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Adel Hooshyar, Mohammad Ali Riahi, GHasem Zargar

MS student, Adel Hooshyar, Abadan Petroleum University of Technology

(PUT),Abadan,Iran,adel.hooshyar.nd@yahoo.com

graduated until in MSc Oil Exploration

Identifying the location of hydrocarbon reservoirs from

seismic data using continuous wavelet transform

Abstract:

It is decades from beginning of usage of seismic method and the last three decades is the

peak of efforts and studies to improve the efficiency of the method for displaying the better

and more accurate picture from complex geological structures. In seismic sections many

events and important geological structures in reservoir discussions are not recognizable and

are invisible in usual methods, so lots of efforts for using different approaches and

innovation of new methods are done to determine some other important properties that are

concerned in geology and petroleum engineering.

Access to reservoir geology, reservoir fluid and the reservoir geometry from seismic data,

using different analytical methods, is one of the most challenges in petroleum engineering.

However, conventional seismic techniques before were not successful in determining

and drawing on thin sections and indicating hydrocarbon locations. Spectral decomposition

methods were great progress in determining reservoirs characteristics. Also, complex

reservoir structures such as reef that have a significant potential of hydrocarbon

accumulation, determine the low-frequency shadows beneath hydrocarbon reservoirs,

especially in important gas reservoirs including sandstone reservoir that is not visible in

usual and common seismic sections and several other items.Since the time-frequency

mapping is a non-unique process, there are many approaches for non-static signal analysis.

In the past two decades Wavelet Transform has been used in many branches of science and

engineering. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) uses a different method in time-

frequency analysis. In this way, instead of supplying time-frequency spectrum, it provides

time-scale map which is called Scalogram. Since the scale shows a frequency band, it is

understandable to interpret signals frequency content.

Spectral analysis methods can be powerful approaches of extracting information from

seismic data to reach the location of hydrocarbon reservoir. In recent efforts, Spectral

analysis methods have been introduced as a direct hydrocarbon indicator. This is paper

shows the application of CWT as a hydrocarbon indicator to reveal the location of gas in a

southern Iranian field.

frequency mapping, Continuous wavelet transform

. Introduction:

In seismic exploration, all the methods that provide continuous analysis of time -

frequency of seismic trace is called spectral analysis. So it is possible to have the

frequency spectrum for each temporal sample of seismic traces. Figure -a is an

example of trace with different frequencies and figure -b is its frequency spectrum [].

In the early nineties the method was promoted to one of the most important tool for

seismic data interpretation. So far, for the main applications, this technique has

concentrated to successfully detect the subtle stratigraphic features [,] and recently as

a direct hydrocarbon indicator is used.

Figure-a) Trace that is made by different frequencies superimposed un each other and -b) its frequency

spectrum.

From the beginning of digital recording, the seismic trace was decomposed to its

Fourier components to suppress the low frequency ground rolls, the noises from human

activities, and high frequency random noises. Many features that are difficult to

visualize in the time domain often can be illustrates in frequency-domain representation

of a time-series. The manner in which the time series is mapped into the frequency

domain determines the amount of new information that can be obtained. The amplitude

and phase spectra of a whole seismogram represent the frequency behavior averaged

over the entire (stationary) time series. This standard Fourier-based method is a tool for

interpretation and is the basis for seismic data processing methods such as frequency

filtering, deconvolution, and wavelet characteristics. Alternatively, instantaneous

frequency and phase are attributes of complex trace analysis that are used to describe

changes in spectral behavior along the seismogram. However, these attributes are scalar

parameters and do not describe the complete spectrum at each time point [].

Since seventies the spectral balancing technique and spectral filtering with moving

window was began. In this way, each trace divides to series of shorter overlap traces;

those are concentrating temporally around events in original trace. The longer window,

usually between milliseconds and milliseconds, makes better quality in

frequency resolution; but shorter window with length milliseconds, provides

weaker results. This shortage is result of an assumption that is a reflection of lower

layers has a white spectrum. But the reflections from lower layers are not white and this

will distribute the spectral balancing during the process. The seismic data are not

stationary in nature so their frequency content will change during the time. According to

spectral balancing, the spectrum analysis of shorter windows was discussed since

middle of Nineties [].

Usually the seismograms with highly changeable frequency content considered a non-

stationary signal so they need Non-standard methods for decomposition. For a more

complete description of the frequency content varies with the time, it needs the spectral

decomposition of signal in two dimensional time-frequency domain. In this way the

entire bandwidth spectrum for each temporal sample can be described and it can be used

to detect superimposed seismic events.Idea of using spectral analysis with shorter

windows comes from seismic interpretation, not from seismic processing. Seismic

Interpreters are interested in related spectral measurements, such as measuring the

frequency where the tuning occurs, and do not require absolute frequency content.

The content of this spectrum can be used to detect lateral changes in thickness and

homogeneous, also it can be used as a direct hydrocarbon Indicator.

Most of functions and their transforms are considered into two domains. In the old text,

they refer to high and low domains. They also named as a function domains and

transform domains but in most physical applications these areas are called time and

frequency domains.

Since time-frequency mapping is a non-unique process, there exist various methods for

time-frequency analysis of non-stationary signals.So from a single seismic trace can

produce various time-frequency analyses. There are a variety of spectral decomposition

methods. These include the DFT (discrete Fourier Transform), MEM (maximum

entropy method), DWT (discrete wavelet transform), CWT (continuous wavelet

transform), and MPD (matching pursuit decomposition). None of these methods are,

strictly speaking, right or wrong. Each method has its own advantages and

disadvantages, and different applications require different methods [].

Wavelet analysis, determines frequency distribution of a non-stationary time series

using a series of windows which are partial in time support and band limited in

frequency domain. This window functions are similar to a small wave which find grow

or decrease in short periods of time, And therefore their names are wavelet. Methods

like wavelet shaping or wavelet deconvolution that are using usually in seismic data

processing, should not be confused with wavelet analysis that is a new published issue

in mathematics and signal processing. As same as Fourier analysis, the wavelet analysis

concludes transforms like wavelet series expansion, continuous wavelet transform,

discrete wavelet transform and wavelet packet transform. These transforms are all

reversible and therefore suitable for data filtering. Wavelet analysis acts like a

mathematical microscope. When a window function has a long length in time domain,

the roughness image of under studying signal structure will be obtained. When the scale

changes, i.e. the analyze window is narrow, Partial signal characteristics will be seen

well. The continuous wavelet transform first time was introduced by Morlet () and

Goupillaud (), but the union signal processing attention, was completely attracted

by Mallat ().

. Experimental:

.. Continuous Wavelet Transform:

Continuous wavelet transform is an alternating method for analysis of frequency

distribution of non-stationary time series. The temporal signal decomposes to time-scale

spectrum that is called Scalogram. There are so many methods for transforming the

time-scale spectrum to time-frequency spectrum that are based on wavelet transform.

Wavelet analysis specifies the frequency distribution of non-stationary time series using

a set of windows.

The higher scales correspond to the most "stretched" wavelets. The more stretched the

wavelet, the longer the portion of the signal with which it is being compared, and thus

the coarser the signal features being measured by the wavelet coefficients. Thus, there is

a correspondence between wavelet scales and frequency as revealed by wavelet analysis

(figure ):

Low scale a=> Compressed wavelet =>Rapidly changing details => High frequency

High scale a=>Stretched wavelet=>Slowly changing, coarse features => Low

frequency

The CWT is an alternative method to analyze a signal. In the CWT, wavelets dilate in

such a way that the time support changes for different frequencies. Smaller time support

increases the frequency support, which shifts toward higher frequencies. Similarly,

larger time support decreases the frequency support, which shifts toward lower

frequencies. Thus, when the time resolution increases, the frequency resolution

decreases, and vice versa [].

A wavelet is defined as a function ( ) L with a zero mean, localized in both time

and frequency. By dilating and translating this wavelet ( ), we produce a family of

wavelets:

( , )( )= ( ) ()

Where , and is not zero and is the dilation parameter or scale. Note that the

wavelet is normalized such that the L- norm is equal to unity. The CWT is

defined as the inner product of the family of wavelets ( , ) ( ) with the signal (t).

This is given by:

( , )= ( ), ( , )( ) = ( ) ()

Where is the complex conjugate of and ( , ) is the time-scale map (i.e., the

scalogram). The convolution integral in equation () can be computed easily in the

Fourier domain. The choice for the scale and the translation parameter can be arbitrary,

and we can choose to represent it any way we like. To reconstruct the function ( )

from the wavelet transform, we use Calderons identity, given by:

( )= ( , ) ( ) ()

For the inverse transform to exist, we require that the analyzing wavelet satisfy the

admissibility condition, given by:

( )

= < ()

The integrand in equation () has an integrable discontinuity at = and also implies

that ( ) = . A commonly used wavelet in continuous wavelet transform is the

Morlet wavelet, defined as :

( )= ( )

The center frequency of the Morlet wavelet being inversely proportional to the scale

provides an easy interpretation from scale to frequency.

. . Frequency Attenuation:

The improved spectral analysis of seismic data can reveal hydrocarbon indications that

are not apparent on conventional seismic data. There are three distinct spectral

hydrocarbon indicators that are best revealed by proper spectral decomposition:

-seismic attenuation: The hydrocarbon reservoirs that filled with gas have interesting

behavior in the case of frequency dependent seismic attenuation. The usual approach to

measure this attenuation is to presume that the slope of ratio of frequency spectra for

two time window is directly related to the attenuation coefficient. We can use CWT to

display the instantaneous frequency to observe frequency dependent attenuation;

-low frequency shadows: These shadows are often attributed by explorationists to

abnormally high attenuation in gas-filled reservoirs. However, it is often difficult to

explain observed shadows under thin reservoirs where there is insufficient travel path

through absorbing gas reservoir to justify the observed shift of spectral energy from

high to low frequencies.

And -preferential illumination: The tuning thickness is the thickness at which a

reservoir is preferentially illuminated at a given dominant frequency. Since single

frequency seismic volumes can be obtained over any range of frequencies, there is not

one tuning thickness. Rather, there is a tuning frequency at which the target is

preferentially illuminated. This can help to have a proof. For a layer of constant

thickness, the tuning frequency will be different for brine and gas saturated rock and the

tuning frequency itself can be mapped as a hydrocarbon indicator.

The seismic cube of known gas reservoir of south field of Iran was taken (figure ).

This field has a known gas reservoir in - ms . First the CWT was operated on the

cube to have the instantaneous frequency (figure ). It was taken by industrial software.

Then the single frequency cubes was extracted from spectral cube. You can see the red

point that refers to HZ frequency in figure . These shadows are in - ms that the

gas reservoir in known in - ms by other exploration operations and wells. Figure

shows the frequency cube in HZ. It is clear that points in - ms in HZ

frequency are disappeared in HZ frequency.

Figure : The seismic cube of one of the southern Iranian oil field.

Figure : the cube in HZ frequency (the low frequency shadows are clear in - ms).

Figure : the cube in Hz frequency (the low frequency shadows in HZ frequency is gone).

.Conclusions:

The wavelet transform decomposes the seismic trace to its constituent components. The

frequency spectrum of seismic trace is the summation of frequency spectrums of

wavelets that are constituent components of seismic trace, superposition principle said.

The frequency spectrum in each time is the result of superposition of weighted wavelet

spectrums that is in temporal neighborhood of sample. Continuous wavelet transform is

the most powerful operator between spectral decomposition methods in imaging the

instantaneous frequency of seismic cube.

The low frequency shadows are often results of gas reservoirs. It is well established that

gas-filled reservoirs exhibit higher frequency dependent seismic attenuation than similar

rock fully-saturated with brine.

It is clear from our results that CWT can help to determine the location of gas

reservoirs. The low shadows beneath the gas reservoir disappear in high frequencys.

.Acknowledgements:

The used data(seismic and logs) in this paper was provided by Iranian National

Exploration Management Company.

References:

[] Castagna, J.P., and Sun, S., , Comparison of spectral decomposition methods:

First Break, , .

[] Partyka, G., Gridley, J., and Lopez, J., , Interpretational applications of spectral

decomposition in reservoir characterization. The Leading Edge, , .

[] Sinha, S.K., Routh, R., Anno, P.D., and Castagna, J.P., , Spectral

decomposition of seismic data with continuous-wavelet transform: Geophysics, , -

.

[] Chakrabraty, A., and Okaya, D., , Frequency-time decomposition of seismic

data using wavelet-based methods: Geophysics, , -.

[] Liu, J., and Marfurt, K.J., , Instantaneous spectral attributes to detect channels.

Geophysics, (), -.

[]Mallat, S., , A wavelet tour of signal processing: Academic Press, nd edition.

.

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