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PSU

TEACHER WORK SAMPLE

Your First and Last Name: Neil McLeod

Date Submitted: 4/15/2017

District where you completed


Shawnee Mission
the TWS:

Name of School Building


where you completed the Shawnee Mission East
TWS:

Content Area of your TWS: Chemistry

TWS Unit Topic: Solutions

Grade Level of the


Classroom / Students in
High School
Which the TWS Unit Was
Completed:

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 1


I. Contextual Information and Learning Environment Factors

A. Narrative General Contextual Information for Community, District, and School (limited to 1 page)
Shawnee Mission East High School is one of five public High Schools that are part of the Shawnee Mission School District. The school serves about 1600 students
utilizing 89 full time teachers. Most of the student population is White, comprising 86% of the population. The remaining 14% is split between Asian (2%), Black
(2%), Hispanic (7%), and others (4%). Total minority enrollment at Shawnee Mission east is relatively low at 14%. The student population is split evenly between
male and female students at 50% each.

The School is located in Prairie Village, Kansas which is a fairly affluent suburb of Kansas City. As such, only 11% of the students are listed as economically
disadvantaged. 7% of the students are on the free lunch program, and 4% are on the reduced-price lunch.

Students at Shawnee Mission East perform very well on standardized tests. 93% of students meet math standards with 60% of those performing exemplary or
above the standards. Respectively, 95% of students meet reading standards, and a whopping 74% of those students performed exemplary or above the standard. In
general, the Shawnee Mission School District performs very well compared to the Kansas State competencies, and Shawnee Mission East performs on the high
end of the district scores. Overall the school has a high graduation rate of 95%.

Shawnee Mission East also has a robust college preparation program. Advanced Placement classes are very common for students to take. 45% of students enroll in
at least one AP class during their time at East. Shawnee Mission East is also an IB school, and 7% of students participate in that program.

Table 1.1 Class Contextual Information (limited to 1 page)


Grade level __HS_____ Content area (e.g., mathematics) ___Science__________ Topic (e.g., geometry)___Chemistry__________
Age range of students ____15-18___________ Number of male students ___10________
Total number of students ___28_________ Number of female students ___18_______
Percentage of students receiving free lunch __7%________ Percentage of students receiving reduced lunch____4%__________
[if free/reduced lunch information not available for class, provide school percentages]
Area in which students live (check all that apply) Urban _____ Suburban __X____ Rural ______
Ethnicity of students (give numbers) ______ African American or Black ______ Hispanic or Latino
______ Native American/Alaskan Native ___24___ White
___4___ Asian or Pacific Islander ______ Other (specify) __________
Language proficiency of students (give ___28___ Fluent English Proficient ___0___ English Language Learners
numbers)

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 2


Identified special needs categories _______ Specific Learning Disability _______ Speech/Language Impaired
represented (give numbers) _______ Hard of Hearing _______ Visually Impaired
_______ Deaf _______ Orthopedically Impaired
_______ Deaf-Blind _______ Emotionally Disturbed
_______ Other Health Impaired _______ Autism
_______ Multiple Disabilities _______ Mental Retardation
_______ Brain Injury _______Gifted
_______ Established Medical Disability (0-5 yrs) _______ Developmentally Delayed
_______ At risk for developmental disabilities _______ Other (Specify)_______________

Subgroup Selected (describe the group) : This class is in a lot of ways a very typical chemistry class for this High School. It contains
mostly white and female students. None of the students are struggling with severe learning difficulties that impede their ability to master
course material. Finally, most of the students have proven track records of strong tests scores and higher than average grades.

Rationale for Selection: This class was chosen for a couple of reasons. First, the class is the biggest of my classes for the semester, and it
has the most diverse array of students. Also, it is the class that I have the most difficult time engaging all students and keeping them on
track.

Provide appropriate charts/graphs to display demographic data for district, school, and classroom in Appendix A.

Table 1.2 Student Characteristics for Whole Class (limited to 1 page)


Student Characteristics Specific Descriptions
Intellectual Characteristics Shawnee Mission East is a school that has very high performing students that are well prepared for each step in their
- Including readiness, academic career. These students are no different. Most students are entirely cognitively capable to meet the demands
cognitive abilities, learning of the course, and are able to adapt the material to meet their learning needs on an individual basis. Obviously, some
needs, developmental levels, students have innate aptitude for the material, but others definitely still struggle intellectually with the material.
etc.
Previously demonstrated
academic performance/ The vast majority of the students in this class have performed well academically in the past. Most students received
ability: an A or B in first semester chemistry. There is one student who did not pass first semester, but is still enrolled in the
% Above standard __60% class. There are also several students who received a C.

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 3


% Meets standard __33%
% Below standard ___7%
Social Characteristics
- Including emotional, The students at Shawnee Mission East are in general driven and socially active students. Many come from homes that
attitudinal, motivational, etc. place education as a priority in their students lives. Students generally come to school well rested and ready to work
with homework from the previous day completed. Students also treat each other and the teacher with respect and
there are very few if any altercations.

Personal Characteristics
- Including physical, social, The students in the school are typically from affluent suburban families. They have been exposed to multiple cultures, and are
individual experiences, open to new experiences. The community as a whole places emphasis on education, and helps support the school in a variety of
talents, language, culture, ways. Students generally respect the culture that has grown around the school, and are appreciative of their circumstance.
family and community
values, etc.

B. Narrative: Implications for Whole Class Instruction Based on Information from Table 1.2 (limited to 1 page)
Because these students are well adjusted, and have performed very well in previous tests and in first semester chemistry, I will have to work to make
sure that the course is challenging enough to keep their engagement. Also, because most of these students will be going on to college in a couple of
years (and many will be attending rigorous universities), I want to make sure that I help train them in how to study effectively and to stay on top of
school work. Also, many of these students will be pursuing careers in the STEM fields, so I need to focus on giving them a thorough and firm
foundation on which to build through the many years of education yet to come.

There are a few students who struggle generally in their math and science courses. I will have to make sure that these students receive adequate
attention so that they do not become discouraged or lost even though they are in the minority in this particular class.

C. Sub- Groups/Students Information


Describe this
Why was this
subgroup/student
subgroup/student What was learned about this subgroup/student?
using information
selected?
from Table 1.1

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 4


This focus student (FS) is a This FS was chosen Intellectual
student who is very bright because she is an anomaly The student continued to show high aptitude for the material. In the past, the student had
and gifted in the subject in the classroom that I feel performed well on the exams, but rarely spent the time doing homework because she
material. She has expressed I would benefit from
thought it wasnt worth the time. I made a concerted effort to make sure that the
interest to me directly that looking at closer. Most
she desires to pursue a successful students are assignments I gave during the unit had a purpose beyond just giving grades. I also made
degree in chemistry in the diligent about staying on sure to emphasize the reasoning behind the assignments. I believe that this in part
future. However, she rarely top of their work and turn helped to improve the focus students in class participation and completing of
does the homework in homework religiously. assignments.
assigned, and seems Conversely students who Social
FOCUS lackadaisical at times do not focus on these The focus student kept to herself mostly and didnt interact with the other students in the
STUDENT regarding her school work. things usually perform class. However, as the semester progressed she spent more and more time in my
Despite this, she has poorly on quizzes and
classroom before and after school chatting about chemistry and science opportunities.
performed well on quizzes exams.
and exams thus far in the
She became much more open and forthcoming as she became more comfortable.
course. Personal
During times when we talked we discussed her desire to pursue chemistry as a major. I
found she has really enjoyed the material that weve been working on, and honestly
wants to learn more. Shell be taking AP chemistry next year. So, we discussed what
kind of careers she could have if she majored in chemistry, and what those kinds of jobs
look like. We also talked about other STEM careers that she might be interested in in the
future.
This subgroup is those Many students in the Intellectual
students who are at an school come from very I was pleasantly surprised to find that this groups average test score was close to the
economic disadvantage affluent families. These entire class average. Although these students do not necessarily have the same economic
compared to their peers. students view getting
advantages as some of their peers, they were able to find other ways besides personal
Many of the students at this outside help like tutoring
school come from families as a sort of status symbol. tutoring to master the material. Throughout the unit these students showed tenacity and
SUBGROUP that are very affluent. The Im curious to see if this a desire to learn.
poorer students usually particular school trend has Social
perform as well as other negative implications for Socially, these students didnt really stand out against their peers. It should be noted that
students, but as the students not in the financial economically behind at this school is not necessarily comparative to economically
material progresses the situation to afford private disadvantaged at other schools. Most of these students still have homes to go home to
difference in resources may help. with food on the table. Their parents support their education and expect school to be a
change this trend.
priority.
Personal
I found these students to be slightly easier to teach. They were more respectful of my
position as the teacher, and they didnt expect me to hand them every little thing on a
silver platter. These students almost always came to class prepared and were ready to
work.

D. Narrative Implications for Sub-Groups/Focus Students Instruction (limited to 1 page)


Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 5
Focus Student (FS): Because this student has expressed interest in pursuing chemistry as a major in college, and possibly even a career, there are several things that
I will do differently when designing lesson plans. I will choose activities and examples that will more closely mimic the kind of activities that professional
chemists do, and I will also give the student more opportunities to delve further in depth into the material were studying. I also need to be aware of the students
lack of desire to do homework. I will make sure that homework that is assigned has a specific purpose, and wont be seen as something that is unnecessary.

Subgroup: The students in this particular subgroup each have their own unique cultures, intelligences, and aptitudes. Therefore, there is not an overriding narrative
implication for this this sub-groups instruction. I will however, make myself available before and after school help as needed for all of my students. This will
hopefully help to make up any disparities between this subgroups resources and their peers.

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 6


II. Instructional Design

A. Narrative Description of Range of Objectives and Rationale for Selection (limited to 1 page)
This unit of chemistry covers properties of solutions. Specifically we focus on the unique properties of water, solutions, colloids, and colligative properties.
Students who are successful in this unit will be able to recall specific facts about solutions and apply those procedures and rules to a variety of situations that are
both practical and theoretical. Students will also be able to solve complex computational problems dealing with new units of concentration.

B. State Objectives Here: Focus should be on student performance not activities. What will students know or be able to do? (limited to 1 page)

Level(s)
Obj.
Unit Objectives (e.g. Blooms
No.
Taxonomy)
Discuss why water is known as the universal solvent.
1
Evaluating
Explain the high surface tension and low vapor pressure of water in terms of the structure of the water molecule
2
and hydrogen bonding. Evaluating
3
Describe the structure of ice. Evaluating
4
Describe and explain the process and rate of solvation, including dissociation and dissolving. Evaluating
5
Discuss the factors affecting the solubility of one substance in another. Applying
6
Relate enthalpy of solution to endothermic and exothermic dissolving processes. Applying
7
Define and differentiate between molarity and molality. Analyzing
8
Determine concentrations for molality and molarity. Analyzing
9
Express concentrations in the proper units for molality and molarity. Understanding
10
Distinguish between colloids, suspensions, and solutions. Applying

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 7


11
Classify colloids and give examples of each classification. Applying
12
Identify the effect of solute particles and the boiling point and freezing points of a solvent. Evaluating
Collect laboratory data to determine the molar mass of an unknown organic substance using freezing point
13
depression. Creating

Table 2.1 Instructional Design Unit Plan


T- Lesson integrates technology; R- Lesson uses reading strategies; I- Lesson demonstrates integration of content across and within content fields

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 8


The pre-assessment is a 17 question multiple choice quiz. The question contains questions directly related to the objectives
Pre-Assessment: addressed in the unit. Some of the questions will be used directly in the unit exam to facilitate item analysis.
T Lesson Formative
Instructional Activities/ Describe Specific Adaptations/
Lesson Date R Objecti Assessment
Strategies Differentiation
I ve(s) (formal/informal)
The teacher used
To start, students were given the pretest. random sampling of
There were several different teaching strategies used
students and asked for
to increase student activation. Specific vocabulary
Then the students were introduced to the volunteers as different
and important points were shown in a power point
properties of water over the course of the objectives were
presentation. These were also reinforced through
3/8 & lecture. These properties were directly addressed. (informal)
1 3/9
TRI 1,2,3
correlated to the specific characteristics that
questioning. Several live demonstrations were given
with students participation. Finally, videos of
the molecule has that makes it unique when Students were
various properties of water were also given in order
compared to other materials. Several assigned a selection of
to demonstrate properties that are not possible in the
demonstrations were shown during the class the text to read and fill
classroom.
period to help reinforce these concepts. out a reading log
about. (formal)
This was the day before spring break, and
was a shorter school day. Therefore, only
The projects were
one learning objective was focused on.
collected from the
Students were given instructions on an in This in class activity was broad enough that it
students, and
2 3/10 RI 3 class activity to explore how water changes
discussed as the
incorporates multiple learning strategies at once. In
structure as it freezes. This is an important general, differentiation was not needed.
teacher reviewed
concept for students to understand because
them. (informal)
it has very real consequences in everyday
life.
The activity at the
beginning of the hour
will allow me to see
what material was
Review: Water/ Solutions & Solubility retained by students
Students will begin the class period by over the course of the
completing a quick 10 question review break, and make Several teaching strategies will be used throughout
activity covering material that we covered adjustments the course of the class period. Videos and live
3 3/20 TRI 4,5,6 the days before spring break. accordingly demonstrations of the properties being discussed
Learning objectives 4-6 will then be (informal). help to reach students who are more visual learners.
presented through a mixture of lecture, Random questioning will be used in order to
question and answer, video, powerpoint, and Students will also be increase student comprehension and involvement
demonstrations. given a worksheet for throughout the lesson.
homework that covers
the material covered
thus far in the unit
(formal).
Finish: Solutions & Solubility/ MOLARITY
Ideally, we will be able to start this lesson
without covering too much material from
objectives 4-6, but depending on the time
Pittsburg from the previous class period
State University we mayWork
Teacher have Sample 9
more/less time for molarity.
This lesson primarily focuses on gradual release
Students will be given
Learning molarity is an important part of learning. Students will have the opportunity to see
a worksheet on
C. Identify State Standards Benchmarks Addressed by Unit Objectives How do objectives address these standards? (limited to 1 page)
These are the objectives that are agreed upon to be taught by the chemistry teachers at the cooperating school. Therefore, I took these objectives as my own for
lesson planning, delivering, and assessing.

All of these learning objectives fit within the Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) HS-PS1.A: Matter and Its Interactions. The NGSS has very broad
learning objectives that give a lot of leeway for how teachers plan to address the learning needs and objectives of the students.

Table 2.2: Narrative Description of Pre-assessment, Formative Assessments, and Summative Assessment (limited to 2 pages)
Which
objectives Identify how the assessment will be
Describe the assessment to be Explain rationale for choosing
II. D, H, and K does this scored and/or the criteria to be
used this assessment
assessment used for evaluation.
address?
This type of question is a quick and
efficient way of gauging students
knowledge of material that hasnt
Multiple Choice that have been covered in class yet.
Pre-Assessment
questions that relate directly to the 1-13 Multiple Choice format.
(Diagnostic) unit objectives. Also, the exam at the end of the unit
will incorporate many of the same
questions and multiple choice
questions.
I chose to use this assessment
Multiple choice questions that because this will be their first day
reinforce the learning objectives back from spring break. I want to
Formative Assessment
addressed in the first few days of make sure the students begin to think 1-3 Multiple choice and fill in the blank.
- Informal the unit. about chemistry again, and
remember the principles from the
first few days of the unit.
Formative Assessment A variety of worksheets and book I believe that students need the 4-13 Worksheets:
- Informal problems are assigned as opportunity to practice at home or -Short answer
homework throughout the unit. own their own the skills that they - Fill in the blank
These homework assignments learned in the class room. It is also -Multiple Choice
relate directly to the material that vitally important in chemistry to not
the was covered that day during fall behind as each learning objective
class and are generally due the generally builds on one another.
following class period. Therefore, the homework is assigned
Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 10
in order to help students reinforce
their learning at school and/or to
help diagnose any deficiencies that
may exist.
Quiz
This quiz allows students and myself
This quiz is designed to test the
to test their mastery of the material
students mastery of all of the
Formative Assessment so far. The quiz has no multiple Points based on correct answers
material learned thus far in the 1-10
- Formal choice or matching questions in compared to answer key.
unit, with slightly more emphasis
order to give students a better idea of
placed on the more mathematical
where they stand.
concepts.
This type of assignment really makes
Lab Report students dig into the how and why of
Students will be expected to write the in class lab activities. In order to
out a lab report in their own words earn a high grade on the lab report,
Formative Assessment
that includes a purpose/objective, the student has to show not only that 7,8,12,13 Scoring done by Rubric
- Informal process steps, data collection they completed the necessary steps
tables, calculations, and a and calculations correctly, but that
conclusion. they also understand the concepts
and why the lab was done.
This exam runs the gambit of all of
the material they need should have
learned during the unit. The
matching and multiple choice Scoring for matching, multiple choice,
components show their knowledge and short answer will be based on an
Exam
of the learning objectives. The short answer key. The students solutions will
Summative Students will need to answer
answer questions test their ability to 1-13 be tested using a colorimeter for
Assessment matching, multiple choice, short
work with the mathematical concepts accuracy and scored based on how
answer, and practical lab problems.
used during the unit. Finally, the closely their concentrations match their
practical lab exam gives students the assigned value.
opportunity to show their proficiency
with the skills in this lab in a real-
world setting.

Narrative for Instructional Design


II. E.
Why are the lessons sequenced in this The learning objectives generally build one onto the other. So, as the unit progresses each days material
manner? helps to set the student up for success on the next days material.

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 11


There are a few learning objectives that are off-shoots and are not directly built upon later in the unit.
Therefore, these objectives are generally addressed at a time that seems most sensical. For example, the
structure of ice and its relation to the density of liquid water is not built on later in the chapter. Therefore, I
decided to address it while talking about the other properties of water at the beginning of the unit.
II. F.
Listening: Students will have to listen during videos and lectures in order to get some material.
Reading: Students will be expected to read the textbook as part of homework assignments and to generate
knowledge to build on during in class activities.
Cooperation: Students will need to work with their lab partners while doing in class activities and doing the
lab activity during the unit.
What learning strategies were incorporated Graphic Organizers and Take notes: Students will be asked to take notes during class to refer to later, and to
into this unit? organize them in ways that make most sense for them.
Real Objects/Role Play: Almost all learning objectives will be addressed in some form by real
world/classroom/video examples explaining the principle addressed.
Manage Learning/Evaluate/Monitor: Students are given a calendar and a list of the learning objectives at
the beginning of the unit. They will be expected to follow along and to monitor their own progress in order
to make sure they do not fall behind.
This happens in a variety of ways. Students will be able to answer questions relating to the interaction of
How do the instructional strategies/activities
solutions through essay, multiple choice, and short answer questions. Students will also be able to utilize
address the learning objectives for this unit? their knowledge of concentrations and their calculations in real world laboratory settings.
II. G.
Critical thinking and problem solving strategies will be used constantly throughout the course. Students will
be expected to utilize these skills on almost every assignment, and during every class period. Specifically,
How will critical thinking and problem
students will be writing their own conclusions for the lab that they did during the unit. Part of this
solving strategies be implemented? Give conclusion will be identifying possible sources of error that match their deviation from expected results.
specific examples of use. Identifying, developing, and explaining these reasons is a very involved process that requires both critical
thinking and problem solving.
II. I.
There are several ways students will be required to use reading strategies during the unit. First, throughout
the year students are required to fill our reading assignments over assigned portions of the textbooks. As
Explain the reading strategies that will be part of the assignment, students are asked to expound upon prior knowledge of the subject, identify new
used throughout the unit. Give specific material that is presented in the text, summarize it, ask questions that the material brought up that they are
examples. (Remember that using text is not a curious about, and finally relate the material to something outside of chemistry.
reading strategy) Students are also required to develop their own lab reports during part of the unit. This will require students
to research and read example lab reports and to identify portions of them that will be suitable toward their
own work.
How will technology be integrated within the Utilizing technology is an integral part of all units in this course. Almost every class students will be
unit? Explain both teacher use and student exposed to some use of technology. The teacher will use technology as a teaching aid, to show videos of
demonstrations or activities that are not possible during class, to provide visual aids during discussions and
Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 12
lectures, to communicate with students, and many other ways. The students will utilize technology to
use. communicate with each other, submit assignments, research, and even use some equipment during the lab
that relies on technology.
Chemistry is often described as the central science. Its relatively easy to relate almost any concept in
chemistry to other scientific fields, or even to every day applications. In the first couple of days of class we
discuss the unusual characteristics of water. Because water is so abundant on Earth, the impacts of these
characteristics are felt almost every day. Insects and animals are able to walk on water because of surface
How does the unit demonstrate integration of
tension, our planets ambient temperature is reliant upon the specific heat of water, and engineers must
content across and within content fields? constantly consider the quickly changing density of water during temperature shifts.
The material in the unit also applies within chemistry. The students understand that chemical reactions only
occur when chemicals are able to interact with one another. Therefore, as we discuss concentration, we can
see that it is important because it allows us to predict how quickly and how much a reaction will complete.
II. J.
The biggest thing that I tried to do to address the learning needs of the class was to make as many parts of
the lesson tied to group discussion and activities. The class tends to struggle with staying on topic if the
What specific adaptations or differentiated
whole class is supposed to be participating in either a lecture or a group activity. Therefore, I would assign a
activities were used to accommodate question or two for lab partners to engage with, and then choose a pair at random to answer it. This allowed
individual learning needs for the whole class? the students who would stay on task more time to think about the material, and allowed me more freedom
to focus on the couple of students that would easily derail the entire class.
The subgroup that I chose did not need any specific adaptations outside those that I normally give all
students. Meaning, I made myself completely available before and after school to help any students who
What specific adaptations or differentiated wanted/needed to come in with questions or extra help. Hopefully this allowed students who couldnt afford
activities were used to accommodate extra tutoring or outside help to stay even with their peers.
individual learning needs for the identified For my focus student, I engaged with her during and after class regularly to encourage her to think about
sub-groups / students? the concepts deeper than what I expected from other students. Particularly, I focused on the effects that
different particles might have on colligative properties, and how these principles could be applied to real-
life applications.

Provide a copy of two complete detailed lesson plans in Appendix B.

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 13


III. Teaching and Learning

A. Narrative: Daily Teaching Reflections (limited to 4 pages)

Day 1: This first day of the unit was very informative. The students took the pre-test, and most students gave the pre-test serious
thought. However, there was a lot of trepidation at first about whether it would affect their grades. After reassuring the students that it
would not, most students continued to work hard on it. However, some students filled in the pretest blindly because they no longer had
the incentive of being graded on the results of their work. During the rest of the lesson, the students participated well, and several
students asked questions that were insightful and inquisitive. It was very exciting to see my students begin to realize the real life
applications that this unit contains. The demos that I used during lecture were thought provoking, and helped students see the
properties of water in ways that hadnt occurred to them before.

Day 2: This day turned out a little differently than I had originally planned. Students hadnt performed as well as expected on the
essay question that was a part of the previous units exam. So, the chemistry teachers decided that instead of doing the activity that
was planned, it would be more beneficial to have students practice writing the essays in groups. This would not only help reinforce the
objectives from the previous unit that the students were struggling with, but would also help them develop technical writing skills that
they were lacking. These skills will be beneficial for the students both in the remaining exams this year and in future courses.

Day 3: Today was their first day back from spring break. We started off by having an in class, open note, open partner 10 question
quiz. I was a little disappointed to see how little the students remembered from before the break, but I think the activity was
worthwhile in that it made them look up the answers so that they could do well on the quiz. We then hit the units material in earnest
talking about solutions and their properties. Overall, the students seemed to understand the material well, but they started to get
confused on the vocabulary toward the end of the lesson. It will probably be beneficial to review terms again and again as they come
up throughout the unit. If the students still struggle I will prepare some other method for the students to review them outside of class.

Day 4: Today was a pretty good day for the class. Most students were starting to get back into the swing of things and being back from
break. I had fewer issues keeping the students on track than I had yesterday. In this particular hour I did not get through as much of the
material as I would have liked. This is because several of the students got very interested in a particular topic that was tangentially
related to the material. I felt like it would be more beneficial to discuss the interests of the students rather than blow it off and continue
with the lesson at hand. I think that the students really appreciated the discussion, and although that information wont be directly tests
I think it will be beneficial to them regardless. However, I will have to work extra hard in the next class period to get the class caught
back up to schedule and the other Chem 1 classes.

Day 5: Today was focused on helping students prepare for the practical portion of their upcoming exam. I did several demonstrations
of how theyre supposed to create solutions when theyre given different specifications. While doing these examples, we worked on
the quantitative type of problems theyll have to do in this unit. These tied in nicely together, and for the most part I think students

Pittsburg State University Teacher Work Sample 14


understood the purpose behind the objectives. I used gradual release and allowed students to work through problems together. Finally,
during some portions of the demonstrations I asked students to volunteer to come up and do parts of making the solution. This helped
to engage more students because they didnt want to be caught off guard if I happened to call on them, and it was more fun to see their
peers struggle with pipetting. Today we also set ourselves up for tomorrows lesson and the laboratory on colligative properties.

Day 6: Todays lessons went off very well. We spent time at the beginning of the class going over the material worksheets that were
assigned from previous classes. The students turned one worksheet in for a grade, and kept the other to study for their quiz that is
coming in the next class period. The rest of the lesson went off very well. Generally there was good discussion between the students
and myself regarding the practical applications of the material. Because of the nature of colligative properties, its easy to focus on the
real-world applications. However, I am a little concerned that I did not get to do enough practice problems with the class. They will
need to be able to do these types of problems on their own in order to do well on upcoming assessments. So, I will have to make sure
to give them time in class to practice and ask questions.

Day 7: Todays lesson did not go as planned. The students were supposed to watch a video over the weekend that would explain the
lab they are going to do tomorrow. However, the site that we host the material for the students was undergoing maintenance, so most
students were not able to access the video. So, after the students took the quiz, I spent the remainder of the hour discussing the lab
procedure and the math behind the lab that they will do tomorrow. I have graded most of the quizzes now, and honestly Im a little
surprised by the scores. The averages are about the same throughout all the Chemistry courses at the school, however, I cant help but
feel the students werent as prepared as they should be for the quiz. I may decide to add an extra day of practice problems in order to
help students better grasp the material.

Day 8: Students worked on and completed the molar mass of dextrose lab. For the most part the lab went well. However, I did have to
make several changes on the fly. About half way through the day it became clear that we had under estimated how much salt the
students would use. So, we had students save their salt solutions so the next class could use them. Students were able to complete the
lab within the class period, and they will be turning in their post lab reports next class period.

Day 9: Today was a good day. Students turned in their labs, and they actually turned out pretty good. Students did struggle with
determining the sources of error for their labs, so I will definitely discuss that on the day they get their labs returned. We also finished
the last bit of new material for the unit by talking about heterogenous systems. The students found the discussion on colloids
interesting and engaged well. Finally, the students were given the opportunity to practice making solutions that they will be expected
to do on the exam next week. I also took this opportunity to make students practice solving the calculation questions. Therefore,
instead of just giving the students the grams and volume they needed to use, I had students figure it out. I may also make this
adjustment to the practical on the exam.

Day 10: Today was the review day for the exam. Because we had done several days of lectures and notes in this unit I decided to
switch things up by playing a game wit my classes to help them review. The game put the students into teams where they answered
questions and earned points based on their answers. There was also an element of physical skill in that the students needed to shoot a
basket after getting the question correct. In most of the classes the review game went well, and when I asked students afterward they
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said the review was helpful. Also, when compared to the review that the other chem 1 teachers did we covered about the same amount
of material during the review class period. However, the hour in question was exceptionally rowdy during the game, so I had to stop
the game early and revert back to a more traditional review where I provided questions and students were tasked to sit and write their
answers and then we discussed them. I think in the future I will have to create a more structured review experience possibly utilizing
online review activities for the students.

Day 11: Today was the day of the test. The test consisted of a multiple choice/matching section, a written section, and a practical. The
first two sections were very similar to composition and type of exam that the students are used to. However, the practical exam was a
new experience for the students. The students were assigned a random solution to make. They were tasked with calculating the amount
of solute that they needed, and then making the solution utilizing the methods we had taught them during class. Their solutions were
then tested using absorbance to determine how close their concentration was to the required value. This turned out to be a very time
intensive project. It took a lot of planning and preparation in order to set up. It also made each class that had the exam extremely
stressful. There were several hours that students went over the time limit of the class, and I had several students that needed to come in
during seminar or before/after school. Although I think this was a good experience, and it was a good thing to mix up testing, I think
the practical needs to be reworked, or put into a different format in order to be less of a burden on the instructor.

B. Classroom Management Plan (rules, procedures, preventative strategies, supportive strategies) (limited to 1 page)
Classroom Rules:

1. Be Prompt: Be on time, enter the classroom quietly, turn in homework, and check for bellwork

2. Be Prepared: Bring your necessary materials, homework, and come properly dressed every day.

3. Be Productive: Maximize learning time in the classroom by staying on task, paying attention to whoever is speaking, and follow
directions.

4. Be Polite: Be respectful, patient, and kind to your peers, the teacher, yourself, and guests.

Classroom Procedures:

Entry Procedure:

Homework gets turned into your hours drawer.

Collect homework from your hours return folder.

Check board for Bellwork/Starting activities

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Self-Check Procedure:

Everything off desk except for item being checked and a green pen provided by the teacher

Mark those questions that you miss, and any other notes to yourself for later.

If I find a mistake you didnt catch, you will get marked off double.

Laboratories

All students must abide by all laboratory safety procedures on lab days. Including but not limited to:

-Wearing goggles

-Proper Attire

-Walking and being conscious at all times of whats going on around you

Late Work:

Late work will only be accepted up to two days late for half credit.

Absent work will be accepted per the schools absent work policy. When returning, write ABSENT on the top of the page.

Grading Scale:

4 types of gradings.

Homework: 10%

Labs: 20%

Quizzes: 20%

Exams: 50%

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C. Student Interaction and Engagement(Strategies for promoting student to student interaction and student motivation) (limited to 1 page)
In order to encourage student engagement, I employed several different strategies. First, Ive developed a classroom environment where students understand that
being in the classroom means theyre there to learn. Students understand that we everything we do in our class is important, and no activity is frivolous. Second,
many of the activities that we do in class have at least a portion of them dedicated to working with their lab partner. Students help each other with questions,
explain concepts to one another, develop ideas to share, or carry out labs. Students need to be able to interact with each other effectively to get the most out of
these activities. Finally, I do my best to share my excitement for the material, and to foster their curiosity and creativity towards the subject material. I believe that
the easiest way to increase student involvement and motivation is to get them excited and invested in the material. Setting high standards and a tough course load
doesnt make life-long learners nearly as effectively as helping them see the importance of the material in their own way.

D. Student Communication (detailed description of appropriate strategies to encourage student to student communication) (limited to 1 page)
Ive found fostering student communication isnt a terribly difficult task. These students want to interact with each other, and if you give them the opportunity they
already do it effectively. The trick is to make sure that students are discussing the class material, and not focusing on other topics. I do two big things to encourage
this behavior in my students. First, whenever I give students time to work with their partners or groups answering questions, solving a problem, or any other task, I
always walk around the room and listen in on their conversations. I try to make my movements as random as possible so that students never know when Im going
to come by. Second, after the time is up and were discussing the topic as a class, I use random sampling when asking for answers. This helps to ensure that each
student is working to have an answer ready when and if they get called. Ive found these two methods have had great results in helping students stay on task in
their time working as pairs or in groups.

Narrative: Analysis of Assessment


E. Pre-Assessment
The pretest matched pretty closely with what I would have predicted for these students. Most of the basic learning
objectives that match those theyve had in previous classes students did very well on. However, the more complex
learning objectives showed that students did not have much background knowledge. Overall, students scored between
Overall analysis of results. 11.8% and 58.8% with an average score of 38% and a median score of 41.2%. The standard deviation was 12.5. This
shows that although there is a wide range of background knowledge in the class regarding this material, every single
student still has a lot to learn before the end of the unit.

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There were two learning objectives that the students already passed with at 75% and above. These two learning
objectives are covered in depth in high school biology courses, which most of these students took the previous year.
These learning objectives were 1, 2, and 3, which deal directly with knowledge of the specific characteristics of water.
Discuss the results in reference to
Unsurprisingly, the students struggled significantly almost uniformly with the rest of the learning objectives. The
the learning objectives. averages for those questions were almost always within 5% of what youd expect from just randomly guessing
answers. These learning objectives focused more on the specific vocabulary of solutions, their properties, and the
mathematics of concentration units.
I was pleasantly surprised to see how strongly the students performed when identifying the properties of water. This
Describe how pre-assessment data
gives them a really nice foothold to get started with the unit. I used this background knowledge as a backbone for
was used to proceed with instruction almost every single other learning objective within the unit. I hoped that having students access previous knowledge
for all students. would help them connect and understand the new learning objectives that were presented during the unit.
There were still several students who were outliers even in this step as to lacking background knowledge compared to
their peers. Therefore, I made sure to emphasize the importance of the first 3 learning objectives from the very start.
What is the plan to differentiate for
In order to incentivize student learning, I made the water activity that was originally planned and extra-credit
all learners? opportunity for students to work on at home.
Other plans to differentiate were followed closely as they were outlined in Section II of this document.

F. Formative Assessment
Overall the students performed on the assessment as expected. The class mean was 74%, and the median was 80%.
This implies that the majority of students actually did well and passed the test, but the mean was brought down by a
Overall analysis of results. few low scores. There were four students who scored a 100%. However, there were six students that scored at 50% or
below. In general these results show that the unit has so far been successful, but there are definitely ways to improve.
Discuss the results in reference to This formative assessment focused on all of the material that has been covered in the unit thus far. However, due to
time restraints I had to choose specific learning objectives to focus on. Therefore, the questions focused on testing
the learning objectives.
student knowledge of learning objectives 4, 5, 7, 8, & 9. These learning objectives were chosen for two reasons. First,
this is the material that would be most new to the vast majority of the students based on the pre-assessment. Second,
Are students learning what was these terms and calculations will be brought up again if they go on to the next chemistry class, or take chemistry at
intended they learn? college.
I noticed that many students made the same mistakes in their calculations. Specifically, there were quite a few
students that did not recall how to convert milliliters of water into grams. I was also disappointed to see how many
Discuss any adaptations based on the
students missed the vocabulary questions on this assessment. There were three vocabulary questions on the
results of formative assessments. assessment, and it was very rare that a student would get all three correct. I will take these two things into
consideration as I plan the review activity before the students take the test.
The students that are not currently performing adequately in the unit all had one thing in common. They did not grasp
that concept of how the units of concentration are used in the calculations. In order to help these students master these
Identify differentiation needed to
concepts we will work a couple more problems in class. These problems will be group based, where the students will
help all students meet the goals and be expected to work the problems out themselves, with little or no guidance from the teacher. Students will work with
objectives of this unit. their lab partners. The goal is that the students who havent fully mastered these concepts will use the extra class time
to effectively do so.

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G. Summative Assessment
The students performed very well on the assessment. The class average was an 81% and the median was 85%. Once
again, the majority of students did very well, but the class average was brought down by a couple of low scoring
students. Another important thing to note from these results was that the average went up considerably from the
What did the disaggregated data of
formative assessment. This was encouraging because it should a greater mastery from the students as the unit
the assessment reveal? progressed. I think the scores improved because the adaptations that I made after the formative assessment helped to
improve mastery, and because generally these students prepare a lot more for exams than they do for mid-unit
quizzes.
Across the board students improved dramatically in their knowledge of the learning objectives. Students seemed to do
Discuss the results in reference to better on the learning objectives that utilized vocabulary that they were familiar with. The learning objectives that
the learning objectives. they struggled with the most were regarding ideas that involved critical thinking. The learning objectives that were
universally passed dealt with objectives that involved simple memorization or pattern following.
I think that generally the students did learn what was intended. There was one student who simply did not do well on
Did all students learn what was the exam in general. As for the rest of the students, the data indicates that there was no real hole in the lesson structure
intended they learn? Explain. of the unit. Most students did miss some questions, but these questions differed from one student to the next. There
was no discernable pattern in student performance.

Provide a copy of pre-assessment document and the corresponding scoring key/rubric in Appendix C.

Provide a copy of one formal formative assessment document and the corresponding scoring key/rubric in Appendix C.

Provide a copy of one informal formative assessment document and the corresponding scoring key/rubric in Appendix C.

Provide a copy of the summative assessment document and the corresponding scoring key/rubric in Appendix C.

H. Visual Representation of Disaggregated Data


Chart/Table/Graphs of disaggregated data for the Pre-assessment should be included in Appendix C.
Due to the varied nature of data collected by the teacher candidates, each candidate is asked to create a chart/table/graph that includes data for the
Whole Class, Subgroup, and Focus Students. Title the table/chart/graph and use labels to accurately portray the data.

Chart/Table/Graph of disaggregated data for the Summative Assessment should be included in Appendix C.

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Due to the varied nature of data collected by the teacher candidates, each candidate is asked to create a chart/table/graph that includes data for
the Whole Class, Subgroup, and Focus Students. Title the table/chart/graph and use labels to accurately portray the data.

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IV. Self-Evaluation and Reflection

A. Narrative description of Successful Activities and future implications

Based on the analysis of all the assessment


Give more than one reason for each of the successes identified.
results, identify TWO learning objectives
from the unit students were most successful.
Objective 2: Explain the high surface tension and Students success in this objective was probably tied to the fact that the objective is used to help students
low vapor pressure of water in terms of the structure identify the reasons for the unique properties of water. These properties are things they interact with every
of the water molecule and hydrogen bonding. day, and being able to describe them based on the chemical properties is a short logical step.

This objective was also successful because I had many demonstrations and videos demonstrating the unique
properties of water. These demonstrations correlated with our discussions and kept students engaged.

Objective 12: Collect laboratory data to determine Students were successful with this objective because it was an in class lab. Each unit throughout the year
the molar mass of an unknown organic substance has had 1 or 2 labs. Therefore students were familiar with the process, and understood clearly the
using freezing point depression. expectations that were set out for them. They were able to focus on doing the right processes within the lab
and then focus on the why.

Another reason the students were successful is that the assessment for this learning objective was a report as
opposed to a quiz or an exam. Therefore, the students were able to spend a little extra time working on their
report and were able to discuss with their peers and ask questions from me before they turned in their work.

Discuss at least TWO things to do differently in the future to extend these successes to continue students academic growth.
In the future I will work harder to tie the learning objectives dealing with the properties of water to the learning objectives throughout the unit. Students will
probably be able to perform better on the later learning objectives if theyre tied to the learning objectives that theyre already comfortable with.

I think more students would have done well on the lab reports had more time been given to the explanations of why the calculations were performed the way they
were so that the students could make the proper connections in their conclusions.

B. Narrative description of Least Successful Activities and future implications


Based on the analysis of all the assessment Give more than one reason for each of the least successful objectives identified.
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results, identify TWO learning objectives
from the unit students were least successful.
Objective 5: Discuss the factors affecting the One reason that students struggled with this objective is because of the way we tested them vs the
solubility of one substance in another. way they were taught. The question that was given on the exam was covered in class, however it
was presented very briefly and in a different way from how the question was worded on the exam.

Another reason that students struggled on this unit is because in order to completely show mastery
of this objective, students must have mastery over a skill that was learned and tested the previous
semester.

Objective 10: Distinguish between colloids, Because of being rushed, we didnt get to spend a lot of time on this objective.
suspensions, and solutions.
Although students have had real life experiences with these substances every day, its still hard for
students to realize the physical characteristics of these classifications.

Discuss at least TWO things to do differently in the future to improve students performance.
In the future I will make a bigger emphasis on practicing the skills that they need from previous units. Giving students opportunities to practice those
skills during class might be very beneficial.

Im always looking for ways for my students to see the real life applications and implications of the things theyre learning in chemistry. Therefore I
think it would be really cool to come up with some sort of activity for students to do at home where they identify colloids, solutions, and suspensions.

TABLE 4.1 Communication Log

Follow Up
Method of Result or Impact on (if
Date Person Contacted Contact Reason for Contact Instruction necessary)
3/1 Steve Appier & Jerrod In person Consult Pre-assessment layout and material There were a couple of questions
Bardwell that were re-worded in order to
reduce ambiguity for the students.
Other than that, the cooperating

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Follow Up
Method of Result or Impact on (if
Date Person Contacted Contact Reason for Contact Instruction necessary)
teachers were pleased with the pre-
assessment.
Steve expressed concern with
students performance on the
previous units essay questions. So,
we decided to spend the next day
3/9 Steve Appier In Person Next Day plans going over the essay questions and
reinforcing the skills that the
students need to develop to perform
better on the next exam and in
future courses.
Just back from spring break. We
discussed a way to help students
3/20 Jerrod Bardwell In person Review
review the material that was covered
before spring break.
Jerrod Bardwell & Adjusted plans for the practical
3/30 In person Planning and revising test
Steve Appier portion of the exam.

Add rows as needed

C. Narrative Reflection on Impact of Communications (limited to 1 page)

Communicating with my colleagues made a huge difference in my planning and delivering of instruction. I relied on the experience of several teachers that had
taught this unit in the past. They were able to give me valuable insight in two specific fields that really helped the unit be effective. First, they gave me reliable
insight into what demonstrations and examples would be most effective in communicating the objectives of the unit. This was very helpful because it allowed me
to focus on utilizing the demonstration most effectively instead of worrying about whether or not it would work. Second, they helped me get a perspective on the
progress of student learning. After the formative assessment I was very worried about their mastery of the mathematical based learning objectives. However, the
two teachers assured me that the students regularly do not study enough for the formative assessments, and not to worry too much about those problems. They
seemed very content with the progress of the students. I decided to take their advice and not completely derail my plans in order to get more practice for the
students. I simply made sure to focus on these concepts in the review portions of the unit. This turned out to be a good idea because the students ended up doing
very well on the exam and the mathematical questions in particular.

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D. Narrative Reflection on Future Professional Development (limited to 1page)

Identify at least TWO aspects of instruction that could be improved. What specific professional development opportunities/activities will
Explain reasoning. help to acquire that knowledge or skill?
Aspect 1: Classroom management: I have several students in each class that Ive been working with my cooperating teachers to improve my nonverbal
love to chat with their neighbors even when its not appropriate to do so. I communication. Specifically Ive been working on utilizing proximity to
would like to practice utilizing nonverbal communication to get students redirect student attention. Ive also worked on the looks that I give students
attention back where its supposed to be. when theyre misbehaving. These skills are a very important part of classroom
management, and ones that I am working to master as soon as possible.

I am also interested in attending conferences and trainings in which these skills


are focused.
Aspect 2: Unit Planning: Im very much a detail oriented person, and I I plan to work closely with colleagues that have taught the curriculum in the
sometimes can struggle with looking at the big picture. I found this semester past. I believe that this is my best resource moving forward especially as a new
while designing units I struggled with figuring out how to plan out several teacher. I can rely on their experience to help me decide the best activities,
weeks of content in a timely fashion. In researching different activities, demonstrations, and labs to do in my classes so that the students get as much as
demonstrations, and laboratories Id get very excited about planning those possible out of the content without causing too many headaches for me.
activities, but I struggled with getting them to all fit into a cohesive unit.
I also follow several journals that focus on chemistry education, and Im
constantly looking for new blogs and websites with ideas and resources.

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REFERENCES

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APPENDIX A

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APPENDIX B

Teacher: McLeod Class & Unit: Chem 1 Date: 3/20/17


Unit 11: Solutions
Lesson Topic: Water, Solutions and Solubility (50 min)
Lesson Objectives:
-Describe and explain the process and rate of solvation, including
dissociation and dissolving.
- Discuss the factors affecting the solubility of one substance in another.

Procedure:
1. Put Bellwork activity on whiteboard. Students will complete a 10
question activity that will help them remember the learning objectives
that were covered before break (15 min).
2. Begin lecture by starting on slide Solutions in Unit 11 Powerpoint
through Describing Solutions Qualitatively (30 min)
a. Show video explaining solvation at
(http://www.learner.org/courses/chemistry/video/unit8video.html)
starting at 11:35.
b. Show video of Ammonia fountain starting at 16:06 on the same
hyperlink as above.
c. Show demonstration of Styrofoam dissolving in acetone but not in
water. Show other solution demonstrations as time permits.
3. Answer Review questions related to todays material (5 min)

Assessment:
Students given Solutions WKST to be done that night, due the next class period.

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Teacher: McLeod Class & Unit: Chem 1 Date: 3/24
Unit 11: Solutions
Lesson Topic: Colligative Properties (50 min)
Lesson Objectives:
1. Define and differentiate between molarity and molality.
2. Determine concentrations for molality and molarity.
3. Identify the effect of solute particles and the boiling point and freezing
points of a solvent.

Procedure:
1. Students will begin by answering a bellwork question in their notes.
Use Bellwork #3 from Unit 11 Bellworks PowerPoint. (5 min)
2. This Bellwork discussion leads directly into molality discussion and why
we its used during colligative property calculations. (5 min)
3. Begin lecture on slide Colligative Properties of Unit 11 PowerPoint.
(20 min)
a. During Freezing point Depression, use demonstration of waters
temp in an ice bath as salt, sugar, and CaCl 2 is added.
b. Emphasize importance of the Vant Hoff factor
4. Utilize Gradual release when working through examples of the
calculations involved with colligative properties. (10 min)
a. Work on pre-lab calculation if time allows.

Assessment:
Students will be given two assignments related to this lesson.
1. They must complete a worksheet involving colligative
properties
2. They should watch the pre-lab video to prepare them for the
next class period

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APPENDIX C

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Chem 1 - Unit 11 - Pretest

1. Which characteristic of water molecules makes water a good solvent? (Obj 1)

a. Mass
b. Potential energy
c. Polarity
d. Chemical energy

2. Some insects, spiders, and lizards are able to walk/run on water because: (Obj 2)
A. They can run faster than gravity pulls them down
B. Water has a high surface tension because it likes to stick together (adhesion)
C. Their feet are so small that theyre standing on individual water molecules
D. Theyre not really walking on water, its an optical illusion

1. Ice floats in water. This is related to the fact that: (Obj 3)


A. Ices structure is more open and is being held together by hydrogen bonds
B. Ice is held together by covalent bonds
C. Water likes to stick together (adhesion) and pushes ice toward the top
D. Water has more energy and therefore needs more room to bounce around

1. Consider the three statements below. Which statement(s) is/are true? (Obj 4)
1. Hydration is a special case of solvation in which the solvent is water.
2. The oxygen end of water molecules is attracted toward Ca ions.
2+

3.The hydrogen end of water molecules is attracted toward Cl ions. -

A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

1. Consider the following pairs of liquids. Which pairs are miscible? (Obj 5)
1. Benzene (C H ) and Hexane (C H )
6 6 6 12

2. Water and Methanol (CH OH) 3

3. Water and Hexane (C H )


6 12

A. 1 and 2
B. 2 only
C. 1 only
D. 1, 2, 3

1. A solvation process is endothermic when (Obj 6)


A. The sum of the H of the solvent and solute breaking is larger than that of them joining
B. The sum of the H of the solvent and solute breaking is less than that of them joining
C. The sum of the H of the solvent and solute breaking is equal to that of them joining

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1. Molarity and Molality both express (Obj 7)

A. Concentration
B. Solubility
C. Density
D. Colligative property

1. Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 18.23 grams of HCl in 500. mL of water. (Obj 8 & 9)

A. 0.0729 M HCl
B. 1.00 M HCl
C. 2.00 M HCl
D. 0.146 M HCl

1. Calculate the molality of a solution that contains 3.0 mol of glucose (C H O ) in 1 L of solution that has a density of 1.02
6 12 6

gmL. (Obj 8 & 9)

A. 2.0 m glucose
B. 3.0 m glucose
C. 3.9 m glucose
D. 2.9 m glucose

1. Muddy water is an example of a (Obj 10).


A. Colloid
B. Suspension
C. Solution

1. Milk is an example of a (Obj 10).


A. Colloid
B. Suspension
C. Solution

1. Salt water is an example of a (Obj 10)


A. Colloid
B. Suspension
C. Solution

1. 60 milliliters of pure ethanol is added to 40 milliliters of water. In this solution, the ethanol is identified as the (Obj

A. Salt
B. Base
C. Solute
D. Solvent

1. All of these can affect the rate at which a solid dissolves in water except (Obj 5)

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A. Decreasing air pressure
B. Stirring the water
C. Increasing the temperature of the water
D. Using larger crystals of the solid

1. Over time an open soft drink will lose carbonation (dissolved carbon dioxide gas). Which of these allows the carbon
dioxide to remain in solution the longest? (Obj 5)

A. Cooler temperatures
B. Increase air currents
C. Exposure to direct sunlight
D. Reduced air pressure

1. At a given temperature, a solution that contains all of the solute possible is (Obj 5)

A. Unsaturated
B. Saturated
C. Supersaturated
D. Dilute

1. Identify the substance that would have the biggest effect on the freezing point of water (Obj 12).

A. Sugar
B. Table Salt
C. Sodium Carbonate
D. Potassium Hydroxide

1. C
2. B
3. A
4. D
5. A
6. A
7. A
8. B
9. D
10. B
11. A
12. C
13. D
14. A
15. A
16. B
17. C

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