Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1

whi29346_ch06_346-455.

qxd 11/4/09 10:39 Page 370 Debd 208:MHDQ176:whi29346:0073529346:whi29346_pagefiles:

370 Chapter 6 Viscous Flow in Ducts

Values of (Vd) for water at 60F (velocity, ft/s diameter, in)


8000
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000 4000 6000 10,000
Values of (Vd) for atmospheric air at 60F
8000 80,000
2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000 4000 6000 10,000 20,000 40,000 60,000 100,000
0.10
0.09 Laminar Critical
flow zone Transition
0.08 zone Complete turbulence, rough pipes
0.07 0.05
0.04
0.06
0.03
Lam 64

0.05 0.02
f = Re
inar

0.015
0.04
flow
(

0.01

d
L V2

Relative roughness
d 2g

0.008
h

Recr 0.006
(

0.03
Friction factor f =

0.004
0.025
0.002

0.02 0.001
0.0008
0.0006
Sm 0.0004
0.015 oo
th
p ip 0.0002
es
0.0001
0.000,05
0.01
0.009
0.008 0.000,01
103 2(103) 3 4 5 6 8
104 2(104) 3 4 5 6 8
105 2(105) 3 4 5 6 8
106 2(106) 3 4 5 6 8
107 2(107) 3 4 5 6 8
108
Vd
Reynolds number Re = = 0.000,001 = 0.000,005
d d

Fig. 6.13 The Moody chart for pipe friction with smooth and rough walls. This chart is identical to Eq. (6.48) for turbulent flow.
(From Ref. 8, by permission of the ASME.)

Moody chart is probably the most famous and useful figure in fluid mechanics. It
is accurate to ! 15 percent for design calculations over the full range shown in
Fig. 6.13. It can be used for circular and noncircular (Sec. 6.6) pipe flows and for
open-channel flows (Chap. 10). The data can even be adapted as an approximation to
boundary layer flows (Chap. 7).
Equation (6.48) is cumbersome to evaluate for f if Red is known, although it easily
yields to the EES Equation Solver. An alternative explicit formula given by Haaland
[33] as
1 6.9 !/d 1.11
1/2 ! "1.8 log c #a b d (6.49)
f Red 3.7
varies less than 2 percent from Eq. (6.48).