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T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology

* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology Available Online through ISSN: 0975-766X CODEN: IJPTFI

Available Online through

ISSN: 0975-766X CODEN: IJPTFI Research Article

www.ijptonline.com CFD ANALYSIS ONEPOXY FILLED WITH GLASS FIBER/ALUMINIUM OXIDE SILICON CARBIDE COMPOSITE JOURNAL BEARING

T. Narendiranath Babu* 1 D. Rama Prabha 2 1 School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. 2 School of Electrical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Email: narendiranathbabu.t@vit.ac.in

Received on 09-08-2016

Abstract

Accepted on 05-09-2016

Journal bearings are widely used to support the shaft of industrial machinery with heavy loads, such as compressors,

turbines and centrifugal pumps. The main objective of this study is to explore the design possibility of a journal

bearing and to carry out flow analysis using ANSYS. The main aim is to design a journal bearing with two different

materials and compare the results of the analysis experimentally. The use of fillers and glass fibres has also been reported

to be very effective in reducing wear under adhesive conditions. The reactions of fillers with counter steel surface

contributed to the formation of a thin, stable and adherent transfer film, resulting in lower coefficient of friction and in turn

higher wear resistance. Hence, in these research work the addition of Al 2 O 3 and SiC as a filler material in glass fibre system

has been taken up for investigation from the point of characterizing them for friction and wear behaviour.For this purpose a

full journal bearing is considered. In order to apply forces, divide the bearing hole into equal parts and then apply the

pressure on each part as per the calculated value. The empirical values will be simulated in ANSYS and checked for

accuracy.

Keywords: Journal bearing, flow analysis, composites, empirical values.

1. Introduction

The journal bearings used to provide support and relative motion between rotor systems. They are also the source of

bearing stiffness, damping, and mass properties in rotor bearing systems. The proper design of these bearings is

required for the successful industrial operation of rotating machinery.

As machine speeds and loads and instability

drivers increase, there is an increasing need for more accurate fluid film bearing identification carried out for the high

surface speeds of todays machines.

The support forces and dynamic properties in fluid film bearings arise from the fluid-structure interaction forces

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology between the rotor and the bearing fluid film. These properties were originally described by Reynolds using a laminar,

iso viscous fluid model. More advanced, modern bearing theories have been developed, including THD and TEHD

bearing

models

which

describe

bearing

hydrodynamics

with

significant

heating

of

the

lubricant

and

elastic

deformations of the bearing solid components[1]. Lubricants tarvation effects and turbulence must be accurately

modeled[1]. The models within creased complexity are required to provide more accurate theoretical bearing

parameters, as test data is quite limited. The stiffness, damping, and mass coefficients arise from a perturbation

solution to the elasto hydrodynamic and thermal equations of the model used. However, there is model sensitivity to

design parameters such as bearing clearances, changes in viscosity, manufacturing tolerances, thermal growth, and

elastic deformation. The experimental validation of the bearing models is vital.

Generally, two distinct approaches to exciting the rotor-bearing system for dynamic coefficient identification have been

used. One approach, that resembles real machine operation, involves holding the bearing housing rigidly while exciting

a moving shaft. The other approach, referred in this work as the inverse method, holds the shaft rigidly while exciting the

moving bearing housing. For lubricant flows in fluid film bearings, the approaches are dynamically equivalent and

either is valid in measuring bearing coefficients when performed properly.

Many of the older published reports describing bearing identification experiments have not presented confidence

intervals for the measured coefficients, but more recent experimenters have included them in their published work[2,

3]. The equations of motion for fixed pad bearings are relatively well known and not repeated here[4]. Often the full

non-synchronous equations for tilting pad bearings, as given above, are not used in rotor dynamic analyses, although

recent work shows the necessity of considering the full equations instability analyses[5].

Hummel[6]. They represented the fluid film as a simple spring support, but their model was incapable of accounting

for the observed finite amplitude of oscillation of a shaft operating at a critical speed.

Concurrently, Newkirk[7]and New kirkand Taylor[8] described the phenomenon of bearing induced instability, which he

called oil whip, and it soon occurred to several investigators that the problem of rotor stability could be related to the

properties of the bearing dynamic coefficients.

Ramsden[9] was the first to review the papers on the experimentally obtained journal bearing dynamic characteristics.

He concluded that a designer would require known stiffness and damping coefficients of the bearings. Since most of the

data available at that time were experimental only, he stressed the need for accurate scaling laws to be evolved to avoid

full-scale tests.

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology Dowson and Taylor [10] conducted a survey of the state of knowledge in the field of the influence of the bearings on

rotor dynamics. Several conclusions and recommendations were made by them, most importantly: (a) experimental

work in the field of rotor dynamics to study the influence of bearings and supports upon the rotor response was

required; (b) additional theoretical studies to consider the influence of thermal and elastic distortion, grooving

arrangements, misalignment, cavitations and film reformation were also needed.

When TiO2, BaSO4, SiC and graphite were added simultaneously, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the

composites were decreased. With the increase of applied load, adhesive wear took a dominant place, which was

generally less dangerous for polymer composite sliding surface. The transfer films on the counterpart surface may be

of higher quality at higher load compared to that formed at lower load. With the formation of higher quality transfer

films, the plowing and scuffing will be abated, and the tribological behaviour was improved [11-12]. Besides, the

forming rate of transfer films may be enhanced at higher load, which can shorten the running-in period and is favorable

for improving the tribological properties of polymer composites. With further increase of applied load, the newly

formed wear debris would come into being a more integrated but thinner layer on the worn surface, which played an

important role in improving the tribological properties.

2. Experimental Set-up

The test rig was developed has three subsystems namely mechanical system, an electrical control system and a

measurement system. The mechanical system has the ability to simulate typical bearing operating conditions and the

electrical control system allows the mechanical subsystem to be controlled for different tests.

A mechanical system was designed to operate the journal bearing. The experimental system consists of a three phase

AC driving motor, couplings, load set up, a ball bearing, a journal bearing with the main drive as the shaft. The load set

up is placed at one end of the test rig. The electric drive motor is connected to the main shaft which is coupled with a

hard rubber.

The journal bearing is tested and it is mounted at the right end of the drive train. In order to maintain the axial

displacement of the journal bearing, a pair of washers is installed on the fasteners. The washer acts as a stopper to

prevent axial movement and it also serves as a thrust bearing. The preliminary experimental results showed that the

high radial loading of the journal bearings generate a high temperature. In order to reduce the temperature, a rolling

bearing is placed between the motor and the journal bearing. Table 1 shows the dimensions of the journal bearing made

of composites.

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology Table 1 Dimensions of the Journal bearing made of composites

Bore diameter (mm)

25.5

Length (mm)

50.51

Weight (kg)

0.248

Maximum load(N)

175 N

Maximum speed (rpm)

3700

3. Materials and Methods

This section discusses selection of materials, material composition, characteristics of composite material and

fabrication.

Selection of Materials

It is well known that the main reason for the failure of rotating parts of machines arise due to the wearing of the

moving parts that caused by rubbing of surfaces. It is therefore necessary that moving parts be designed in such a way

that the friction and wear are less. This can be ascertained by choosing newer materials which are wear resistant and

testing them in a real operating environment or in simulated in laboratories tests.

It is now well established that non-metallic materials are suitable options for the manufacture of bearings. They are

generally preferred in operating environments where

1. The lubricant is inadequate combined with high loads and at low speeds,

2. Intermittent motion making lubrication difficult,

3. Problem of contamination of lubricants with the presence of solid or liquid contaminants.

A key parameter for material selection is their wear performance in conditions where there is no lubrication of polymer

composites used in mechanical components[9] such type of components can be

used in various types of wear

situations. The selection of material is based on their longevity and lower friction losses.

Material Composition

In this investigation, hybrid composite journal bearings made of glass/epoxy laminated composites were prepared and

tested under various conditions and compared with journal bearing made of gun metal. The material composition for

the composite journal bearing is shown in Table 2

Table 2 material composition for the composite journal bearing.

S. No.

Designation

Biaxial E-Glass Fibre (wt % )

Epoxy

Filler Materials

of Material

(wt%)

(wt %)

1

GE

35

65

Nil

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology

3

GEA 2 S 2

35

44

1% SiC+20 % Al 2 O 3

Table 3 Properties of Aluminium oxide and Silicon carbide.

S. No.

Properties

Aluminium oxide

Silicon carbide

1

Tensile strength (MPa)

416

588

2

Density(gm/cm 3 )

3.98

3.30

3

Coefficient of thermal expansion (10 -6 /°C)

7.4

4.6

The following procedure was adopted to prepare the journal bearing specimens:

The E-glass /Epoxy based composites mixed with varying concentrations were prepared. Fabrication of the composites

is done at room temperature using hand layup techniques. The required ingredients of resin, hardener, and fillers were

mixed thoroughly in a basin. The glass fibre was positioned manually and the mixture was poured into the mould

cavity. The entrapped air was removed manually with squeezes or rollers to complete the bearing specimen and the

composite was cured at room temperature.

Steps for the preparation of composite bearing:

Step 1

:

Apply the oil upper and lower surface of the tool (releasing agent).

Step 2

:

Cut the E-glass 300GSM as per tool. (8 Numbers)

Step 3

:

Mix the Resin LY556: Hardener HY 951: Aluminium oxide and Silicon carbide

Step 4

:

Wet the first layer and layup in to female tool and follow the same till the 8 th layer is applied.

Step 5

:

Fix the male tool with the female and clamp it tightly.

Step 6

:

Allow for room temperature curing for 12 hours.

Step 7

:

Post cure the model with the tool at 100 degree Celsius in a hot air oven.

Step 8

:

Remove the model from the tool and trim the edges and clear as per the original model or drawing.

the edges and clear as per the original model or drawing. Figure 1: GlassFiber + Epoxy+

Figure 1: GlassFiber + Epoxy+ Aluminium oxide+Silicon carbide Journal Bearing.

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology

4. Results and Discussions:

The following procedure is adopted to carry out the analysis

1) Calculation of diameter of the bearing from the power, torque and stress relationship T = 60P/2πN

2) Finding the length of the journal using appropriate l/d ratio.

3) Evaluation of the bearing pressure using the relation P=W/l.d

4) Consider the operation temperature properly. Usually it is taken between

60 to 90 ºC

5) Choose the diametrical clearance from the Design data Table.

6) Select the value of bearing characteristic number, and from that, the parameter Z is determined.

7) Calculation of the coefficient of friction μ

8) Determination of Heat Generated and Heat Dissipated

9) The proper composite bearing material and other required dimensions for the journal are decided.

Starting of the work was done by assuming various parameters and using the predefined knowledge.

After designing the complete and allbasic dimensions are obtained, the solid works model will be designed.

Calculation of different parameters

For the design of the bearing several calculations have been done in order to come up with the correct set of solutions.

Ansys analysis of model

During the analysis of the model there can be several changes regarding the design.

Verification of design

After including the new set of designs it will be verified again in order to make it a successful analysis.

Figure 1 -8 shows the results of composite journal bearing

Figure 1 -8 shows the results of composite journal bearing Figure 1 Solid model of Composite

Figure 1 Solid model of Composite journal bearing

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology

* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology Figure 2 Deformation of GE Composite journal

Figure 2 Deformation of GE Composite journal bearing

Figure 2 Deformation of GE Composite journal bearing Figure 3 Deformation of GEA 2 S 2

Figure 3 Deformation of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing

3 Deformation of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing Figure 4 Stress of GE Composite

Figure 4 Stress of GE Composite journal bearing

bearing Figure 4 Stress of GE Composite journal bearing Figure 5 Stress of GEA 2 S

Figure 5 Stress of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing

5 Stress of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing Figure 6 Pressure Flux of GEA

Figure 6 Pressure Flux of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology

* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology Figure 7 Boundary Heat Flux of GEA

Figure 7 Boundary Heat Flux of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing

Heat Flux of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing Figure 7 Velocity distribution of GEA

Figure 7 Velocity distribution of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing

distribution of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing Figure 8 Excel coding of GEA 2

Figure 8 Excel coding of GEA 2 S 2 Composite journal bearing

Conclusion

1) Out of the two materials considered, the most optimum material wasfound to be GEA 2 S 2 . The basis for this

conclusion is that the deformation and stress is low as compared to GE

2) The values of both materials are comparably close. The minute difference that GEA 2 S 2 has over GEhas made us

choose it as the preferredmaterial.

3) On conducting the CFD analysis we can see the variables of the shaft.

These factors show the distribution of heat, velocity and pressure over the entire composite journal bearing.

References

1. He, M., “Thermoelastohdrodynamic Analysis of Fluid Film Journal bearing,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia,

(2003).

T. Narendiranath Babu* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology

2.

Childs, D.andHale, K., “ATest Apparatusand Facility to Identify the Rotor dynamic Coefficients of High-Speed

Hydrostatic Bearings,” Journal of Tribology,116, pp.337344 (1994).

 

3.

Kostrzewsky,G.J.,andFlack,R.D.,

“AccuracyevaluationofexperimentallyDeriveddynamiccoefficientsoffluidfilmbearings,PartI.

 

DevelopmentofMethod,”Tribology Transactions33, pp.105114 (1990).

 

4

Allaire,P.E.,andFlack,R.D.,“JournalBearingDesignforHigh-SpeedTurbomachinery,”Proceedings

of

International

Conference on Bearing Design, Historical Aspects, Present Technology, and Future Problems, ASME,(1980).

5.

Cloud,

C.H.,StabilityofRotorsSupportedbyTiltingPadJournalBearings,”Ph.D.,

Thesis,

University

of

Virginia.

(2007).

6.

Hummel,C.,“KristischeDrehzahlenalsFolgederNachgiebigkeitdesSchmiermittelsimLager,”VDI-Forschungsheft,

287. pp.85-90 (1926),

 

7.

Newkirk,B.L. Shaft Whipping, General Electric Review, pp. 169 (1924).

8.

Newkirk, B.L.,and Taylor, H.D., Shaft Whipping due to Oil Action in Journal Bearing, General Electric Review ,

pp.559568 (1925).

 

9.

Ramsden,P., “Review of Published Data and Their Application to the Design of Large Bearings for Steam

Turbines, Proceedings of Conference in Lubrication and Wear: Fundamentals and Application to Design, I

MechE,(1968).

 

10.

Downson, D. and Taylor,C.M., “The State of Knowledge in the Field of Bearing- Influenced Rotor Dynamics,”

Tribology International, 13, pp.196198 (1980).

 

11.

T. NarendiranathBabu, T. Manvel Raj, D. Rama Prabha ‘Sliding wear characteristics of Basalt Fiberwith

GE/Epoxy/Al2O3/Sic hybrid Composites for Journal bearing material using Fish Oil Lubricant’, International

Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol.8, No.4, pp 2019-2028, 2015

 

12.

T. NarendiranathBabu, D. Ramaprabha ‘Sliding wear characteristics of Biaxial Glass Fiber withEpoxy/Al2O3/Sic

hybrid Composites for journal bearing liner using Sea Water Lubricant’,International Journal of ChemTech

Research, Vol.8, No.4, pp 2029-2038, 2015.

Corresponding Author:

T. Narendiranath Babu*,

Email: narendiranathbabu.t@vit.ac.in