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, 2015 .

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, X XI .,
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963/64 . .
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960- . 960-
. 980 . .

980- ., ,
980 ., .
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.1 IX XI .

,
VIII IX . ,
X ..
,
800 .;

1

: Noonan T.S. Dirham Exports to the Baltic in the Viking Age: Some
Preliminary Observations // Sigtuna Papers: Proceedings of the Sigtuna Symposium On Viking-Age Coinage 1-4 June
1989 / Eds. K. Jonsson, B. Malmer (Commentationes de Nummis Saeculorum IX XI in Suecia Repertis. Nova Series
6). Stockholm, 1990. P. 251258; Idem. Volga Bulghrias Tenth-Century Trade with Smnid Central Asia // AEMA.
20002001. Vol. 11. P. 140219; . . //
, , , : . . . .. . .,
2005. . 256311.
/ 2. ,
875880 ., .3
, ,
900 ., ,
4.
, IX .
/ ,
900 . XI .
- .
XI .
5.
, IX X .
, 900 .
, , .
IX .,
X .
.
,
, ..
( : , ,
) X .6.

X XI .
C -
. - ( , )

. , ()
(- ) 651 700- .,
(

2
Noonan. When and How Dirhams First Reached Russia?: A Numismatic Critique of the Pirenne Theory // Cahiers du
Monde Russe et Sovitique. 1980. Vol. 21. P. 401469; Idem. Why Dirhams First Reached Russia?: The Role of Arab-
Khazar Relations in the Development of the Earliest Islamic Trade with Eastern Europe // AEMA. 1984. Vol. 4. P.
151282; Idem. Khazaria as an Intermediary Between Islam and Eastern Europe in the Second Half of the Ninth
Century: The Numismatic Perspective // AEMA. 1985. Vol. 5. P. 179204; Idem. When Did Rs/Rus First Visit
Khazaria and Baghdad? // AEMA. 19871991. Vol. 7. P. 213219.
3
Noonan. The First Major Silver Crisis in Russia and the Baltic, c. 875 c. 900 // Hikuin. 1985. Vol. 11. P. 4150.
4
Noonan. The Tenth-Century Trade of Volga Bulghria P. 147151; .. 913/14 . .
. // : , , .
(., 2629 , 2002). ., 2002. C. 160164.
5
Noonan, T.S. The Onset of the Silver Crisis in Central Asia // AEMA. 19871991. Vol. 7. P. 221248.
6
Kovalev R.K. The Role of Khazaria and Volga Bulria in Trade Relations Between the Near East and European
Russia During the Tenth Through the Early Eleventh Centuries: The Numismatic Evidence, Pt. I // AEMA. 2011. Vol.
18. P. 106-117; Idem. The Role of Khazaria and Volga Bulria in Trade Relations Between the Near East and
European Russia During the Tenth Through the Early Eleventh Centuries: The Numismatic Evidence, Pt. II //
AEMA ( ).

2
7) VIII ., .

.
( )
, ,
8 . ,
, 800 830 .
- 9.
830 . , 800 .,
, , , 10.
IX . ,
: 802 813 . , 802/03, 805810 .
, ,
IX ., .
VII
VIII ., ,
IX ..
X .
; e, . ,
.
, 800 .. ,
X . .
944/45 . , (, ,
, -, )
: 944 . 963/64 . , , , -
. ,
, 944/45 963/64 .
.
3,5% ,

7
2,08 ,
. , 740- . 2,05
, 1,6 +2,4 ( 1,96 ,
1,982,00 ). .: Malek H.M. The Dbyid Ispahbads and Early Abbsid Governors of abaristn: History and
Numismatics / Royal Numismatic Society Special Publications, . 39. London, 2004; Album S. Checklist of Islamic
Coins / 3rd ed. Santa Rosa, CA. 2011, P. 29; Kravtsov K. An Obscure Period in the History of Tabaristan (760s AD):
Analysis of Written and Numismatic Sources // Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society. 2011. . 209. P. 56.
8
Kovalev R.K. When and What Regions of the Islamic World Exported Sasanian and Arab-Sasanian Silver Coins to
Early Viking-Age Northern Lands? // Myntstudier. Festskrift till Kenneth Jonsson / Eds. T. Talvio, M.
Wijk . Stockholm, 2015. P. 6883.
9
Noonan T.S. Ninth Century Dirham Hoards from European Russia: A Preliminary Analysis // Viking-Age Coinage in
the Northern Lands: The Sixth Oxford Symposium on Coinage and Monetary History / Eds. M.A.S. Blackburn,
D.M. Metcalf (British Archaeological Reports, International Series . 122). Oxford, 1981. P. 71.
10
.., .. , 2000 .
// . 2003. T. 10. . 152153 (. I); Kovalev R. When and What
Regions of the Islamic World. P. 79.

3
X XI . ( 1)11.
, X .
.
, (
, ,
),
X . ,
12. , 960 .
, ,
: ,
. ,
,
.
: 70%
, 960 1010 ., .
78% ,
800830 ., , 800 .13.

1: ( ,
).

11
Kovalev R.K. The Production of Dirhams in the Coastal Caspian Sea Provinces of Northern Iran in the Tenth-Early
Eleventh Centuries and their Circulation in the Northern Lands // AEMA. 2012. Vol. 19. P. 133183; Idem. Dirham
Mint Output in the Southern Caspian Sea Provinces of Gln, abaristn, Jurjn, and Qmis in the Tenth-Early
Eleventh Centuries // . .
: ( ).
12
Idem. The Role of Khazaria and Volga Bulria. P. 106117.
13
Noonan T.S. Ninth Century Dirham Hoards. P. 71.

4
70
68
66
64
62
60
58
56
54
52
50
48
46
44
42
40
38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
932

965

998

1001/02
1003/04
918/19
920/21
922/23
924/25
926/27
928/29
930/31

933/34
935/36
937/38
939/40
941/42
943/44
945/46
947/48
949/50
951/52
953/54
955/56
957/58
959/60
961/62
963/64

966/67
968/69
970/71
972/73
974/75
976/77
978/79
980/81
982/83
984/85
986/87
988/89
990/91
992/93
994/95
996/97

999/1000

2: ,
, . .
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
910-919 920-929 930-939 940-949 950-959 960-969 970-979 980-989 990-999 1000-1009

,
, , (
, , , , , )
(, , , -, , -,
, - ). 964/65 .

5
991/92 . (. 1 2). 30
(
),
. , 87%
. 990- .,
980- ..
,
X ., 960980-e .. ,

,
.
, . , , 960 .
, ,
. , ,
,

. , ,
-
960-980- .

. ,
, , X .,
, ,
-, 965 .. ,
, ?

, 960-,
980- .: ,
.
() ( )
.

.
, -,
6751100 . 1700
,
14. (
5 ),
, 121 , 7,1%
, X XI . 121

14
Noonan Th.S., Kovalev R.K. Dirham Hoards from Medieval Western Eurasia, c. 700-c. 1100 (Commentationes De
Nummis Saeculorum IXXI in Suecia Repertis. Nova series 13) (Stockholm, ).

6
1286 , 15.
(111 92%)
(1234 96%) ( 1).
, ,
X .,
, . , ,
(,
, -) 94,6% 96,7%, 95,4%.
,
89,498,3%, 95,5%. ,
, ,
, , ( 3+%
) 16. ,
, , ,
.

1. X
XI .




/ 4 3,3% 42 3,27%

2 1,6% 2 0,15%
/

4 3,3% 8 0,62%
/
1 0,8% 1 0,08%
5 4,1% 7 0,5%

11 9,1% 31 2,4%
17 14% 17 1,3%
11 9,1% 35 2,7%
66 54,5% 1143 88,8%

(,
, )
121 100 1286 100

15
, ,
, .
, - , - . ,

. ,
, , - .
16
Kovalev. The Production of Dirhams. P. 157.

7
,
, , , -,
, 19,926,2% ( 22,7%)
65,977,4% ( 72,9%) . ,
23% , 73%
, , 5% .

, : 87,7%
, 7,8% .

. ,
, , ,
( ).
, ,
: 1,6% , ,
58% , 17.
, .

? (
), ,
,
950 .18. , ,
, -
( - ) 950 .,
( ),
19.
X ., ,
-
. , ,
. ,
: (
, . )
( . ,
).
( , .
) 940-e 960- . ,
,

17
Kovalev. The Production of Dirhams. P. 158159 (Table III-A-E).
18
Noonan T.S. When did Dirham Imports in Tenth-Century Sweden Decline? // Numismatiska Meddelanden 1989. Vol.
37. Festskrift till L.O. Lagerqvist. P. 295301; Idem. The Vikings in the East: Coins and Commerce // Developments
Around the Baltic and the North Sea in the Viking Age / The Twelfth Viking Congress. Birka Studies. Vol. 3 / Eds. B.
Ambrosiani, H. Clarke. Stockholm, 1994. P. 234235.
19
Kovalev R.K. Circulation of Smnid Dirhams in Viking-Age Northern and Eastern Europe (Based on the Mints of
Samarqand and al-Shsh) // Dirham Hoards and Monetary Circulation in the Northern Lands in the 10th Century //
Papers from the Oriental Numismatic Workshop Held in Oxford, 1-2 August, 2011 ( ).

8
(Gannarve, Gotland, tpq 944/4520). , 950-
960- . (Kastlsa, land, tpq 953/54; Stora
Velinge, Gotland, tpq 957/58, Pavalds, Gotland, tpq 958/59; Vstergrde, Gotland, tpq 961/62; Stora
Vikers II, Gotland, tpq 963/64). , ()
(Saue/Friedrichshof, tpq 951/52). -
(. , ., tpq 952/53; . , ., tpq 960/61?),
(. , ., tpq 960-)
. (m. Puck, Pomorze, tpq 965) 960-.
, ,
, , ,
950- . 960- .
, (
). , - ,
11 11 940-
960-x . , ,
,
. , , -
, 960- . .
( , .
) 970- . ,
970- .,
(18/19 , 81/83 ).
(15, 57 )
, - ( )
, ( 2). 60%
(25 ), 970- .,
. , 9 38 , 24% ( ,
), , 970- .,
25 960- . ,
,
970- .. ,
970- .: 971/72 978/79 . ,
,
960- 970- . ,
. ,
, . , ( . .
) . , . . , -
, ,
960970- ..

20
tpq = terminus post quem ,
.
, , ;
, , ,
.

9
2. , , 970-x .
(, )



1. , ., tpq 971/72 7
2. , ., tpq 973/74 5
3. , ., tpq 973/74 3
4. a, ., tpq 973/74 5+?
5. , ., tpq 974/75 9
6. , ., tpq 975/76 1
7. , ., tpq 975/76 4+?
8. , ., tpq 976/77 5
9. , ., tpq 976/77 3
10. , ., tpq 976/77 1
11. , ., tpq 976/77 5
12. oo, ., tpq, 976/77 5
13. Capitoline Stanzani II, ?, tpq 978/79 1
14. , ., tpq 978/79 2
15. , ., tpq 970/71979/80 1

970- . ,
, (Zalesie, Wielkopolska, tpq .
976 8 , Dzierznica, Wielkopolska, tpq . 976982 , 10 21) -
(, Kehra, tpq . 979 6 ).
, 970- .
, . ,
973/74 . (.. ) ;
, 976 . (..
); , 978/79 (..
, ). , 11 ,
, 960- .,
9 970- ., 82% .
, ,
, ,
. , 970- .
970- .
970- . :
,
, (Fgelsngen, Sdermanland, tpq

21
, . , . 15000 ,
- , . , , ,
, 1300 , 130
, . ,

. , ,
, , , .

10
976/77), , 962/63 .. ,
, 960- .
, ,
(Waterneversdorf, Schleswig-Holstein),
(946974 . 968/69 .),
970- . ( , tpq 976/77
994/95 .). , ,
( ,
), , .
, , -
- ()
(Wielkopolska). ,

.
( , .
) 980- . , 980- .
, ,
, ,
- ,
. , 980- .
. 980- . 10
( , 970- .), 55 . 8
, 47 , :
, ., tpq 980/81 1 ; , ., 1958, tpq 982/83 3;
, ., tpq 982/83 4; Capitoline Stanzani III, ?, tpq 982/83 5;
, 1976, tpq 983/84 1; , ., tpq 986/87 15;
, ., tpq 987 1; , tpq 988/89 3; ,
., tpq 988/89 14). 970- .
, , ,
57 47. , 980- .
, 970- . ,
, 970- - , -
. ,
980- . , ,
960970- . 980- .,
980- .
, (tpq 988/89),
987/88 988/89. , tpq
, 7 160 (?) . tpq
,
, .. 900- 1000- . 980-
. , , 981/82 .,
, , , 940-
950- . 35 : 940- 1; 950- 1; 960-
7; 970- 19; 980- 7.
, , ,
, 980- . 970- .,

11
24% 20%. , 980- .
,
, , 960- 970-,
980- . , .
, , , , 980- .,
, , 980- .,
, , , , ,
, , 980-
970- ., ,
980- . . ,
980- ., .
980- .
. 980- .
; 8 .
- ( , tpq 980/81 6 ) (Tartu,
tpq 984/85 2 ). , ..
970- 980- . 976/77 .,
974/75 . , , -
980- ., ..
970- . , 980- .
,
980- . ,
,
980- .
980- .
980- . , ,
, -
,
. , , ,
( ) 13 ,
900- . 979/80 . 22, ( ,
., tpq . 950 ., , ., tpq . 950 .)
, 939/40 . (
-, ). ,
, 900-x 980 .,
(
, 900- ., IX X .),
, ,
. , ,
, 980 . ,
980 ., ,

22
, 11: 1. , , 1853, tpq 892907; 2.
, ., 1915, tpq 908/09; 3. , , 1957, tpq 909/10; 4. .,
, , 1840, tpq 913/14; 5. , , 1885, tpq 919/20; 6.
, ., 1970, tpq 925/26; 7. , , 19701971, tpq 938/39; 8. ,
., 1856, tpq 939/40; 9. , ., 2012, tpq 964/65; 10. , ,
1895, tpq 969/70; 11. , , , 2012, tpq 961976.

12
3 , 978/79? 979/80 .: I,
., tpq 979/80 (3 ,
950/51); / , , tpq 979/80 (4 ,
, : 968/69,
970/71-976/77, 979/80); , ., tpq 978/79? ( 2
, 968/69 978/79). ,
, , ,

.
, 980- . 7 ,
: , , tpq 981/82 3 ; , , tpq
981/82 23; , , tpq 984/85 50; ,
, tpq 984/85 318; /, , tpq 988/89 3; ,
., tpq 989/90 4; , ., tpq 989/90 8.
409 . 270 ,
, : 910- 3
(1,1%); 950- 2 (0,7%); 960- 40 (14,8%); 970- 151 (55,9%); 980- 74 (27,4%); 39
, 967978 . , ,
24% ,
, (.., ,
), (56,7%)
, 970- . ,
980 ., , 409 ,
980- ., . ,
,
980- .. ,
,
. , ,
980- .
, ,
. , , , , 980- .
. , ,
() ( ),
.
990- . 990- .
( , 23) ,
, , .
( , , 21 ), :
, , tpq 992/93-996/9724 ( 2
1, , 992/93-996/97) , , tpq 994/95 18.
, 990- ., 20
.
, ,
, 980 ..
, , ,

23
Kovalev R. The Role of Khazaria and Volga Bulria. P. 146148.
24
Lebedev V.P. Hoards with Kufic Dirhams // Dirham Hoards and Monetary Circulation ( ).

13
992/93996/97. 18
( , , ,
)
: 969/70, 977/78, 978/79, 979/80, 980/81, 981/82 (2), 982/83, 983/84,
985/86, 988/89 (2), 989/90, 990/91 (3), 993/94 994/95, .., 5,5% 960-, 16,7%
970-, 50% 980- 27,8% 990-. 78% 979/80 . 50%
985/86 . , 980- .,
. 980- . ,
970- ., 55,9% , 990- . ,
980- ., 50%; , 980- . 980- .
27,4%, , 990- . 990- 27,8%. ,
, () 980- 990- . C
25. , 980- .
.
( , .
) 990- . 5 ,
990- . 99 : ,
. tpq 990 3 ; , ., tpq 994/95 30;
., tpq 995/96 6; , ., tpq 996/97 . 40; ,
., tpq . 999 20. , ,
, (),
. , 33-
: 960- . 7; 970- 15; 980- 4 : 979/980 . 28 (85%), 984/85 . 32
(97%); 984/85 . 1 (3%). , 990- . C
78% 979/80 ., 50%
985/86 .,
15%, 979/80 ., 3% 984/85 .
, (987/88 )
984/85 . ,
, 960- 970- .,
, 990- .,
. 990- .
, 22% .
, .., 985 ., 18%

25
990- ., , ,
( ), tpq 980 990 .
48 (.., 50 ).
, 22 : 4-
-- (936967 .); 2- -- (947977 .); 2- -- (949982 .);
14-, -- (977997 .), . . X .
, -- 970990 . (14 ). , ,
, , , ,
, , . ,
.
, ,
980- . 990- . , ,
: 980-,
, ; 990- .,
.

14
, 990- ..

980- 990- . , , ,
, 980- 990- ., C
, ,
, - 990- .
- .
, 990- .
, , 980- . ,
990- . 6 , 7 :
(Moskorze, Pomorze, tpq . 991 1 ; Bogucino, Pomorze, . 995
1; Poczyn-Zdrj, Pomorze, tpq . 996 1), (Niedelandin, Brandenburg, tpq . 996 2;
Alexanderhof, Brandenburg, tpq . 996 1) (stjdra, Vstmanland, tpq . 991 1).
, 990- .
. , 990- .
, 970-
980- ., 990- . , ..

. , , .., 980-
990- . ,
945/46 975/76 . 970- .
, 990- .
, , 980- . ,
990- . (99 5 !),
.
1000 1010 .
990- ., XI . C
, , 3. ,
8 :
173 : , ., tpq 1002/03 1 ;
II, , tpq 1005/06 154 ; , , tpq 1008/09
18 . , ,
, X XI .
, ,
39- , 982999 . II,
26. (988990 .
991995 .), ( 15
). , ,
, . ,
, 169 1000- . 997 .
: 990999 ., 990 . (10), 997/98 (5), 998 (2), 998/991001/02 (106), 1002/03 (43),
26
, 33 , -- --,
984/85989/90 ., 990/91 . ; 5 , 997/98 . ;
, 106 , 998/9 1001/02 . 43 1002/03 .
(Lebedev P.V. Hoards with Kufic Dirhams -
, , , 984/85 . ,
, C
- (974991 .) 978984/85 ., , .

15
1004/05 (2). , 10 ,
27.
, XI .
, ,
, .
. -, , , ..,
, 960- 990- .,
1000 .. , ,
, X XI .
, , ,
, (. ).
. -,
, 980- . ,
XI ., , ,
1000- . (.
). . tpq 1008/09 .
, , XI .
, .
,
XI . X .
(!), ,
980- . , 1000- .,
900- 1000- . , 990- .
. , ,
1000- .
1000-,
960- 980-: 6,6% ,
X XI ., .
990- . (2,83,4%).
, 1000- .
, , ,
. , 1000- .
, 990- .,
XI . ,
, 1008/09 . .

XI ., ,
, -

27
, , XI ., ,
, . , ,
, ., tpq 1001/02 ., 50
, 14 . 14 : 12 , 1
1 / . , : 1 978/79
982/83 .; 974 991 .; 9 985/86 995/96 . , -
, .
, ,
1000- . .. ,
.

16
, () - ,
(). 1000-
.: II, , ( ., tpq
1001/02). II 64,3% (184 )
, ,
38,3% (164 ). ()
1,75% (5 ) , ,
. ,

. , ,
() , ,
,
, , ,
. , 977980 .,
() ,
() ( , A )28.
(.., , )
() ,
950- ., 970- .,
-, 29. , , ,
, ,
. , ..
, . , ,
,
: 56% II 79,3%
.
, ,
XI .
( )
( , ),
C . , ,
28
Ibn Fadln and the Land of Darkness. Arab Travellers in the Far North / Trans. by P. Lunde, C. Stone. London; New
York. 2012. P. 176.
29
() ( 959/60 .) 970- .
: (tpq 971/72), (tpq 973/74), (tpq 976/77).
, ,
e, , . ()
(, Dzierznica, tpq ca. 976982 .: 1 ?
?; : Nsby, Sdermanland, tpq 967/68 . : 1 , 95(6)/5(7) .?; Snckarve, Gotland,
tpq ca. 991 .: , 956/57 .). , , 970- .
, -
, A , - .
, , 970-
., , . , ,
( ) 980-x .,
(Kovalev R. The Role of Khazaria and Volga
Bulria. P. 99101). ,
() 1000- .
A X . .: Ab-Dulaf Misar Ibn Muhalhils Travels in Iran
(circa A.D. 950) / Trans. and comm. V. Minorsky. Cairo, 1955. Ch. 5758. P. 58.

17
, ,
,
, C 1000- .
, ,
.
( , .
) 1000 1010 . XI .

222 ( , ., tpq . 1000 . 11 ; ,
., tpq 1000 .? 1; , ., tpq 9991002 . . 1; ,
., tpq 1000/01 . 9; , ., tpq 1002/03 .
2; , ., tpq 1003/04 . 72; . , . tpq
1008/09 . 126, . , ., tpq ca. 1010 .? (
)30. , 4 8 (, ,
) . ,
980- 990- ., , . ,
, , , ,
980- .: 965978 . (960- 4; 970- 7). ,
72 , , 968/69985/86 .
( ). . ,
980-990- .,
994/95 . , 77 52,7% 960-
970- ., 69, 47,3% X .:
980-e 28 (980/81984/85 . 17; 985/86989/90 . 8; 980-e . 3); 980-e990-e . 11;
990-e . 2 ( 990 . 994/95 .). , , , ,
, 10 8,5% 985/86 . ,
980-990- ., . . ,
, 985999 . , 50%
C . ,
, 990- .,
. ,
980- 990- ., .
, .
, ,
, ,
980-, 990- 1000- .: , (tpq 994/95
.), II (tpq 1005/06 .) (tpq 1008/09 .). .
, , (tpq . 1010 .?), ,
, ,
990- . . . ,

30
, . - . 2010 .
, 325 (!) ,
( ). ,
, .
tpq 1010 . ( ..
XXI //
VIIIXI .. . 2014. . 84
91; Lebedev V.P. Hoards with kufic dirhams.).

18
, - ,
, 1000- .. ,
,
980- .
, 980- .
: , tpq 1003/04 ., 985/86 .; , tpq . 999 .,
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,
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,
, X XI .,
, .., ,
C 1000- .,
31
. , 1992; -. , , . . 1997; Kovalev R.K. Commerce
and Caravan Routes Along the Northern Silk Road (Sixth-Ninth Centuries). Part I: The Western Sector // AEMA.
2005. Vol. 14. P. 92104.
32
: (1), (7), A -
(1), (379), (17), (2), A (2), (4), , (162),
(74), , (3), e (4), / (1), (5), a (1)
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19
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30
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, 1000- ., 970-980- .33.

, 990- ., , , 1000- ., ,
1000- ., .
XI .
,
. ,
6 10 11 (Oobok, Wielkopolska, tpq .
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11 , 107
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, 983/84 . ) , ..

33
Kovalev R. The Production of Dirhams in the Coastal Caspian Sea Provinces. P. 173; Idem. Circulation of Smnid
Dirhams.

20
980/81 .34. , , 980- .,
1010 .,
. ,
- .

3: ( ,
. ) 1010 .



1. , . tpq 1002-1024 3
2. , ., tpq 1010-1015 7
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4 1010 .,
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21
XI . .

4: ,
1010 .


1. Liswek, Wielkopolska, , tpq . 1011 1
2. Vaabina, , tpq 1013/14 5
3. Wps/Vpsu, , tpq . 1015 3
4. Paunkla B, , tpq . 1009-1017 1
5. Thurow, , tpq . 1020 1
6. Eversmuia, Ludzen, , tpq . 1025 8
7. Skedstad, land, , tpq 1029 1
8. Rawicz, Wielkopolska, , tpq . 1037 1
9. Nygrds, Gotland, , tpq . 1038 1
10. Repshof/Rbise, , tpq . 1038-1040 1
11. Wangels, , tpq . 1040 1
12. stra Byrummet, Gotland, , tpq . 1042 1
13. Jrsi, , tpq . 1046 1
14. Grestad, Blekinge, , tpq 1056 1
15. Torp, land, , tpq . 1060 1
16. Linnaniemi, , tpq . 1090 1
17. Gerete, Gotland, , tpq . 1099 1
18. Olustvere, , tpq . 1079-1102 1

, ,
, , ,
, 3 31, 980/81 .
Vaabina (981/82), Wangels
(982/83) Eversmuia (984/85).
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. 980-1000- . (
), , 980 .,
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. X .
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35
10 (9%) :
- (4 3,6%), (2 1,8%), (1
0,9%) (3 2,7%). 52 ( 4,5%
).

22
, . ,
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, .
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-. ,

,
. , 950960- .,
.

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, 944/45 963/64 .,
,
. ,
950960-

36
Ibn Fadln and the Land of Darkness. P. 425.

23
., 37 ,
, , .
IX ., ,
38. ,
,
,
.., 940- 950- .,
. ,

, ,
, , .
,
,
. , ,
965- ( 969-) .,

969 .39 ,

.
, ,
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X .
( ),
41.
, ,

37
E-x ( . 950960 .) ,

( .. - X . . 1932. . 8384). ,
X . (
943/44) 940- 950- .
: (Golb N., Pritsak O. Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century. Ithaca; New York, 1982. P.
139140; Pritsak O. The Origin of Rus. Vol. I Old Scandinavian Sources other than Sagas. Cambridge, Mass. 1981. P.
434451).
38
, ,
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, .: Ibn Fadln and the Land of Darkness. P. 127, 132133, 155, 159, 175; Martinez A.P. Gardzs Two
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39
,
965 969 ,
- 965 ., -
969 ., : .. (VXIII
.) // AEMA. 2005. Vol. 14 ( VVII). . 119136; ..
// . 2001 . ., 2003. . 171187.
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Noonan T.S. Volga Bulghrias Tenth-Century Trade with Smnid Central Asia. P. 213214; Graph H., Kovalev R.K.
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24
. , / 960-
., (- ) ,
, ,
( ) , ..
. , ,
, , .
,
, ,
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.
,
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978 982 ., 980- .42?
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960- 970- . , , 960- .,

, 970- ..
,
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. , 960- 970- .
, , , .
, , ,
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? , 980- .
,
,
. -, ,

42
: ..
. . 137140; .. . . 187190.

25
( )
, 980 ., ,
,
.
, - 977
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.
,
, 980985 .44.
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, 11311136 . (,
), , 45. ,
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, , 980- .
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, , , .
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(976997 .) - ()47.
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, ,
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. , ,
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43
. . 1. . 7481.
44
.. . ., 1962. C. 433434; .. . C. 188.
45
.., .. -
(11311153 .). ., 1971. . 27. ,
, ,
, , , ,
, .: ., .
// . 2006. T. 2. 25. . 52.
45
Minorsky V. Studies in Caucasian History. London, 1977. P. 114; Pritsak. The Origin of Rus. P. 437.
46
Minorsky V. Studies in Caucasian History. London. 1953/1977. P. 114, n. 2; Pritsak. The Origin of Rus. P. 437.
47
Mneim-bai. aif al-akhbr, Bb a-adddiya // Minorsky V. Studies in Caucasian History. P. 29, 46; Pritsak
O. The Origin of Rus. P. 436.
48
.. . C. 433434; .. . C. 188189.
49
. . 1. . 84.

26

.

980- .,
, 980
. . , 980 .,
( , ),
, ,
,
.

, . ,
,
980- . , -a 982
., ,
, 50 . ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, -
. ,

980-:
, 970- .
, -
, 984/85 .
. 985 . . ,
, ,
, 960- 970- ., ,

51.

50
udd al-lam / The Regions of the World. A Persian Geography 372 A.H. 982 A.D. / Trans. by V. Minorsky V.
London, 1970. P. 160.
51
, ,
, ,
. ,
, 1120 . ,
a . ,
. , ,
(Marvaz. Sharaf al-Zamn hir Marvaz on China, the Turks and India / Trans. by V. Minorsky. London, 1942.
P. 36). , .
,
980-, 985 .,
o,
, , .
a , , .
, .

27
, 985
., 990- .
XVI . ,
994 ., 997 . 52.
,
990-
1000- . , , , ,
.
.. , 1006 .
, , -
53. ,

,
, 800 .
. , XI .

.
- (908-932
.). ,
. ,
(), .
X . XI .,
, ,
( , ,
, ). 1010- 1020-x .
20-40%,
, 943 . 92,5% (
99%). , , XI .
( , , )
() ,
(a, e, , ), ()
( , , () ),
- / (,
54 ), .
,
. ,
,
. 1015

52
. . IX. . ., 1862. . 65, 66.
53
.. . II. 118. ..
8- . . 2. ., 1963. C. 69.
54
a (- )
I (10311041 .).

28
.55.
, ,
, ,
. , ,
.
, 990- 1000- .,
- . ,
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,
56. XI . ,
,
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,
.. , 1088 .57.


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R.K. Kovalev
THE ROLE OF THE RUS AND THE VOLGA BULGARS IN THE IMPORT OF NORTH-
IRANIAN DIRHAMS TO EUROPE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 10TH EARLY 11TH
CENTURIES

The article discusses the nature of trade relations between northern Iran and eastern Europe during
the first half of the 10th early 11th centuries. In addition to exploring these commercial ties, several
observations are made regarding the political history of eastern Europe. The author considers both
the patterns of the deposition of north-Iranian dirhams found in eastern and northern Europe as well
as their chronology of import in the 10th early 11th centuries. Beginning with 963/64, great
numbers of dirhams were regularly issued in northern Iran and this region was the only area of the
Islamic world where these coins circulated. Thus, the southern region of the Caspian Sea was the
only source of these coins and all the ones that were found in the North (Northern lands) of
Europe could only have come from northern Iran. Interestingly, none of these dirhams were
available in the lands of Volga Bulgharia until ca. 980. The absence of those coins in the middle
Volga region up to 980 is testimony to the fact that Khazaria, being an intermediary in the trade of
Islamic silver, very successfully blocked the transfer of these coins from the Caspian basin up to the
collapse of the Khazar state in the 960s under pressure of the Rus'. Between the 960s and ca. 980 it
was the Rus who came to block Volga Bulgharia from access to these coins. The quite sudden end
in the notable flow of northern Iranian dirhams into the western areas of eastern Europe starting with
ca. 980 and their concurrent appearance in large volumes in the middle Volga region seems to
bespeak the termination in the direct access of the Rus to the Caspian Sea and their replacement by
the Volga Bulghars. Henceforth, beginning with ca. 980, the Rus had to travel to the middle Volga
to access northern Iranian coins and Near Eastern goods, in general.
Key-words: Circulation, hoard, dirham, Arab Caliphate, Northern Iran, Rus, Volga Bulgaria,
Khazaria.

32

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