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Computer Integrated

Manufacturing (CIM)
Instructor
Dr Haris Aziz
Engineer Muhammad Noman
TA
Engr Umair Khalil
Week Course Contents
1 Basics and Introduction to Manufacturing
2 Introduction to CIM
3 Design and Analysis of CIM
4 Design and Analysis of CIM: Conveyor Systems
5 Problems/ Discussion/Review
6 Design and Analysis of CIM: Automated Storage & Retrieval System
7 Design and Analysis of CIM: Automated Guided Vehicles
8 Review Period/Mid Term Exam
9 Design and Analysis of CIM: Numerical Control
10 Design and Analysis of CIM: Computerized Numerical Control
11 CIM Justification Criteria
12 Business Structure: Concurrent Engineering
13 Structure Characteristics: Process Planning Issues
14 System Integration of CIM and Cost Effective Solutions
15 Mini Project ppts
Marks distribution:
Mid Term Examination 20
Home works/Assignments 08
Quiz 12
Laboratory Sessions+ Term 20
Project
Final Exam 40

Total marks 100

Text book:
-- Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, M. P. Groover, Wiley 2012
-- Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, Serope
Kalpakjian, Steven R Schmid, fifth edition, Pearson 2007
-- Principles of Metal manufacturing by Beddoes B
Assigned Assignment Date Due Corrected with solution
Week
HOME WORKS
03 Assignment 1 Week 4 Week 5
05 Assignment 2 Week 6 Week 7
08 Assignment 3 Week 9 Week 10
12 Assignment 4 Week 13 Week 14
QUIZZES
Week Title Corrected with solution
Taken
04 Quiz 1 Week 5

06 Quiz 2 Week 7

09 Quiz 3 Week 10

13 Quiz 4 Week 14
PROJECT
02 Lab project will be given
2

Lecture Overview
LectureOverview
DefinitionsandOrigin
Keychallenges
Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturing
CIMOSA
DevelopmentofCIM
3

Definition
Computerintegratedmanufacturing (CIM)isthe
manufacturingapproachofusingcomputerstocontrol
the entire production process
theentireproductionprocess
Thisintegrationallowsindividualprocessestoexchange
info with each other and initiate actions
infowitheachotherandinitiateactions
Throughthecomputersintegration,manufacturingcan
befasterandlesserrorprone,althoughthemain
advantageistheabilitytocreateautomated
manufacturingprocesses
TypicallyCIM
Typically CIM reliesonclosedloopcontrolprocesses,
relies on closed loop control processes
basedonrealtimeinputfromsensors
Itisalsoknownasflexibledesignandmanufacturing
It is also known as flexible design and manufacturing
4

Definitioncontd
CIMencompassestheentirerangeofproduct
developmentandmanufacturingactivitieswithallthe
functionsbeingcarriedoutwiththehelpofdedicated
packages
Thedatarequiredforvariousfunctionsarepassedfrom
The data required for various functions are passed from
oneapplicationtoanotherinaseamlessmanner
CIM useacommonDBwhereverfeasibleandcommun
use a common DB wherever feasible and commun
techtointegratedesign,manufacturingandassociated
business
CIM reducesthehumancomponentofmanufacturing
andtherebyrelievestheprocessofitsslow,expensive
anderrorpronecomponent
d t
5

ManufacturingSystemsIntegration
Program
6

Origin
Theterm"CIM"isbothamethodofmanufacturingand
thenameofacomputerautomatedsysteminwhich
i di id l
individualengineering,production,marketing,and
i i d ti k ti d
supportfunctionsofamanufacturingenterpriseare
organized
InaCIMsystemfunctionalareassuchasdesign,
analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting,
analysis,planning,purchasing,costaccounting,
inventorycontrol,anddistribution arelinkedthrough
thecomputerwithfactoryfloorfunctionssuchas
materialshandlingandmanagement,providingdirect
controlandmonitoringofalltheoperations.
7

Origincontd
CIM alsoencompassesthewholelotofenabling
l h h l l f bl
technologiesincludingtotalqualitymanagement,
business process reengineering concurrent engineering
businessprocessreengineering,concurrentengineering,
workflowautomation,enterpriseresourceplanningand
flexiblemanufacturing
Adistinctfeatureofmanufacturingtodayismass
customization
Thisimpliesthatthoughtheproductsaremanufactured
inlargequantities,productsmustincorporatecustomer
specificchangestosatisfythediverserequirementsofthe
ifi h t ti f th di i t f th
customers
Thisrequiresextremelyhighflexibilityinthe
This requires extremely high flexibility in the
manufacturingsystem.
8

ChallengesinManufacturing

ON
TIME
9

ThreeDistinguishedComponents
g p
Asamethodofmanufacturing,three components
distinguish CIM fromothermanufacturing
distinguishCIM from other manufacturing
methodologies:
Meansfordatastorage,retrieval,manipulation
Means for data storage retrieval manipulation
andpresentation
Mechanismsforsensingstateandmodifying
Mechanisms for sensing state and modifying
processes
Algorithmsforunitingthedataprocessing
Al ith f iti th d t i
componentwiththesensor/modification
component
10

Definition
CIM isanexampleoftheimplementationofinfoand
is an example of the implementation of info and
commontechnologiesinmanufacturing
CIM impliesthatthereareatleasttwocomputers
p p
exchanginginfo,e.g.thecontrollerofanarmrobotand
amicrocontrollerofaComputerNumerical
Control(CNC)machine
SomefactorsinvolvedwhenconsideringaCIM
implementation are the production volume the
implementationaretheproductionvolume,the
experienceofthecompanyorpersonneltomakethe
integration, the level of the integration into the product
integration,theleveloftheintegrationintotheproduct
itselfandtheintegrationoftheproductionprocesses
CIM ismostusefulwhereahighlevelofICT isusedin
thecompanyorfacility,suchasCAD/CAMsystems
11

BenefitfromCIM
Integration oftechnologiesbringsfollowingbenefits:
1.Creationofatrulyinteractivesystemthatenables
manufacturingfunctionstocommunicateeasilywith
f i f i i il i h
otherrelevantfunctionalunits
2. Accurate data transferability among manufacturing
2.Accuratedatatransferabilityamongmanufacturing
plantorsubcontractingfacilitiesatimplantordiverse
locations
3 F t
3.Fasterresponsestodatachangesformanufacturing
t d t h f f t i
flexibility
4.Increasedflexibilitytowardsintroductionofnew
y
products
5Improvedaccuracyandqualityinthemanufacturing
process (continued)
process(continued)
12

BenefitfromCIM
6.Improvedqualityoftheproducts.
7 Control of data flow among various units and
7.Controlofdataflowamongvariousunitsand
maintenanceofuserlibraryforsystemwide
data.
data
8.Reductionofleadtimeswhichgeneratesa
competitive advantage
competitiveadvantage.
9.Streamlinedmanufacturingflowfromorderto
delivery.
delivery
10.Easiertrainingandretrainingfacilities.
13

EvolutionofComputerIntegrated
Manufacturing
f
CIMisconsideredanaturalevolutionofthetechnologyof
CAD/CAM hi h b i lf
CAD/CAMwhichbyitselfevolvedbytheintegrationofCADand
l db h i i f CAD d
CAM
MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology(MIT,USA)iscreditedwith
pioneeringthedevelopmentinbothCADandCAM
i i h d l i b h d
Theneedtomeetthedesignandmanufacturingrequirementsof
aerospaceindustriesaftertheSecondWorldWarnecessitated
thedevelopmentthesetechnologies
h d l h h l
Themanufacturingtechnologyavailableduringlate40sand
early50scouldnotmeetthedesignandmanufacturing
challengesarisingoutoftheneedtodevelopsophisticated
aircraftandsatellitelaunchvehicles
ThispromptedtheUSAirForcetoapproachMITtodevelop
suitablecontrolsystems,drivesandprogrammingtechniquesfor
machinetoolsusingelectroniccontrol
14

DigitalManufacturing
Theideaof"digitalmanufacturing"wasprominent
the 1980s, when computerintegrated
the1980s,whencomputer integrated
manufacturing wasdevelopedandpromotedby
machinetoolmanufacturersandtheComputerand
AutomatedSystemsAssociationandSocietyof
ManufacturingEngineers (CASA/SME).
"CIM istheintegrationoftotalmanufacturing
i th i t ti ft t l f t i
enterprisebyusingintegratedsystems anddata
communication coupled with new managerial
communicationcoupledwithnewmanagerial
philosophiesthatimproveorganizationaland
personnelefficiency."
15

Keychallenges threemajorchallenges
Integrationofcomponentsfromdifferentsuppliers:
whendifferentmachines,suchasCNC,conveyorsand
robots are using different communications protocols
robots,areusingdifferentcommunicationsprotocols
Dataintegrity:Thehigherthedegreeofautomation,the
morecriticalistheintegrityofthedatausedtocontrol
themachine
h h
WhiletheCIMsystemsavesonlaborofoperatingthe
machines,itrequiresextrahumanlaborinensuring
, q g
thattherearepropersafeguardsforthecontroldata
signals
Processcontrol:Computersmaybeusedtoassistthe
Process control: Computers may be used to assist the
humanoperatorsofmanufacturingfacility,butthere
mustalwaysbeacompetentengineertohandle
circumstanceswhichcouldnotbeforeseenbySW
designers
18

Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturing
f i
Computeraidedtechniques:
CAD(computeraideddesign)
CAE(computeraidedengineering)
CAM(computeraidedmanufacturing)
CAPP(computeraidedprocessplanning)
CAQ(computeraidedqualityassurance)
PPC(productionplanningandcontrol)
ERP(enterpriseresourceplanning)
Abusinesssystemintegratedbyacommon
database.
database
19
Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturingg
Computeraideddesign(CAD)alsoknownas
computeraided
computer aideddesignanddrafting(CADD)
design and drafting (CADD) is
is
theuseofcomputertechnologyfortheprocess
ofdesignanddesigndocumentation
CADdescribestheprocessofdraftingwitha
computerprovidingtheuserwithinputtoolsfor
thepurposeofstreamliningdesignprocesses;
drafting,documentation
CADoutputisoftenintheformofelectronic
filesforprintormachiningoperations
20

Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturing
Computeraidedengineering(CAE)isthebroadusage
ofcomputersoftwaretoaidinengineeringtasks
p g g
Itincludescomputeraideddesign(CAD),computer
aidedanalysis(CAA),computerintegrated
manufacturing(CIM),computeraidedmanufacturing
f ( ) d d f
(CAM),materialrequirementsplanning(MRP),and
computeraided
computer aidedplanning(CAP)
planning (CAP)
Computeraidedprocessplanning(CAPP)istheuseof
computertechnologytoaidintheprocessplanningofa
partorproduct,inmanufacturing
CAPPisthelinkbetweenCADandCAMinthatit
provides for the planning of the process to be used in
providesfortheplanningoftheprocesstobeusedin
producingadesignedpart
21
Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturing
Computeraidedmanufacturing(CAM) istheuseof
computertocontrolmachinetoolsandrelatedmachinery
i h
inthemanufacturingofworkpieces
f i f k i
CAMmayalsorefertotheuseofacomputertoassistinall
operations of a manufacturing plant, including planning,
operationsofamanufacturingplant,includingplanning,
management,transportationandstorage
Primarypurposeistocreateafasterproductionprocess
andcomponentsandtoolingwithmoreprecisedimensions
d d li ih i di i
andmaterialconsistency,whichinsomecases,usesonly
therequiredamountofrawmaterialwhilesimultaneously
reducingenergyconsumption
Computeraidedqualityassurance(CAQ) istheengineering
application of computers and computer controlled
applicationofcomputersandcomputercontrolled
machinesforthedefinitionandinspectionofthequalityof
products
22
Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturingg
Projectmanagementsoftwareiscoveringmanytypesof
Softwareincludingestimationandplanning,scheduling,
cost control and budget management resource allocation
costcontrolandbudgetmanagement,resourceallocation,
collaborationSoftware,communication,quality
managementanddocumentationwhichareusedtodeal
withthecomplexityoflargeprojects
Enterpriseresourceplanning(ERP)integratesinternaland
external management info across an entire organization
externalmanagementinfoacrossanentireorganization,
embracingfinance/accounting,manufacturing,salesand
service,customerrelationshipmanagement
ItautomatethisactivitywithanintegratedSoftWare
hi i i ih i dS f
(SW)application
Its purpose is to facilitate the flow of info between all
Itspurposeistofacilitatetheflowofinfobetweenall
businessfunctionsinsidetheboundariesoftheorganization
andmanagetheconnectionstooutsidestakeholders
24

NatureandRoleoftheElementsof
CIMSystem
NinemajorelementsofaCIMsystemareinnextslide:
j y
Marketing
ProductDesign
g
Planning&Purchase
Manufacturing Engineering
ManufacturingEngineering
FactoryAutomationHardware
Warehousing
LogisticsandSupplyChainManagement
Finance
InformationManagement
25
Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturingg

MajorElementsofaCIMSystem
26

Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturing

VariousActivitiesinCIM
27

Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturing
f t i
Devicesandequipmentrequired:
CNC,Computernumericalcontrolledmachinetools
DNC,Directnumericalcontrolmachinetools
PLCs,Programmablelogiccontrollers
PLCs Programmable logic controllers
Robotics
Computers
Software
Controllers
Networks
Interfacing
Monitoringequipment
28

Subsystemsincomputerintegrated
manufacturing
f i
g
Technologies:
FMS,(flexiblemanufacturingsystem)
ASRS,automatedstorageandretrievalsystem
AGV automated guided vehicle
AGV,automatedguidedvehicle
Robotics
Automatedconveyorsystems

Others:
Leanmanufacturing
Lean manufacturing
29

CIMOSA
CIMOSA ComputerIntegratedManufacturingOpen
y p g
SystemArchitectureistheenterprisemodeling
framework,whichaimstosupporttheenterprise
integrationofmachines,computersandpeople
Itsframeworkisbasedonthesystemlifecycleconcept,
andoffersamodelinglanguage,methodologyand
supporting technology to support these goals
supportingtechnologytosupportthesegoals
isa1990sEuropeanproposalforanopensystem
architectureforCIMdevelopedbytheAMICE
Consortium as a series of ESPRIT projects
ConsortiumasaseriesofESPRITprojects
The goal of CIMOSA was "to help companies to
manage change and integrate their facilities and
operations to face world wide competition
competition
30

CIMOSA
CIMOSA providesasolutionforbusinessintegration
withfourtypesofproducts:
TheCIMOSAEnterpriseModelingFramework
Th CIMOSA E t i M d li F k
providingareferencearchitectureforenterprise
architecture
CIMOSAIIS,
CIMOSA IIS
astandardforphysicalandapplication
integration.
CIMOSASystemsLifeCycle,
isalifecyclemodelforCIMdevelopmentand
deployment.
p y
Inputstostandardization,basicsforinternational
standarddevelopment.
31

CIMOSA Architecture
CIMOSAArchitecture
The
ThemainfocusofCIMOSA
main focus of CIMOSA hasbeento
has been to
construct:
aframeworkforenterprisemodeling,areference
a framework for enterprise modeling a reference
architecture
anenterprisemodelinglanguage
an enterprise modeling language
anintegratinginfrastructureformodelperformance
supported by
supportedby
acommonterminology
32

CIMOSAArchitecture
CIMOSA aimsatintegratingenterpriseoperationsby
meansofefficientinformationexchangewithinthe
g
enterprise
CIMOSA models enterprises using four perspectives:
the function view describes the functional structure required
to satisfy the objectives of an enterprise and related control
structures;
the information view describes the information required by
each function;
the resource view describes the resources and their relations
to functional and control structures; and
the organization view describes the responsibilities assigned
to individuals for functional and control structures
33

DevelopmentofCIM

CIMisanintegrationprocessleadingtothe
integrationofthemanufacturingenterprise
Dictatedbytheneedsoftheindividual
Dictated by the needs of the individual
enterprise,thisprocessusuallystartswiththe
need to interchange information between the
needtointerchangeinformationbetweenthe
someofthesocalledislandsofautomation
34

DevelopmentofCIM

Flexiblemanufacturingcells,automaticstorageand
retrieval systems CAD/CAM based design etc are
retrievalsystems,CAD/CAMbaseddesignetc.are
theexamplesofislandsofautomationi.e.asortof
computerbasedautomationachievedcompletelyin
p p y
alimitedsphereofactivityofanenterprise
Thisinvolvesdataexchangeamongcomputers,NC
machines,robots,gantrysystemsetc.
Thereforetheintegrationprocesshasstarted
bottomup
Theinterconnectionofphysicalsystemswasthe
firstrequirementtoberecognizedandfulfilled.
35
DevelopmentofCIM