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3DayPIPonMetallurgyforNonMetallurgist

from10th to12th April2017

HeatTreatmentofSteel

Mr.SGKulkarni

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HeatTreatmentOfSteel

Steel has rare characteristic of changing


properties on undergoing heat treatment.
In addition, further improvement is
achieved by alloying.
Hence, with proper combination of alloying
elements and heat treatment, a wide variety
of properties suitable for different
engineering applications can be produced.

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AllotropyInPureIron

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LatticeStructure

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Steel

Steelisdefinedas
AnAlloyofIron&Carbon
Withorwithout
OtherAlloyingElements

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Alloying

EFFECTSOF
ALLOYINGELEMENTS
ON
STEELPROPERTIES

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Aluminium

Aluminumisprobablythemost
activedeoxidizer incommon
useinproducingsteel.Itisused
forproducingsteelwithinherentlyfine
grainsize.

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Boron

Boron is added to steel in amounts of


0.0005 to 0.003% to improve
hardenability. In combination with other
alloying elements, boron acts as an
intensifier, increasing the depth of
hardening during quenching.

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Carbon
When a small amount of carbon is added to iron, the
properties which give steel its great value begin to appear. As
the amount of carbon increases up to .80 or .90%, the metal
becomes harder, possesses greater tensile strength, and,
what is most important, becomes increasingly responsive to
heat treatment with corresponding development of very high
strength and hardness. If carbon were to be increased beyond
certain limits in plain carbon steel, the ability to be worked
either hot or cold would disappear almost entirely, and it
would begin to assume the characteristics of cast iron, which
usually has 1.7 to 4.5% carbon.

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Chromium
Chromiumincreasesresponsetoheattreatment.
Itincreasesdepthofhardnesspenetrationaswellaswear
resistance.
MostCrbearing alloyscontain0.50to1.50%Chromium.
HotDieSteelshavetypically5%Cr.
StainlesssteelscontainlargequantitiesofCr(12to25%),
oftenincombinationwithnickel,andpossessincreased
resistancetooxidationandcorrosion.

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Columbium(Niobium)
Columbium in 188 stainless steel has a similar effect to
titanium in making the steel immune to harmful carbide
precipitation and resultant inter granular corrosion.
Columbium bearing welding electrodes are used in welding
both Titanium

And Columbiumbearing stainless steels since Titanium


would be lost in the weld arc whereas Columbium is carried
over into the weld deposit.

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COPPER
Copper is normally added in amounts of 0.15 to
0.25% to improve resistance to atmospheric
corrosion and to increase tensile and yield strengths
with only a
slight loss in ductility.
Higher strength properties can be obtained by
precipitation hardening copperbearing steel.

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LEAD
Lead in greatly improves machinability.
When the lead is finely divided and uniformly
distributed it has no known effect on the mechanical
properties of the steel in the strength levels most
commonly specified.
It is usually added in amounts from 0.15% to 0.35%.
Pollution issues restrict the use of Lead.

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MANGANESE

Next in importance to carbon is manganese. It is


normally present in all steel and functions both as a
deoxidizer and also to impart strength and response
to heat treatment. Manganese is usually present in
quantities from 0.5% to 2%,But certain special steels
are made in the range of 10% to 15%.(Hadfield
Steels)

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MOLYBDENUM
Molybdenumaddsgreatlytothepenetrationofhardness
andincreasestoughness.

Molybdenumtendstohelpsteelresistsofteningathigh
temperaturesandisanimportantmeansof assuringhigh
creepstrength.

Itisgenerallyusedincomparativelysmallquantities
rangingfrom0.10to0.40%.

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NICKEL

Nickel increases strength and toughness but is one of the


least effective elements for increasing hardenability.

The most general quantity addition is from 0.5 to 4%,


although for certain applications, amounts as high as
36% are used. Steels containing nickel usually have more
impact resistance, especially at subzero temperatures.

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SILICON
Silicon is one of the common deoxidizers used during
the steel making. It also may be present in varying
quantities up to 1% in the finished steel and has a
beneficial effect on certain properties such as tensile
strength. It is also used in special steels in the rage of
1.5% to 2.5% silicon to improve the hardenability. In
higher percentages, silicon is added as an alloy to
produce certain electrical characteristics in the so
called silicon electrical steels and also finds certain
applications in some tool steels where it seems to
have a hardening and toughening effect.

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PHOSPHORUS

Phosphorus is not an alloying element, but is


present in steel as impurity. It increasesyield strength
and reduces ductility at lowtemperatures, leading to
cold shortnessIn addition, phosphorus is believed
toincrease resistance to atmospheric corrosion.

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Sulphur
Sulphur is an important element in steel When
present in relatively large amounts,increases
machinability.

Freecutting Steels :S = 0 .060 to 0.30 %

Other Engg. Steels :S = 0.020 to 0.035 %

Sulphur is harmful to the hot forming properties


(Hot Shortness), due to lowmelting sulpfides.

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TITANIUM

Titanium is added to 188 stainless steels to make


them immune to harmful carbide precipitation.

It is sometimes added to lowcarbon steel Sheets


to make them more suitable for porcelain
enameling.

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TUNGSTEN
Tungsten is used as an alloying element in tool steel And
tends to produce a fine, dense grain and keen Cutting edge
when used in relatively small
quantities.
When used in larger quantities of 17 to 20% in
Combination with other alloys, it produces a high speed steel
which retains its hardness at the high temperatures
developed in high speed cutting.
Tungsten is also used in certain heat resisting steel where
the retention of strength at high temperatures is important.
It is usually used in combination with Chromium or other
alloying elements.

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VANADIUM
Vanadium, usually in quantities from 0.15 to 0.20%
retards grain growth, even after hardening from high
temperatures or after periods of extended heating.
Tool steel containing vanadium seem to resist shock
better than those which do not contain this element .

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GrainSize
A Grain is the Crystal in the steel.

The grain size depends on the method of deoxidizing


practice in producing the steel. e.g. Silicon or
Maganese deoxidised steels are inherently coarse
grained; whereas, Aluminium or Vanadium de
oxidized steels are fine grained.

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HowAluminiumproducesfineGrainSize
Duringdeoxidation,Aluminium combinesWithNitrogento
produceAluminium Nitride.

Thisformslargenumberofnuclii during Solidification.During


anysubsequent heatingTheseparticlesatgrainboundaries
pegthegrainboundariesandresistgraingrowth.

ForfinegrainsteelAl=0.020%minimum

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Methodofgrainsizemeasurement
Itdependson:
1.Typeofsteel.
2.Conditionofsteel
PriorAusteniticGrainsizeismostcommonmethodfor
checkingasperASTMMicroscopicallyat100X
magnification
Comparisonwiththechart
measuringno.ofgrainsperunitarea
intersectionmethod
ImageAnalyser

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EffectsofGrainSize
1.Finergrainsize Lowerhardenability

2.Finergrainsize Bettermechanical
propertiese.g.Fatigue,
UTS,YS,Impactetc.

3.Finergrainsize Lowercorrosion
resistance

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Hardness
Hardnessiscommonlymeasuredas

ResistancetoIndentation

MaximumattainablehardnessisafunctionoftheCarbon
contentofthesteel.

WhensteelisheatedtoAusteniteandsuddenlyquenched,
theMartensite isformed.Thisstrongandbrittlestructureis
formedbyentrappedcarboninMartensite.

Requiresachangeinstructurefromthebodycenteredcubic
structurefoundatroomtemperaturetothefacecentered
cubicstructurefoundintheAusteniticregion.

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Hardenability
Almost all elements increase the Hardenability i.e.
response to Heat Treatment to different degree.

Grossman , Jominy were among the first to give


theoritical & experimental methods of Measuring
Hardenability respectively.

Justs equation is based on regression of the


experimental data; but easier to use.

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HardenabilityofSteels
Hardenability: A measure of the ability a specific
alloy to be hardened by forming martensite as a
result of given heat treatment

To measure hardenability , methods used are:


1. DI : Ideal Critical Diameter

2. The Jominy endquench test:

3. RockwellInch Hardenability (SAC) Test

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Jominy EndQuenchTest

flat ground
specimen
(heated to 4
phase field)
24C water

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WhyhardnesschangeswithJominyposition?
BecauseThecoolingratevarieswithposition

Softest

Hardest

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EffectofCarbonContenton
Hardenability
Thehardenability
increaseswiththecarbon
content.

Hardenabilitycurvesforfour
8600seriesalloysofindicated
carboncontent.

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EffectofAlloyingElementsonHardenability

(1.85 Ni, 0.80 Cr, &


0.25Mo)

(1.0 Cr & 0.20


Mo)
(0.55 Ni, 0.50 Cr, & 0.20
Mo)
(0.85
Cr)
(plaincarbon
steel)

Hardenability Curvesfor
Distancefromquenchedend
FiveSteelAlloys(Each
Containing0.4wt%C)

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EffectofSize&Alloy

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EffectOfSectionOnHardeningPattern

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TransformationDiagram

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TheIronIronCarbidePhaseDiagram

F
E L+Fe3C
P 2.14 4.30 G

M
O
N 0.76 H
0.022

CementiteFe3C
C
6.70

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IronCarbonDiagram

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Carbon%Vs.Microstructure

Ferrite(light)+Pearlite(dark)

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TypesofHeatTreatments

1. PremachiningHeatTreatments
1.1Normallizing/Normallizing &Tempering
1.2FullAnnealing
1.3IsothermalAnnealing
1.4Spherodising
1.4Quenching&Tempering(Toughening)

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TemperatureRegimeofSteel
HeatTreatment

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Normallizing
Objectives:
Set Microstructure to Normal i.e Ferrite & Pearlite
uniformly distributed , with appropriate hardness for
better machinability (Tool life & Surface finish)

Relieve hot working stresses

Reduce/control HT distortion due to more stable structure

Normallize & Temper is a modification of above primarily


for reducing hardness for higher Alloy / higher Carbon
steels.

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SlowCooling

Time in region
indicates amount of
microconstituent!

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MediumCooling Cooling Rate, R, is
Change in Temp /
Time C/s

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This steel is very
FastCooling hardenable 100%
Martensite in ~ 1
minute of cooling!

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AnnealingProcesses
Annealing: aheattreatmentinwhichamaterialis
exposedtoanelevatedtemperatureforanextended
timeperiodandthenslowlycooled.

Threestagesofannealing
1. Heatingtothedesiredtemperature

2. Holdingorsoakingatthattemperature

3. Cooling,usuallytoroomtemperature

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StressRelieving
Internal stresses can build up in metal as a result of
processing.

Stresses may be caused by previous operations such as


welding, cold working, casting, forging, or machining.

If internal stresses are allowed to remain in a

metal, the part may eventually distort or crack.

Annealing helps relieve internal stresses and reduce the


chances for distortion and cracking.

This is achieved by holding the steel between 450 C to 550 C.

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RefinementofGrainStructures

Recrystallization Annealing/
Processannealing/Interstage annealing
Aftermetalworking(particularlycoldworking),the
crystalstructuresareelongatedinthedirectionof
working.

Annealingcanchangetheshapeofthegrainsback
tothedesiredform.

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IsothermalAnnealing
Its a shortcut to full annealing .Isothermal means
transformation at constant temperature.
It is done to save furnace time and avoid banded
structure, especially in lower carbon carburizing steels.
It involves :
1.Heating to 30 C above the carburizing temp.
2.Fast cooling to close to Pearlitic Nose (650 C)
3.Transforming to Pearlite +Ferrite at constant temp.
4.Cooling as fast as possible.
The resultant structure is Blocky Pearilte + Ferrite.
This is a very stable, Stressfree and machinable
structure. Bandsfree micro is mainly a result of
Step 2.

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IsothermalAnnealing

IsoannealedNormallized

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SpherodizeAnnealing
For some grades like SAE
52100,this is the ideal pre
machining treatment.
This is done by holding for a long
time just below the Lower
critical point, austenitizing
just above the lower critical
temperature and cooling slowly
thro the critical range . This gives
Rounded (spherodised) Carbides
in ferrite Matrix .
Alternately, Pendulum Annealing
may be used for getting similar
structure.

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HardeningOfSteel
Conventionalheattreatment
proceduresforproducingmartensitic
structureinvolves:
1.Heatingtorequiredtemperature
2.Soaking toobtainuniformAustenite
3.Fast,continuouscooling(quenching)
inansuitableagitatedmedium
suchaswater,oil,orair.
Theoptimumpropertiesofasteelthathasbeenquenchedandthen
temperedcanberealizedonlyifduringthequenchingheattreatment,the
steelisconvertedtoahighcontentofmartensite

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Microstructure

Many of the properties and performance of engineering parts


are related to and influenced by microstructure. e.g. in a
heat treated part, UTS is directly proportional to Hardness,

but

Yield Strength is also affected by presence or absence of


Ferrite. An example, a gear with Core Micro containing free
ferrite but core hardness within spec. may fail by Case
Crushing or in a Spring, ferrite may cause early sagging.

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HardeningOfSteel(Cont.)
Thesuccessfulheattreatingofsteelstoproducea
predominantlyMartensite microstructurethroughout
thecrosssectiondependsmainlyonthreefactors:

Alloycomposition

QuenchingmediumCharacteristicsand

BathAgitation

3.Thesizeandshapeofthecomponent

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EffectofPartSize

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EffectofSizeonHardening
Pattern

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HardenabilityCurves
Hardnessvs.distancefromthequenchedend
Hardness, HRC

flat ground
4

Distance from quenched end


Adapted from Fig. 11.11,
Callister 6e.

Asteelthatishighlyhardenablewillretainlargehardnessvaluesfor
relativelylongdistances;alowhardenableonewillnot.

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Quenching
Quenching includes :
1.Cold Oils Normal, Accelerated & Speciality.
2.Hot (Martepering) Oils
3.Molten Salts
4.High Pressure GasPlain / Blended
5.Plug/Die(Restraint) Quenching
6.Intensive Quenching
7.Selective quenching

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QuenchingMedium(1):Water
The most commonly used quenching medium
Inexpensive and convenient to use
Provide very rapid cooling
Especially used for lowcarbon steel, which requires a
very rapid change in temperature in order to obtain
good hardness and strength
Can cause internal stresses, distortion, or cracking
Cooling rate is very sensitive to bath Temperature
e.g.Cooling rate drops to 50% from 24 C to 40 C

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QuenchingMedium(2):Oil
More gentle than water. Used for more critical parts, such as
parts that have thin sections or sharp edges like Razor blades,
springs, and knife blades.

Does not produce steel that is as hard or strong as steel


quenched by water, if hardenability is less.

Less chance of producing internal stresses, distortion, or


cracking.

More effective when oil is heated slightly above room


temperature to 100F or 150F (40C or 65C): reduced
viscosity.

Less sensitrive to bath temperature compared to water.

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QuenchingMedium(3):Air
Moregentlethanoil
Doesnotproducesteelthatisashard
orstrongassteelquenchedbywater
oroil
Lesschanceofproducinginternal
stresses,distortion,orcracking
Generallyusedonlyonsteelsthat
haveaveryhighalloycontent
Specialalloys(suchasCrandMo)are
selectedbecausetheyareknownto The heated sample is placed
causematerialstohardeneven on a screen. Cool air is blown
at high speed from below it.
thoughaslowerquenchingmethodis
used

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QuenchingMedium(4)Polymer
Polymers quenchants are water based and have Cooling Rates
in between Water and Oils.
* The Cooling rate is Variable and is inversely proportional to
polymer percentage. This is the biggest plus point of Polymers,
since for variety of parts /steels, , suitable cooling rate is
obtained by changing polymer percentage.
* Also, they have much reduced tendency for distortion and
cracking compared to water.
* The above two advantages make it very useful for hardening of
Large sections of low alloy steels and carbon steels.
* Polmers are cammonly used in Induction Hardening for above
Reasons.
* Being waterbased, polymer solutions are sensitive to bath
temperature.

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QuenchingMedium(5)Gas
*High Pressure Gas Quenching has become popular with
Vacuum processes like Vacuum Carburizing/ Vacuum
Hardening .

*Gases like Nitrogen, Helium ,Hydrogen and their mixtures are


used.

*Combination of pressure and gas mixture give desired cooling


rate for various applications like Carburized Gears , Intricate
Dies etc.

*Low Distortion, low Stress levels are obtained.

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MechanismofQuenchingProcess
Quenchinghasthreestages:

1.VapourPhase Formationofvaporblanketreducingtheheat
transferfromworkpiece toquenchant.

2.BoilingStage Quenchant aroundworkpiece startsboilingand


heatremovalcommenses atahighrate.

3.LiquidCoolingStage Temperatureoftheworkpiece dropsand


boilingisreplacedbyconvection.Coolingratedrops.

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Quenching&Tempering
This is done for one of the following reasons
As pretreatment for low temp. Nitriding/ Nitro
carburizing, Induction hardening, or Flame
hardening to provide adequate core strength. i.g.
Gear blanks ,Crankshafts etc.

As finish heat treatment which gives final


properties like UTS ,YS ,Elongation , Impact or
Resilience (spring action).
e.g. Springs, Fasteners etc.

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Tempering
Temperingisreheatinghardenedsteelfor:
1.ReducedHardness.
2.IncreesedDuctility.
3.IncresedToughness.
4.ReducedStresslevels.

ThisisduetodiffusionofCarboninMartensite.
ThreemainVariablesoftempering
Temperature
Time
CoolingRate

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TemperingCurves

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Austempering

1.Steel is heated to form Austenitic .


2.Steel is quenched to just above
Martensite start temperature
3.Held for several hours to form
Bainite.
cooling to room temperautre
The Structure formed is entirely
Bainitic, which has high hardness
and high toughness.

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Thanks!!

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