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A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli

Me Tangere Characters Using
Contemporary Art Approach
Bartolay, Marjay M.

From School of Multimedia and Visual Arts

Of Mapua Institute of Technology
Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila
(+63) 935 958 3150


The research is all about creating illustrations of Noli Me Tangere characters.

The researchers aim is not only limited to recreating designs of the novels characters,
but also to identify what factors to consider and how these factors can help to further
develop the visual representations.
The research involves creating character designs of the novel through a
contemporary approach. Upon the research completion, the researcher applied the
gathered information into a compilation of the character designs, as an output for this
project. The researchers goal is to analyze the different aspects involving the character
design process (design elements, theories, principles, etc.); it also involves identifying
how attributes of a character (shape, color, etc.) can interpret its personality. And lastly,
how will the project benefit into various influences (Education, multimedia, literature,

Keywords: Visual representations, Character design, Cognitive Theory of Multimedia

Learning (CTML), Gestalt Principle of Visual Perception

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION historical manuscripts that embody and

represent the Philippine Literature. The
1.1 Background of the Study researchers art style approach in
developing the study will also be
For over decades, Philippine contemporary art. Meaning, the
Literature has been part of our researchers designs will all be about
education in order for us to relive the modernizing the characters inthe
culture we have, reminds us of the chosen novel. The researchers goals
literature existed in those times. Books dont end at identifying factors to help
like Ibong Adarna and Florante at audience interpret different characters,
Laura have been present and are being but also to make the study beneficial in
studied in different schools in the different aspects of our world today.
Philippines. These books, in order to be Aspects such as education, to further
interesting, some publishers help the students in their reading
incorporate the use of illustrations to comprehension with the use of these
further help their readers visual representations; to the Philippine
comprehension to understand the story. Literature, to carry out our heritage,
One example of illustrations is what modernize the practice and help build
they called the character designs. interests in reading our own literature
Character designs are the through suggesting the use of these
elements people see in every aspect of illustrations and incorporate them in
multimedia. Whether it may be in books and other printed materials; and
video, graphic designs, especially lastly to the multimedia industry
animations, character designs are particularly to multimedia
present and can be considered a part of practitioners, to further develop the
the backbone of every multimedia understanding and the importance of
pre-production process. But how do character designs in creating outputs
people consider the design of every such as live-action or animated movies
character? How do they perceive the and short films, comics, etc.
underlying personalities or attitudes the
character possesses? That is the 1.2 Statement of the Problem
primary goal of the study. The
researcher wanted to investigate and The study, in order to be
analyze if there are theories or methods concrete and precise, the researcher
that he could use to easily interpret and seeks to answer the problems
distinguish every characters underlying in the study.
personality through their visual
representations. General Problem/s
The researcher chose the novel How to develop a
Noli Me Tangere as a subject in his character design for
proposal. Not just because it was audience to have an in-
written by Dr. Jose Rizal, but also depth understanding and
because the novel is part of the Basic perception towards the
Educational Curriculum for Secondary character?
Students. It is also one of many

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

What are the factors to differently by the audience

consider in creating to further understand the
character designs that character development
would help viewers to process by applying
interpret the visual different theories such as the
representations of the Cognitive Theory of
characters? Multimedia Learning,
How can some basic Gestalt Principles of Visual
design elements Perception.
(shapes, color) and other To conduct a focused group
character design discussion, primarily the
principles (posture, high school students, to
facial expressions) can identify if the theories
help the audiences and presented and used in the
give insight about a study are applicable and
certain characters effective.
1.4 Scope and Limitations
1.3 Objectives of the Study The researchers study is all
about introducing a contemporary
The researcher aims to not only approach of Noli Me Tangeres
just create a compilation of character designs. The studys scope is
contemporary character designs of the about the researchers idea of recreating
book Noli Me Tangere, but also to character designs of Noli Me Tangere
evaluate opinions or information as to characters, thus making the study a
how these illustrations affect the research-based one. The study will not,
readers perception toward these in any way, influence the existing
characters and how could it help them knowledge that the viewers have for the
understand the storyline better through chosen topic. The study will be divided
the use of the focused group discussion. into three segments. The first segment
focuses on pure research and data
General Objective gathering on the characters of the novel.
This includes finding and reading
To study and then select the
articles, journals, books or comics and
characters in Noli Me
even other related recent materials and
Tangere to create a
studies that have been made that
contemporary version of
contain information about the
those characters.
characters descriptions. This will also
To create and develop visual
involve conducting focused group
representations of Noli Me
discussions with 3rd or 4th year high
Tangere characters through
school students (Grade 9 or 10) and
the compilation of character
teachers who teach the mentioned novel
to gather information as to how they
To incorporate and study view or perceive the characters of the
how selected design novel in present time. The second
elements (shape, color segment is all about the character
etc)can be perceived

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

design process. Using the information multimedia supports the way that the
gathered, the researcher will now apply human brain learns. They assert that
the data he has gathered to people learn more from images and
conceptualize and create the output. texts rather than from texts alone.
The process includes (Mayer 2005a).
conceptualization, initial sketches and Gestalt Principles of Visual
pre-final design output. For the final Perception Gestalt psychology was
output, the researcher will have a developed during the 1920s by three
compilation of the digitally-illustrated German psychologists, Wertheimer,
characters of the novel and also two real Koffka and Kohler. They theorized that
sculpted figures which will be a whole figure of elements is different
represented as the protagonist and from the sum of its parts, thus affecting
antagonist of the novel. The last the visual perception of audience.
segment is all about evaluation. This is
where the Cognitive Theory of 1.6 Significance of the Study
Multimedia Learning (CTML) comes
in. It involves the operation of This part will provide the
conducting a focused interview to various significances of the study
selected respondents. specifically in the multimedia industry
and Philippine Literature. As well as
1.5 Operational Definition of Terms informing the audience on how
different theories and methods can help
classify a character designs trait and
Terms presented here are personalities through the use of their
conceptually defined for better visual elements such as shapes, color,
understanding of the readers. facial expressions. The primary
purpose of the study is to innovate the
Noli Me Tangere A novel written by existing approach of character designs
our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal, that is that can be found in any reading and
being studied and part of the audio-visual materials here in the
educational curriculum of the Philippines. Innovated in terms of not
secondary students. just giving life to the characters, but
Character Design Is a process or also giving importance to the attributes
output that involves conceptualizing, each character possesses. The
sketching and rendering final researcher also wanted to promote more
character/s for a certain subject (movie, the use of illustrations, incorporating
book). them more to our reading and audio-
Visual Representations Are any visual materials and create awareness
forms of visuals, may it be illustrations as to how these visual representations
or pictures that convey literal, play a vital role in the viewers
conceptual or operational meaning. comprehension to a certain story or
Cognitive Theory of Multimedia phenomena. The researcher thinks that
Learning (CTML) The Cognitive by promoting the use of these
Theory of Multimedia Learning or illustrations, it will bridge the gap
CTML is a work of Richard E. Mayer and form the learning connection
and other researchers. It states that between students and teachers. The

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

researcher believes that by pursuing While cartoons is depicted to

and delivering the study successfully, give meaning to the problems in
the researchers output could be of society, Philippine komiks were
benefit in terms of improving the value depicted as a way of fun and
of education by facilitating and using entertainment, which Filipinos bought
the output as part of learning media. to escape the everyday reality. But
This could also help improve the Reyes indicated that the most common
practices in multimedia as practitioners themes in komiks didn't relate just to
will be able to understand better the fictions but also included some aspects
elements that they use through the of reality. Artists from different regions
study, thus improving their work for revolutionized the medium from
future endeavors/ opportunities. Lastly, something that gives entertainment and
the researchers study will be fun to the audiences to a sophisticated
considered an improved idea, and can storytelling genre. Various genres of
be used as a guide for future researches. komiks such as romance, adult and
science fiction completely displaced the
CHAPTER 2: DESIGN CONCEPT literature of the Filipinos such as epics,
short stories, awit and corrido,
2.1 Review of Related Literature Philippine mythologies, novels from
Educational Komiks: Shifting 1930s to 1980s. Komiks' appeal to the
Perspectives public did not only come from
affordability, but also the way that the
Philippine comics has been part images drawn complemented the texts
of our culture for a long time and it has written (Reyes, 1985).
its own history that contributed to the Philippine komiks expanded as
culture. Ambeth Ocampo and Dennis the media matured. It includes
Villegas would say that Rizal was the educational uses. After the Japanese
first one to create comic illustrations takeover, some artists started to
(Villegas, 2011 and Ocampo, 1990). illustrate stories about war. One good
Yet John A. Lent would say that example was Antonio's Lakan Dupil:
Filipinosadmiration with illustrations Ang Kahanga-hangang Gerilya which
goes far back to Spanish times, when was published in Liwayway MAgazine
magazines back in time created cartoon on March 1947. Though the series has
illustrations (Lent, 2004). In the 1930s, fictional characters, the story was all
Philippines is classified as the about the Japanese occupation and is set
risingcountry of komiks with the to deal issues about Kempeitai tortures,
published comic of Tony Velasquez guerilla activities and Kalabapi
Mga Kabalbalan ni Kenkoy. This is betrayals. Then later, Ace Publications,
the reason why Tony Velasquez was Inc., the biggest comic publishing
branded as Father of Filipino Komiks house in the Philippines, launched its
(Roxas and Arevalo, 1985). However, 6th title, "Educational Klasiks". It all
before its publication, Filipinos already began as a supplementary reading
knew everything about illustrations and material for public and private schools
comic dating back as early as the 1900s on January 11, 1960 (Komiklopedia,
(McCoy & Roces, 1985). 2007).

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

Though the komiks played a In What is Beautiful is Good,

role in our history, it would take time a study by Karen K. Dion et al., they
before the audience can properly adapt concluded that characters that have
it for educational purposes. Some good good physical attributes are often
examples would be Fransisco Balagtas' depicted as "good" of the "protagonists"
"Florante at Laura" which was adapted and therefore have better qualities and
by Ped C. Tiangco and illustrated by personalities compared to those with
Mike C. Lombo. These komiks would bad physique or unattractive (Dion et
go further with Jose Rizal's famous al. 1972). It is also known as "what is
novels, "Noli Me Tangere" and "Ell beautiful is good stereotype" or "the
Filibusterismo". Both novels were halo effect" and is something that is
written in Spanish, but the Noli was used recurrently in character design.
translated into Filipino while El Uncharted 2 (2009), developed by
Filibusterismo was translated to Naughty Dog, uses the concept of
English (Rizal, Noli Me Tangere, 1961 "what is beautiful is good", as does the
and Rizal, El Filibusterismo, 1956). evil twins of Mario and Luigi,
The primary goal of these works was to developed by Nintendo.
allow the larger market to read and
explore these classical novels as
komiks version for the cheaper price Shape
(priced between JPY 100 200 versus According to Elise Fogelstrm,
the novels which were JPY 1000 in her study Investigation of Shapes
2000 each). and Colours as elements of Character
Figure 1 Florante at Laura adapted by Ped C. Design, She mentioned that shapes are
Tiangco and illustrated by Mike C. Lombo
Figure 2 Noli Me Tangere adapted by Leo masses that defines objects in space. It
Miranda and D.G. Dumaraos and illustrated by is also a part of fundamental of designs
R.M. Fabian that is being categorized in order to
Figure 3 El Filibusterismo adapted by Grace
R. Miranda and illustrated by R. M. Fabian avoid assigning wrong shapes of
characters. Geometric shapes are often
Conveying characters personality classified as regular and mathematical
through shapes while organic shapes are irregular and
Body language often affects The visual language can vary
how other people can see us. Non- between cultures, especially the
verbal body expressions area factor meaning of colour (Sable, Akcay
needed to be considered when creating 2010). However, in the study of Hanna
and improving a character. Dominance Ekstrm, titled How Can a Character's
or having the greater power is often Personality be Conveyed Visually,
symbolized by things that are through Shape, she argued that shape
expanding or widening. Meaning, to has a way of communicating
take more space and feel open up means universally, because the concept of
you have the greater power, while circular versus triangular "shapes,
powerlessness is often depicted as from the very beginning, came from the
something opposite, to feel small. This nature itself." Round shapes are more
is one of the natural behaviors that can likely to be "safe" while angular shapes
be seen from wildlife (Cuddy 2012). make us cautious. These instinctive

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

reactions are based on the sense of protagonists were designed using this
touch and, while this sense is not basic shape. (Solarski 2012:180).
present in visual art, the viewers tend to On the other hand, square-like
apply their real-life experiences onto shapes, with their straight lines and
similar shapes (Solarski 2012:177- perfect build, often communicate
179). stability and strength. Squares, unlike
circles, can be described with many
Circles or circular shapes are characteristics depending on how
often described or depicted as the designers decide on how they will be
"friendliest shapes" because of its represented. They can be daunting,
properties. Circles have no sharp comforting, and sometimes have
corners. In other terms, circles are straightforward attitude. Usually,
known to have the softest behavior and characters that originated from this
harmless. Squares are bound with shape are those superheroes or heavy
straight lines that communicates characters that people can depend or
strength and primal dominance. It can rely into. (Bancroft 2006:34).
be interpreted as daunting and While circles and squares can
something that you can rely into. be fine shapes, triangles are different
Triangular shapes, on the other hand, story. The shape itself, being dynamic
poses as the "villainous" type of shape among other shapes, have sharp and
due to its properties of having sharp pointy corners can be depicted to be
corners. strong and villainous. These shapes are
the bad guys to every story as they
The Primary Shapes appear sinister, malicious and
communicate with most aggression
According to Bryan Tillman, he (Bancroft 2006:35). This shape is the
mentioned in his book Creative most opposing shapes to circle and,
Character Design (2011) that shapes most commonly used for antagonists.
have a general perception when viewed
or seen. He has set keywords for each The Color Theory
shape to identify them. For example,
square is a shape of stability, security, Similarly to shapes, colors have
and masculinity. While circles often predefined expectations from the
signifies unity, gracefulness, and audience or viewer. It won't be
protection. Also for triangles, it is mentioned of all the different responses
depicted as a sign of conflict, action, for respective colors. To narrow down
and aggression. These characteristics the choices of the actual meaning of
given by Tillman also have similarities colors in psychology, the major source
to the studies of Chris Solarski. for this is, Understanding the Meaning
Circular or curved shapes are of Colors in Color Psychology (Scott-
treated as the most confiding shapes Kemmis: 2009).
since they have no sharp properties or Several studies have been made
corners. Many see circles as the that tackles the particular definition
friendliest, for in nature, they tend to be some colors have in different situations
the softest and harmless and can be or cultures. Hodges (2011) developed
likeable elements. Many of well-known an interactive online chart called

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

Interactive Colours in Culture. It identifying the objects and

gives information for each color that background. Those principles will be
aligns to the general views of said used by the researcher to follow the rule
culture that has been collected data a basic rule on character designing.
It is said, for example, that "red" Physiognomy: Facial Characteristics
color often symbolizes action, to define character personalities
passionate and strong. "Blue" color
signifies loyalty, idealistic and There is a theory that primarily
authority. While "yellow" is often suggests that the assessment of ones
described as color of optimism, physical appearance, particularly the
confidence and cheerfulness. Other face, its features (skin, quality and
colors such as orange, is said to be texture) may give insights into the
optimistic, sociable, cheerful. Purple is personality that a character have. This
depicted as something that has mystery, theory is called Physiognomy.
fantasy, and can also be something that Physiognomy has nurtured and been
is unusual and intuitive. As for green, it developed from the time of the Greeks,
symbolizes growth, earthly, and calm. then it flourished among the Chinese
These colors have been identified by and Indians, the Romans, The Arabs
the authors of Understanding the and also during the Renaissance. Its
Meaning of Colors in Color popularity faded during the 18th century
Psychology and this information will and slowly began to rise in the 19th and
serve as a guideline in creating the then replenished by the 20th century by
output. a group of personologists.
(Kamenskaya, Ekaterina et. al., 2008)
Gestalt One of the projects that have
been benefited by the physiognomy
Gestalt is a term used by three theory is what they called Visage, a
German psychologists (Wertheimer, psychological characteristics diagnosis
Koffka and Kholer) in their study of tool project created and developed by
visual perception. The theory is that the Dr. Paul Ekman and the Digital
parts of elements can be interpreted as Physiognomy, software created by
a whole if some principles were Uniphiz Lab. (Kamenskaya et. al.
applied. The principles are classified 2008). The primary purpose of these
into five, commonly known as projects is to determine the signs that a
Proximity or the perception elements specific or grouped body part/s can give
as a whole rather than its divided parts, using the principles of the
Emphasis or the illusion of several physiognomy theory.
elements to be a single unit because of
similarity of one another, Continuity
or leading the eye from one element to 2.2 Creative Influences
another, Closure or the viewers
capacity to provide the missing In making the character design
information even if an object is compilation, the researcher collected
incomplete, and lastly Figure and different archives from famous
Ground or the understanding and character designers that have an

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

identity when making their characters. Pixars Guidelines in creating

Also, the researcher was inspired by the Characters
art style and the process that these
designers do when creating characters. According to Pixar Animation
From these influences, the researcher Studios, when a Pixar artist is designing
will come up with his own artistic style a character there are a number of areas
with a contemporary approach. they explore to ensure a successful
character design. (Pixar-Animation,
Glen Keane of Disneys Character Weebly)
Design Process
First, we must research and do
Glen Keane, born in April 13, an evaluation. We have to identify why
1954, grew up in Paradise Valley, characters and their personalities go
Arizona. In September 1974, he together and some don't that's why it is
accepted a position at Disney as an important to take your time doing
animator. Glen was one of a new research. We also have to know who the
generation of animators brought in to be target audience of our creations are.
tutored under Walts remaining The primary purpose of character
veterans as they approached retirement. designing is to know who it is targeted
He brought to life Pocahontas in 1995, into. We are creating something and the
and, after a sabbatical in Paris, tackled first thing we have to bear in mind is
the title character for 1999s Tarzan. that we also have to market it. It is also
He also animated the roguish John important that your characters have
Silver for Treasure Planet (2002). distinctive aspect. There are a lot of
(Glen Keane, D23) characters everywhere and there will be
some of it that looks same to ours.
In some of his character design Another part of creating characters is
and animation notes, the researcher saw that you have to set goals. It's like
the step-by-step process of Glens giving the character a chance in life and
approach when it comes to character treat it as your own child.
development. From broad ideas to
specific details, Glen Keane is very Contemporary National Artist -
particular at explanations behind every Fransisco V. Conching
sketch he makes to guide him
throughout. In one of his articles, A A contemporary of National
System of Planning and Timing Artists Carlos (Botong) Francisco and
Animation, Glen also mentioned the Vicente Manansala, Francisco Reyes,
phases he usually follows in animation Isaac Tolentino, and Tony Velasquez,
process and also the basic concepts he Coching was born into the art. His
consider when developing a character father, Gregorio, was then one of the
(History, Personality, Story, Form etc.) more prolific and better known
vernacular novelists and as a young
boy, Francisco used to go with his
father to Liwayway Publications.
(www.alanguilan.com) Coching retired
at the age of 54 in 1973, 39 years and

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

61 komiks novels later. All but 10 of traversed into the world of cinema and
those novels were filmed. Among the other media. His komik novels also
most memorable of his creations, aside introduced readers to characters in
from Hagibis and Barbaro, were El melodrama and comedy like Roberta,
Indio, Bertong Balutan, Don Cobarde, TrudisLiit, Ging, Maruja and Facifica
Ang Kaluluwa ni Dante, Pagano, Falayfay.
Haring Ulupong, Dumagit, Lapu-Lapu,
Bulalakaw, Waldas, Talipandas, Thor, The researcher was not just
Harangan Man ng Sibat, Palasig, Movie inspired by the techniques and art styles
Fan, Gat Sibasib, and Satur - mostly in of different artists, but hes also
the action-adventure genre spiced here inspired with the technical
and there with fantasy. considerations as well as with the
His last works included emphasis given to the reasons behind
Dimasalang, Bella Bandida, El Vibora, every visual element present in the
Sa Ngalan ng Batas, and El Negro, his character. The researcher saw the
final novel which was published in passion of giving life to the characters
1974 and filmed in the same year. these designers made through their
(www.alanguilan.com) exhaustive studies.


2.3 Creative Theoretical Framework
Mars Ravelo (born October 9,
1916 in Tanza, Cavite, Philippines - The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia
September 12, 1988) was a prolific Learning (CTML)
writer, artist, illustrator and the
recognized king of Philippine Komiks. The CTML is a theory
He was the man behind several popular developed by Richard E. Mayer and
characters that captivated generations few researchers which states that
of Filipinos since the late 1940s. His multimedia aids the way that the human
crisp and humorous lines, visualized brain learns. They added that people
into vivid and animated illustrations, can learn more deeply from images and
have engrossed readers of all ages. texts rather than from textual output
Perhaps this is also because of the range only. It is also known as "multimedia
and depth of his characters --- from the principle". Researchers basically
young to the elderly, from virtuous describe that multimedia is a set of
mortals to the superhuman. From 1950s combination of text and images. And it
to 1970s, Ravelo wrote and suggests that learning happens when we
collaborated with other illustrators and create mental representations words
writers to produce more than 300 and pictures (Mayer, 2005b). The texts
komiks stories. Many of these were can be something that is written or
adapted on screen. Who wouldnt spoken, while images can be a set of
recognize Darna, Dyesebel, Captain illustrations, photos and videos.
Barbell, Bondying, Lastikman? These
are only some of Ravelos characters Key Elements of CTML
that have come to life beyond the realm The CTML focuses on the idea
of the printed medium and successfully that audience attempt to build

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

connections in-between texts and 3. Organizing selected words

images and that they understand better into a verbal model
than they could have with texts and 4. Organizing selected images
pictures alone (Mayer, 2009). into a pictorial model
According to CTML, one of the 5. Integrating the verbal and
principle aims of multimedia pictorial representations with each
instruction is to encourage the learner to other and with prior knowledge.
build a coherent mental representation
of the presented material. The learners methodologies he has gathered and
job is to make sense of the presented creating his own phase from the idea of
material as an active participant, all these factors. First, the researchers
ultimately constructing new target is to collect information
knowledge. regarding his selected topic, the Noli
\ Me Tangere characters. From these
The Three Store Structure of facts, he will then proceed in the design
Memory in CTML process. In the conceptual framework ,
contemporary art style or art that is
Mayer (2005a) states that there made at present point of time will be the
are five forms of representation of researchers reference art style for the
words and pictures that occur as whole project. Applying the Gestalt
information is processed by memory. principles and basic design elements
Each form represents a particular stage will also be used by the researcher to
of processing in the three memory store manifests the visual representations of
model of multimedia learning. The first the characters. He will also make use of
form of representation is the words and the physiognomy theory and the
pictures in the multimedia presentation existing related studies by considering
itself. The second form is the acoustic the facial expressions, shapes and
representation (sounds) and iconic colors to portray the personalities of
representation (images) in sensory each character. The researchers design
memory. The third form is the sounds process will also be inspired by Glen
and images in working memory. The Keanes Character Design Process in
fourth form of representation is the which he carefully and extensively
verbal and pictorial models which are explain every detail his designs have.
also found in working memory. The After almost completely and visually
fifth form is prior knowledge, or creating the output, the researcher will
schemas, which are stored in long-term reconsider his work to develop a more
memory. reconstructed output by considering the
Mayer (2010a) added that Cognitive Theory of Multimedia
meaningful learning from words and Learning which will make use of actual
pictures happens when the learner text and pictures to form a compact
engages in five cognitive processes: output for the audience. This will help
1. Selecting relevant words for them understand better the concept and
processing in verbal working memory executions made by the researcher to
2. Selecting relevant images for the characters and later, understand the
processing in visual working memory context of the novel. Now that all ideas,
principles, and elements, and after

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

major reconsiderations have been made

into an actual output, the researcher will
now have the constructed output of his Since the researchers method
study. is about focused group discussion,
he decided to use the purposive
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY sampling technique to select his
groups of interviewees. Purposive
3.1 Focused Group Interview and sampling represents a group of
Discussion different non-probability sampling
techniques. Also known as
The researcher used judgmental, selective or subjective
qualitative type of research in sampling, purposive sampling relies
conducting the study, specifically on the judgment of the researcher
using focused group discussion when it comes to selecting the units
method in order to gather data from (e.g., people, cases/organizations,
the audience. Focused group events, pieces of data) that are to be
interview is different from studied. Usually, the sample being
quantitative type of interview. investigated is quite small,
Although the results will be based especially when compared with
on the audiences opinions, the probability sampling techniques.
researchers focused group (http://dissertation.laerd.com/purpo
interview will be using samples of sive-sampling.php#types). The very
audience with basic to intermediate purpose of using focused group
knowledge about the topic since the discussion is for the researcher to
researchers targets are multimedia analyze if the theories and
arts students of Mapua Institute of methodologies he used in his output
Technology, he thought that using are applicable and effective by
focused group discussion will be gathering constructive opinions
more suitable rather than from his respondents.
quantitative interview approach. A
focus group discussion is a form of 3.3 Material Exploration
group interviewing in which a small The character design
group usually 10 to 12 people is compilation, which is the final output of
led by a moderator (interviewer) in a this study, will take its form as a
loosely structured discussion of digitally-illustrated Noli Me Tangere
various topics of interest. character design compilation. It will
(http://www.dfrank.com/focusdis.ht feature the designs and how they were
m). The researchers aim is to collect prepared and executed in a detailed
information from the interviewees manner. It will also tackle the different
and analyze their opinions based on aspect and physical feature of every
the theory that has been used in the character by applying the theory used
study. The researcher wants to and presented in this study.
verify if the theory that has been The media that the researcher
applied to the study became have chosen are both traditional and
successful by using the constructive digital illustration. For the digital
opinions of the interviewees. illustration, he made use of Adobe

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

Illustrator CS6 and Adobe Photoshop After the discussion has

CS6. concluded, the researcher listed down
first all information concerning the
CHAPTER IV - DATA ANALYSIS selection of characters. The researcher
AND DESIGN PROCESS ended up with thirteen (12) significant
characters to be made. These characters
4.1 Data Analysis are:
Crisostomo Ibarra (Juan
The research has been found Crisostomo Ibarra y
feasible by the researcher because of Magsalin)
the factors, the problem statements and Maria Clara (Maria Clara de
the objectives that he considered in los Santos y Alba)
creating his output. Throughout the Elias
whole process, the researcher never Kapitan Tiago (Don Tiago
missed out any important aspects of the de los Santos)
research, and clearly answered the Tiya Isabel (Isabel de los
problem statements as well as Santos)
achieving the objectives of the study. Padre Damaso (Damaso
Although the creative output is very Verdolagas)
complex due to tackling the ideas of
Padre Salvi (Bernardo
contemporary art and incorporate it to Salvi)
modernize the look of the character
Padre Sibyla (Hernando
designs, the researcher made sure that
the output itself is not misleading and is
Sisa (Narcisa)
still in line with the study and relevant
to the target audience. Kapitan Pablo
The first step that the researcher Linares
did in order to conceptualize the Don Tiburcio
characters is conducting a focused
group discussion, as mentioned in Since the study is only limited
Chapter 3 of this study, to collect data to few characters given that the
from the respondents on how they timetable for research is short, the
visualize the Noli Me Tangere researcher lets the respondents choose
characters in modern time. The as to who the characters to be used for
discussion tackled about explaining the this study. The respondents chose the
importance and the vital role that the above-mentioned characters not just
respondents play in the crucial success because all of these characters play vital
of this study. It also discussed the roles in the story, but also theyre the
various aspects that would affect the ones who carry the story from up to the
overall output of the study which is the end. These characters, according to the
compilation of characters. Such aspects respondents, are well-known and very
include the selection process, the familiar to them because the story
characterization or character twists and revolves around them.
profiling. All this information can be Furthermore, the researcher added that
found in the attached Appendices. the reason for letting the respondents
choose the characters for the visual
interpretations is because he wanted to

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

emphasize the characters that the hoped that these characters will
respondents are very interested into. improve the learning experience or
Now that the characters are students because of its modernized
identified, the researcher then matched take.
the attributes or personalities to the Overall, the researcher's
characters. Based on the data gathered respondents gave a positive feedback
by the researcher from his respondents, and good evaluation for the study,
he matched these data to the answering all problems stated in this
information he gathered from the study and proving the effectiveness of
credible sources he collected as the researcher's study to its target
reference as seen in the table below. audiences by satisfying all the
objectives to be completed that has
The researcher's sources for the been stated in the study. Complete
attributes are based on the book "Social evaluation and respondents' feedback
Cancer, a complete English translation can be found under Appendices.
of Noli Me Tangere" by Charles
Derbyshire (Derbyshire, 2007). The 4.2 Design Process
researcher also obtained more
information regarding the characters' The researchers production
profiles through a web article "Noli Me process will be based on the multimedia
Tangere: Mga Tauhan" published to process. Since the topic character
www.joserizal.ph by Jose Rizal designing falls under the pre-
University. production timeline, his design process
After the attributes have been will only include conceptualization,
finalized, the researcher started and initial designing process, design
finished the designing of characters rationale input and final rendering
using the time allotted for creating the process. In conceptualization, the
output during Thesis 2. After the researcher will gather information
characters have been finished, the about the characters visual
researcher conducted a group information. The information will be
discussion again with his respondents coming from the authors visualization
to evaluate the final designs and check of the characters, through printed
if the he met the expectations of the journal materials and from the actual
respondents. The respondents' book. This part is where the researcher
constructive criticisms we're all will decide how the design of each
positive. Others said that they easily character will be made.
recognized the characters because the In Initial designing process,
attributes are well-matched for them. the researcher will now make rough
They also said that the characters sketches and studies all the gathered
displayed the right contemporary information about the characters. The
features that fit for the novel. Some different studies will undergo further
commented that the designs were selection process by the researcher to
simple, but still effective for the choose which design best fits the
characters. Few commented and character. Once the best designs are
suggested that the study can be selected, the researcher will now start to
developed for future researches and further develop the character. He will

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

be using contemporary art style a well-dressed man inspired by

approach in developing the characters. European modern fashion but with an
The researcher will also make use of his identity as a Filipino.
own design rationale that explains The study and the output itself
every detail of the illustrations (shapes, had been identified by the researcher to
visual elements, colors, posture, facial be successful in terms of the audiences
expression etc.), in this way, the constructive criticism and positive
designs are constructive and therefore feedback. It only proves that the output
have a clear meaning for the audience. itself delivered an expected outcome to
Constructing the design rationale will the audiences. As a whole, the
also be exhaustive; the explanation will researchers chosen groups commented
be a complex deliberation of the art- that the designs were simple but they
related aspects and theories involved in interpreted the characters well enough
the study. After having the design because of the provided details in the
rationale, the researcher will then do designs. More or less, they commented
final design executions and retouches to that the designs achieved the purpose of
the character. He will make use of what conveying the personalities of the
he learned as a multimedia practitioner characters through illustration and they
in order to make his output presentable. think that it will be effective in future
The process includes, rendering the research. They also commented that the
designs, arranging the designs researchers strategy to explain the
according to order, final retouches and designs thoroughly made an advantage
adjustments. to help the audiences understand the
The researcher also made use of designs.
the theoretical framework that he
presented in the study. He made use of CHAPTER V CONCLUSION,
the "Cognitive Theory of Multimedia RECCOMENDATIONS FOR
Learning" and some of the aspects that FUTURE RESEARCH
reflected in the output. Especially the
concept of using "visuals" and "words" 5.1 Conclusion
and combining the two to interpret Illustration became an
meaning. Because in the output, the interesting aspect of multimedia
researcher made clarification and because of its fundamental use to the
detailed description on how he came up audiences. It gives the glimpse of
with the design, how he was able to use knowing everything behind every line
the different design principles and how and shape and later on, the story. The
are these contributed to interpret the primary problem of this study is
personality of the character as a whole. basically how illustration can determine
The designs were also the audiences capability to understand
visualized based on the characters and know the characters well by giving
profile, race, attitude and class status them the necessary information to help
and its modern take. For example, them interpret the characters. Thats
Crisostomo Ibarra is the protagonist why the researcher has personally
depicted to be an educated man from chosen the Cognitive Theory of
Europe who came back to his Multimedia Learning (CTML) because
hometown, the initial design would be it is the perfect theory to present and

A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

explain the study. CTML simply states modeled form ready for animation and
that, People learn deeply from a filmmaking. Also the researcher thinks
combination of images and words that the studys timetable is too short
rather than words alone (Mayer, because it requires a lot of research and
2005). And that is what the researcher execution in order to be successful,
did in his study. By combining images hence the study was limited into the
and words, his audiences will learn major characters of the novel. It is
more and with deep understanding recommended that the study must be
towards the characters and their done with a longer timetable should it
personality. By studying carefully the be used for future research.
factors involved in creating the
characters, the output received a
positive feedback from its audience. It BIBLIOGRAPHY
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A Research-Based Interpretations of Noli Me Tangere Characters Using Contemporary Art Approach

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