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SPE 30576

Rajagopal Raghavan, SPE, Phillips Petroleum Co., Wei-Chun Chu, SPE, Marathon Oil Co.,

and Jack R. Jones, SPE, Amoco Production Co.

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference& Exhlbtion held m Dallas, U. S. A., 22-25 October, 1995.

This paper was sekcled Ior presentation by an SPE Prqram Committee following rewew of information contained m an abstract sulwmfted by the autlmr(s), Contents of the paper, as

~,* ~ -NW by the S0ck4Y of Petroleum Engineers and are subjact to corredion by the author(s). The materwil, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any pwilion

of the Smiefy of Petroleum Engineers, k otficers or members, Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum

--. -.. .L -..

E!!g!m. Pen.

. -....---.,.- 1.-. Iw.n

.,F, 8=

.. r.=.l.i.+~

!-..,,-. k.W a,,

-. -u...+

~,,.,,-.,, ..4 ,,,

. ..+ ,,W

,- - ~..-

,1, ar, -?--VI ~----

,., ,88. .---+ -, ----------

,,,..,, v!,. rrlay ,,, be C@@ WK ~b5ti~Ci %buid wfiitlin WW+)HUOW ~ekiiwikigmenr 01mere

and by whom the paper is presented. Wrtie Librarian, SPE, P. O. Box S33S3S, Richardson, TX 750S3-3S3S, U. S.A.,fax 01-214-952-9435.

in using multiphase-flow concepts for analyzing

Several pressure buildup tests are analyzed with a pressure-buildup tests in wells producing gas-condensate-

view to evaluate the potential of the ideas given in the reservoirs. This class of tests was chosen for a number

literature. A broad range of tests is examined to of reasons besides the fact that our rincipal interest is

demonstrate the characteristics of responses in wells to apply the ideas in the literature 2!to field tests. We

producing below the dew point. Methods to obtain believe that only in this way can the true merit of

quantitative information that is consistent for different theoretical ideas be evaluated, and more importantly,

tests are outlined. can advances be made. Furthermore, the gas-

condensate system provides us with an opportunity to

INTRODUCTION combine both single-phase and two-phase flow

concepts.

Because of the extraordinary success of the

diffusivity equation in enabling us to analyze pressure Although the emphasis is on the analysis of field

I~&?&~re~~l{~ A the WI ,.-...7-..:-------

v G1llGILGS

~nu

-l---:. --a 41f_.

UGl 1 VW

L1lG

L-

ICI CIIU~l, tests, wehave conducted a number of simulations using

the analysis of pressure responses subject to the a compositional model to evaluate plausible reasons for

influences of multiphase flow is, at best, provided only explanations we provide. Thus, our evaluations of these

a perfunctory treatment in the literature. Single-phase field tests have been verified by considering synthetic

flow is the paradigm in this area of reservoir pressure-responses. In the following, we examine 5

engineering. The reluctance in shifting from this tests to demonstrate important features of buildup

paradigm may be partially attributed to the perception responses in gas-condensate reservoirs. Four of these

that relative-permeability measurements are not reliable tests are in depletion systems and the fifth one

enough for us to analyze the rapid changes in pressure discusses buildup tests in a pressure-maintenance

that occur over a very short period of time. The other project.

principal reason is that a simple method needs to be

devised to relate relative permeability to pressure,

although studies have suggested procedures to address

this issue. 12

459

.

SPE 30576

by

The depletion tests we consider presume that the Pws

on a representative sample are available. An equation of

m(p) =

J J dp,

Pg

Pwi.,

(1)

molar density and viscosity. In addition, we assume that is essentially identical to the analogue commonly used

the appropriate relative-permeability measurements are for dry-gas systems. Here, p is the molar density, p is

available. Using this information, we proceed to analyze the viscosity, pti, ~is the pressure at the time of shut in,

buiidup tests using the concepts suggested by Joties, %70, . ---- .-

p ~~ k the shut-iri pressure, atid the stibsciipt g refers t~

and Raghavan. 3 Their basic ideas are summarized in the the gas phase. This analogue takes advantage of the

next section. Tka

1 UC k..ll~,.~ te~t~ for th,e p,w..v.

mr~ccllt-p. fih.-.~,~. fif +he fifitden..te cvctem name]v that.

UU1lUU~ w ti~tiqitie~11~~~L&l UI LIIU WUL!UWI~--*WUJ U----, --------, ----,

maintenance system are evaluated using the single-phase under normal circumstances, the condensate is irmgobile

analogue because information on the in-situ composition over substantial portions of the reservoir. Thus, if the

(pressure-maintenance project) is unavailable to us. variation in the relative permeability for the gas phase is

These tests are analyzed by the composite-reservoir negligibly small over the region where liquid is

formulation.4-6 Figs. 1 and 2 present the pertinent CCE immobile, then this analogue should be useful whenever

and relative-permeability information used in Examples this region of the reservoir begins to influence the well

1-4. As shown in Fig. 1, we consider a wide range of response. (In all of the following, we assume that water

mixtures with the maximum liquid dropout in the range is immobile.)

of 0.07 to 0.35. Mixtures 1, 2, and 3 are for depletion

experiments, and Mix 4 applies to the test for the well in The two-phase analogue used here is given by

the pressure-maintenance project. The relative-

___ %, { ~

permeabiihy curves for Uil ad gas [~ aiid k,g) shOWfi k)

m(p) = p02 + p~; dp. (2)

in Fig. 2 were obtained from core tests and are also used q 1-q gJ

in reservoir-simulation studies. The water saturation for Pti,s

Sets 1,2, and 3 is, respectively, 0.115,0.400, and 0.400. Here, ~ is the relative permeability to phase m, and the

Water is assumed to be immobile. Note that relative- subscript o refers to the oil phase. The key problem in

permeability to oil is negligibly small until the liquid using Eq. 2 is that we need to express km and kg as a

saturation becomes quite large. Again, a broad range of function of pressure. In this work, we use the

relative-permeability curves is considered in this work. recommendation of Jones and Raghavanl to relate km

Table 1 presents additional reservoir properties that are with pressure:

needed to analyze the buildup tests. Our primary focus

in all of the following is to obtain a consistent _km . p~pOL

(3)

interpretation of muitipie buiidup tests after the weiibore krg popgv

pressure has fallen below the dew-point pressure.

Here

.-- .-, L ~n~ V are thefractions of liquid and

mole

TTT17filllTTTfl

1 rmumz

A T

I lUI-L

flnNTCTn12D

UUINOIUEKA

A TTnMC

I IUIT u

vapor, respectively, that are in equilibrium. As

recommended by Jones and Raghavan, we use the values

As noted in the Introduction, we use single-phase of L and V obtained via the constant-composition-

and two-phase analogues to analyze pressure expansion (CCE) experiment. In terms of physical

measurements. Our focus will be the interpretation of considerations, this method of computing the two-phase

analogue is best suited for those conditions wherein a

460

.

two-phase bank with a reasonably small transition zone multirate tests that consist of flowing and shut-in

develops around the wellbore. This observation implies periods; that is, the wellbore pressure traverses the

that the two-phase analogue works best when the phase envelope a number of times. Under such

pressure differences pi-p&W (or ~ - p&W) and p&W-pti circumstances, the phase-behavior effects around the

are large (here, p&W is the dew-point pressure). It wellbore can become rather complex. Also, the

should be borne in mind that, above the dew-point increasing rate-sequence used in some of the tests

pressure, the change in the value of the two analogues examined here complicates the use of Eq. 3, because this

(w~ty.p~~ssure) is identical, rate schedule delays (in some cases precludes) the

development of a bank of the kind under which Eq. 3

Skin factors may also be estimated by each of the works best; thus, care is needed in interpreting estimates

above analogues. The appropriate expression is: of the skin factor by the two-phase analogue. Computer

r n At 1 simulations suggest that for tests with an increasing rate

m(p, .Atj sequence, the two-phase anaiogue wiii yield skin factors

-logi- + 3.2275 ,

S=l ~51

(4)

m r; that decrease with rate. The single-phase analogue, on

L J

the other hand, always yields increasing values of skin

... L---- :. L .1--A -C +L. .a-;lfi~ .t..:,-rht l;na

WIKIG 111 1s llle Muy U1 L1lG 3G11111US au al~llt llllV.

factor.

Under normal circumstances, the estimate of the skin In the following, for convenience, we express

factor via the single-phase andoguereflects the effects nc-ldnnre.ccilre.c

~....u.. ~.-..-. -. h. te~rns

of conventional units

of the mechanical skin-factor and that of two-phase- (psia2/cp), Ofien: we will compare derivative responses

flow. Consequently, this analogue provides an upper not only in terms of the two analogues given above, but

bound for the mechanical skin-factor. The two-phase also in terms of pressure. For ease of comparison,

analogue, on the other hand, will provide, as derivatives in terms of pressure are multiplied by

demonstrated by Jones et al.,3 a lower bound for the 2 pi/&Zi. Also, we shall use time transformations

mechanical skin-factor. This happens because Eq. 3 whenever needed. For the depletion tests examined

predicts values of ~ that are much too high and values here, numerical experiments indicated that time

of~g that are much too iow and that the high values of transformations are not important (see aiso Ref. 3j.

~ usuaiiy do not compensate for die iow vaiues of Icrg.

Usually, the estimate of the skin factor by this method is Figure 3 is a log-log plot of a simulated pressure-

within two units of the mechanical skin-factor.2 buildup response in terms of its derivative (expressed in

terms of Homer7 time) using three analogues. The well

The magnitude of the skin factor that carI be had been produced at a constant rate for 100 days at a

attributed to two-phase flow may be obtained by the total rate of 10 MMSCF/d. This is the only synthetic

relation response that is used in this paper and is intended to

provide a starting point for this discussion. As noted by

s2p y

1.151p&w&_

/[

%%,

Pg

po!k?

+pg!k

-v.

dp.

Pg )1 (5)

Raghavan,l the pressure-buildup curve is a reflection of

the pressure distribution at the instant the well is shut in.

Curve A, the derivative curve in terms of pressure

If the results of a CCE experiment are used, then Eq. 5 (Cf. dp/dint) reflects the variation in fluid properties and

will provide an upper bound for S2P. in the saturation (relative permeability) with distance

from the well. Curve B is a replot of the same

The tests to be discussed below represent a severe information in terms of the single-phase analogue and

test of the ideas proposed above for a number of may be said to be an attempt to incorporate the variation

reasons. Most important is the fact that we examine in fluid properties with distance. The large value of the

461

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF

4 GAS-CONDENSATE WELL-TESTS SPE 30576

pressure-derivative curve for small values of At (small skin factor caused by two-phase-flow may be obtained

distances from the wellbore) reflects the low- by taking the difference between the two estimates and

permeability region where liquid is present. The vertical should equal that predicted by Eq. 5.

displacement between Curve A and Curve B for

10< At< 140 is proportional to PW@g(PW&g(PWS)]. The added value of incorporating relative-

In the single-phase reference frame, It is possible to permeability effects should be abundantly clear from

analyze Curve B in terms of the composite-reservoir Fig. 3. For example, in the case under consideration, if

formulation.4-6 This point will be demonstrated in the test were to be terminated at 5 hours either by design

Example No. 5. Curve C is the pressure response in or by untoward circumstances, then the advantages of

terms of the two-phase analogue, that incorporates both using the two-phase analogue become abundantly clear.

the effects of fluid properties and relative permeability Rather than discarding measurements under the category

with distance. The values of km and k,, were related to unanalyzable or to arrive at tentative conclusions

pressure by using Eq. 3 and the relat;ve permeability concerning estimates of permeability and skin factor, we

curves are shown in Fig. 2. For this particular are now in a position to make forthright statements

simulation, the line is essentially flat because Eq. 3 concerning the variables we desire to estimate. This

reproduces the saturation profiie at the instant of shut in discussion compietes the major points we wish to make

almost exactly. Thus, in this particular case, the sernilog concerning pressure tests wherein the wellbore pressure

straight line exists even for pm< p&W. The arrow on the falls below the dew point. This preamble will permit us

time axis denotes the time at which pw = p&Wand this to understand the field tests to be discussed in the

nomenclature is used in all of the following. We have following pages, particularly when measurements cannot

verified this observation by comparing the profile that be interpreted unambiguously.

results by using Eq. 3 with the profile prevailing at

At= O. Curves B and C appear to merge beyond At = 3 We emphasize that the profile of the two-phase

hours, because k,O= O and k,~ = 0.95 when pw analogue shown in Fig. 3 appears to be typical of many

becomes greater than pdeW, and, under these of the field examples that we have examined. In some

circumstances, the integrands of Eqs. 1 and 2 are cases, however, it is possible that predictions of gas

identical. (Curve A appears to merge with the other two saturation by Eq. 3 will be low. When this happens, the

curves because variations in fluid properties become derivative response for the two-phase analogue will be

negligibly small.) If the derivative curve were similar to different and this issue will be discussed in Example

that of Curve C, then it is possible to compute kh from No. 3.

any time range, and the skin factor so computed would

reflect the mechanical skin-factor, provided that m(pW~) RESULTS

can be estimated correctly. As already mentioned, the

skin factor estimated by the two-phase analogue, in We begin with the depletion-system cases, where we

general, will be a lower bound for the mechanical skin- present a detailed explanation of the behaviors to be

factor: For the specific case considered here, the skin expected. Example 1 is similar to that of the simulated

factor obtained by using the two-phase analogue is equal example. We then proceed to the consideration of two

to -0.73 (true value = O). The single-phase analogue, multi-point tests. The second of these represents a case

on the other hand, would reflect the total (mechanical wherein an attempt had been made to stimulate the well

plus two-phase-flow) skin-factor if the response curve and the attempt had not met initial expectations.

beyond PWS = p&W were used in the analysis. The Example 4 examines a post-fracture buildup test and

estimate of skin factor for this analogue in this particular results are compared with pre-fracture results. The final

case is 18.62. An upper bound for the estimate of the example, Example 5, explores the use of the composite-

462

. .

R. KAGHAVAN, W. ~. LHU, A~-~ .i. ~ j~N~~ 5

reservoir4-6 formulation to analyze tests in gas- and are representative of the in-situ mobility-profile.

condensate systems, Pressure measurements during the Here, we have used a kh value of 735.5 md-ft. The

flowing periods were not analyzable; hence, they are not reason for obtaining a line that is essentially flat for the

discussed. two-phase analogue becomes abundantly clear. We see

that the agreement between the circles and the line is

Field Example No. 1. The results of this buildup excellent. Because Eq. 3 appears to predict the in-situ

test in terms of the three analogues are shown in Fig. 4. mobility-profile rather well, the derivative of the two-

Set 1 and Mix 1 properties are used in the analysis. The phase analogue is essentially flat once wellbore-storage

well was produced at a rate of 24.74 MMSCF/day prior effects become negligibly small. We have used this

to shut in, and the flowing pressure at shut in was 3,488 comparison in more than one case to ensure that the

psia. This value is well below the dew-point pressure of proper straight line is chosen on the derivative plot for

5,965 psia. The characteristics of all three curves are pm < p&W. Incidently, this example is an excellent

similar to those in Fig. 3. Wellbore-storage effects verification of Raghavans thesis - the saturation profile

appear to be insignificant after about 1/2 hour. In at At = O governs the buildup response. (It is

comrmtin~

= the two-nhase

-.--=---- . r_.L- ana!ome. Ea. 3 was used to

~-,x. u.nfortu.nate that it is not possib!e to obtain a reasonable

relate relative-permeability values to pressure. Note that estimate of at in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore

the two-phase analogue is essentially flat for times for it would have been possible to get a better estimate

greater than 1 hour. The other two analogues clearly of the mechanical skin-factor.)

demonstrate that the effective-permeability-thickness

product increases with distance. Above the dew-point The profiles shown in Fig. 5 represent the best

pressure, the single- and two-phase analogues merge agreements we have been able to obtain between values

(note krg -0.95 for S ~ = S ~i ). The single-phase and predicted by Eqs. 3 and 6. In many cases, the profile

two-phase anaiogues yieid kh = 735.5 md.ft; s = 5.27 predicted by Eq. 3 wiii faii 3ei0w that predicted by Eq. 6

(single-phase), and s = -5.0 (two-phase). From these (because Eq. 3 predicts low values of Sg), and this

estimates and our earlier observations, we conclude that phenomenon can cause some distortions (this behavior

th.a -eh.n;m.l

L1lV lll&&llCUllVCU

.IA

3N11-l

fo,.ta.

CLULU1

;.

1S

;

111

tha

t.llV

..nma

lcUl~G J.

<n+-l

U LU T.J..&

<97

/ .

;. arIfia*kmtaAh., ha -+.1.- -f +ha 1-* 1-* .nolal +hnt

m GAabGl uawu uy LUG uauu- U1 LUG Iu~-iu~ awuG) uiaL

From our experience in analyzing synthetic buildup tests, must be handled with some care. This point is further

we expect the mechanical skin-factor to be around -3. discussed in Example No. 4.

We noted earlier that our ability to use the two- Field Example No. 2. This example consists of a

phase analogue depended on its ability to reproduce the sequence of four drawdown and four buildup tests as

saturation profile at At = O. Also, we have noted that shown in Fig. 6. The initial pressure was 5,378 psia and

values of the integrand of Eq. 2 will be low, because the dew-point pressure at the initial composition is 4,986

Eq. 3 may predict larger values for SO. Fig. 5 is a plot of psia; that is, the wellbore pressure fell below the dew-

the variation in mobility with pressure. The bottom line point pressure prior to each buildup period. The test

reflects the variation in total mobility, At (obtained from sequence, an increasing rate-sequence, consisted of

Eq. 3)with pressure, and the top line is the variation in (total) production rates of 0.9360, 1.493, 1.960, and

single-phase mobility of gas, kg, with pressure. The 2.547 MMSCF/d. Figure 7 presents the derivative

circles represent mobility values calculated by the response for the 4th buildup period in terms of the

method given in Ref. 1. These values are obtained by single- and two-phase analogues. Mix 2 and Set 2

using the following expression: curves were used in the analysis. Early-time responses

are governed by wellbore-storage effects and the

at= (6) conventional, semilog straight-line becomes evident after

khdpW,/dint sup At > 5 hours. As expected, responses for both

463

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF

6 GAS-CONDENSATE WELL-TESTS SPE 30576

analogues merge when pW~becomes greater than p&W. normal sequence tests, we see that skin-factor estimates

At eadier times, tine two-phase anaiogue falls belo-w the ~-- -.- .Ah .~t= (cinole-nhace

L~tC~LX.4JC WIL1l

ana]omle)

lULW

and &C~eUSe

\.M!.&w y.....- ------ ~--.

@k-@iS~ ~d~~~~

------ .L.

b&dUX W

- lllLG&

:-+.-.-.-.-A AfG

CUIU U. Lq.

1 ;C

210 \\7~~~ ~~t~ (~w~-~~~~~ These results are

~n~jQ~Ue).

smaller than that of Eq. 1. Buildup responses for all 4 consistent with the results of the tests in Example 2. For

buildup periods for each analogue are shown in Figures the reverse-sequence tests, however, the analysis of the

8 and 9, respectively. For each analogue, the buildup buildup tests indicates that skin-factor estimates

responses merge when shut-in times are long enough. decrease with rate (single-phase analogue) and increase

The permeability-thickness product, kh, for this test is with rate (two-phase analogue). Similar results are

67.12 md-ft. This estimate of kh is also in agreement obtained in Case B; the properties used in this simulation

with an earlier test. Either analogue yields the same are the same as those of Example 3.

result. Because all curves in Figures 8 and 9 merge (and

also extrapolate to essentially the initial-reservoir Returning to Example 2, based on many simulations,

, . . .l..-:_- .L-. L. G..otL.,.l A,.m tact

pressure), we may conclude that depletion has ken we are lea [0 die comwmm UIdL Llle III 31 Uuhuup LQOL

negligibly small. will provide the best estimate of the mechanical skin-

factor. Thus, we conclude that the mechanical skin-

Estimates of the skin factors for each of the factor is in the range 8.17 es <9.47.

analogues are noted on the appropriate figure. For the

single-phase analogue, as expected, the total skin factor Field Example No. 3. Again, we consider a

increases because of the increasing rate-schedule. This multiple-rate test that consists of 4 drawdown and 4

increase may not be attributed to non-Darcy flow. Use buildup periods. The pressure at the start of the test is

of the two-phase analogue results in a decreasing skin 5,243 psia and the dewpoint pressure is 4,992 psia. As

factor with an increase in rate because this rate schedule shown in Fig. 10, in this case also, the test sequence is

precludes the formation of a stabilized bank of fluid. an increasing rate-sequence with production rates of

__-m

1.423, 1.939,2.366, and 2.863 MMhCFld. Figure i i is

As mentioned earlier, Eq. 3 works best when the the Horner plot for all 4 buildup periods. From the

differences between pi - p&W and p&W- pw are large. slopes of the straight lines, we obtain kh to be 56.18

Numerical simulations confirm our observation that for md-fi. The estimates of the skin factor from the single-

the increasing rate-sequences shown here, the two-phase and twe-phase analogues are noted in Fig. 11. Again,

--------- 1 s.fitfi. ~.+:ti.t~. (I;ne 1) nhtnind @ t& cinuk-

anaiogue wtil yieici sicin-fmtor eslimium ~imiiai-to that SKiii-la~wl wLmlatwO ~IAUW ~, U.U...W= .. - -...= .-

shown in Fig. 9. We have also examined synthetic phase analogue increase with rate, and the estimates

buildup responses for decreasing sequences of rates and (line 4) obtained by the two-phase analogue decrease

found that the estimates of skin factor obtained via this with rate. The reasons for these results have been

analogue would be a better representation of the explained previously. From the table in Fig. 11, and our

mechanical skin-factor. This happens because the previous discussion, we conclude that the mechanical

decreasing rate-sequence permits the development of a skin-factor is approximately -0.6. Thus far, our analysis

bank wherein both gas and oil are mobile (and the has been straightforward.

transition zone between this bank and the single-phase

zone is small). The above observation is illustrated in We now point out an important characteristic of the

Table 2, where we consider the results of two synthetic two-phase analogue. Fig. 12 is a plot of the derivative

tests. As in Example 2 (also Example 3), each case responses for Buildup No. 4. Early-time responses are

consists of 4 flowing periods with each flowing period controlled by the wellbore-storage phenomenon. If we

followed by a buildup period. Case A uses properties of examine the two-phase analogue, we see that this curve,

Example 1, a high-permeability reservoir. For the rather than stabilizing immediately after the hump,

464

SPE30576 R.RAGHAVAN,W. C.CHU,ANDJ.R JONES 7

shows anupward trend beginning at around 1 hour. The Field Example No. 5. The well considered here is

upward trend is a reflection of the fact that Eq. 3 a downdip producer in a rich-gas-condensate reservoir

underpredicts the value at with pressure. One may not (> 200 BBL/MMscfD initial yield; see Mix 4 of Fig. 1).

construe the upward trend to represent reservoir The productive horizon has an average permeability in

behavior, for example, a sealing fault. In this context, the 1-5 md range. The reservoir was on full-pressure

we should note that no such trend is seen on the trace of maintenance until recently. In 1994, a blowdown pilot

the single-phase analogue. If we compute ~[ from Eq. 6 in the area of this well was initiated. Because

in the pressure range 4000 e p < 5000, we find that breakthrough of the injected gas was observed early in

Eq. 3 predicts values of at that are lower than that the life of the pressure-maintenance project and areal

predicted by Eq. 6. and vertical sweep have remained open questions, it is

very difficult to determine the effective composition of

Field Example No. 4. We examine a buildup test the in-situ fluids and the effective dewpoint pressures

following a fracture treatment. One of the objectives in associated with this well at the time of these tests.

presenting this exampie is to demonstrate the advantages Nevertheless some usefui conclusions can be reached.

of using the two-phase analogue. Curve A in Fig. 13 is

the derivative response in terms of pressure. Curves B Figure 16 is a log-log diagnostic plot of two

& C are the derivative responses in terms of the single- pressure-buildup tests from this well. Both responses

and two-phase analogues, respectively. Mix 3 and Set are plotted in terms of the rate-normalized change in

3 information is used in the analysis. At the time the single-phase-analogue and the log-time derivative of this

test was terminated, the shut-in pressure was less than function versus single-phase-gas pseudotime. Gas

pde~ (4,992 psia). Thus, we do not expect the Single- properties used in the calculation of pseudopressure and

phase analogue to provide information regarding pseudotime8 are determined from recombined samples

formation permeability and skin factor. The two-phase obtained immediately prior to each test. The circles and

analogue, however, appears to flatten out after 90 hours triangles represent these functions for a buildup test

(Cf. Fig. 3). A Horner plot of this response is shown in performed in late 1990 prior to the blowdown pilot.

Fig. 14. Calculations using the slope of the straight line The squares and asterisks represent similar information

shown in Fig. i4 yieici kh = 38. i8 mci-ft and s = -4.56. for a buiidup test pdorrned in early 1995 after the

This estimate of kh is in agreement with that of the pre- beginning of the blowdown pilot.

fracture buildup test (kh = 38.5 md-ft). We also

computed kt from the pressure-derivative curve in the Because the composite-reservoir model assumes a

time range At > 100 hours (Eq. 6) and obtained sharp interface, in using this model for the problem

excellent agreement with the ~[ values used to calculate under consideration, one must devise a methodology to

the two-phase analogue in this pressure range (Fig. 15 handle the saturation gradient in the reservoir.

shows the agreement in this pressure range). Obviously, many approaches may be taken. Thus, in the

following, we first outline the basis used to discern the

For reasons already noted, the mechanical skin- appropriateness of the model. Second, we outline the

factor would be greater than -4.56. This result suggests philosophy to obtain a value for the radius of the zone

that the frac-job was indeed successfid, although it is not of reduced permeabilityy and then demonstrate how our

possible to get a definite estimate of the mechanical concept is applied.

skin-factor. (Estimates of skin factor from the pre-

fracture test were s = 20.21 and s = 3.26 from the This plot has four main features indicating darnage

single- and two-phase analogues, respectively.) caused by condensate accumulation. First, the

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF

8 GAS-CONDENSATE WELL-TESTS SPE 30576

permeability followed by a transition zone which appears permeability of the inner zone has only changed slightly

to be trending toward defining an outer region of greater if at all. The zone has grown in size after the beginning

permeability. Second, the near-well permeability-level of the blowdown period probably because of local

indicated by the intermediate-time derivative shapes depletion.

remains approximately constant between the 1990 and

1995 tests. Third, the time at which the derivative CONCLUDING REMARKS

begins to decrease away from the near-well value

increases between the 1990 and 1995 test indicating an We began this work primarily because there is a

increased radius for the near-well region of lower dearth of information pertaining to the analysis of

permeability. Finally, the level of the rate-normalized pressure-buildup tests under multiphase-flow conditions.

change in pseudopressure increases between the two We believed it would be worthwhile to document

tests implying an increase in skin factor after the different behaviors that may be expected and outline

beginning of the blowdown pilot. Indeed, sernilog procedures to understand these behaviors. The

straight lines fitted through the ends of these tests yield objectives have been met by evaluating the shapes of

consistent values of reservoir permeability ( k = 1.177 pressure-buildup traces for a wide variety of conditions

md) and skin factors of 37.8 and 52.6, respectively. and showing that it is possible to arrive at a consistent

interpretation of buildup responses under multiphase-

To quantify these qualitative observations, both of flow conditions. This is the first, serious study that

these tests have been history matched using composite- attempts to combine relative-permeability measurements

system models. 4-6 Figures 17 and 18 show the matches with pressure measurements. The advantages and

of the 1990 and 1995 buildup tests, respectively. Note disadvantages of using various analogues are explored

that in these two figures rate normalization has not been thoroughly. The conclusions we detail and the plausible

used. These matches have been made by fixing the explanations we provide for various tests have been

outer-zone permeability at 1.177 md and adjusting the verified by considering synthetic responses to mimic the

inner-zone permeability and radius to obtain a match. pertinent test under consideration. Because of the rather

TLIIC_ L----.-_ l.._ r-- .L _ -- 2:..-

Lur LIE rdulus ul me mrwr zone was

-4? .I_- :- - ----- L--c_l -.. _l --- 1 =A..- -r Al-:- -... 4-. ---- --.:11 -A

1 UCSL VWL.K modu anu gtmcrd ndums 01 mm smuy, we wm nul

determined by ensuring that the model predicted document specific conclusions except to note the

derivative entered the transition period at the same time following: (i) it is possible to relate relative-permeability

as the derivative of the measured responses. Deviations values to pressure and use the resulting analogue to

between predicted and measured derivatives after this evaluate pressure-buildup tests in a quantitative manner,

time were not considered and are due mainly to the and (ii) the saturation profile at shut in governs the

dtierence between the composite-system model and the shape of the pressure buildup trace and the success of

actual mobility distribution in the reservoir. The match the two-phase analogue is dependent on our ability to

of the 1990 test includes phase-redistribution effects estimate this profile. This paper outlines a practical

which allow the model responses to follow closely the method to compute the profile.

derivative response up to the beginning of the

transitional period. The 1995 response does not warrant NOMENCLATURE

the use of this extra complication.

*Acl *- - ---: L:l:. . . ..?-

LULdlcumpressmmcy, psl 1

As the match results on these two figures show, the formation thickness, ft

rIII~litnti~~~

quw..u.,vu

Pnnnl IIcinnc

-,, ULL4CY,,.

r.aar.hd

AWak,auu

nhnwp

u

nr~

v w buu

nnnfimnd

WVafi.aaaalwu

wrm-~h;l;t~? rnA

~LULUUULLILJ , LILU

from 45 ft in 1990 to 57.5 ft in 1995 while the moles of liquid

466

~PE30576 R. RAGHAVAN, W. C. CHU, AND J. R JONES 9

.l -_ -47.L_ -_ : 1-- -.--:-L. l;-_ -l_. _:-:-- 1-,..:- :-c-.,..:-- ---,1-,L ,.,.-..1-+- +L.:n

ni = SIU~ Ul UK SWlllU~ SLItU~I1l-llIIC, ti~~ kd UUldlIllI1/j LMSIU lIllUIIlltLLIUIl llt2GUGU

6-

lU UJlll~lGLG LILl>

m(p) = pseudopressure, psia21cp assistance with numerical experiments to obtain

P= pressure, psia synthetic buildup-tests.

pd~~ = dew-point pressure, psia

pw,f,~ = wellbore pressure at shut-in, psia REFERENCES

Pws = shut-in pressure, psia

% = total molar rate, lb mol/D 1. Raghavan, R.: Well Test Analysis: Wells

r= radius, ft Producing by Solution Gas Drive, SPEJ (Aug.

rW = wellbore radius, ft 1976) 196-208; Trans. AIME, 261.

s = estimate skin factor from Horner analysis

S2P = two-phase skin factor 2, Jones, J.R. and Raghavan, R.: Interpretation of

s = saturation Flowing Well Responses in Gas-Condensate Wells,:

t = time, hours or days SPEFE (Sept. 1988) 578-94.

:= pseudotime, hours, days

At = shut-in time, hours or days 3. Jones, J. R., Vo, D. T., and Raghavan, R.:

T= temperature, 0R Interpretation of Pressure Buildup Responses in

v= moles of vapor Gas-condensate Wel!s, SPEFE (March 1989) 93-

z= deviation factor 104.

n diffusivity, ft2/hr

A: mobility, psia/cp 4. Jaeger, J. C.: Heat Conduction in Composite

P = fluid viscosity, cp Circular Cylinders, Philosophical Magazine 32 No.

molar density, lbm mol/ft3 7 (1941) 324-335.

$= porosity

5. Albert, P., Jaisson, J., and Marion, H.: Etute de L

Subscripts Ecoulement Radial Circulaire Dans Un Milieu

Ferrn6 Het6rog~ne, Revue de LInstitut Francais du

g = gas P&trole 14 (April-May 1959) 560-588.

i= initial

m= oil or gas 6. Loucks, T. L. and Guerrero, E. T.: Pressure Drop

o = oil phase in a Composite Reservoir, SPEJ (Sept. 1961) 170-

s= skin 76.

w= water

7. Horner, D. R.: Pressure Build-up in Wells, Proc.,

Superscripts Third World Pet. Cong., The Hague (1951) II, 503-

21.

= derivative

8. Agarwal, R. G.: Real Gas Pseudo-Time - A New

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Function for Pressure Buildup Analysis of Gas

Wells, Paper SPE 8279, presented at the Annual

We thank the managements of Phillips Petroleum, Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition,

Marathon Oil and Amoco Production for permission to Las Vegas, Nevada (1979).

present this paper. We also thank Ms. K. Patton for

typing this paper. We thank Messrs. R. D. Barree,

J. L. Jechura, and G. L. Lane for assisting us in

467

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF

10 GAS-CONDENSATE WELL-TESTS SPE 30576

Table 1

Formation Properties

Example 1*

2 3 4 5

bbl/MMs

Thiclmecc

- . ..=. U. W. h

. . . ft

.. ~Q~ 2A ~? Al f5p9

psia

pressure, p~eW,

psia

.

Table 2

Skin Factor Estimates

Normal Sequence

Buildup 1 2 3 4

Reverse Sequence

Normal Sequence

Buildup 1 2 3 4

Reverse Sequence

469

.

30576

6000

5000

k,,y

1

a

z

~ 4000

6

3000 -

2000 -

1000 -

I ~<~..

0

o 0.1 0.2 0.3 a).

4

MOLE FRACTION LI(3UID, IL LIQUID SATURATION, SL

n n

1111111I t 111111I { ~~~q

!0F-12E=n

< 109 1 I 111111 1

z E PRES!WRE

n ANALOGUE

0 TWO - PHASE ANALOGUE _.

j 10

~ : %:+

E

o o%~,~ b ~~ _-

$ 107 *

i= SET 1 and MIX 1

a >

>

E t I 111111 1 1111111 , UllllLkl

z 1 4118111 t I 111111 1 1111111 1 11LLullL~~# w 106

w 10,.-. ,.-3 ,.-2 ,.-1

a 1 10 102 1103 n 10-2 10- 1 10 102

/PoR/RR070S95 MN I(RC

*

130

GI

&,

90 0.9360

OL

MMSCF/[)

40100

70 1.493

MMSCFKI

Pv

50 1.9s0

3000 MMSCF/D

30

t pdew =48986 psia 2.54/ MMISCF/D

20,mL~ .~~-

0 20 40 6CI 80 100

ii)oo 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500

PRESSURE, p, PSIA TIME, t, HOUR!5

Figure 5: Mobility - Pressure RelalLiOn: Example 1. Figure 6: Pressure History: Example ~!.

...

tL

SINGLE - PHASE ANALOGLJE

.

:= 12!00

1P

* -s..15,3)1

.-

Bul

% y

JI

.-

a)oo

t OO

e

1

L.

BU3 A *Y

aA IBU4

800 AA o

A

0

0 0

0

2.547

0

a e

LA

e) TWO- PHASE ANALOGUE

> 17.7

~ ,.s I,,,,, d d

600

MM)

El&l,

~-~

6000

0

8000

I 0 1

b

Figure 7: Derivative Response of W4; Example 2. lFigulre 8: Superposition Plot of Single- Phalse Analqlue. Example 2.

30157n

-LIL

/

~ 4900 /--

BU3 BU41

G

n J

1.423

< 4600 MMSCF/D

g IIJ

u 1.939

~ 4300 MMSCFIO

\

~

2. 36s

a MMSCF/D . 2. 3s3

4000[ \

Ui&_sii, ::,01

n MMSCF/D

37000L

g -0 2000 4000 6000 8000 20 40 60 80 100

SUPERPOSITION TIME, t sup TIME, t, HOURS

Figuwe 9: Superposition Plot of Two-Phase) Analogue. Example 2. Figure 10: Pressure Histolry: Example 3.

-~~~

L u A o

t 5 5 5 24

s-1.62

q 1.423 1.93e 2.266 2.363

L -1.9e -,2.10 -2.69

A and

2 10

-% n A

4A o o:;<;

A 0 / u E L

eu3 p A

o y 107

0 A SINGLE - PHASE ANA3.OGUE

0 i=

a 0 3W0 - PHASE ANMOGUE

IWO - PHASE ANALOGUE o >

-E

w 106 LJ

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 n 10-2 10- 1 10 102

Figure! 11: Superposition Plot of Two- Phiase Analogue,, Example 3. Figure 12: Derivative Response; Example 3.

&

~: 10

z

n SET 3 and MIX 3

.

zE 0 : .:@%#%s@@~

%

g 10 ~m

, ~e:m.d RESSURE

NAL.G.E

00

0000

A SINGLE - PHASE ANALOGUE 00000

F o

Kc

000

a O TWO-PNA,,ANA,OG,IE \ 00..

~ lWO - PHASE ANALOGUE

1 1 111111 1 t 1111111

1 #I 11111I 11411111 1IIU

R 10,.-2

n 10- 1 10 102 103 102 103 104 10 1106

SHUT-IN TIME,At, HOURS HORNER TIME, (t +At)/A t

Figure 13: Derivative Rwsponse; Example 4. Figure 114: Horner Plot of Example 4.

10

F

1W5 \

RE!WWNSE /@

1960 RESPONSE

10

44

1$

yn

d,

: II

Ooofe.; 10 .$=

4. 60 - k

Ooao

E m

o

z ------ . ..- ---~ ~~+--

30 L 000 A, from Eq. 6

$ \

At from Eq. 3 105 c~: L

sn 10-3 10-2 10- 1 10 102 103

I 1 1 I

ISHUT-IN TIME,A?, HOURS

3m 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500

PRESSURE, p, PSIA

Figure 161: lRate - Normalized Diagnostic Plot

Figure 15: Mobility - Presswa Relation: Example 4. Comparing 1990 and 1965 Buildup Tests.

4

#

80576

&

I

,.3 ~ 106 L ~~

1 10

;:, ~o,

;

10-3 10- 10- 1 10 102 w 103 10- 10-

g

I g SHUT - IN TllME,A~, HIOURS

SHUT - IN TIME,A~, HOURS

Figure 17: Composite - System Match of 1990 Test.

.P

-J

s

/POR/RR070695 C@ KRC

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