for _____ years but after ______a.d. the Roman Empire
weakened.

a. 600, 400 c. 400, 600


b. 500, 400 d. 600, 2011

20. Answer the following questions.

1. What important Roman cities were in Hispania?

2. What did a typical Roman city look like?

3. List the different types of Roman monuments.

By MACS 20
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

21. Listen to the reading about the Roman Times.

Now listen again. Are there any mistakes? If so, write them down.

More than five thousand years ago the Romans defeated the Carthaginians and
conquered the Iberian peninsula.
The Peninsula became part of the Roman Empire. The Romans called it Italica
The language of the Romans was Italian many tribes adopted it. Many people from
Hispania, such as the philosopher Seneca, became important figures in the Roman Empire.

22. Read and fill in the gaps.

- were used for religious purposes.


- were used to transport water.
- They consructed , and for enteratinment.
- The Romans constructed a of stone to unite the cities.

By MACS 21
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

5. Life 1,000 Years Ago.


5.1. Living Together in Two Civilizations
One thousand years ago, Spain consisted of two
civilizations: Christian and Islamic.
The Christian civilization existed in
Spain since Roman times. The religion was Christianity
and its language was Latin. Other languages were
eventually derived from Latin.
The Islamic civilization was
introduced by the Muslims who arrived in Spain from
1.000 years ago there were two
North Africa. Their religion was Islam and their language main civilizations: Christian and
Islamic.
was Arabic.

5.2. A Time of the Mosque.


The majority of Muslims lived in the city.
Here, they constructed a mosque, which was
their temple to pray in and a fortress for
protecting themselves against invaders.
The Islamic cities had large markets called,
zocos. The Muslims introduced new inventions to
Spain such as gunpowder and the compass. They
Mosque of Crdoba. Spain. also introduced new crops like oranges and rice.
Muslims constructed mosques to
pray in them. They were excellent astronomers,
mathematicians and physicians.

By MACS 22
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

5.3. A Time of Castles.


In this time period, the Christians were
organized into three groups:
The nobles lived in castles.
The peasants depended on the nobles and
lived in villages close to the castle.
The monks lived in monasteries. They
prayed, worked in the garden and copied old
Castle of Ponferrada. Len. Spain..
books by hand. In later years, they
constructed cathedrals.

Nobles Peasants Monks

5.4. Memories from this period.


The art from this time period is religious.
Churches, monasteries and cathedrals were
constructed.
The peasants used animals to help them work,
along with very simple tools. Their trade was
limited and was done in markets and fairs in
large cities.
In this time period, new languages were
developed: Spanish, Catalan and Galician.

Cathedral of Burgos.
Twelfth century.
Peasants used animals to
help them work

By MACS 23
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

One thousand years ago, Spain consisted of two civilizations: Christian and Islamic.
The majority of Muslims lived in the city. They constructed mosques, which were
their temples to pray in and a fortress for protecting themselves against invaders.
The Islamic cities had large markets called, zocos.
In the time of castles the Christians were organized into three groups: nobles,
peasants and monks.
The art from this time period is religious. They built churches, monasteries and
cathedrals, peasants used animals and simple tools to work and new languages as
the Spanish, Catalan and Galician developed.

ACTIVITIES
23. Read and answer.
a) What two civilizations co-existed in Spain for 1,000 years?
b) What language was spoken in the Christian civilization? And in the Islamic?
c) What elements can we identify in a Muslim city?
d) What groups of people were there in a Christian civilization?
24. Look and write their names.
Fortress zoco mosque
wall Public baths
2
3
1

5
4

By MACS 24
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

25. Match and write sentences.

castle monastery

village mosque
26. Look at the photo and tick.

 What type of monument is it?

 a castle  a palace  a mosque  an aqueduct

 Who built it?

 Romans  Muslims  Christians

 What materials is it built with?

 iron  stone  marble  wood

 What monument is it? _________________________________

By MACS 25
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

 What type of monument is it?

 a mosque  a fortress  a castle  a bridge

 Who built it?

 Romans  Muslims  Christians

 What materials is it built with?

 iron  stone  marble  brick

 What monument is it? _________________________________

 What type of monument is it?

 a fortress  a bridge  a theatre  a cathedral

 Who built it?

 Romans  Muslims  Christians

 What materials is it built with?

 iron  stone  marble  steel

 What monument is it? _________________________________

 What type of monument is it?

 a mosque  a fortress  a castle  a cathedral

 Who built it?

 Romans  Muslims  Christians

 What materials is it built with?

 iron  stone  marble  brick

 What monument is it? _________________________________

By MACS 26
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

27. Choose a monument and write your own card about it. Take these
questions into account.

 What monument is it?


 What type of monument is it?
 Where is it?
PHOTO
 How old is it?
 Who built it?
 What materials is it built with?
 Other information

28. Complete this outline.

HISTORY OF SPAIN

Many years 2.000 years 1.000 years


First humans ago ago arrived ago lived together
were

farmers Christian
civilization

The first humans were


Many, many years ago human beings were
2.000 years ago arrived
1.000 years ago lived together

29. Dictation. Listen to the teacher and write.

30. Think and answer. Why is it important to go to museums?

Prado Museum. Madrid.

By MACS 27
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

31. Read and choose the correct answer.

1. Prehistory finishes with the invention of 2. The Christians were organized into
a) Farming a) Nobles, peasants and monks
b) Writing b) Muslims, Christians and Normans
c) Iron c) Knights, squires and monks

3. Muslims constructed to pray 4. Romans arrived in Spain


a) Cathedrals a) 1.000 years ago
b) Temples b) 2.000 years ago
c) Mosques c) 3.000 years ago

5. The Roman language was 6. The period that human beings lived in villages
and cultivated the land is called the
a) Castilian a) Palaeolithic age
b) Spanish b) Neolithic age
c) Latin c) Metal age

7. In a Muslim city the market was called 8. The Muslims introduced inventions such as
a) Baths a) writing and reading
b) Fortress b) The wheel and the pulley
c) Zoco c) gunpowder and the compass

9. 1.000 years ago, lived in Spain 10. One of the most important discoveries in the
Palaeolithic period was
a) Islamic and Christian civilizations. a) steel
b) Roman and Islamic civilizations. b) fire
c) Persian and Greek civilizations. c) paintings

11. Nomads are 12. When human beings learnt to cultivate and
domesticate animals they were
a) People who live in villages a) Nomads
b) People who do not live in a fixed place b) Tribes
c) People who live in castles c) Sedentaries

13. Stonehenge was 14. History starts with


a) An astronomical clock a) The appearance of the wheel
b) A tool to work on land b) The appearance of fire
c) A dinosaur c) The appearance of writing

32. Order the words and write sentences.

pictures are ideas. Hieroglyphics represent words or that


A collection civilization is a of people life. the same ways that share of
Monuments. many built different Romans
river Nile The the longest world. the is river in
Christian and Islamic. were two there civilizations: 1.000 years ago
was One of important the Egypt. civilizations most

By MACS 28
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

33. Conmplete this crossword.


1

7 8

10

11

12

13 14

15

16

EclipseCrossword.com

Across
2. Pictures that represent words or ideas.
5. People living in one place permanently.
7. The religion of the Muslims.
10. The period of time which started with the appearance of writing.
11. A market in a Muslim city.
13. The most important discovery in the Palaeolithic period.
16. The age when human beings used tools made of stone and lived by hunting and gathering

Down

1. A prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire.


3. The period that begins with the appearance of the human being.
4. The Roman language.
6. A collection of people that share the same ideas and ways of life.
8. Where Muslims go to pray.
9. People who do not live in one fixed place.
12. The river Nile is in this country.
14. A Roman city in Spain.
15. Rich people who lived in castles.

By MACS 29
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Bilingual material 5 level of Primary Education

34. Make a project. My prehistoric tool!!

1. Invent your own prehistoric tool


2. Choose the material you need (clay, stones...)
3. Decorate your prehistoric tool
4. Talk to your classmates.

35. What can you do? Cross .

Hello, my friends!! Read


and write a cross.

Do you recognize and understand some oral expressions,


texts and words related to some aspects of Prehistory and
History?
Reconoces algunas palabras y expresiones orales relacionadas
con algunos aspectos de la Prehistoria e Historia?
Can you read brief information about Prehistory and
History in Spain and understand the most important
information?
Puedes leer informacin breve sobre la Prehistoria y la Historia
en Espaa y comprender la informacin ms relevante?
Can you speak about some characteristics about our
History from the beginning up to 1.000 years ago?
Puedes hablar sobre algunas caractersticas de nuestra Historia
desde los principios hasta hace 1.000 aos?
Do you talk to your classmates about our country from
many years ago?
Hablas con tus compaeros/as acerca de tu pas hace mucho
tiempo?
Can you write and make projects about Prehistory and
History periods in Spain?
Puedes escribir y realizar proyectos los perodos de la
Prehistoria y la Historia en Espaa?

By MACS 30