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Essential English

for Seamen


..
2005
ISBN


. .
,
.

.

2



Aa Aa Nn Nn
Bb Bb Oo Oo
Cc Cc Pp Pp
Dd Dd Qq Qq
Ee Ee Rr Rr
Ff Ff Ss Ss
Gg Gg Tt Tt
Hh Hh Uu Uu
Ii Ii Vv Vv
Jj Jj Ww Ww
Kk Kk Xx Xx
Ll Ll Yy Yy
Mm Mm Zz Zz

3

[b] back "", ,
[d] day "",
[D] they ""
[G] jump "",
[f] few "", ,
[g] game ""
[h] hot "",
[j] yet ""
[k] key ""
[l] lamp ""
[m] man ""
[n] nose ""
[N] ring ""
[p] pen "", ,
[r] rose
[s] sea ""
[S] show ""
[t] tea "", ,
[C] chat "",
[T] thin ""
[v] very "", ,
[w] wet , "" ""
[z] zero ""
[Z] measure ""
[x] bad "",
[R] barn ""
[o] pot ""
[L] born ""
[e] bed "" "", ""
[q] about ""
[E:] bird "" ""
[I] pit ""
[J] sheep ""
[H] boot ""
[V] put ""
[A] cut ""

4

[aI] bite
[aV] now
[OI] boy
' . [eq] there
[eI] make
" [qV] note
. [Iq] here
, : [Vq] poor
1)
. [aIq] tire
2) [aVq] power

.
3)

, ..

.

. ,

,
.

.
;
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
. early
, , ,
.
, .

, .
, .

5
1




A, an () The ()
.
" ", "-", ;
"", "" "".
A sailor is painting a boat. - The sailor who is painting a boat is
(-) my friend. - () ,
. ,
.

, ,
. .
This is a cabin. This is a cabin. The cabin is large.

, ,
,
(
""). :
Have you got a sextant? The sextant is a measuring
. instrument.

, ,
,
. .
He is a boatswain. the moon (), the sun
(), the earth ()

the :
.1 : the coldest, the most
important, the best
.2 : the first, the second

6



.1 , the Smiths ( )

.2 the United States of America (the
, , USA)
: the United Kingdom
state, union, republic the Russian Federation
the Netherlands
.3 , the Black Sea
, , , , the Indian (Ocean)
, , the Dnieper
the Carpathians
the Hawaii
the Strait of Dover
.4 , the Times
, , , the Odessa Hotel
, the m/v Shota Rustaveli
.5 the north, the south, the west, the
east


.1 John, Ivan, Odessa, Ukraine,
Deribasovskaya Street

.2 He is a motorman.
, They are motormen.
.

.3 My work gives me satisfaction.

.4 , Oil is transported by tankers.


-

.5 He gives me good advice.
,

(news, money,

7
information, equipment, advice)
.6 , Captain Ivanov, Mrs. Smith, Mr.
, , Black

.7 on Sunday, in March
,


.8 , last year
next next month
last, cabin No. 25
,


.9 I've studied mathematics in
Maritime College.




ship ships [s] -
rat - rats
-s
bouy - bouys [z] -
hull - hulls
watch - watches [Iz] -
-es dish dishes (-s, -ss, -x,
box - boxes -ch, -tch, -sh)
:
man - men
woman women
child - children
foot - feet
tooth - teeth

:
+ y i +es
a body bodies
a lady ladies
a company companies

8
fv
knife knives
wife - wives






sailor sailor's sailors sailors'
captain captain's captains captains'
man man's men men's
child child's children children's





-er -est
big bigger the biggest
fast faster the fastest
pretty prettier the prettiest
active more active the most active
attentive more attentive the most
attentive
useful more useful the most useful
: little less the least
many, much more the most
good better the best
bad worse the worst
far farther the farthest
further the furthest

9


-





1 I me my mine myself
2 you you your yours yourself
he him his his himself
3 she her her hers herself
it it its its itself

1 we us our ours ourselves
2 you you your yours yourselves
3 they them their theirs themselves


-
- (mine, yours, his,
hers, its, ours, theirs) .
I have no brush. Give me yours, please. .
, , .
This is not our cabin. It is theirs. . ().


(myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
ourselves, yourselves, themselves) , ,
.

()
(, ).
Look at yourself! !

.
, , , .
.
, .
I want to do it myself. .
Now you can do it yourself. .

10

: help yourself (), to find oneself in some place
( -).
, ,
:
I shave, wash and dress very quickly. ,
.

some any
some any
.
.
some


.
There are some sailors in the mess-room.
.
There is some paint in the can. .
any
1. -.
Are there any sailors in the mess-room? (-
) ?
2. .
not.
There arent any sailors in the mess-room. .
3.
You can take any brush. .

no

no.
no
, .
.
There is no paint in the can. .
There are no sailors in the mess-room. .
I have no sister. .

11
, some, any,
no, every
-thing -body -where -one
some something somebody somewhere someone
- - - -
- - - -
any anything anybody anywhere anyone
- - - -
- - - -
no nothing nobody nowhere no one


every everything everybody everywhere everyone


some any ,
.
some .
There is somebody in the mess-room. - .
any
.
Is there anybody in the mess-room. - ?
There isnt anybody in the mess-room. .
any ,
any,
, ..
Anybody can do it. .
Id like to go anywhere. .
something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody,
anyone, nothing, nobody, no one, everything, everybody everyone,
, :
Everybody can swim. .
Everything is clear. .
nobody, no one, nothing nowhere
,
.
Nobody speaks German in our crew.
-.
No one can do it. .

12
many, much, little, few
many () few ()
.
There are many sailors in the mess-room.
.
There are few women in the crew. .
much () little ()
.
There is much paint in the can. .
There is little water in the tank. .

other
other (, )
-, -
.



13-19 20-99
1-12 100
(+teen) (+ty)
1 one 13 thirteen 20 twenty 100 a (one) hundred
2 two 14 fourteen 30 thirty 101 a (one) hundred
3 three 15 fifteen 40 forty and one
4 four 16 sixteen 50 fifty 200 two hundred
5 five 17 seventeen 60 sixty 235 two hundred and
6 six 18 eighteen 70 seventy thirty-five
7 seven 19 nineteen 80 eighty 1,000 a (one)
8 eight 90 ninety thousand
9 nine 91 ninety-one 2,000 two thousand
10 ten 3,356 three thousand
11 eleven three hundred and
12 twelve fifty-six
1,000,000 a (one)
million

13

1-12- 13-19- 20-99- 100
1 first 13 thirteenth 20 twentieth 100 one hundredth
2 second 14 fourteenth 30 thirtieth 101 one hundred and
3 third 15 fifteenth 40 fortieth first
4 fourth 16 sixteenth 50 fiftieth 200 two hundredth
5 fifth 17 60 sixtieth 235 two hundred and
6 sixth seventeenth 70 seventieth thirty-fifth
7 seventh 18 eighteenth 80 eightieth 1,000 one thousandth
8 eighth 19 nineteenth 90 ninetieth 2,000 two thousandth
9 ninth 91 ninety-first 3,356 three thousand
10 tenth three hundred and
11 eleventh fifty-sixth
12 twelfth 1,000,000 one
millionth


1991 . nineteen ninety-one
1978 . nineteen seventy-eight
1980 . nineteen eighty
2000 . twenty hundred
15th May, 1982 the fifteenth of May, nineteen
eighty two
May, 15th, 1982 May the fifteenth, nineteen eigty
two


1/2 a (one) half
1/3 one third
1/4 a (one) quarter
2 two and three eighth
foot one eighth of a foot
0.7 point seven
1.3 one point three

14


(Participle I)
,
ing.
to work working
e,
ing .
to take taking
,
, :
to stop stopping
y, ing

to carry carrying

:
1.
The ship entering the port is a tanker. , , -
.
2. .
(When) studying at school I was good in physics. ,
.
3.
We repaired the engine following the manufacturers instructions.
, .
4.
Studying hard at the Maritime College I was one of the best cadets.
,
.
,
Continuous.

15

(Participle II)
.
, ,
,
.
Participle II ,
Past Indefinite , .. ed
.
work worked
paint painted
Participle II
, (.
).

.


, -, - :
1) :
the sent letter
the painted boat
2)
The letter written by the Master is on the table. ,
, .

, as, when, if,
whether .
As reported the unloading was finished in time. ,
.
If maintained carefully the engine will work well.
, .

Present Indefinite Tense


Present Indefinite Tense ,
, ,
, .
I live in Odessa. .
I usually get up at 7 oclock. 7 .

16
Present Indefinite Tense (
) to , 3-
.
, ch, -sh, -tch, -s, -ss, -o, -x 3-
es (to do does,to go
goes, to wash washes).
, y
3- y i
es (to carry carries, marry marries).
to have 3-
has.
(e)s :
: [z]- to go goes, to carry -
carries; to read reads;
: [s] to put puts, to work works;
: [Iz] to watch watches, to wash washes.
,
Present Indefinite Tense
usually
sometimes
seldom
often
always
never
.
I usually get up at 7 o'clock. - 7 .
never
.
I never get up at 6 o'clock. - 6 .

Present Continuous Tense


Present Continuous Tense :
1. , :
What are you doing now? ?
I am painting the boat. .
Are you still washing the deck? ?
2. :
The ship is leaving to Piraeus tomorrow.
.

17
Present Continuous Tense
to be
(Participle I) .
,
Present Continuous Tense
now
at the moment

Present Perfect Tense


Present Perfect Tense ,
.
I have visited London. - .
We haven't repaired the engine. - .
Have you painted the boat? - ?
Present Perfect Tense
have/has Participle II .
,
Present Perfect Tense
ever -
never
just
already ( )
yet ( )
( )
lately
recently
ever, never, just, already
.
Have you ever been to London? - - ?
lately recently .
I have painted this boat lately. - .
never
.
I have never studied French. - .
Present Perfect Tense
,
. Present Perfect Tense
since ( ) for ( ).

18
I haven't been to London since last year. -
.
I have known him for five years. - .
Present Perfect Tense ,
,
(.. , ): today,
this week, this month, this year.
I have painted the boat this month. -
.
I have received weather information today. -
.
to be Present
Perfect Tense to.
I have been to Glasgow twice. - .

Past Indefinite Tense


Past Indefinite Tense :
1. ,
.
I graduated from school many years ago.
.
2. , .
I uncovered the lifeboat, removed harbour pins, released gripes, keel
block fastening, boat davit stoppers, screwed the drain plug, released hand-
rail, lowered the embarkation ladder and checked the lifeboat supplies.
, , , ,
, ,
, .
Past Indefinite Tense
: .
Past Indefinite Tense
ed to.
to work worked
wash washed
, y ,
y i + ed.
to carry carried
to study studied
e,
d.
to use used

19
to live lived
.
to stop - stopped
ed
[t] ( t)
worked, brushed
[d] - ( d)
used, lied, stayed
[Id] - t d
translated, decided
Past Indefinite Tense -.
.
Past Indefinite Tense
did (Past Indefinite to
do), not
to.
I didnt paint the boat yesterday. .
,
Past Indefinite Tense
yesterday
the day before yesterday
last month
last week
last Monday
last night
two hours (days, weeks) ago (, )
in 1982 1982 .
the other day ( )
long ago

to be Past Indefinite Tense


to be Past Indefinite Tense : was
were .

.
I was in London last year. .
I wasnt in London last year. .
Was he in London last year? ?

20
to have Past Indefinite Tense
to have Past Indefinite Tense had

.
He had a good cabin. .
He hadnt a good cabin. .
Had he a good cabin? ?
to have
, ,
(to have dinner (), to have a rest (), to have a talk
() ..,
did.
They had breakfast at 8 oclock. 8 .
They didnt have breakfast at 8 oclock. 8
.
Did they have breakfast at 8 oclock? 8 ?

Past Continuous Tense


Past Continuous Tense ,

.
:
1. .
I was keeping navigational watch at 7 a.m. yesterday.
7 .
2. , Past Indefinite Tense.
I was taking bearings when the Master came. ,
.
Past Continuous Tense ,
-
:
They were loading the ship the whole week.
.
Past Continuous Tense to be

.
was/were + Participle I

21
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Tense ,

.
Past Perfect Tense
had Participle II :
had + Participle II
, "" ,
:
1. by:
by 12 o'clock yesterday ( 12 ), by last week (
), by the end of last year ( );
I had finished my work by 6 o'clock yesterday. -
6 .
2. , , ,
Past Indefinite Tense:
We had taken a pilot on board before our ship entered the channel. -
, .
After we had loaded all the grain, we covered the hatches. - ,
, .

, , ..
, ,
Past Perfect Tense.
Our ship entered the port of Piraeus. It was my first voyage to this port. I
had never been to Greece before. -
. .
.

Future Indefinite Tense


Future Indefinite Tense ,
.
Future Indefinite Tense
will + to.
I will keep navigational watch tomorrow.
.
I wont (will not) keep navigational watch tomorrow. -
.

22
,
Future Indefinite Tense
tomorrow
the day after tomorrow
next week
next month
next year
soon
in a week (month, year) (, )
in five minutes
in future
in the near future
in 2008 2008 .
one of these days ( )


(The Passive Voice)
,
() ,
(The Active Voice) , ()
.
:
to be + Participle II.
, to be,

Participle II
Active Voice Passive Voice
The engineer repaired the engine. The engine was repaired. -
.
.
I receive the weather information. The weather information is
received.
. .

.
Was the engine repaired? ?
not
.
The engine wasnt repaired. .

23
, Passive Voice ,
by.
The engine was repaired by the engineer.
.
, ,
(to look at, lo listen to,
to speak to, to speak about .).
He was attentively listened to. .
.
Active Voice Passive Voice
We were told an interesting story.
He told us an interesting story.
An interesting story was told to us.
We were shown the engine-room.
He showed us the engine-room.
The engine-room was shown to us.


Infinitive Past Indefinite Participle
awake awoke awaked, awoke
be was / were been
become became become
begin began begun
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt burnt
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt

24
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung, hanged hung, hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
learn learnt learnt
leave left left
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set

25
show showed shown
shut shut shut
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
strike struck struck
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
write wrote written

( )
Perfect Perfect
Continuous have Continuous
Indefinite
be + V-ing + Participle have + been +
II V-ing
Present I ask I am asking I have asked I have been
He ask He is asking He has asking
We ask We are asked He has been
asking We have asking
asked We have been
asking
Past I asked I was asking I had asked I had been asking
He asked He was He had He had been
We asked asking asked asking
We are We had We had been
asking asked asking
Future I will ask I will be I will have I will have been
He will asking asked asking

26
ask He will be He will have He will have
We will asking asked been asking
ask We will be We will We will have
asking have asked been asking
Future- I would I would be I would I would have
in-the ask asking have asked been asking
Past He would He would be He would He would have
ask asking have asked been asking
We would We should We would We would have
ask be asking have asked been asking

( )
Perfect
Perfect Continuous
Continuous
Indefinite have have +
be + V-ing
+ Participle II been + V-
ing
Present I am asked I am being I have been -
He is asked asked asked
We are asked He is being He has been
asked asked
We are We have been
being asked asked
Past I was asked I was being I had been asked
He was asked asked He had been
We were asked He was asked
being asked We had been
We are asked
being asked
Future I will be asked - I will have been -
He will be asked
asked He will have
We will be been asked
asked We will have
been asked
Future- I would be - I would have -
in-the asked been asked
Past He would be He would have
asked been asked
We would be We should have

27
asked been asked



can ,
( Past Indefinite - could) :
I can swim. - .
He cannot (can't) swim. -
.
Can you come tomorrow? -
?
may , (
- )
( Past Indefinite - might) :
May I come in? - ?
- Yes, you may. - , .
No, you mustn't. - , .
You may not do it. -
.
must , ,
( Past Indefinite - must) :
You must do it. -
- .
Must I go to the navigating bridge? -

?
Yes, you must. - , .
No, you needn't. - , .
You mustn't go to the port today. -
.

28

at, in, on ,

at in on
at 5 o'clock in the evening on Monday

at midnight in September on May 1st

at dinner in 1979 1979 . on Christmas Day


at Easter in summer
at this time in the 20th century

at weekend in three hours

at, in, on
,

at in on
at the theatre in Odessa on Deribasovskaya
Street

at the Maritime in Ukraine on the wall
College

at Deribasovskaya in the pocket on deck


Street, 8
, . 8
at the desk in the cabin on the table

29

there is/are
-
there is/are,
, , .
there is/are ,
, to be ,
(a, an),
.
there is/are ,
.
There is a map on the wall. .
There are twenty sailors in the mess-room.
.
there is/are ,
to be .
There is a boatswain and three sailors on the deck.
There are three sailors and boatswain on the deck.
there is/are to be
.
Is there a map on the wall? ?
Are there many sailors on board? ?
there is/are:
1. to be not.
There isnt any map on the wall. () .
2. no.
,
.
There is no map on the wall. .
There are no maps on the wall. .

to be going to
to be going to + ( )

, .
I am going to ask you some questions. ()
.
What are you going to do tomorrow? ?

30
We are not going to stay here for a long time.
.


("Essential English for Sailors", . 22, 23)

31
2

My biography
My name is Andrey Ivanov. I was born in 1980 in Odessa. My father is a
doctor, he works at a hospital. My mother is a teacher, she works at school.
I've got a sister (brother). She (he) is younger (elder) than me.
At the age of seven I went to school. I did well at school. I was good at
physics, mathematics and English.
We had a very good nautical club at our school and I attended classes
there.
My training in the club did me a lot of good. When I finished the school
my father advised me to become a seaman. I followed his advice, passed the
entrance examinations and entered the Odessa Maritime College.
I graduated from Odessa Maritime College in 2001 and started working
as a motorman on the m/v "Maxim Gorky". I have been working there for
three years.
I got married last year. My wife is a student. She studies at the
department of law of Odessa National University.


. 1980 . .
- , . - ,
.
(). () () .
. .
, .
,
.
.
, .
,
.
2001
" ".
.
. - .
.

32
Ship's Architecture
The main part of a ship is the hull. This is the area between the main
deck, the sides - the starboard side and the port side - and the bottom. It is
made up of frames covered with plating, the keel joints them altogether. The
hull is divided up into a number of watertight compartments by decks and
bulkheads. Bulkheads are vertical steel walls going across the ship and
along side. Decks divide the hull horizontally. Those dividing up cargo
space are known as "tween decks". The hull contains the engine room, cargo
space and a number of tanks. In dry cargo ships the cargo space is divided
into holds, in liquid cargo ships it is divided into tanks. At the fore end of
the hull there are the forepeak tanks and at the after end there are the
afterpeak tanks. They are used for fresh water and water ballast. The space
between the holds and the bottom of the hull contains double bottom tanks.
These are used for water ballast and fuel.
All permanent housing above the main deck is known as superstructure.
For a traditional dry cargo ship main superstructure consisting navigational
bridge and a funnel is placed on the midships, above the main deck. For
modern ships the engine room and the main superstructure are situated at
the after end of the ship to leave more space to load cargo. In tankers,
between the engine room and the cargo hold there is a cofferdam, which
protects inflammable cargoes from fire. At the fore end there is a forecastle,
where different mooring and anchoring equipment is mounted.


- .
, - - .
, , .

. - ,
. .
, "".
,
.
, .
,
.
.
.
.

33

. ,
,
, .

, .

,
. ,
.

Displacement
Usually a ship's weight is expressed as displacement. There are different
displacements for different types of ship and conditions. For merchant
ships:
Load displacement. The weight of water displaced when ship is loaded
to her marks with cargo, stores, fresh water, fuel, water ballast, crew,
passengers and baggage.
Light displacement (light weight). This is the weight of the hull of a ship
and her machinery and spare parts, with water in her boilers and condensers
to working level plus lubricating oil and cooling water.


.
.
:
. , ,
, , ,
, , , .
.
,
.

The Load Line


To prevent overloading, a load line is assigned to every merchant ship.
This is the official mark which a cargo vessel is not allowed to submerge by
loading an excess of cargo. These marks are situated on each side
amidships. Lines of this mark show normal water levels when floating on
fresh or salt water and in various seasons. Thus, a ship's draft can differ
from the smallest - WNA (Winter, North Atlantic) to the largest - TF

34
(Tropical Fresh Waters). A line passing through the centre of the disc
indicates Summer load line in salt water.
Actual freeboard, which means the vessel's height above the water, is the
distance between upper edge of the deck line and the waterline. It must be
registered in the Official Log on every occasion a vessel proceeds to sea.
The ship must be so loaded that at no time during her voyage must the
appropriate line be submerged. Only for timber carriers deeper loading is
permitted in certain cases.



. ,
,
. .

. ,
- WNA (,
) - TF ( ).
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.

.

The Ships Crew


There is a lot of complex equipment on board modern ships so it is
necessary to have skilled crews to operate the ships. Usually there are at
least two departments on cargo ship: the deck department and the engine
department.
The deck department includes navigators, radio-officers, a boatswain,
sailors and a doctor. We call navigators according to their rank on board
ship: the Master (Captain), the Chief Officer (First Mate), the Second
Officer (Second Mate), the Third Officer (Third Mate), the Fourth Officer
(Fourth Mate).

35
The Master is responsible for the ship, her cargo and the crew. He must
be an experienced navigator.
The Chief Officer is the Masters main assistant and the head of the
Deck Department. He must be always ready to replace the Master and
perform his duties.
All the navigators must keep watch on the navigating bridge.
Radio officers keep watch in the radio-room and are responsible for
radio-communication.
A Boatswain and sailors must keep the ships hull, holds and tackle in
good condition. Ship's ratings constantly do cleaning, painting and repair
work under the supervision of the Boatswain.
The Boatswain and the Carpenter are directly responsible to the Chief
Officer. The Boatswain sees that his orders and order of other deck officers
are carried out by the crew. He is a man with a lot of knowledge and
practical experience in seamanship. The Carpenter is usually a qualified
shipwright. His regular duty is to sound the tanks and bilges to check the
depth of liquids in them.
The Engine Department consists of the Chief Engineer, the Second,
Third and Fourth Engineers, some motormen and two or three electricians.
They keep watch in the engine-room and must maintain and repair its
equipment.
Only well-qualified sailors can perform their duties properly.



,
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36
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The Fitter
The Fitter is responsible to the Second Engineer. He assists the engine
room watchkeepers or UMS duty engineers, in particular with regard to the
maintenance of the plant. The Fitter maintains all machinery, technical
equipment, plant etc. as instructed and under supervision of an engineer
officer. The Fitter also performs any other duties assigned to him by the
Chief Engineer and Second Engineer.


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The Motorman
The Motorman is responsible to the Second Engineer. He assists the
engine room watchkeepers or UMS duty engineers, in particular with regard

37
to the maintenance of the plant. He assists in the maintenance of all
machinery, technical equipment, plant etc. as instructed by an Engineer
Officer. The Motorman is responsible for general cleaning and performs
housekeeping duties in engine room as instructed by an Engineer Officer.
He also performs any other duties assigned to him by the Chief Engineer
and Second Engineer.


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Holds and hatches


Each dry cargo ship has four or five holds of different capacity. The
holds have bilges which facilitate the flow of water which may condense on
metal plating and bulkheads. Hold pumps pump out the water collected in
the bilges.
The double bottom is covered with a removable wooden flooring. Cargo
battens are fitted to the inner edges of the frames. These wooden sheathings
protect cargo from damage by moisture, which may collect on the side of
the ship.
Each hold has a hatchway, a rectangular opening in the ship's deck,
surrounded by a coaming. When cargo work is over, it's necessary to cover
hatches. This should be done with special covering systems. Quick
operating hatch covers permit the opening and closing of covers in as little
time as two minutes per hatch.



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38
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Before Loading
On board ship the Cargo Officer is responsible for the safe and efficient
handling and stowage of cargo. He should ensure proper preparation of the
holds before loading and he supervises during the time the ship is receiving
or delivering the cargo.
The stevedore should inspect cargo space before the beginning of cargo
work. The holds and other compartments must be clean, dry and well aired.
Cargo battens must be in good condition, scuppers - clear, bilges - free and
clean.
When preparing for loading bulk cargo, special attention must be given
to prevent its shifting. Shifting boards should be at least 2 inches thick,
made of good timber and securely fitted at bulkheads.



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Stowage
Stowage is the placing cargoes in the ship's hold and on her deck.
Correct stowage must ensure the following:

39
1. Protection of the cargo from damage and loss during cargo work or
during the voyage.
2. Economy of cargo space that increases the vessel's capacity.
3. Optimum convenience of loading and unloading in every port of call.
A plan showing the disposition of cargoes throughout the ship is called
the cargo plan. It makes the loading of cargo pieces in the holds easier. It
should be drawn up carefully. When loading in more than one port, a
different colour should be used to indicate the cargo for each port.


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Navigational watch
If the ship is at sea I keep watch on the navigating bridge.
We have the following navigational equipment on the bridge: radar, GPS
receiver, VHF, gyro and magnetic compasses, course recorder, echo sounder, log.
We have many binoculars and a sextant on the bridge.
We also have a satellite station on the bridge.
I keep one watch a day from 16.00 hrs to 20.00 hrs.
During my watch I stand at the helm. If necessary I turn the helm to port
or to starboard (to the left or to the right). I steer a steady course. I execute
the wheel orders of the master or the officer of the watch.
If necessary I take bearings of landmarks. I also hoist flags or shapes in
the day time and switch on the lights at night.
I also look out for dangers.
The ship is under way. I am on the bridge now. I am keeping watch. I am
standing at the helm. I am steering the ship.

40
The ship is steady on course 230 degrees. I am keeping the course. The
master is standing near me. The officer of the watch is standing at the radar.
I am looking ahead. There is an on-coming vessel on my starboard.
The master is lookin at her through the binoculars.


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Gangway watch
When the ship is in the port the watchman usually keeps watch at the
gangway.
He meets all the visitors and, if necessary, asks them to produce proper
identification.
He says, "Your identification, please". If he has any problems he must
report them to the officer of the watch. He must lock all the doors leading to
the superstructure and, if necessary, to store-rooms aft. He must keep the
gangway area clean.
He must inspect the aft mooring lines at regular intervals.
And, of course, he must answer all the phone calls.
In this case he says, "Hello, this is the m/v "A".
I have kept gangway watch several times.

41

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At the gangway
A: How do you do! I am a watchman. Can I help you?
B: I am a surveyor. I must check if the holds are ready for loading. Call
Chief Officer, please.
A: Just a minute. I'll call him up.
A: Chief, a surveyor is here to check if the holds are ready for loading.
A: Chief Officer will be here in a minute.
B: Thank you


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42
My working day
I am a sailor. My working day on the ship is long and hard. I get up at
6.30. Then I go to the crew's mess-room to have breakfast. After breakfast I
work on deck. I scrub down the deck and wash it.
If necessary I lubricate the deck equipment with lub oil. But my main
job on deck is painting.
Before painting I clean and wash the deck equipment to remove all salt,
dirt and oil. Then I remove loose paint with a scraper and any heavy rust
with a chipping hammer. And then I apply one or more coats of paint.
I use primer paints and enamel for painting.
The boatswain supplies me with paint, buckets and brushes, which he
takes from the paint locker.
At 11 o'clock I have lunch. After lunch I keep watch on the bridge.
After watch I have dinner. Then I go to rest in my cabin. I go to bed at
22.30.


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22.30.

Painting
Boatswain:
You must start painting the ship's board. Chip off the rust with a
chipping hammer. Then take one can with black paint and one can with
white paint and start painting.
Sailor:
Must I start painting from the bow to the stern?
Boatswain:

43
Yes, you must. By the way, the paint is very thick and you must use the
thinner. You can take the thinner, the paint and the paint-rollers in the paint
locker.
Sailor:
How many coats must I apply?
Boatswain:
You must apply two coats of paint.


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Engineering Watch
I am a motorman.
I keep engineering watch in engine room.
I take over the watch at 4 A.M. and turn over the watch at 8 A.M.
I have a lot of duties. I must drain settled water from service tanks, drain
off water starting-air bottles and keep bilges clean. I must check all
mechanisms and systems during my watch.
According to the schedule I turn over and test in operation different
machinery under the supervision of Engineer Officer.
I am also responsible for housekeeping in engine room.


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44
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Dangerous Situations
When two vessels approach one another, a dangerous situation can
occur. This happens most frequently in narrow channels and fairways or
under bad weather and sea conditions. Development of the situation can
produce dangerous proximity and growing risk of collision. To avoid
collision every navigator should be aware of and operate according to the
"International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea". All seamen on
the bridges of approaching ships must be sure that their counterparts act in
accordance with the same "Regulations" and that their actions are right and
well co-ordinated.


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Actions to Avoid Collision


Any action taken to avoid collision should be positive, timely and in
accordance with good seamanship. Any alteration in the course or speed of
your ship should be large enough to be clearly seen from another vessel
observing visually or by radar. A sequence of small one-by-one changes
must be avoided. It's also better to avoid crossing ahead of another vessel. If

45
one or two vessels keeps out of the way, another should keep her course and
speed. She may however take actions to avoid collision.



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Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting


Fire aboard ship is a danger, which should be constantly guarded
against. Everybody on board ship must remember that a fire prevented is
better than a fire occurring. Some very simple rules are useful to prevent
fire in your accommodation:
1. Keep compartment clean and ventilated.
2. Carefully maintain gas and fuel installation.
3. Maintain electrical equipment in perfect order. Don't overload current
network with additional heaters, lamps.
4. Cigarette ends thrown overboard may be blow back aboard or onto
another vessel and produce fire.
5. Smoking in bunk before retiring is dangerous because a cigarette
falling into the bed clothes can cause fire in your cabin or smoke poisoning.
To be prepared for fire keep fire fighting equipment in good order. Put
extinguishers in a proper place easy to reach in case of emergency.


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Aid to Vessels in Distress


State authorities give assistance when a ship or aircraft is in distress off
their coasts. Coastal radio stations keep a continuous watch on the distress
radio wave. When a radio distress signal is received by a coast radio station,
it is transmitted to ships at sea and different authorities ashore are
immediately informed. The coastguard divisions are responsible for
providing search and rescue measures for all vessels in distress up to 1000
miles from the shore. They also co-ordinate the activity of all the units
operating together - lifeboats, aircrafts, helicopters and vessels at high sea.
The air force and navy also render great assistance.

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47
Ships alarms

General emergency alarm


Alarm signal: seven (7) short blasts (or more) and one (1) long blast on
ship's whistle and continuous sounding of ship's general ALARM.
When General Alarm sounds it does not necessarily means to Abandon
Ship.
At the general emergency alarm the sailor must:
1. close the watertight doors, leading to the superstructure and other
compartments;
2. get ready the life-boats for launching;
.3 get ready the life-saving equipment.
If an able seaman is second in command of the damage control party he
must get ready the portable firefighting appliances.
The crew on watch must remain in their positions on signal for
Emergency Drill.


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Fire alarm
Fire signal: groups of rapid rings for a period of 10 seconds on ship's
bell and the same on ship's general alarm (electric).
Person discovering fire should immediately notify the bridge and fight
the fire with available equipment until the Emergency Squad arrives.

48
In case of fire the sailor must:
1. break the glass of the fire-alarm box and press the button;
2. call up the bridge and inform the officer of the watch;
3. close the watertight doors, fire doors;
4. evacuate people if necessary;
5. bring the fire-crowbar, the fire-axe, sand and hoses to the seat of the
fire;
6. bring the hand fire nozzle to the seat of the fire and operate it;
7. put out the fire with an extinguisher.
A sailor may also act as a messenger.
Immediately upon the fire emergency signal, fire pumps to be started, all
watertight doors should be closed, and all fans and blowers to be stopped.
Fire hoses to be led immediately out in the affected area as directed.


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Flooding
Flooding signal: three long rings on general alarm bells.

49
In case of flooding the sailor must:
1. bring the collision mat and the sheets and make fast the collision mat;
2. stand by the control lanyard;
3. bring and make fast the hogging line;
4. stand by the winch;
5. if necessary, stop the hole with a cement box and sand, and liquid
glass from the inner side.


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Man overboard
Alarm signal: Immediately hail and pass to the bridge "Man overboard".
Upon hearing the signal "Man overboard" life rings, buoys must be
thrown immediately into the sea, engines must be stopped, and lookout aloft
must be sent.
Emergency Boat crew consisting of all seamen should immediately clear
lee boat for launching.
At the "man overboard" alarm the sailor must:
1. screw the drain plug;
2. carry the painters;
3. bring the blankets;
4. release the boat gripe;
5. release the life-boat falls;
6. heave in the painters;
7. launch the life-boat;
8. act as a rower.


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50
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Boat alarm
Signals:
Commencing lowering: One(1) short blast on whistle
Stop lowering: Two(2) short blasts on whistle
At the boat alarm the sailor must:
1. screw the drain plugs;
2. release the boat gripe;
3. get ready the painters;
4. release the forward (aft) life-boat falls;
5. throw the life-rafts overboard;
6. ensure safe embarkation of the life-boats and rafts;
.7 act as a helmsman.


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51
7. .

Lifeboat Launching Procedure


1. uncover the lifeboat;
2. remove harbour pins;
3. release gripes, keel block fastening, boat davit stoppers;
4. screw the drain plug;
5. release hand-rail
6. lower the embarkation ladder;
7. check the life-boat supplies (fresh water, survival pack, blankets).


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Communication at Sea
Communication at sea is necessary for the efficient and safe running of a
ship. It takes place within the ship herself, between the ship and other ships,
between the ship and shore stations and sometimes between the ship and
aircraft. Communication can be made over different distances. It uses
different methods from the simplest visual ones to the most moderns radio
technologies.
Within the ship an internal telephone system links most of
compartments. Orders from the bridge to the engine room are passed by
means of the ship's telegraph. Messages can also be given to the ship's crew
through a loudspeaker system.
Communication over short distances can be made by visual or sound
signals. Visual signals can be sent, for example, using flags. Sound signals
can be made with the ship's siren, whistle or bell. These are used in fog and
other cases when visual signals can't be seen. The number of blasts signifies
that the ship is manoeuvring in a certain way. In emergency rockets and
flares are used to signal distress.
Communication over long distances is made by radio. The Radio Officer
is responsible to the Master for the efficient operation and maintenance of

52
the communication equipment on board. Modern merchant ships provided
with automatic satellite systems need not Radio Officers and have an
Electronics Engineer Officer instead of them.



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International Code Flags


The International Code of Signals (ICS) comprises forty special flags,
which enable any vessel and Shore Signal Stations to send and receive
messages. The stowage of Code Flags for easy use must be correct. Usually
they are stowed in a Flag Locker. This is a wooden box with small square
holes in which each Code Flag is stowed separately, with the letter A, B, C,
D etc., marked clearly under each compartment. Watchmen can quickly and
easily find any flag to compose a message of one, two or three letters.
Experienced seamen know the most important signals by heart.

53
ICS signals may be transmitted not only by flags but also by radio, or
even by hand semaphore. When transmitting by voice, every letter or figure
is called according to the Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code, to avoid any
mistake in the transmitted message.


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54
- Orders


Wheel orders
Ease to five! : !
Finished with the wheel! ` : !
Hard-a-port! : : !
Hard-a-starboard! : `: !
Keep the buoy on the port : :
(starboard) bow! (`:) () !
Midships! ` !
Port! : !
Port a bit! : !
Port a little! :
Port easy! : : !
Port five! : 5 !
Starboard! : !
Starboard easy! : : !
Starboard fifteen! : `: 15 !
Steady! ` !
Steady as she goes! ` : !
Steady so! ` !
Steer for the buoy! ` : !
Steer for the leading ` : `: !
lights!
Steer for the lighthouse! ` : `` !
Steer the course! ` : !
Steer the course one two ` : : 126!
six!

- Lines
heaving line
mooring line
head line
stern line
breast line
forward spring
aft spring
messenger liner
slip rope

55

Mooring orders
Check the aft spring! :
!
Check the breast line! !
Check the forward spring! `:
!
Have (get) heaving lines () `:
ready forward and aft! ` `: :
!
Heave in the aft spring! : : !
Heave in the breast spring! : !
Heave in the forward : : !
spring!
Heave up the gangway : ` !
(ladder)! (`)
Hold on the aft spring! :
!
Hold on the breast line! !
Hold on the forward `:
spring! !
Let go fore and aft! : : !
Lower the gangway ` (`) !
(ladder)!
Make fast fore and aft! : : : !
Make fast the aft spring! : :
!
Make fast the breast line! : !
Make fast the forward : `:
spring! !
Pay away the aft spring! ` :
!
Pay away the breast line! ` !
Pay away the forward ` `:
spring! !
Pay away the head line! `
!
Pay away the heaving line! ` `:
!
Pay away the stern line! `
!
Pick up the slack on the aft
breast line! : !

56
Pick up the slack on the
head line !
Pick up the slack on the
stern line! !
Send the aft spring! :
!
Send the breast line! !
Send the head line!
!
Send the heaving line! `: !
Send the stern line!
!
Ship the fenders! ` !
Single up to the head line! ,
!
Slack away the aft spring! ` :
!
Slack away the breast line! ` !
Slack away the forward ` `:
spring! !
Slack away the head line! `
!
Slack away the heaving ` `:
line! !
Slack away the stern line! `
!
Stand by moorings! `
!
Stand by ropes!
!
Stop heaving head line! `:
!
Stop heaving stern line! `:
!
Take forward spring! `:
!
Take the head line!
!
Take the stern line!
!
Take the towing line! `
!
Unship the fenders! ` !

57

Anchoring orders
Check the cable! -!
Disengage the windlass! ` !
`
Have (get) both anchors () `
ready! ` !
Have (get) the port anchor () : `
ready! !
Have (get) the starboard () `:
anchor ready! ` !
Hold on the cable! -!
Keep the cable slackened! : ` -
!
Let go the port anchor! : ` !
Let go the starboard `: ` !
anchor!
Make fast the cable : -!
(chain)! ()
Pay away the cable! ` -!
Put the windlass in gear! ` ` !
Stand by the port anchor! : ` !
Stand by the starboard `: !
anchor! `


Engine Orders
Dead slow ahead! ` ` !
Dead slow astern! ` ` !
Faster! `: !
Finish with the engine! ` ` !
Full speed ahead! : ` !
Full speed astern! : ` !
Half ahead! : ` !
Half astern! : ` !
Half speed ahead! : : ` !
Half speed astern! : : ` !
Slow ahead! ` ` !
Slow astern! ` ` !
Slow speed ahead! ` : ` !
Slow speed astern! ` : ` !
Slower! ` !

58
Stand by the engine! ` !
Stop her! !
Stop the engine! ` !
Try the engine! ` !


Towing Orders
Give the heaving line to `:
the tug boat! `
!
Pass the heaving line to : `:
the tug boat! `
!
Give the tow line (rope) to ` (`) !
the tug boat!
Pass the tow line (rope) to : ` (`) !
the tug boat!
Slack away the tow line ` ` !
(rope)! (`)
Make fast the tow line : ` !
(rope)! (`)
Secure the tow line (rope)! ` ` !
(`)
The tow line (rope) afast! ` (`) !
`:
Let go the tow line (rope)! ` !
(`)
Heave away the tow rope! : ` ` ` !
Get the ladder ready at ` `
port (starboard) : (`:) () !
Lower the ladder! ` ` !

59
. " "
. 376

60
. " "
. 377

61
1 forepeak
2 forecastle
3 chain locker
4 forepeak bulkhead
5 double-bottom tank
6 hold
7 transverse bulkhead
8 double-bottom plating
9 engine-room
10 boiler-room
11 shaft tunnel
12 afterpeak bulkhead
13 propulsion installation
14 rudder and steering gear
15 afterpeak
16 steering gear compartment
17 flagstaff
18 flag
19 poop
20 poop deck
21 upper deck
22 second deck
23 tweendeck
24 main mast -
25 boat gear
26 funnel
27 superstructure deck
28 boat deck
29 navigating bridge deck
30 wheelhouse top
31 midship superstructure
32 fore mast -
33 cargo handling gear
34 deck house
35 hatch
36 anchor gear

62
.
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)


Container
aluminium container
prototype container
freight container
()
isotermal container

metal container
refrigerated container

series container
steel container
standard container
1 corner fitting
left-hand fitting
right-hand fitting
2 lower corner fitting
3 upper corner fitting
4 air inlet

5 roof
roof panel
6 emblem of register
7 lateral hinge
8 stopwater

9 end door
10 door locking gear
11 latch bar, locking rod
12 label, seal
13 Pocket for the carriage of
documents
14 fork-lift pocket
15 side wall, lateral wall
16 floor
17 end wall

63
load-bearing framework

18 roof rail

19 roof cross members

20 corner post
21 door opening
22 bs cross -members

23 side rail, bottom rail

lower frame
Marking scheme
1 owner's mark and serial
number
2 maximum gross weight in
kilogrammes and in short tons

3 tare weight in kilogrammes and
in short tons

4 A single code letter for external
overall dimensions of the freigh
container

5 A two digit code number for
the type of freight container
6 , , A character to indicate that it is
a freight container

7 -, Country of ownership in a code
of up to three letters (if required)
(
)
8 Load in stacking (total)

()

64

65