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The Primitive Money Collection of Col Davidson

Part 2
Orange, NSW,
Australia
st
1 June 2017
Email coldavidson@aapt.net.au
Hi All,

My name is Col Davidson and I have been collecting Primitive Moneys for over fifty years.
In 1974 I became member #29 of Neil Kent Beckers International, Odd & Curious Money
Club (IPOCMC) which later changed its name to the International Primitive Money Club.
During the period 1978-1979 I took over as Acting President and Editor of the Club and
edited and issued eight Journals.

When Neil was able to resume the Presidency I started up the Australian based Traditional
Money Association (TMA) which had as its main aims the promotion of the study and
collecting of primitive moneys. This club lapsed in 1998 due to family commitments but,
during the period 1980 to 1998, twenty six Journals of the TMA were issued. Although a fairly amateurish
operation the information and stories in these journals were, in many cases, written by experts or knowledgeable
collectors and contain much important information. These journals can be read for free at the link:
https://independent.academia.edu/ColDavidson

Primitive and Money Substitutes.


Money is something that we take for granted but have difficulty in defining exactly. A simple description could be
that money is something in which payments can be made, is used as a store of value and is a measure of worth.
Many of the items in my collection have many other attributes. Some contain spirits or can be used to commune
with the dead, others are required in the ceremonies relating to birth, death and marriage. They are gifts to the
gods and show a mans status in society. They are necessities of life and many have wonderful stories.

Here I am listing and illustrating the items in my collection. This listing is not meant to take the place of a book on
the subject. For books you can get the marvellous books by Quiggins, Opitz and others this listing is set out
simply to show photographs of some items of money substitutes many illustrations of which are often hard to
find. Some items show little information; the reason for which is usually either that I dont have much
information or felt that applicable information is easily found on the Internet. HOWEVER some items do show
reasonable information - some details of which are not generally known. The listing is set up in searchable PDF
format (if you dont have one on your computer, free PDF readers are available on the Internet). Information on
how to search is also explained on the Internet . The usual method that I use is first to change the screen view
View/Page Display/Single/Single Page View and View/Zoom/Fit Height. To search I right click in the PDF, click on
Find, enter the criteria (axe, knife, Massim, Rossel Island, etc), open Full Reader Search and then
check out the listing.

Not all items shown are primitive moneys. Some are ancillary to a money item others are simply things that I
liked and collected.

I am still a keen collector and am always trying to learn more on the subject. I hope that you can get some useful
information or enjoyment from my listing.

All the best to you and yours,


Col
Page 1 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1000 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YO VILLAGE

Description.: NOSE ORNAMENT BONE ASMAT


(LARGEST)
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 2 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1001 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YO VILLAGE

Description.: NOSE ORNAMENT BONE ASMAT

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 3 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1002 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YO VILLAGE

Description.: NOSE ORNAMENT BONE ASMAT


(SMALLEST)
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 4 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1003 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YAPEN ISLAND WEST

Description.: ARMRING CONUS CALLED


SAPARO
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Professor Held, in his book, values one which
can pass over the elbow, at 4 to 6 tumangs of
sago.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 5 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1004 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YAPEN ISLAND WEST

Description.: ARMRING CONUS CALLED


SAPARO
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Professor Held, in his book, values one which
can pass over the elbow, at 4 to 6 tumangs of
sago.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 6 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1005 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YAPEN ISLAND WEST

Description.: ARMRING CONUS CALLED


SAPARO
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Professor Held, in his book, values one which
can pass over the elbow, at 4 to 6 tumangs of
sago.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 7 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1006 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YAPEN ISLAND WEST

Description.: ARMRING CONUS CALLED


SAPARO
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Professor Held, in his book, values one which
can pass over the elbow, at 4 to 6 tumangs of
sago.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 8 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1007 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YAPEN ISLAND WEST

Description.: ARMRING CONUS CALLED


SAPARO
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Professor Held, in his book, values one which
can pass over the elbow, at 4 to 6 tumangs of
sago.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 9 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1008 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BARAPASI VILLAGE UPPER WAROPEN

Description.: ARMBAND OF BEADS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 10 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1009 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SALKAGU VILLAGE

Description.: STONE MONEY -JE-

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
This is a Je stone moey of the Dani - possibly
the most important cultural item of this people.
Page 11 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1010 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: URFUSEI VILLAGE

Description.: EARRING GLASS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Ancient Glass Earrings, Geelvink Bay Area, West
Papua; these glass earrings were collected on
the Waropen Coast along the North Coast of
West New Guinea, traditionally called "dimbo" in
the local Warpoen language, they were an
important type of traditional wealth used for
bride price payments, other types of
compensation payments and for goods,
especially bird of paradise skins that Malay
traders came to obtain by trading glass and
metal objects.
Old men say that their fathers told them that
these Dimbo came from special trees in the
jungle. Ornament Magazine dates them as 13th
Century Javanese glass with Islamic influence.
Page 12 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1011 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: NORTH COAST

Description.: BEADS (MANY)

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.Money


Beads of the Waropen Coast. In mid-1989 a
small batch of beads came into Australia from
the North West Coast of Irian Jaya. They played
an important role in the culture of the
Melanesians of the area and had done so for
hundreds of years. They were an important
cultural object, used in a true monetary sense
as a store of value, in presentations and for
purchases. They were used in Bride Price but
not actually worn by the people of the area.
When traded further east, they were worn as
well as being used in brideprice. Many beads
were buried to safeguard them from the raids of
enemies. Received from Malay and other traders
in payment for Bird of Paradise skins they were
re-traded into the interior by the coastal natives
to obtain skins and other items. However, the
old men of the villages were told by their
grandfathers that the beads grew on magical
trees in the jungle. In the early 1980s many
were purchased by Indonesians and others so,
to all intents and purposes, there are no more
beads available from the area. The main bead
used was the yellow Chinese melon bead
(#826a Dubins bead chart) dated to the Ching
Dynasty (16th-18th C).
Page 13 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1012 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SIDEIA ISLAND - Massim

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL KNIFE - MASSIM -


Blacklip
Description: Voyagers in the Kula, when arriving
at their destination, gave their trading partner
presents called pari (landing gift). It would be
some small object such as a pearlshell knife, a
lime pot or a lime spatula but might even
include high value items such as a beku stone
blade or a good lime spatula. General trade
associated with the Kula included the popular
lime spatulas and pearlshell knives and,
included as solicitory gifts in bidding for an
important Bagi or Mwali, was the highly valued
Beku stone blades.
The Kayeki or pearlshell knife was used in
beauty magic to make men more attractive to
their lady friends or Kula partner. Kaydobu, or
Kayeki from Dobu, are singled out by
Malinowski as important trade items and the
pearlshell knives are, in some localities, the
most important subsidiary trade items of the No Picture 2
Kula.
Page 14 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1013 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SIDEIA ISLAND - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME CONTAINER GOURD -


MASSIM
Description: A minor gift in the Kula Trade Cycle

No Picture 2
Page 15 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1014 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SIDEIA ISLAND - Massim

Village:

Description.: SHELL RED GROUND - MASSIM

Description: This is the spondylus shell used to


make the famous Bagi necklaces of the Kula
trade.

I obtained this from a Rossel Island native


named Sam Mananamu who was working on
Sideia Island, in the Massim area.

The shell has been ground down ready to be


made into shell discs. He would probably hve
taken it back to Rossel if I hadn't obtained it.

No Picture 2
Page 16 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1015 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM -


MBU:OP BUTU- GREEN STONE.
Description: PREVIOUSLY OWNED BY STEVEN
PIN. IS ANCIENT AND CEREMONIALLY USED
FOR FUNERALS AND CUSTOM BUYING.
Called Mbu:Op Butu.These are the important
green stone axeblades fom Woodlark Island and
an important item in the Kula Trade Cycle.
Called Beku in the Trobriands and Mbu Op Butu
in Rossel.

No Picture 2
Page 17 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1016 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL GRATER

Description: The shell comes from a reef around


the island and it is used as a hand scraper for
coconut, for use as a spoon and as a minor
valuable.
Called Ngwe.

No Picture 2
Page 18 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1017 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: SHELL SCRAPER COWRIE

Description: Called Ngebi.

Previously owned by Thomas Pindi of Abeleti


Village.

A useful tool valued in minor exchanges and gift


giving.

No Picture 2
Page 19 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1018 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -GEMIDA-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Gemida". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #20
Previous owner was Jerom Pidua of Abeleti
Village. We use them for custom buyings.
Page 20 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1019 Acq Date: 8909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL KNIFE

Description: On Sudest Island there is a custom


called Buwa where, the first time a man or boy
is discovered to have spent the night with a girl,
the girl's family presents him with a basket of
gifts (which often includes a pearlshell knife).
He does not keep this gift but must add the
equivalent to the basket and return it to the
girl's family. A somewhat similar custom is seen
on Rossel Island.

No Picture 2
Page 21 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1020 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: EASTERN HIGHLANDS

Village:

Description.: SHELLROPE COWRIE

Description: Collected by Colin Barron, Lae.

A true money throughout most of New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 22 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1021 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: WEST NEW BRITAIN

Village: Kove

Description.: SHELLSTRING -VULA-

Description: Obtained by Colin Barron, Lae, New


Guinea.

The Kaliai women make the shellstring called


Vula for the men to use.

This example is probably what is called 'black'


Vula (vula arsona) and was used to purchase
masks, in the building of men's houses, bride
wealth and in mortuary presentations.

See Opitz pages 362-363.

No Picture 2
Page 23 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1022 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS

Village:

Description.: SHELL MELO BAILER FOREHEAD


DECORATION
Description: Collected by Colin Barron, Lae.

In the Highlands, bailer shell was of high value.

It was used for ceremonial exchange, life-cycle


payments, payments to experts, bride wealth
and decoration.

Called Kokla raem (tam in Teboka).

It was worn by boys, women and girls. Both


sexes wear large bailers over the breast for
dancing and men also wear rounded pieces on
their foreheads.

No Picture 2
Page 24 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1023 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: EASTERN HIGHLANDS

Village:

Description.: HEADBAND OLIVE SHELLS

Description: Collected by Colin Barron.


Olive shells were scarce in the area and a
valued trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 25 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1024 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: EASTERN HIGHLANDS

Village:

Description.: BELT COWRIE

Description: Collected by Colin Barron, Lae.

A true money throughout most of New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 26 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1025 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLROPE COWRIE

Description: Collected by Colin Barron, Lae.

A true money throughout most of New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 27 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1026 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: CHIMBU

Village:

Description.: PIG TUSK PENDANT

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
A wearable, decorative valuable.
Page 28 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1027 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SAWA VILLAGE

Description.: ARMBAND STRING CASSOWARY


FEATHERS
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 29 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1028 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YASAKOR VILLAGE

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


ASMAT. Refer page 75 of -The Skull Art of the
Bismam of West Papua- Flanagan 2005. These
daggers were used in payments.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 30 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1029 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YASAKOR VILLAGE

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


ASMAT. Refer page 75 of -The Skull Art of the
Bismam of West Papua- Flanagan 2005. These
daggers were used in payments.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 31 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1030 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BALIEM

Description.: BAG STRING FEATHERS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Worn on the back by men.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 32 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1031 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Mt HAGEN AREA

Village: KELAM VILLAGE

Description.: SHELL GREEN SNAIL

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.

A high value money/trade item.


Page 33 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1032 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: NORTH COAST

Description.: BEADS (MANY)

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.Money


Beads of the Waropen Coast. In mid-1989 a
small batch of beads came into Australia from
the North West Coast of Irian Jaya. They played
an important role in the culture of the
Melanesians of the area and had done so for
hundreds of years. They were an important
cultural object, used in a true monetary sense
as a store of value, in presentations and for
purchases. They were used in Bride Price but
not actually worn by the people of the area.
When traded further east, they were worn as
well as being used in brideprice. Many beads
were buried to safeguard them from the raids of
enemies. Received from Malay and other traders
in payment for Bird of Paradise skins they were
re-traded into the interior by the coastal natives
to obtain skins and other items. However, the
old men of the villages were told by their
grandfathers that the beads grew on magical
trees in the jungle. In the early 1980s many
were purchased by Indonesians and others so,
to all intents and purposes, there are no more
beads available from the area. The main bead
used was the yellow Chinese melon bead
(#826a Dubins bead chart) dated to the Ching
Dynasty (16th-18th C).
Page 34 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1033 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SALKAGU VILLAGE

Description.: STONE MONEY -JE-

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
This is a Je stone moey of the Dani - possibly
the most important cultural item of this people.
Page 35 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1034 Acq Date: 8910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SALKAGU VILLAGE

Description.: STONE MONEY -JE-

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
This is a Je stone moey of the Dani - possibly
the most important cultural item of this people.
Page 36 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1035 Acq Date: 8910
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA CRUZ

Village:

Description.: PENDANT -KAP KAP-


TORTOISESHELL CLAM
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

In the Santa Cruz Islands are created the


distinctive breastplates, known as tema, tambe,
or tepatu which were worn by high status
individuals. These important men would wear it
during ceremonies and when fighting.
They consist of disks of Tridacna shell with
openwork turtle shell overlays. Tema were
integral elements of the elaborate ceremonial
attire worn by men at major dance festivals.
The white shell disk represents the moon, and
the overlay incorporates stylized images of a
frigate bird.
Of high trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 37 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1036 Acq Date: 8910
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CONUS

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons

Called Balau.

Bulau rings (Balau is the generic name of Conus


shells) which were used as an exchange
valuable are made from the base of the shell,
including part of the sidewall and making an
L- or I-shape in cross section. Roughly made
bulau were also used for religious offerings to
spirits in a similar manner to hinuili which were
a small ring of conus shell. Many have been
found on graves where they represented spirits
of dead chiefs and were used by living chiefs to
communicate with their dead ancestors, either
to placate them or to seek their aid..

No Picture 2
Page 38 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1037 Acq Date: 8910
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: FISHHOOK SHELL


TORTOISESHELL
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Fishhooks have been one of the most popular


trade items throughout the Pacific. This use
item had good trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 39 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1038 Acq Date: 8910
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: WHALE TOOTH

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.
Whale teeth were extremely valuable money
items in New Georgia and the Solomons - see
item C.0614.
This is a special and much rarer tooth than
normal. Instead of being unmodified, or having
a suspension hole to enable it to be worn like a
Tambua, this tooth has four tiny holes (each
meeting to make two through holes) that are
too small to have it suspended as a pendant.
A similar one (see photo) is in the British
Museum in which the holes are used for
decoration or possibly static suspension.
It seems that this very rare form of
whaletooth valuable dates to before the
European whalers of the 19th Century and the
tiny holes probably held a very thin cord to hold
small shell discs and possibly suspend the tooth No Picture 2
over a grave or important area to protect the
people of the area or to appease the spirits.
It is recorded that formerly such kalo were a
very high ranking traditional currency used for
barter and ceremonial
exchange. They were also used in marriage
payments, for the purchase of land, for magical
formulae, and in the ritual appeasement of
localised malevolent spirits (Hviding 1996,
Kupiainen 2000).
From a grave on the island.
Page 40 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1039 Acq Date: 8910
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: KOLOMBANGARA

Village:

Description.: SHELL MITRE GROUND - LIGOMO

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Cut Spiral Terebra Shells.

These were called Ligomo and Rango..

They were important and valued charms and


valuables that were used for war and sailing
expeditions. They were also used to decorate
skull shrines of important men where they
represented spirits of dead chiefs and were
used by living chiefs to communicate with their
dead ancestors, either to placate them or to
seek their aid..

No Picture 2
Page 41 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1040 Acq Date: 8910
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: Kolombangara

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Mbakia)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Mbakia, Bakiha, Bakisa or Erenge.

These are a variety of the standard Poata - the


difference being the yellow stain at one edge
which is the yellow colour from the hinge of the
giant clam. Only a few shellrings can be made
showing the stain.

As with the Poata these rings are almost


perfectly uniform in the circle shape with very
regular, unvarying, thickness and width from
hole to edge.

Bakiha were graded by size, texture and the


concentration and extent of the yellow to red
stain on their surface No Picture 2

Bakiha were shell rings made from the hinge


section of fossilized Tridacna gigas clamshells
and graded according to size, texture, and color,
with only the adductor muscle area yielding the
most reddish and highest valued rings.
These were used in a wide variety of social
exchanges ranging from bride price to the
settlement of hostilities, but
they are pre-eminently seen as emblems of
chiefly power and as offerings made at ancestor
shrines, with skulls of
chiefs often being placed on top of bakiha. It is
as offerings at shrines that they appear
archaeologically.
Page 42 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1041 Acq Date: 8910
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: New Georgia

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Mbakia)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Mbakia, Bakiha, Bakisa or Erenge.

These are a variety of the standard Poata - the


difference being the yellow stain at one edge
which is the yellow colour from the hinge of the
giant clam. Only a few shellrings can be made
showing the stain.

As with the Poata these rings are almost


perfectly uniform in the circle shape with very
regular, unvarying, thickness and width from
hole to edge.

Bakiha were graded by size, texture and the


concentration and extent of the yellow to red
stain on their surface No Picture 2

Bakiha were shell rings made from the hinge


section of fossilized Tridacna gigas clamshells
and graded according to size, texture, and color,
with only the adductor muscle area yielding the
most reddish and highest valued rings.
These were used in a wide variety of social
exchanges ranging from bride price to the
settlement of hostilities, but
they are pre-eminently seen as emblems of
chiefly power and as offerings made at ancestor
shrines, with skulls of
chiefs often being placed on top of bakiha. It is
as offerings at shrines that they appear
archaeologically.
Page 43 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1042 Acq Date: 8911
Country: Sudan and Congo
District:

Village:

Description.: SPEARHEAD IRON (LIGANDA or


TARUMBA) CEREMONIAL
Description: Obtained from Scott Semans, USA.

Called Liganda or Ngbele.

These were made by the Turumba below


Stanley Falls. These were the main currency
between the Congo and the Lomani. Used
mainly for Brideprice and the purchase of
canoes and slaves - thirty would buy a male
slave. Quiggin p64 and plates 1 and 3.

No Picture 2
Page 44 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1043 Acq Date: 8911
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: SPEARHEAD IRON (LIGANDA OR


TARUMBA) CEREMONIAL
Description: Obtained from Scott Semans, USA.

Called Liganda or Ngbele.

These were made by the Turumba below


Stanley Falls. These were the main currency
between the Congo and the Lomani. Used
mainly for Brideprice and the purchase of
canoes and slaves - thirty would buy a male
slave. Quiggin p64 and plates 1 and 3.

No Picture 2
Page 45 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1044 Acq Date: 8911
Country: INDONESIA
District: JAVA

Village:

Description.: KNIFE KRIS

Description: Some have been used as a


substitute for the groom in some wedding
ceremonies. Valued as a currency in some areas
- see Quiggins page 258. Also see Fig 112 for
illustration

No Picture 2
Page 46 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1045 Acq Date: 8911
Country: INDONESIA
District: JAVA

Village:

Description.: KNIFE KRIS

Description: Some have been used as a


substitute for the groom in some wedding
ceremonies. Valued as a currency in some areas
- see Quiggins page 258. Also see Fig 112 for
illustration

No Picture 2
Page 47 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1046 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village: WOSERA

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE &


FEATHERS
Description: From the book "Naven" by Gregory
Bateson Pages 46 & 72
Called a Tambointsha
"Tambointsha are tassels of feathers tied to
string. They are symbols of successful homicide
and worn on the lime stick as a tally of the
owner's successful kills. A kill may be scored for
homicide achieved by means of
ndja?nbwia, but not for homicides achieved by
other magical techniques.
The act of presenting a tambointsha to the angk
-au thus falls into the same pattern as the
presentation of tambointsha described on p. 99.
In both cases we may see a formal recognition
of the fact that the damage done was a
legitimate act of vengeance."
Also used to decorate bone daggers.
Homicidal pendants are shown in Plate 33
Mountain Arapesh II by Margaret Mead. No Picture 2
Page 48 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1047 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SENTANI

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE HIGHLY


POLISHED
Description: Hefa

In the village of Tablanusu in the Humboldt bay


an average Brideprice was 2 axeblades, 2 large
blue beads, 4 small blue beads and 4 yellow.
The blades come from the Humboldt Bay area -
they are mined in a quarry near Mt Cyclops
which is close to Sentani.

No Picture 2
Page 49 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1048 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: DANI

Description.: FETISH STONE & STRING

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


DANI - Fetish which possesses a gender and
spirituality
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 50 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1049 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: DANI

Description.: FETISH STONE & STRING

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


DANI - Fetish which possesses a gender and
spirituality
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 51 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1050 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: ASMAT

Description.: TRUMPET BAMBOO

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 52 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1051 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BRASSA RIVER AREA

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE ASMAT


TEARDROP SHAPE
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 53 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1052 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SENTANI

Description.: SAGO BLADE STONE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
A chipped but unusually shaped stone tool.
Worked stone items, such as this, were highly
valued and readily accepted in trade.
Page 54 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1053 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village:

Description.: CASSOWARY FEATHER ORNAMENT

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 55 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1054 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MOUNT HAGEN AREA

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE GREEN

Description: One of their superb green stone


axe blades used in their Bride Price Axes.

No Picture 2
Page 56 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1055 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Collingwood Bay or New Caledonia

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE - Green Epidote


Stone
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

Appears to be a fine grained volcanic rock


subsequently chloritised and silicified. Seems to
show traces of rhyolite, chalcedony, quartz,
chlorite and/or rhyolite.
The stone material is similar to one displayed at
the Adelaide Museum.

No Picture 2
Page 57 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1056 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE STONE


QUADRILATERAL
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

Large adze blade for work use.


As such was a popular trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 58 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1057 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: PIG TUSK PENDANT

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions.

A wearable, decorative valuable.

Pig Tusks are highly valued throughout the


Pacific. Some notes on this include:

Laynard (1942) Tusk of the pig are valued


greatly (in New Hebrides) and High ranking men
wear the curled tusks as a sign of their status..

Strathern, M. (1977), For the people of Kalauna


(PNG), tusks were a valuable item used in
trading and Tusks were used in bride wealth
payments; the tusks were said to resemble the
fangs of the python which had great significance
in PNG mythology.

Quain, B. (1948), Pig tusks are used as No Picture 2


ornaments and are highly valued items (in Fiji).
Rakua F (1987) After cooking, the head of
the pig is removed with the tusks intact and is
presented to the head of the
village.
Simon Feeny (2016) states that the use of
traditional money such as pig tusks is still
common in the Solomons and Vanuatu.
Couper (2009) In the New Guinea Highlands pig
tusks were a medium of exchange and bride
price.
Gallego on Mendanas discovery of the Solomons
in 1568 wrote to say that the natives on the
island of Veru valued pig tusks very highly.
Page 59 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1058 Acq Date: 8912
Country: SWEDEN
District:

Village:

Description.: PLATE MONEY 1/2 DALER

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Swedish Coin (Plate Money)

Coin of 1/2 Daler dated 1727

This coin was recovered from the wreck of the


trading ship Nicobar, which was discovered and
salvaged in the 1980's off the coast of southern
Africa. On July 23, 1782 the Nicobar left
Sweden with a load of recently undenominated
plates to be traded at Danish posts on the
Indian coast and the Nicobar Islnds, east of
India. On the way to the Cape of Good Hope it
was forced to replenish on the west coast of
Africa at False Bay, on May 20, 1783. On July
10, shortly after leaving False Bay, it was
wrecked in a storm. Two hundred years later,
local fishermen found the wreck. No Picture 2
Page 60 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1059 Acq Date: 8912
Country: SWEDEN
District:

Village:

Description.: PLATE MONEY 2 DALER

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Swedish Coin (Plate Money)

Coin of 2 Daler dated 1742

This coin was recovered from the wreck of the


trading ship Nicobar, which was discovered and
salvaged in the 1980's off the coast of southern
Africa. On July 23, 1782 the Nicobar left
Sweden with a load of recently undenominated
plates to be traded at Danish posts on the
Indian coast and the Nicobar Islnds, east of
India. On the way to the Cape of Good Hope it
was forced to replenish on the west coast of
Africa at False Bay, on May 20, 1783. On July
10, shortly after leaving False Bay, it was
wrecked in a storm. Two hundred years later,
local fishermen found the wreck. No Picture 2
Page 61 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1060 Acq Date: 8912
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Mai Village near Kerema some 100 miles


East of Pt Moresby.
Description.: BIRD OF PARADISE SKIN
FEATHERS
Description: In 1957 Australian zoologists
discovered that New Guinea tribes had exported
bird of paradise plumed skins for centuries and
that among those visiting the island, as long
ago as 1000 BC, had been traders from
Phoenicia in the Middle East. Another significant
discovery was that the tribespeople used to
preserve the skins for export by sealing them in
myrrh, molding them into an egg shape, and
wrapping this in burned banana leaves, a
procedure that tallies almost exactly with the
mythical bird''''s reputed treatment of its
destroyed nest. Perhaps most significant of all is
the fact that the brilliantly colored males of
Count Raggi''''s Bird of Paradise are adorned
with cascades of scarlet feathers that, during
their courtship dance, they repeatedly
raise aloft, while quivering intensely, a spectacle
reminiscent of the phoenix dancing in its No Picture 2
burning nest. On reaching the Middle East,
descriptions of this spectacle, combined with
the egg-like parcels of skins, may well have
been sufficient to inspire the myth of the
phoenix.
Extremely highly valued throughout New
Guinea.
Page 62 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1061 Acq Date: 8912
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Mai Village near Kerema some 100 miles


East of Pt Moresby.
Description.: BIRD OF PARADISE SKIN
FEATHERS
Description: In 1957 Australian zoologists
discovered that New Guinea tribes had exported
bird of paradise plumed skins for centuries and
that among those visiting the island, as long
ago as 1000 BC, had been traders from
Phoenicia in the Middle East. Another significant
discovery was that the tribespeople used to
preserve the skins for export by sealing them in
myrrh, molding them into an egg shape, and
wrapping this in burned banana leaves, a
procedure that tallies almost exactly with the
mythical bird''''s reputed treatment of its
destroyed nest. Perhaps most significant of all is
the fact that the brilliantly colored males of
Count Raggi''''s Bird of Paradise are adorned
with cascades of scarlet feathers that, during
their courtship dance, they repeatedly
raise aloft, while quivering intensely, a spectacle
reminiscent of the phoenix dancing in its No Picture 2
burning nest. On reaching the Middle East,
descriptions of this spectacle, combined with
the egg-like parcels of skins, may well have
been sufficient to inspire the myth of the
phoenix.
Extremely highly valued throughout New
Guinea.
Page 63 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1062 Acq Date: 8502
Country: SIAM
District: MEKONG DELTA

Village:

Description.: INGOT BOAT MONEY BRONZE

Description: Ex Paul Dillingham, USA

This is a bronze ingot called Lat Hoi - often


termed boat or canoe money because of their
shape.
Made in the old kingdom of Lan Chang in the
Mekong Delta region (now Laos and Thailand)
and used as a true coinage and money of
commerce (also used as symbolic offerings to
the spirits). Larger ones are 18th century -
smaller ones were probably made until about
1889 when the French Protectorate came into
being.

No Picture 2
Page 64 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1063 Acq Date: 9001
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: URFUSEI VILLAGE

Description.: EARRING GLASS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Ancient Glass Earrings, Geelvink Bay Area, West
Papua; these glass earrings were collected on
the Waropen Coast along the North Coast of
West New Guinea, traditionally called "dimbo" in
the local Warpoen language, they were an
important type of traditional wealth used for
bride price payments, other types of
compensation payments and for goods,
especially bird of paradise skins that Malay
traders came to obtain by trading glass and
metal objects.
Old men say that their fathers told them that
these Dimbo came from special trees in the
jungle. Ornament Magazine dates them as 13th
Century Javanese glass with Islamic influence.
Page 65 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1064 Acq Date: 9001
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: NORTH COAST

Description.: BEADS (MANY)

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.Money


Beads of the Waropen Coast. In mid-1989 a
small batch of beads came into Australia from
the North West Coast of Irian Jaya. They played
an important role in the culture of the
Melanesians of the area and had done so for
hundreds of years. They were an important
cultural object, used in a true monetary sense
as a store of value, in presentations and for
purchases. They were used in Bride Price but
not actually worn by the people of the area.
When traded further east, they were worn as
well as being used in brideprice. Many beads
were buried to safeguard them from the raids of
enemies. Received from Malay and other traders
in payment for Bird of Paradise skins they were
re-traded into the interior by the coastal natives
to obtain skins and other items. However, the
old men of the villages were told by their
grandfathers that the beads grew on magical
trees in the jungle. In the early 1980s many
were purchased by Indonesians and others so,
to all intents and purposes, there are no more
beads available from the area. The main bead
used was the yellow Chinese melon bead
(#826a Dubins bead chart) dated to the Ching
Dynasty (16th-18th C).
Page 66 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1065 Acq Date: 9002
Country: PHILLIPINES
District:

Village:

Description.: JARLET SUNG DYNASTY

Description: The ancient Chinese travelled to


the Philippines as early as the 10th century.
This jar has a Museum certificate dating it to
the Sung Dynasry of China.
Such jarlets as this one, and much larger ones,
were passed down as heirlooms and as minor
valuables.

No Picture 2
Page 67 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1066 Acq Date: 9002
Country: BORNEO
District:

Village: KUTAI DYAK PEOPLE

Description.: BLOWPIPE

Description: From the Kutai Dyaks.


By Alex Spillius, S E Asia Correspondent.24 Feb
2001 Dayaks armed with spears, machetes and
blowpipes killed 200 people in a town in Borneo
during six days of violence in order to drive out
thousands of migrants resented for taking jobs
and land. The heads of many of the dead were
taken as trophies. A local doctor, Dr Sukhami,
said the victims had been hacked with
traditional Borneo swords called mandau or shot
with poisoned darts from blowguns.
The method to make a blowgun was to cut a
long piece of wood, lashing it vertically to a tree
and drilling into the end with a long iron rod
having a triangular steel point. This was done
by lifting, dropping and turning the rod, which
was kept in proper alignment by forked guides.
An assistant ladled water into the hole to float
out the chips. It was then planed to the proper
diameter and the bore smoothed. It required
specialized tools and a great deal of skill on the
part of the maker. The resulting tube was also
strong enough to serve as a spear shaft and
many examples have an iron spear head. Bored
blowguns became an item of export and were
found far from their point of manufacture.
Page 68 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1067 Acq Date: 9002
Country: S.E.ASIA
District:

Village:

Description.: OPIUM PIPE

Description: Not a monetary item, but was used


to smoke the opium which was a dangerous but
highly valued and traded item.

No Picture 2
Page 69 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1068 Acq Date: 9002
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE DOGSTEETH

Description: One of the most valued money


items throughout New Guinea. Also used in
Bride Price.

No Picture 2
Page 70 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1069 Acq Date: 9002
Country: PACIFIC
District: Possibly Massim

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE STONE FLAT


TRIANGULAR - Possibly Massim
Description: From Lawson's Tribal Art Auctions.

No Picture 2
Page 71 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1070 Acq Date: 9002
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: STONE PESTLE

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A simple but rare stone pestle from Mount


Hagen in New Guinea.

It is prehistoric and is probably 3500-7500


years old.
The 3500 year old date is fairly precise due to a
volcanic eruption at the time.

An interesting series of stone mortars, pestles


and figures, many of which appear to have been
traded, have been found throughout much of
New Guinea and the North Eastern islands. All
are rare.

This item is simple but rare.


No Picture 2
Page 72 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1071 Acq Date: 9002
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND RED SAPI/WOVEN


FIBRE
Description: Ex the Sid V Hagley Collection.
Hagley was one of the most imortant collectors
in Australian Numismatics. He once owned the
proof 1930 penny valued at over $2,000,000.

No Picture 2
Page 73 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1073 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MENDI

Village:

Description.: WALLET FOR KINA

Description: Collected by Colin Barron, Lae.

A bark wallet used to hold and protect the kina


valuables.

No Picture 2
Page 74 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1074 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS

Village:

Description.: HEADBAND COWRIE SHELLS

Description: Collected by Colin Barron, Lae.

A true money throughout most of New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 75 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1075 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -JOMONDO-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Jomondo". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #17
The previous owner was Jerome Kaiyobu of
Abeleti Village.
Page 76 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1076 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KOMOKA Class #4

Description: Previous owner was James Mepe of


Jinjo Village and the coin is class Komondap.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Komoka". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 200 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 77 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1077 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP PIMBA Class #14

Description: Previous owner was Bernard Mepe


of Jinjo Village and this was used in 1982 by
Mola Gwawo of Jinjo Village as Bride Price. The
wife''''''''s family also from Jinjo Village and
were named Mepe.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Pimba". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 30 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 78 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1078 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NECKLACE SAPI SHELL DISCS


CALLED -CHAPA-
Description: Previously owned by Damien
Kayobu. It was used for funerary ceremonies.
When a person died that person's wife's people
will pay to his parents and relations. Also worn
by women at Sing-sings or when dressing up.
A rare and valuable money item.

No Picture 2
Page 79 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1079 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: Trumpet triton shell called -Dwor.

Description: It is a trumpet made from a Triton


Shell and comes from Rossel Island in New
Guinea.

Previously owned by Thomas Koor of Abeleti


Village. It was blown for big gathering of people
- like fightings against two people for a wrong
doing or quarrels against two villages foe a
wrong doing or a Patrol Officer visit to a Ward
Village to collect Local Government taxes.

These items were favourite trade items


throughout the Pacific.

No Picture 2
Page 80 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1080 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: Pestle Dugong Tooth called piorbo-


dynena-ngeye-gwaye.
Description: Dugong Tooth Betel Pestle called
piorbo-dynena-ngeye-gwaye.
Previous owmer was Steven Kayobu of Abeleti
Village. This was a family valuable passed down
from a man named Pichda to his som Kayobu
and then to his son Steven Kayobu.
A highly valued heirloom passed down through
the generations.

No Picture 2
Page 81 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1081 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KOMO KOMONDAP Class #4

Description: Previously owned by Anna Pindi of


Abeleti Village and is called Komondap.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Komo Komondap". These
were made by a god and were used in
Brideprice, the price for killing a man, warfare
payments, funerary payments, and as the price
for part of the body of the victim at a cannibal
feast (the Rossel Islanders were cannibals
because their god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of
the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 200 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 82 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1082 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Previously owned by Cathrine Tom


of Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 59 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 83 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1083 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previously owned by Cathrine Tom


of Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 84 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1084 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previously owned by Cathrine Tom


of Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 85 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1085 Acq Date: 9003
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: MORTAR WOODEN CALLED NYEKE

Description: Called Nyeke.


Previously owned by Steven Kayobu of Abeleti
Village.
A very scarce item from the island.

No Picture 2
Page 86 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1086 Acq Date: 9004
Country: SIAM
District:

Village:

Description.: SCALES

Description: Not a monetary item but used with


the 'Opium Weights' to weigh gold, silver,
jewels, etc

No Picture 2
Page 87 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1087 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE OF SHELL DISCS WITH


NASSA
Description: Ex the Sid V Hagley Collection.
Hagley was one of the most imortant collectors
in Australian Numismatics. He once owned the
proof 1930 penny valued at over $2,000,000.

A wearable moey item of sapi-sapi shell discs


interspersed with nassa shells.

No Picture 2
Page 88 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1088 Acq Date: 9005
Country: SOLOMONS
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE OF SHELL DISCS WITH


SMALL BLACK GLASS BEADS
Description: Ex the Sid V Hagley Collection.
Hagley was one of the most imortant collectors
in Australian Numismatics. He once owned the
proof 1930 penny valued at over $2,000,000.

A standard string of shell money.

No Picture 2
Page 89 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1089 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Taronta Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL
BROWNISH 128x10mm
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Not worn now and people cannot remember
anyone ever making them.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 90 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1090 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Taronta Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL WHITE
124x11mm
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Not worn now and people cannot remember
anyone ever making them.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 91 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1091 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Taronta Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL SMALLER
84x11mm
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Not worn now and people cannot remember
anyone ever making them.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 92 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1092 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Taronta Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL SMALL
35x9mm
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Not worn now and people cannot remember
anyone ever making them.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 93 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1093 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaptiau Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: Earring Star Clam/Tortoiseshell
44mm dia
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 94 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1094 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaptiau Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: Earring Star Clam/Tortoiseshell
50mm dia Broken Arm
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 95 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1095 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaptiau Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: EARRING STAR SHAPED
SHELL/TORTOISESHELL 29mm dia
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 96 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1096 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaptiau Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: EARRING RING
SHELL/TORTOISESHELL 23mm dia
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 97 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1097 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaptiau Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: NECKLACE CONUS DISC/BLUE
BEAD PENDANT 50mm dia
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 98 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1098 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaimana Village (SW Fak-Fak District)

Description.: SHELL DISC CONUS PENDANT


CARVED
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 99 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1099 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaimana Village (SW Fak-Fak District)

Description.: SHELL DISC CONUS PENDANT


CARVED
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 100 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1100 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaimana Village (SW Fak-Fak District)

Description.: SHELL DISC -RING- SHAPED


SMALL NOTCHES
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 101 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1101 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BONGGO VILLAGE

Description.: ARMLET WITH TWO CLAMSHELL


DISCS
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 102 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1102 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Baigisewer Village (North Coast Sarmi


Area)
Description.: Shellring Pendant
Clam/Beads/Nassa 102mm dia
Description: Called Sembasi
Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999.
His items are in many of the Great Museums.
A true money item.
Page 103 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1103 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: FAK-FAK AREA

Description.: BEADS TRANSLUCENT BLUE (2)


BLUE, WHITE OPAQUE
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 104 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1104 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaptiau Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: ARMLET CLAMSHELL
DISC/BEADS/NASSA SHELLS
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 105 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1105 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: JAIPURA AREA

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL


(BROKEN) 91mm
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Ancient excavated when digging house
foundations.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 106 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1106 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Baigisewer Village (North Coast Sarmi


Area)
Description.: Shellring Pendant
Clam/Teeth/Nassa/Beads 130mm dia
Description: Called by Sembasi
Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999.
His items are in many of the Great Museums.
A true money item.
Page 107 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1107 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Baigisewer Village (North Coast Sarmi


Area)
Description.: Shellring Pendant Beads/Dog
Teeth 90mm dia
Description: Called Sembasi
Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
A true money item.
Page 108 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1108 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Kaptiau Village (N Coast between


Jaipura and Sarmi)
Description.: ARMLET WITH TWO CONE SHELL
DISCS
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 109 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1109 Acq Date: 9005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: MONAKAWARI VILLAGE

Description.: NECKLACE BEADS


BLUE,WHITE,RED,YELLOW
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
A money necklace of trade beads.
Page 110 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1110 Acq Date: 9006
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: GONG IRON WITH CLAPPER

Description: Double gong illustrated p75 Fig 18


Quiggin's

No Picture 2
Page 111 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1111 Acq Date: 9006
Country: PHILLIPINES
District:

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND SMALL GLASS BEADS

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A wearable valuable of old beads.

No Picture 2
Page 112 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1112 Acq Date: 9006
Country: SARAWAK
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE OLD TRADE GLASS


BEADS
Description: Valued items for wearing but
valued in trade.
Beads both old and new are valued by the
Dayak people. Some beads were made locally
but many, especially those made of glass, came
from other parts of the world through trade.
These have found their way into the remotest
parts of Borneo.
Not only are the beads treasured as heirlooms
that are usually handed down from mother to
daughter but, in the old days before modern
money was available, beads were one of the
principal forms of currency.
Valuable beads are used as bride wealth and as
grave goods for the dead among aristocrats.
Some heirloom beads are only worn for rituals
and festivals while others are said to possess
supernatural qualities.
No Picture 2
Page 113 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1113a Acq Date: 9006
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: COLLINGWOOD BAY

Village:

Description.: BARK CLOTH TAPA

Description: Bark cloth with custom designs


from the Oro province of Papua New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 114 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1113b Acq Date: 9006
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: COLLINGWOOD BAY

Village:

Description.: BARK CLOTH TAPA

Description: Bark cloth with custom designs


from the Oro province of Papua New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 115 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1114 Acq Date: 9006
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Milne Bay Province - Massim

Village: Dogura Village

Description.: Axe Hafted Green Stone Blade


Collected by Robert Jones.
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

Robert Jones of Glasgow intended to work for


the Anglican Church in New Guinea for 18
months he stayed for 18 years- arriving in
1926 and leaving in 1943. Being a builder he
undertook the building of a cathedral at Dogura.
It took five years to build and he and 170 men
from the diocese, speaking 35 different
languages between them, each gave three
months of free labour to erect the largest
permanent building in New Guinea at the time.
The opening ceremony of the cathedral, on
October 29 1939, was attended by the
Lieutenant Governor of Papua and the Kings
representative Sir Hubert Murray, Jones
returned to Brisbane to prepare for his
ordination and, an ordained deacon, he No Picture 2
returned to Dogura where, in 1941, the Golden
Jubilee of the Anglican Church in New Guinea
and the 7th anniversary of the laying of the
Foundation Stone, he was ordained as a priest
in the cathedral he had built. With the Japanese
invasion Jones remained in Sefoa and clung to
his work, not leaving his people although, after
the fall of Gona, he must have been the nearest
European to the Japanese. In May 1943 he left
New Guinea because of his wifes health in
Australia and never returned permanently.
Page 116 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1115 Acq Date: 9006
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Milne Bay Province

Village: Dogura Village

Description.: BOWL WOODEN Collected by


Robert Jones
Description: Robert Jones of Glasgow intended
to work for the Anglican Church in New Guinea
for 18 months he stayed for 18 years-
arriving in 1926 and leaving in 1943. Being a
builder he undertook the building of a cathedral
at Dogura. It took five years to build and he and
170 men from the diocese, speaking 35
different languages between them, each gave
three months of free labour to erect the largest
permanent building in New Guinea at the time.
The opening ceremony of the cathedral, on
October 29 1939, was attended by the
Lieutenant Governor of Papua and the Kings
representative Sir Hubert Murray, Jones
returned to Brisbane to prepare for his
ordination and, an ordained deacon, he
returned to Dogura where, in 1941, the Golden
Jubilee of the Anglican Church in New Guinea
and the 7th anniversary of the laying of the No Picture 2
Foundation Stone, he was ordained as a priest
in the cathedral he had built. With the Japanese
invasion Jones remained in Sefoa and clung to
his work, not leaving his people although, after
the fall of Gona, he must have been the nearest
European to the Japanese. In May 1943 he left
New Guinea because of his wifes health in
Australia and never returned permanently.
Page 117 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1116 Acq Date: 9006
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Milne Bay Province

Village: Dogura Village

Description.: Bowl Wood Double with Two


Heads Collected by Robert Jones
Description: Robert Jones of Glasgow intended
to work for the Anglican Church in New Guinea
for 18 months he stayed for 18 years-
arriving in 1926 and leaving in 1943. Being a
builder he undertook the building of a cathedral
at Dogura. It took five years to build and he and
170 men from the diocese, speaking 35
different languages between them, each gave
three months of free labour to erect the largest
permanent building in New Guinea at the time.
The opening ceremony of the cathedral, on
October 29 1939, was attended by the
Lieutenant Governor of Papua and the Kings
representative Sir Hubert Murray, Jones
returned to Brisbane to prepare for his
ordination and, an ordained deacon, he
returned to Dogura where, in 1941, the Golden
Jubilee of the Anglican Church in New Guinea
and the 7th anniversary of the laying of the No Picture 2
Foundation Stone, he was ordained as a priest
in the cathedral he had built. With the Japanese
invasion Jones remained in Sefoa and clung to
his work, not leaving his people although, after
the fall of Gona, he must have been the nearest
European to the Japanese. In May 1943 he left
New Guinea because of his wifes health in
Australia and never returned permanently.
Page 118 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1117 Acq Date: 9007
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SALKAGU VILLAGE

Description.: COWRIE BAND Of The DANI


Called Yerak
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 119 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1118 Acq Date: 9007
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SALKAGU VILLAGE

Description.: COWRIE BAND Of The DANI


Called Yerak
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 120 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1119 Acq Date: 9007
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SALKAGU VILLAGE

Description.: COWRIE BAND Of The DANI


Called Yerak
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 121 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1120 Acq Date: 9008
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDONGWO Class #8

Description: Previous owner was Gerald John


Clement of Jinjo Village.

Made by the god Wonajo before man came to


Rossel

This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of


Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Tebudongwo" called in pure
Rossel "Tebudonduwo".. These were made by a
god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 54 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.
An important and extremely rare item.
Page 122 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1121 Acq Date: 9008
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM -


MBU:OP BUTU - GREEN STONE.
Description: Previous owner was Gerald John
Clement of Jinjo Village.

These are the important green stone axeblades


fom Woodlark Island and an important item in
the Kula Trade Cycle. Called Beku in the
Trobriands and Mbu Op Butu on Rossel. Traded
into Rossel Island from Sudest and the Massim
area.

No Picture 2
Page 123 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1122 Acq Date: 9008
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND SHELL DISCS/WOVEN


FIBRE
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

An important wearable monetary valuable.

No Picture 2
Page 124 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1123 Acq Date: 9008
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: CHOISEUL

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL-ZAKU

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This item is called Zaku.

A large and highly valued unit of money from


Choiseul Island. It is a shell ring made of
clamshell.

No Picture 2
Page 125 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1124 Acq Date: 9008
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SIDEIA ISLAND - Massim

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL KNIFE - MASSIM -


Goldlip
Description: Voyagers in the Kula, when arriving
at their destination, gave their trading partner
presents called pari (landing gift). It would be
some small object such as a lime pot or a lime
spatula but might even include high value items
such as a beku stone blade or a good lime
spatula. General trade associated with the Kula
included the popular lime spatulas and
pearlshell knives. Included as solicitory gifts in
bidding for an important Bagi or Mwali was the
highly valued Beku stone blades.
The Kayeki or pearlshell knife was used in
beauty magic to make men more attractive to
their lady friends or Kula partner. Kaydobu, or
Kayeki from Dobu, are singled out by
Malinowski as important trade items and the
pearlshell knives are, in some localities, the
most important subsidiary trade items of the
Kula. No Picture 2
Page 126 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1125 Acq Date: 9009
Country: LIBERIA
District:

Village:

Description.: IRON ROD KISSI PENNY (3)

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

18-19th c., iron "kissie penny," an elongated &


attentuated "hoe" with a "T" shaped "handle" &
flat rudimentary "blade," shaft is twisted,
Believed to contain a soul - when broken, the
soul escapes, and must be returned by a Witch
Doctor..

No Picture 2
Page 127 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1126 Acq Date: 9009
Country: MALI
District:

Village:

Description.: BEADS GLASS (3 SHORT STRINGS


-a,b,c)
Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

"Janie" (corruption of Djenne?) and


"Baya"beads. probably Bohemia . janie are the
blue ones.

No Picture 2
Page 128 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1127 Acq Date: 9009
Country: CONGO
District:

Village:

Description.: BEADS GLASS (2) AGGRY

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Similar to the Venician 1750-1850.High value


bead used in Gold Coast gold trade and called
"King Bead". Best claimant as true Aggry.
Quiggin p39-40.

No Picture 2
Page 129 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1128 Acq Date: 9009
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: COWRIE ANCIENT (3)

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

BURIED WITH COINS IN CHOU DYNASTY


GRAVES.

No Picture 2
Page 130 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1129 Acq Date: 9009
Country: INDIA
District:

Village:

Description.: COINS SILVER TINY RATI (3)

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Maurian Empire 400-300 BC weight of one


Arbrus Precatorus seed

No Picture 2
Page 131 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1130 Acq Date: 9009
Country: BURMA
District:

Village:

Description.: KNIFE STEEL BLADE IN


SCABBARD
Description: Called Dao. In previous times the
Dao was a valued item of the area.

No Picture 2
Page 132 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1131 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Milne Bay Province

Village: Dogura Village

Description.: BAG STRING Collected by Robert


Jones
Description: Robert Jones of Glasgow intended
to work for the Anglican Church in New Guinea
for 18 months he stayed for 18 years-
arriving in 1926 and leaving in 1943. Being a
builder he undertook the building of a cathedral
at Dogura. It took five years to build and he and
170 men from the diocese, speaking 35
different languages between them, each gave
three months of free labour to erect the largest
permanent building in New Guinea at the time.
The opening ceremony of the cathedral, on
October 29 1939, was attended by the
Lieutenant Governor of Papua and the Kings
representative Sir Hubert Murray, Jones
returned to Brisbane to prepare for his
ordination and, an ordained deacon, he
returned to Dogura where, in 1941, the Golden
Jubilee of the Anglican Church in New Guinea
and the 7th anniversary of the laying of the No Picture 2
Foundation Stone, he was ordained as a priest
in the cathedral he had built. With the Japanese
invasion Jones remained in Sefoa and clung to
his work, not leaving his people although, after
the fall of Gona, he must have been the nearest
European to the Japanese. In May 1943 he left
New Guinea because of his wifes health in
Australia and never returned permanently.
Page 133 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1132 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Milne Bay Province

Village: Dogura Village

Description.: BAG STRING Collected by Robert


Jones
Description: Robert Jones of Glasgow intended
to work for the Anglican Church in New Guinea
for 18 months he stayed for 18 years-
arriving in 1926 and leaving in 1943. Being a
builder he undertook the building of a cathedral
at Dogura. It took five years to build and he and
170 men from the diocese, speaking 35
different languages between them, each gave
three months of free labour to erect the largest
permanent building in New Guinea at the time.
The opening ceremony of the cathedral, on
October 29 1939, was attended by the
Lieutenant Governor of Papua and the Kings
representative Sir Hubert Murray, Jones
returned to Brisbane to prepare for his
ordination and, an ordained deacon, he
returned to Dogura where, in 1941, the Golden
Jubilee of the Anglican Church in New Guinea
and the 7th anniversary of the laying of the No Picture 2
Foundation Stone, he was ordained as a priest
in the cathedral he had built. With the Japanese
invasion Jones remained in Sefoa and clung to
his work, not leaving his people although, after
the fall of Gona, he must have been the nearest
European to the Japanese. In May 1943 he left
New Guinea because of his wifes health in
Australia and never returned permanently.
Page 134 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1133 Acq Date: 9912
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Strickland River Nomad Area

Village:

Description.: ARROW BONE CARVED POINT

Description: Fly River Nomad area. Bone


utilised - cassowary, pig and human. Traditional
blood and lime binding on flight shaft join.
Typically used on head hunting and revenge
raids. Identified by Barry Craig (author & SA
Museum) as from the Bedamuni (Biami) on the
Nomad River west of Mt Bosavi at the upper
reaches of the Strickland River. The Biami were
cannibals - refer book "Cannibal" by JL
Anderson.

No Picture 2
Page 135 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1134 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARMBANDS (2-a,b)


WOVEN/NASSA
Description: From Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions.
The nassa shell was one of the main money
items in the Northern coastal area of New
Guinea. They were used for strictly items of
money and also wearable valuables.

No Picture 2
Page 136 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1135 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Baigisewer Village (North Coast Sarmi


Area)
Description.: SHELLRING PENDANT LARGE

Description: Called Sembasi


Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
A true money item.
Page 137 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1136 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Baigisewer Village (North Coast Sarmi


Area)
Description.: SHELLRING PENDANTS (2) NASSA

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999.
His items are in many of the Great Museums.
True money items.
Page 138 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1137 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Baigisewer Village (North Coast Sarmi


Area)
Description.: SHELLRING PENDANTS (2) BEADS

Description: Called Sembasi


Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
True money items.
Page 139 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1138 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village:

Description.: WOVEN BAND BEADS/NASSA

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.

A true money item with trade beads and money


shells.
Page 140 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1139 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: EARRINGS PAIR SINGLE


SHELLRINGS ON CASSOWARY QUILLS
Description: Collected by Ron Perry between
1964 and 1973
Ron Perry was an adventurous American who
emigrated to Australia. He then went to New
Guinea and collected artifacts, from there and
the South Pacific, for over forty years. After his
return to America he became one of the best
known artifact dealers in the world. the story of
his early years istold in "Art Dealer in the Last
Unknown" (2011) Leigh and Perry.
A valued item of wearable money.

The shell rings are too small to be a true


currency but have good trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 141 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1140 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: EARRINGS PAIR GLASS RINGS ON


CASSOWARY QUILL SMALL
Description: Collected by Ron Perry between
1964 and 1973
Ron Perry was an adventurous American who
emigrated to Australia. He then went to New
Guinea and collected artifacts, from there and
the South Pacific, for over forty years. After his
return to America he became one of the best
known artifact dealers in the world. the story of
his early years istold in "Art Dealer in the Last
Unknown" (2011) Leigh and Perry.
A valued item of wearable money.
The glass rings were brought in by the early
Europeans in place of the shell rings.

No Picture 2
Page 142 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1141 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: Earrings Pair Shell/Glass Rings on


Cassowary Quills
Description: Collected by Ron Perry between
1964 and 1973
Ron Perry was an adventurous American who
emigrated to Australia. He then went to New
Guinea and collected artifacts, from there and
the South Pacific, for over forty years. After his
return to America he became one of the best
known artifact dealers in the world. the story of
his early years istold in "Art Dealer in the Last
Unknown" (2011) Leigh and Perry.
A valued item of wearable money.
The glass rings were brought in by the early
Europeans in place of the shell rings.

No Picture 2
Page 143 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1142 Acq Date: 9009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: WRISTLET CONUS

Description: Collected by Ron Perry between


1964 and 1973.
Ron Perry was an adventurous American who
emigrated to Australia. He then went to New
Guinea and collected artifacts, from there and
the South Pacific, for over forty years. After his
return to America he became one of the best
known artifact dealers in the world. the story of
his early years istold in "Art Dealer in the Last
Unknown" (2011) Leigh and Perry.

A true money item of the area.

No Picture 2
Page 144 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1143 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKRING METAL

Description: Ex Charles Opitz.

A simple copper neckring with enough copper in


it to make it a valauble trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 145 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1144 Acq Date: 9010
Country: UNITED STATES
District:

Village:

Description.: FLINT EFFIGY TURTLE

Description: Collected by Charles Opitz - author


of the book on primitive moneys.
Fetishes were valued as gifts - often excavated
from mounds.

No Picture 2
Page 146 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1145 Acq Date: 9010
Country: UNITED STATES
District:

Village:

Description.: FLINT EFFIGY BUFFALO

Description: Collected by Charles Opitz - author


of the book on primitive moneys.
Fetishes were valued as gifts - often excavated
from mounds.

No Picture 2
Page 147 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1146 Acq Date: 9010
Country: BANKS ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: FEATHER -WETAPUP-

Description: A wearable decoration/money - see


Quiggins page 135.

No Picture 2
Page 148 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1147 Acq Date: 9010
Country: TURKEY
District:

Village:

Description.: MYRHH AND FRANKINCENSE

Description: Ex Charles Opitz.

Modern examples of the two spices given as


presents at the birth of Christ.

No Picture 2
Page 149 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1148 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: WOOMERA WOODEN

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935.

Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the


CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.

Woomeras were an Aboriginal trade item


through some areas of Australia.

No Picture 2
Page 150 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1149 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: POINTING BONE

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935..

Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the


CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.

No Picture 2
Page 151 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1150 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: BAG STRING

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935.
Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the
CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.

No Picture 2
Page 152 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1151 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: BULLROARER WOODEN

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935.

Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the


CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.

No Picture 2
Page 153 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1153 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: MESSAGE STICK

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935
About 250 languages were spoken in 1788 with
around 600 dialects. Message sticks played an
important part in communication between
Aboriginal groups. Usually made from wood,
small and easy to carry, they were carved,
incised and painted with symbols and designs
conveying messages and information. Each
group had its own distinctive identifying marks
and often included marks to identify the carrier.
Thus it could be identified and authenticated by
neighboring groups and by translators when
taken long distances. It supported the oral
message that the carrier would provide,
especially when languages of groups were
different, and there were enough marks to
ensure that the original message would not be No Picture 2
misinterpreted. The message stick itself was a
passport which gave the carrier protection.
When someone carrying a message stick
entered another groups area, they announced
themselves with smoke signals and were then
accompanied safely to the elders to speak their
verbal message.
They were also used to arrange for trading
journeys and meetings.

Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the


CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and
Page 154 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1154 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: BOOMERANG KYLIE

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935..
Aboriginal groups exchanged natural resources,
such as ochres, and tools, stone axes and
boomerangs, thus creating extensive trading
networks. Goods travelled hundreds of
kilometres from their original source.

For example, boomerangs made in Central


Australia would find their way to Arnhem Land
and the surrounding islands. Didgeridoos from
Arnhem Land would find their way down to
Central Australia. Pearl shells from the
Kimberley were traded through Central Australia
down into South Australia.

Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the


CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased No Picture 2
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.
Page 155 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1155 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: BOOMERANG KYLIE

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935.

Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the


CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.

No Picture 2
Page 156 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1156 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: BOOMERANG KYLIE

Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,


the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935..
Aboriginal groups exchanged natural resources,
such as ochres, and tools, stone axes and
boomerangs, thus creating extensive trading
networks. Goods travelled hundreds of
kilometres from their original source.

For example, boomerangs made in Central


Australians would find their way to Arnhem
Land and the surrounding islands. Didgeridoos
from Arnhem Land would find their way down to
Central Australia. Pearl shells from the
Kimberley were traded through Central Australia
down into South Australia.
Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the
CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and No Picture 2
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.
Page 157 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1157 Acq Date: 9010
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village: ROPER RIVER AREA

Description.: BOOMERANG DECORATED


(DAMAGED)
Description: Collected by Keith Langford-Smith,
the famous "Sky Pilot" missionary in the Roper
River area in the period 1931-1935..
Aboriginal groups exchanged natural resources,
such as ochres, and tools, stone axes and
boomerangs, thus creating extensive trading
networks. Goods travelled hundreds of
kilometres from their original source.

For example, boomerangs made in Central


Australians would find their way to Arnhem
Land and the surrounding islands. Didgeridoos
from Arnhem Land would find their way down to
Central Australia. Pearl shells from the
Kimberley were traded through Central Australia
down into South Australia.
Keith Langford Smith was a missionary at the
CMS Roper River mission. In 1930 he purchased
a Gypsy Moth plane and explored air routes and No Picture 2
places where Aborigines had not met the white
man. He flew over 22,000 miles. He later
started the Marella Mission Farm at Kellyville,
wrote a number of books and conducted a radio
session on 2CH known as the Sky Pilots Log. He
was awarded an AM in 1977 in recognition of his
50 years of service to the Aboriginal people.
Page 158 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1158 Acq Date: 9011
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: NEW BRITAIN ARAWE AREA

Village: KANDRIAN VILLAGE

Description.: PEARLSHELL PAIR (a,b)


GOLDLIP/ROPE
Description: Called Tuali or euk

These goldlip pearlshells, with their custom


adornments, were highly valued and used as
money in certain transactions. See Melanesian
Shell Money Lewis p 11, Plate IV.
These were used as a bride price payments and
were their traditional currency.

No Picture 2
Page 159 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1159 Acq Date: 9011
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: PORT MORESBY AREA

Description.: ADZEBLADE STONE

Description: Obtained from Spinks Auctions,


Sydney.

A highly valued trade item and similar stone


adzes have been found from near Port Moresby
to well into Indonesian Papua.
From the J Williamson collection of the 1930s.
Collected in the Papuan Gulf-Port Moresby area.

No Picture 2
Page 160 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1160 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -KWOJUMA-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Kwojuma". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #22.
Previous owner was Regina Abel of Abeleti
Village.
Page 161 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1161 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: EAST POINT VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -PWOJUMA-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Pwojuma". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #21 1984.
Previous owner was Joe Lomonge.
Page 162 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1162 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previous was Patrick Segana of


Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 163 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1163 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDONGTUO Class #8

Description: Previously owned by Takama Bata


of Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebudongtuo". These were
made by a god and were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest
rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 54 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 164 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1164 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NECKLACE SAPI SHELL DISCS


CALLED -WOLWOL
Description: The previous owner was Toto Abel.

Called Wolwol, the common name for necklaces.


This necklace has the red sapi-sapi shell discs
that are used in Bagi and other valuables in the
Kula Trade Cycle. They have been traded from
Rossel to the Massim area for many decades. It
is made up as a wearable necklace but is a true
money item.

No Picture 2
Page 165 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1165 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: BASKET KWAPPE OR KWABE

Description: Basket called Kwappe or Kwabe.


This basket is made in two layers, so that
money can be secreted in the lining.
Previously owned by Mathew Abo of Abeleti
Village.

No Picture 2
Page 166 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1166 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDUMBO Class #11

Description: Previously owned by Cathrine Tom


of Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebudumbo". These were
made by a god and were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest
rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 40 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item
Page 167 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1167 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JARU VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -TEBUDONGTUO-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Tebudongtuo". These were used in Brideprice,
the price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #8 1984.
Previous owner was David Micheal.
Page 168 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1168 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JARU VILLAGE

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL -NII- (2-


a,b)
Description: A lower value style of nosestick.
Previous owner was David Micheal of Jaru
Village.

No Picture 2
Page 169 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1169 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: PIG TUSK

Description: A trade item. Previously owned by


Takama Bata and used on lime-pot tops.

No Picture 2
Page 170 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1170 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: STONE PESTLE -MPUEMA- OR -


MBIMA-
Description: Called Mpuema or Mbima.

Previously owned by Takama Bata of Abeleti


Village. It is ancient but has been used for
cracking nuts - was not used with a mortar.

It is also used in rain making and was a gift


from the magic people of Rossel Island.

No Picture 2
Page 171 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1171 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -YEALANGWINDO-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Yealangwindo". These were used in Brideprice,
the price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #10 1984.
Previous was Linus Paul.
Page 172 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1172 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Previously owned by Bena Tom of


Rossel Island.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 173 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1173 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Previously owned by Cathrine Tom


of Rossel Island.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 174 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1174 Acq Date: 9012
Country: PACIFIC
District:

Village:

Description.: DRILL WOOD WITH METAL TIP


(a,b,c)
Description: The normal drill, to hole shell and
wood, Probably from the Solomons.

No Picture 2
Page 175 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1175 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: WALLETS (3-A,B,C) FOR KINA

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

Bark wallets used to hold and protect the kina


valuables.

No Picture 2
Page 176 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1176 Acq Date: 9012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: 'BIRD HEAD' AREA

Description.: SHELLRING OF 3 TROCHUS RINGS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 177 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1177 Acq Date: 9101
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: WESTERN DANI AREA

Description.: NASSA SHELL


FRONTLET/PENDANT
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 178 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1178 Acq Date: 9101
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: WESTERN DANI AREA

Description.: FETISH BAG STRING WITH TUSK


DECORATION
Description: A Fetish which possesses a gender
and spirituality.
Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 179 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1179 Acq Date: 9101
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: WESTERN DANI AREA

Description.: TOBACCO

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
with a two month trip to New Guinea which
ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific peoples;
their art and their cultures. In the next 25 years
Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New Guinea,
West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands.
He stayed in remote villages and lived as they
did, ate what they ate and suffered their
problems such as malaria and dengue fever. He
often travelled for six or eight months a year
and spent months living with cultural groups
including the Asmat, the Mimika, the Marind
Anim , the people of Lake Sentani and Geelvink
Bay and spent time in the Sepik River area, the
Southern Highlands and Enga Provinces of
Papua New Guinea and remote villages in
Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Todd started
dealing in tribal art in 1987 and, in 1995,
became the Tribal Art Expert for Sothebys
Australia staying in this position until 1999. His
items are in many of the Great Museums.
Tobacco in custom leaf wrapping.from the
Western Dani. A traditional trade/money item.
Page 180 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1180 Acq Date: 9101
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: ORMU VILLAGE

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE HIGHLY


POLISHED
Description: Called Hefa.

Collected by Todd Barlin.


In the village of Tablanusu in the Humboldt bay
an average Brideprice was 2 axeblades, 2 large
blue beads, 4 small blue beads and 4 yellow.
The blades come from the Humboldt Bay area -
they are mined in a quarry near Mt Cyclops
which is close to Sentani.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
and in a two month trip to New Guinea which
ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific peoples;
their art and their cultures. In the next 25 years
Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New Guinea,
West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands.
He stayed in remote villages and lived as they
did, ate what they ate and suffered their
problems such as malaria and dengue fever.
This was before the internet, etc which exposed
remote villages to the outside world. He often
travelled for six or eight months a year to out of
the way areas and spent months living with
cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River, the Southern Highlands and Enga
Province of PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomons.
Page 181 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1181 Acq Date: 9102
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YAPEN ISLAND

Description.: ARMRING CONUS CALLED


SAPARO
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Professor Held, in his book, values one which
can pass over the elbow, at 4 to 6 tumangs of
sago.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 182 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1182 Acq Date: 9102
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BALIEM VALLEY

Description.: MONEY NET CALLED SU - TRUE


MONEY - NOT USED AS A BAG
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
From the Dani people - used as money only -
not as a net bag.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat,
Mimika, Marind Anim , people of Lake Sentani
and Geelvink Bay and spent time in Sepik River
area, Southern Highlands and Enga Provinces of
Papua New Guinea and remote villages in
Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Todd started
dealing in tribal art in 1987 and, in 1995,
became the Tribal Art Expert for Sothebys
Australia staying in this position until 1999. His
items are in many of the Great Museums.
Page 183 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1183 Acq Date: 9102
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BALIEM VALLEY

Description.: BAG STRING-MONEYBAG

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Used specifically to hold Je Stones, cowrie
bands and Money Nets.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 184 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1184 Acq Date: 9102
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: HEADBAND CASSOWARY PLUMES

Description: A valued and wearable


trade/money item..

No Picture 2
Page 185 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1185 Acq Date: 9102
Country: AFRICA
District: Masai People

Village:

Description.: SPEARHEAD IRON

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.Iron was money in many parts of Africa
(see Quiggin) and spearheds were particularly
valued as a monetary weapon.
These spearheads were used in the young
men's right of passage in killing a lion.

No Picture 2
Page 186 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1186 Acq Date: 9103
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: LOTUS ROOT COIN

Description: Said to have been used as money


during the ZHOU Dynasty, 1122-255 BC

No Picture 2
Page 187 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1187 Acq Date: 9104
Country: SIAM
District:

Village:

Description.: GONG DRUM KYEE ZEE

Description: Obtained from John Magers,


Sydney.

The most highly regarded valuable of the


Kareand Kha tribes of Thailand/Burma and
Laos. A man with one drum was regarded as
more highly regarded than one who has seven
elephants. Refer Opitz p197 and TMA Journal A
Man of Substance, a Man of Renown.

No Picture 2
Page 188 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1188 Acq Date: 9105
Country: PHILLIPINES
District:

Village:

Description.: SPEAR HAFTED IRON BLADE

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.
Called Fang-Kao or generically Sibat.

The metal head of the spear was made by local


Igorot smiths, usually with the raw metal
coming from China. However, the shaft
traditionally must be made by the owner of the
spear.

No Picture 2
Page 189 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1189 Acq Date: 9105
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE SEED AND SHELL

Description: Monetary necklace of dentalium


shells and seeds.

ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions.

No Picture 2
Page 190 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1190 Acq Date: 9105
Country: INDONESIA
District: TIMOR

Village:

Description.: ARMRING SILVER

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

No Picture 2
Page 191 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1191 Acq Date: 9105
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: ADZE HAFTED STONE BLADE

Description: A simple stone blade adze from the


Sepik area.

A trade item throughout the area.

No Picture 2
Page 192 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1192 Acq Date: 9105
Country: INDONESIA
District: JAVA

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A very early trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 193 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1193 Acq Date: 9105
Country: INDONESIA
District: JAVA

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A very early trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 194 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1194 Acq Date: 9105
Country: INDONESIA
District: ALOR ISLAND

Village:

Description.: GONG DRUM MOKKO

Description: Mokos were used to pay a bride


price, to finance the construction of a family
house or a funeral. A family usually did not
have enough mokos and so for this purpose
borrowed the large metal objects from their
relatives and friends. To do this a kind of
interest was paid: the debtors found themselves
obliged to pay back higher quality mokos than
those they had borrowed. For this purpose
festivals were held at regular intervals. Only in
this connection were mokos used as musical
instruments.

No Picture 2
Page 195 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1195 Acq Date: 9107
Country: SARAWAK
District: MURUT PEOPLE

Village: LAWAS VILLAGE

Description.: BLOWPIPE, QUIVER AND DARTS

Description: From the Murut Dyaks.


By Alex Spillius, S E Asia Correspondent.24 Feb
2001 Dayaks armed with spears, machetes and
blowpipes killed 200 people in a town in Borneo
during six days of violence in order to drive out
thousands of migrants resented for taking jobs
and land. The heads of many of the dead were
taken as trophies. A local doctor, Dr Sukhami,
said the victims had been hacked with
traditional Borneo swords called mandau or shot
with poisoned darts from blowguns.
The method to make a blowgun was to cut a
long piece of wood, lashing it vertically to a tree
and drilling into the end with a long iron rod
having a triangular steel point. This was done
by lifting, dropping and turning the rod, which
was kept in proper alignment by forked guides.
An assistant ladled water into the hole to float
out the chips. It was then planed to the proper
diameter and the bore smoothed. It required
specialized tools and a great deal of skill on the
part of the maker. The resulting tube was also
strong enough to serve as a spear shaft and
many examples have an iron spear head. Bored
blowguns became an item of export and were
found far from their point of manufacture.
Page 196 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1196 Acq Date: 9107
Country: SARAWAK
District:

Village: LAWAS VILLAGE

Description.: NECKLACE (2) GLASS SEEDBEADS

Description: Collected by Neville Horn, a Board


member of the Borneo Evangelical Mission. He
was in Lawas for ten days in 1968 speaking to
National Leaders, missionaries, etc. These
necklaces were presented to him after his talks
as he was leaving.

No Picture 2
Page 197 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1197 Acq Date: 9107
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village: ILAHITA VILLAGE

Description.: COWRIE OVULA

Description: N HORN DIRECTOR OF SOUTH


SEAS EVANGELICAL MISSION IN THE 1960S AT
ILAHITA (TAMBERAM CENTRE) IN SEPIK BASIN.
A valued trade item throughout much of New
Guines. Added to enhance the appearance of
the Mwali used in the Kula Trade and to other
valuables in other areas.

No Picture 2
Page 198 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1198 Acq Date: 9108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: SKIRT BOARD WOODEN

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

This is a Massim cutting board which is used for


making women's money in the form of skirts
and banana leaf bundles.

No Picture 2
Page 199 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1199 Acq Date: 9108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: WESTERN ASMAT

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


ASMAT. Refer page 75 of -The Skull Art of the
Bismam of West Papua- Flanagan 2005. These
daggers were used in payments.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 200 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1200 Acq Date: 9108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: DANI

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 201 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1201 Acq Date: 9108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: WESTERN ASMAT

Description.: HEADBAND CASSOWARY PLUMES

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 202 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1202 Acq Date: 9108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Fringe area between Amat and Dani


People
Description.: PIG TUSK PENDANT

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Froom the fringe area between the Asmat and
Dani people. A standard item in the area.
Page 203 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1204 Acq Date: 9108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: ORMU VILLAGE

Description.: STONE PENDANTS (2) SMALL

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Ormu Village is the area from which the famous
polished axes originate.
Page 204 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1205 Acq Date: 9108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SORONG VILLAGE

Description.: BEADS WHITE GLASS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 205 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1206 Acq Date: 9110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL -NII-


(LARGEST)
Description: Stated in Armstrongs book that
only chiefs can wear these nosesticks of over a
certain length. This one would have only been
worn by chiefs. Of high value.
Previous owner was Willy Toor of Jinjo Village. It
was originally owned by a man named Noah
who wore it. When Noah died it was passed
down to his son Toor who wore it. When Toor
died his son Willy received it and kept it in his
memory. Willy did not wear it as he had no nose
hole.

No Picture 2
Page 206 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1207 Acq Date: 9110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -DIAMADUO-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Diamaduo". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class 13
Previous owner was Willy Toor of Jinjo Village.
Used for buying pigs, canoes, houses and so on.
Page 207 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1208 Acq Date: 9110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE ON SOUTH COAST

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -DIAMA (TIAMA)

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Diama". Used in Brideprice, the price for killing
a man, warfare payments, funerary payments,
and as the price for part of the body of the
victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel Islanders
were cannibals because their god Wonajo was a
cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #9
Previously owned by Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru
Village who obtained it from his father who
received it from his aunt at a pig feast.
Page 208 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1209 Acq Date: 9110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: PUM VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previous owner was Muo Teuyu of


the small village of Kedevou at Yonga Bay. His
father None Ntumama gave it to him at a pig
feast in Pum Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. An important and extremely rare item.
Page 209 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1210 Acq Date: 9110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KEJIM Class #3

Description: Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village


owned this shell and it had been passed down
to him through his family who had owned it for
generations.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kejim". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 74 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.
An important and extremely rare item.
Page 210 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1211 Acq Date: 9110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP GAMA Class #2

Description: Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village


owned yhis shell and it had been passed down
to him through his family who had owned it for
generations.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Gama". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 79 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.
An important and extremely rare item.
Page 211 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1212 Acq Date: 9510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Previously owned by a native


named Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received it
from the North coast in Bride Price payment at
the marriage of his niece Yakuda to the groom
John Paul.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 59 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 212 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1213 Acq Date: 9111
Country: RUSSIA
District:

Village:

Description.: COIN SILVER -WIRE KOPECK-

Description: Coin struck from silver wire. Russia


16th century.

No Picture 2
Page 213 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1214 Acq Date: 9111
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: Santa Catalina (now Owariki)

Village: TAMASIRA VILLAGE

Description.: SHELLRING TROCHUS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Obtained from native named Sisal Makua of
Tamasira Village. Local name of the item is Fato.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 214 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1215 Acq Date: 9111
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA CATALINA

Village: TAMASIRA VILLAGE

Description.: PEARLSHELL KNIFE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Obtained from a native named Jack Wataro.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 215 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1216 Acq Date: 9103
Country: SIAM
District:

Village: Ban Chiang

Description.: Terra Cotta Roller Stamp

Description: These are grave goods.

Excavations at Ban Chiang and Man Na Di were


found elaborately carved rollers similar to those
found at Somrong Sen in Cambodia. These are
said to date to between 300BC to 200AD,
although differing dates have been given, and
were found in the graves of children aged from
1 to 6 years of age. No adult burials had rollers.

Similar items from Ecuador were used to stamp


designs on the body of the deceased. Other
suggestions for use are stamps for printing.

Although they look as if they could have been


used to decorate fabric, they probably
never were. They are found in childrens graves,
and so perhaps they were charmsbut probably
charms with personal or family associations. No Picture 2
Page 216 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1217 Acq Date: 9111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Western Highlands

Village: Minj Area

Description.: PIG TUSK PENDANT

Description: From the Konumbuka people - a


clan of the Minj.
Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions

A wearable, decorative valuable.

Pig Tusks are highly valued throughout the


Pacific. Some notes on this include:

Laynard (1942) Tusk of the pig are valued


greatly (in New Hebrides) and High ranking men
wear the curled tusks as a sign of their status..

Strathern, M. (1977), For the people of Kalauna


(PNG), tusks were a valuable item used in
trading and Tusks were used in bride wealth
payments; the tusks were said to resemble the
fangs of the python which had great significance No Picture 2
in PNG mythology.

Quain, B. (1948), Pig tusks are used as


ornaments and are highly valued items (in Fiji).

Rakua F (1987) After cooking, the head of the


pig is removed with the tusks intact and is
presented to the head of the
village.
Simon Feeny (2016) states that the use of
traditional money such as pig tusks is still
common in the Solomons and Vanuatu.
Couper (2009) In the New Guinea Highlands pig
tusks were a medium of exchange and bride
price.
Page 217 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1218 Acq Date: 9111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: WESTERN HIGHLANDS

Village:

Description.: DAGGER BONE(SAID TO BE


HUMAN)
Description: Although stated by Lawsons to be
made from a human bone this dagger is
probably cassowary bone. It is stated to have
come from the Western Highlands.

No Picture 2
Page 218 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1219 Acq Date: 9111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: URFUSEI VILLAGE

Description.: EARRING GLASS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Ancient Glass Earrings, Geelvink Bay Area, West
Papua; these glass earrings were collected on
the Waropen Coast along the North Coast of
West New Guinea, traditionally called "dimbo" in
the local Warpoen language, they were an
important type of traditional wealth used for
bride price payments, other types of
compensation payments and for goods,
especially bird of paradise skins that Malay
traders came to obtain by trading glass and
metal objects.
Old men say that their fathers told them that
these Dimbo came from special trees in the
jungle. Ornament Magazine dates them as 13th
Century Javanese glass with Islamic influence.

No Picture 2
Page 219 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1220 Acq Date: 9111
Country: SIAM
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKRING METAL

Description: A Wearable valuable from the Hill


tribes of Siam.

Ex Lawsons Tribal Auctions Sydney.

No Picture 2
Page 220 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1221 Acq Date: 9112
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: Nggela

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING VALUABLE RED

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This is a superb, long string of red custom


money from Nggela. It is called Malona.

No Picture 2
Page 221 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1222 Acq Date: 9112
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Hokata)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Called Poata the name of which now means


''''money'''' in the Solomons. . They are also
known as poata keoro, bakiha keoro and
takula..

This is a type of Poata called Gure or ibaibala. It


is different to the normal poata in that it has
rounded edges whereas the standard poata has
squared off edges.

Made from Clamshell these rings are almost


perfectly uniform in the circle shape with very
regular, unvarying, thickness and width from
hole to edge. They were made from the upper
white sections of fossilized T. Gigas and T.
Squamosa shells. No Picture 2

Following bakiha in importance are poata, which


are made from the upper and whiter sections of
fossilised T.gigas and T. squamosa clamshells;
poata circulated throughout the Western
Solomon islands as the chief barter currency.
These were exchanged during trading
expeditions for Canarium nuts, shields, torches,
other shell valuables and ornaments (e.g., dala
head disks), slaves, and other
commodities. They were used to pay for access
to fishing grounds
for community fish and turtle drives (kokopa)
Aswani 1997), offered to the ancestors as an
irreversible
Page 222 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1223 Acq Date: 9112
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: TIKOPIA

Village:

Description.: BARK CLOTH TAPA

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Tapa cloth Was used as a money substitute on


Tikopia.
Dillon's account of his 1827 expedition mentions
the trade between Tikopia and Vanikoro from
where was obtained pearl shell, shell
ornaments, shell necklaces and bows and
arrows. In exchange Tikopia provided mats
(presumably of pandanus) and
"tapar" (presumably barkcloth).,

No Picture 2
Page 223 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1224 Acq Date: 9112
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING WHITE

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This is a long string of white custom money.

No Picture 2
Page 224 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1225 Acq Date: 9112
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village:

Description.: SALT BLOCK IN LEAF AND CANE


WRAPPING
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.

A true high value money item. Also a rare item


in itself.
Page 225 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1226 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA SOUTH

Village:

Description.: SHELL DISC CONUS PENDANT

Description: A valued cone shell pendant from


South Malaita.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi of Honiara.

No Picture 2
Page 226 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1227 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: REEF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 227 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1228 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL OVAL


SHAPE-
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Called Bareke or Mbariki or Ukeana.

These have been dated to a period prior to


1600 AD. by Shankar Aswani and Peter
Sheppard (2003).

It would be made of Tridacna Squamosa shell


and was a very highly valued shell ring. These
were the oldest type of Roviana exchange
medium and were mainly used in matters of
high importance and shrines in Roviana contain
Bareke which are often purposely broken. In
nearby Simbo these shell rings are regarded as
being alive and when they die (are broken ?)
their spirit goes to Sondo the residence of
ancestral spirits. It is likely that a somewhat No Picture 2
similar belief is held on New Georgia.

In Roviana, Bareke were principally used for


land fertility rites and access, as priestly
insignia and in ritual transfer of land rights.
Page 228 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1229 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELL MITRE GROUND - LIGOMO

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Cut Spiral Terebra Shells.

These were called Ligomo and Rango..

They were important and valued charms and


valuables that were used for war and sailing
expeditions. They were also used to decorate
skull shrines of important men where they
represented spirits of dead chiefs and were
used by living chiefs to communicate with their
dead ancestors, either to placate them or to
seek their aid..

No Picture 2
Page 229 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1230 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 230 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1231 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL

Description: This is a Barava (also called


vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Often attached to the outside of the small


chiefly skull house. They are wealth items and
symbols of authority. 19th century or earlier.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 231 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1232 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA NORTH

Village:

Description.: Necklace with a Clamshell


Pendant. (LAO)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

A money shellstring necklace with an ancient


clamshell disc pendant.

The shellstring is a standard money shellstring


and the clamshell pendant is an ancient custom
valuable called a Lao or a Laonassi.

No Picture 2
Page 232 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1233 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: REEF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 233 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1234 Acq Date: 9201
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: REEF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 234 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1235 Acq Date: 9202
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: YAPEN ISLAND

Description.: ARMRING CONUS CALLED


SAPARO
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
Professor Held, in his book, values one which
can pass over the elbow, at 4 to 6 tumangs of
sago.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 235 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1236 Acq Date: 9202
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: FLUTE WOODEN

Description: See Mountain Arapesh II by


Margaret Mead - she mentions a number of
times that they are traded throughout the Sepik
Area.

No Picture 2
Page 236 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1237 Acq Date: 9202
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND CONUS (SECTIONED)

Description: Ex lawsons Tribal Arts Auction.

No Picture 2
Page 237 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1238 Acq Date: 9202
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik Area

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL

Description: A highly valued money/trade item


of the area.
From Lawsons Tribal Art auctions

No Picture 2
Page 238 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1239 Acq Date: 9202
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL (possibly


bone)
Description: If shell it is a highly valued
money/trade item of the area, if made of bone
it is a minor item of value.
From Lawsons Tribal Art auctions

No Picture 2
Page 239 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1240 Acq Date: 9202
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK MELO BAILER SHELL

Description: An unusual nosestick in that it is


made from Melon or Bailer shell. Probably from
the Sepik it would be a high value trade itrm.
Acquired from Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions.

No Picture 2
Page 240 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1241 Acq Date: 9202
Country: BORNEO
District:

Village: DYAK

Description.: DRUM WOOD ANIMAL HIDE

Description: Has minimal trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 241 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1242 Acq Date: 9203
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: PUMBA VILLAGE

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Previously owned by Diawa Teluva


of Pumba Village in Jinjo Area of Rossel Island.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 242 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1243 Acq Date: 9203
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NECKLACE SAPI SHELL DISCS


CALLED -WOLWOL
Description: This necklace was made for Jerome
Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village by his friend Jerome
Noko of the Njaru area..

Called Wolwol, the common name for necklaces.


This necklace has the red sapi-sapi shell discs
that are used in Bagi and other valuables in the
Kula Trade Cycle. They have been traded from
Rossel to the Massim area for many decades. It
is made up as a wearable necklace but is a true
money item.

No Picture 2
Page 243 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1244 Acq Date: 9203
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: YONGA BAY AREA

Description.: NDAP YERANGGEWINDO Class


#10
Description: Previously owned by Mangi
Namuea of Yonga Bay Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Yeranggewindo ". These
were made by a god and were used in
Brideprice, the price for killing a man, warfare
payments, funerary payments, and as the price
for part of the body of the victim at a cannibal
feast (the Rossel Islanders were cannibals
because their god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of
the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 44 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 244 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1245 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELL MITRE GROUND - LIGOMO

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Cut Spiral Terebra Shells.

These were called Ligomo and Rango..

They were important and valued charms and


valuables that were used for war and sailing
expeditions. They were also used to decorate
skull shrines of important men where they
represented spirits of dead chiefs and were
used by living chiefs to communicate with their
dead ancestors, either to placate them or to
seek their aid..

No Picture 2
Page 245 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1246 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: WHALE TOOTH

Description: Collected by Sir mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.
Called Kalo.
Frank Reiter advises that, in New Georgia,
whale teeth played a significant role long before
the whalers of the 19th century. They were next
in importance to shields and Tridacna rings for
exchange and payments. Hviding (1996) states
in his Glossary of Marovo Words "very high
ranking traditional currency, associated with
much spiritual power". He points to their
considerable age. He found, on New Georgia
graves, Tridacna-rings, fragments of rings,
fragments of pierced Tridacna plates and, only
very occasionally, whale teeth.
Aswani and Sheppard (2003) reported whale
teeth were found in very few burial sites or
shrines on Nusa Roviana. Obviously whale teeth
were the rarest items, which is understandable No Picture 2
due to their low availability.
An old man named Daga (who was 89 years
old) from the village of Vulea advised that in his
youth whale teeth were used for land purchase,
settlement of land and other disputes and
compensation payments.
Unlike other Solomons money such as Tridacna
shell money and rings, which today are
occasionally still in use, kalo belongs to the
truly historical money.
From a grave on the island.
Page 246 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1247 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: FATALEKA EAST

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING TROCHUS (2-a,b)

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Called fai siare.

Worn by Kwaraae women of the Kwai District in


Malaita who wore several at once on the upper
arm. They were a standard armring through
much of the Solomons and had monetary and
trade value. This one comes from East Fataleka.

Trochus armrings have been excavated on


Guadalcanal and dated prior to the Lapita
Culture (1600BC to 500BC0..

No Picture 2
Page 247 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1248 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL ANCIENT

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete.

This arring is ancient and lightly corroded. It


was found on a grave.

The smallest and slimmest of the shell valuables


are hokata. They could be made of conus or
clamshell and this one is clamshell. These were
less valuable and used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chief''s by men for the sexual services of
''ritually designated women''. They were also
used to decorate skull shrines of important
men.

No Picture 2
Page 248 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1249 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CONUS

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons

Called Balau.

Bulau rings (Balau is the generic name of Conus


shells) which were used as an exchange
valuable are made from the base of the shell,
including part of the sidewall and making an
L- or I-shape in cross section. Roughly made
bulau were also used for religious offerings to
spirits in a similar manner to hinuili which were
a small ring of conus shell. Many have been
found on graves where they represented spirits
of dead chiefs and were used by living chiefs to
communicate with their dead ancestors, either
to placate them or to seek their aid..

No Picture 2
Page 249 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1250 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: KWAIO WEST

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A money shell necklace from West Kwaio on


Malaita, Solomons.

No Picture 2
Page 250 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1251 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Mbakia)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Mbakia, Bakiha, Bakisa or Erenge (the


yellow stain is on the unseen reverse side).

These are a variety of the standard Poata - the


difference being the yellow stain at one edge
which is the colour from the hinge of the giant
clam. Only a few shellrings can be made
showing the stain.

As with the Poata these rings are almost


perfectly uniform in the circle shape with very
regular, unvarying, thickness and width from
hole to edge.

Bakiha were graded by size, texture and the


concentration and extent of the yellow to red No Picture 2
stain on their surface

Bakiha were shell rings made from the hinge


section of fossilized Tridacna gigas clamshells
and graded according to size, texture, and color,
with only the adductor muscle area yielding the
most reddish and highest valued rings.
These were used in a wide variety of social
exchanges ranging from bride price to the
settlement of hostilities, but they are pre-
eminently seen as emblems of chiefly power
and as offerings made at ancestor shrines, with
skulls of chiefs often being placed on top of
bakiha.
Page 251 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1252 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 252 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1253 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA PEARLSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of pearlshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves and were also used as
a charm carried in war canoes during head
hunting expeditions to protect the crew and
ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 253 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1254 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA PEARLSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of pearlshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves and were also used as
a charm carried in war canoes during head
hunting expeditions to protect the crew and
ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 254 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1255 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 255 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1256 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: CHOISEUL

Village:

Description.: SET OF 9 KESA SHELLRINGS


(SALAKA)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Kesa Shell Money, Western Solomon Islands,


18th - 19th Century; "kesa" is a cylindrical shell
wealth that came in different sizes and values.
It is old, and is said to have been made by the
spirit Pongo. People preserved kesa by wrapping
them in ivory palm leaves and burying them in
the ground, or by storing them in caves for
safety from raids. They came in different
denominations, from kalusape, the highest
value, possessed by the chiefs.

Each separate shell ring id called a mata, three


mata were bound in palm leaves and called a
salaka and three salaka made one kesa.
A full set or salaka is shown here and they were
used for purchases of land and pigs, for bride No Picture 2
price, the price to kill a man and to pay major
fines.

An ordinary girl was worth 3 to 5 kesa in bride


price and the daughter of a big man cost more.
See Opitz page 174.
Page 256 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1257 Acq Date: 9205
Country: SUMERIA
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRINGS SMALL (3)

Description: These are minor shell trade items


which would have been worn as ornaments.

It is recorded that the Sumerians imported


conch shells from Ceylon and probably obtained
other shells from their many trade partners.

No Picture 2
Page 257 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1258 Acq Date: 9101
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: ORMU VILLAGE

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE HIGHLY


POLISHED
Description: Called Hefa.

Collected by Todd Barlin.


In the village of Tablanusu in the Humboldt bay
an average Brideprice was 2 axeblades, 2 large
blue beads, 4 small blue beads and 4 yellow.
The blades come from the Humboldt Bay area -
they are mined in a quarry near Mt Cyclops
which is close to Sentani.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Page 258 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1259 Acq Date: 9205
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: BRIDGE MONEY

Description: Bridge Money have now been dated


to c. 306-221BC and are accepted by many -
but not all - Chinese numismatists as actual
coins of Ba and Shu States. HAN DYNASTY, 206
BC - 220 AD

No Picture 2
Page 259 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1260 Acq Date: 9205
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BALIEM

Description.: NECKLACE MELO PENDANT &


NASSA SHELL - DANI
Description: Called Mikah.

One of the main valuables of the Dani warrior


and Big Man.
Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys
Australia staying in this position until 1999. His
items are in many of the Great Museums.
Page 260 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1261 Acq Date: 9205
Country: EGYPT
District: SAKKARA

Village:

Description.: RINGS IVORY (2-a,b)

Description: These items, dating to the Middle


Kingdom times (circa 2050 BC and 1800 BC),
came from excavations at Sakkara.

Ancient Egyptians traded with their African and


Mediterranean neighbors to obtain goods, such
as cedar, lapis lazuli, gold, ivory, and more.
They exported goods, such as papyrus, linen,
and finished objects using a variety of land and
maritime trading routes.

Wall paintings at Knossos and Phaistos depict


African slaves, ostrich eggs and ivory.

Ivory was a valuable and sought after valuable.


These money items are about 4,000 years old.

No Picture 2
Page 261 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1262 Acq Date: 9202
Country: PHILLIPINES
District: Northern Luzon

Village: Igorot People

Description.: SPEAR HAFTED IRON BLADE

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

Called Fal-Feg or generically Sibat.

The metal head of the spear was made by local


Igorot smiths, usually with the raw metal
coming from China. However, the shaft
traditionally must be made by the owner of the
spear.
Page 262 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1263 Acq Date: 9202
Country: INDONESIA
District: LOMBOK

Village:

Description.: ANKLERINGS (PAIR) WHITE


METAL
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

Made from a white metal.

No Picture 2
Page 263 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1264 Acq Date: 9205
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMBA ISLAND

Village:

Description.: COPPER WIRE ROPE LOLO AMAS

Description: Called Lolu amahu or loluamas.


Copper Wire Woven Chain used as a type of
money in Sumbawa and Sumba Islands. Used
mainly for marriage gifts and ratification of
contracts - not in ordinary exchanges. It was a
traditionall component in Bride Price.

No Picture 2
Page 264 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1265 Acq Date: 9208
Country: MEXICO
District: GUERRERO

Village:

Description.: JADE CARVED HEAD MEZCALA


INDIANS
Description: The Olmec civilization, which
thrived several centuries BC and in Pre-
Columbian Aztec America and also in Central
America, Jade in the form of beads, pendants,
ear plugs, etc. were a type of currency - to such
an extent that they were illustrated in Aztec
glyphs on the Codex Mendoza as a string of
jade beads. Montezuma told Cortes of the jade
he was sending to King Charles that: ''''each
stone is worth two loads of gold''''.
The Mayan buried jade with their dead to use as
money in the next life whereas the Aztecs only
included jade in the burials of chiefs or nobles.

No Picture 2
Page 265 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1266 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MAPRIK

Village:

Description.: SHELL MELO PENDANT BAILER


SHELL
Description: From the Maprik area.

These were rare and difficult to obtain, which


made them a high value object.
They were ornaments, a currency and used in
some areas as bride price.

See Quiggin page 175.

No Picture 2
Page 266 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1267 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SUDEST near Rossel

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE called giyazago


in Sudest.
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

These are now primarily used on Sudest for


funeral feasts where the stone blades are
deliberatedly chipped, as with this example, by
a mourner to illustrate the depth and severity of
their mourning.

No Picture 2
Page 267 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1268 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SUDEST - near Rossel

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE called giyazago


in Sudest
Description: THIS BLADE MATCHED WITH
LOUISIADES HAFT REF #1553

No Picture 2
Page 268 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1269 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MAPRIK

Village: DUMBIT 2 VILLAGE

Description.: ADZEBLADE STONE

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

A well made stone adzeblade.

No Picture 2
Page 269 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1270 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MAPRIK

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE DOGSTEETH & TRADE


BEADS
Description: Valued items for wearing but
valued in trade.

One of the most valued money items


throughout New Guinea. Also used in Bride
Price.

No Picture 2
Page 270 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1271 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MAPRIK

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE - HUMAN TEETH

Description: A money shell necklace from the


Maprik area of New Guinea. Has some teeth as
well including some human teeth.

No Picture 2
Page 271 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1272 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: WEO VILLAGE JEREP RIVER, WEST


ASMAT AREA
Description.: PENDANT BAMBOO (ASMAT)

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


This pendant denotes that the wearer has taken
a head.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 272 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1273 Acq Date: 9208
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: DANI AREA

Description.: COMB WOOD AND FIBRE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 273 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1274 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: DAFI PEARLSHELL CRESCENT

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This Dafi pearlshell pendant was a highly valued


ornament through some areas of the Solomons.
Some have the tortoiseshell frigate bird emblem
as a further decoration.
This example is old and was found on a grave
on New Georgia.
Page 274 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1275 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CONUS

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete.

The smallest and slimmest of the shell valuables


are hokata made from conus shells. These were
less valuable and used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chiefs by men for the sexual services of
ritually designated women. They were also used
to decorate skull shrines of important men.

No Picture 2
Page 275 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1276 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: WESTERN AREA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL

Description: This is a Barava also called


vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Often attached to the outside of the small


chiefly skull house. They are wealth items and
symbols of authority. 19th century or earlier.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 276 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1277 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: WESTERN AREA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA PEARLSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of pearlshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves and were also used as
a charm carried in war canoes during head
hunting expeditions to protect the crew and
ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 277 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1278 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: WESTERN AREA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA PEARLSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of pearlshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves and were also used as
a charm carried in war canoes during head
hunting expeditions to protect the crew and
ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 278 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1279 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: WESTERN AREA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA PEARLSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of pearlshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves and were also used as
a charm carried in war canoes during head
hunting expeditions to protect the crew and
ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 279 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1280 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA ISABEL

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL 93mm


(called Hokata)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete.

The smallest and slimmest of the shell valuables


are hokata. They could be made of conus or
clamshell and this one is thought to be
clamshell due to its size and no evidence of
conus markings. These were less valuable and
used in barter, marital rituals, as small
compensation transfers and were given to
chief's by men for the sexual services of 'ritually
designated women'. They were also used to
decorate skull shrines of important men.

Shell armrings were mentioned by the Spanish


explorer in 1568 when he visited this island,
Santa Isabel. He obtained a shell armring from No Picture 2
a chief of the island.
Page 280 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1281 Acq Date: 9209
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: ARMRING CONUS MWALI

Description: Used in the Kula Trade Cycle

No Picture 2
Page 281 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1282 Acq Date: 9210
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA (LARGE)

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Rossel Island.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 282 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1283 Acq Date: 9210
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -GUMINDO-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is the Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Nko. It is of the
denomination "Nko Ke-Kao Gumindo". Used in
Brideprice, the price for killing a man, warfare
and funerary payments, and as the price for
part of the body of the victim at a cannibal feast
(Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong estimates about 800 Nko coins split
between 16 different denominations. Any Nko is
of the highest rarity. Opitz allocates a full page
to Ndap and Nko and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins allocates a full three pages
to these items and Armstrong, in his 1928
book, gives twenty five pages to them. It is
probable that, after the Yap Stone Money, these
are the most important of Pacific Primitive No Picture 2
Moneys. An important and extremely rare item.
Class #16.
Previous owner was Jerome Kaiyobu and was
paid to Jeromes father Kaiyobu Tepa in 1990 as
bride price for his daughter Angella Beaga from
the boys clan. The boys name is Marcullus Neko
of Pume Village and his clan is Nkgea.
Page 283 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1284 Acq Date: 9210
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KWEIA Class #5

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


kaiyobu of Njaru Village who received it from
his father Kaiyobu Tepa. It was paid to
Jerome''''s father in 1990 as Bride Price for his
daughter Angella Beaga from the groom''''s
clan. Thegroom''''s name is Marcullus Neko Of
Pume Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kweia". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates No Picture 2
about 69 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items
and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty
five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Page 284 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1285 Acq Date: 9210
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Received by one of the clan of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village in Bride Price.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 285 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1286 Acq Date: 9210
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM. Also


called Beku in Trobriands
Description: These are the important green
stone axeblades fom Woodlark Island and an
important item in the Kula Trade Cycle. Called
Beku in the Trobriands and Mbu Op Butu in
Rossel.

No Picture 2
Page 286 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1287 Acq Date: 9210
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL GRATER

Description: The shell comes from a reef around


the island and it is used as a hand scraper for
coconut, for use as a spoon and as a minor
valuable.
Called Ngwe.

No Picture 2
Page 287 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1288 Acq Date: 9210
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: COWRIE OVULA

Description: A valued trade item throughout


much of New Guines. Added to enhance the
appearance of the Mwali used in the Kula Trade.

No Picture 2
Page 288 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1289 Acq Date: 9210
Country: BURMA
District:

Village: NAGA PEOPLE

Description.: BEADS CONUS (2)

Description: SHELL MONEY OF THE POMO


INDIANS.

No Picture 2
Page 289 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1290 Acq Date: 9211
Country: MIDDLE EAST
District: ASIA MINOR

Village:

Description.: ARROWHEAD BRONZE

Description: C1000-500BC - ARROWHEAD


SHAPE

No Picture 2
Page 290 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1291 Acq Date: 9211
Country: MIDDLE EAST
District:

Village:

Description.: ARROWHEAD BRONZE

Description: 2-12TH CENT AD - LEAF SHAPE

No Picture 2
Page 291 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1292 Acq Date: 9211
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: COWRIE IMITATION STONE

Description: Excavated from early graves.


Han or earlier

No Picture 2
Page 292 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1293 Acq Date: 9211
Country: INDONESIA
District:

Village:

Description.: COPPER WIRE ROPE LOLO AMAS

Description: Called Lolu amahu or loluamas.


Copper Wire Woven Chain used as a type of
money in Sumbawa and Sumba Islands. Used
mainly for marriage gifts and ratification of
contracts - not in ordinary exchanges. It was a
traditionall component in Bride Price.

No Picture 2
Page 293 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1294 Acq Date: 9211
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMBA ISLAND

Village:

Description.: COPPER WIRE ROPE LOLO AMAS

Description: Called Lolu amahu or loluamas


Copper Wire Woven Chain used as a type of
money in Sumbawa and Sumba Islands. Used
mainly for marriage gifts and ratification of
contracts - not in ordinary exchanges. It was a
traditionall component in Bride Price.

No Picture 2
Page 294 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1295 Acq Date: 9211
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMBA ISLAND

Village:

Description.: COPPER WIRE ROPE LOLO AMAS

Description: Called Lolu amahu or loluamas.


Copper Wire Woven Chain used as a type of
money in Sumbawa and Sumba Islands. Used
mainly for marriage gifts and ratification of
contracts - not in ordinary exchanges. It was a
traditionall component in Bride Price.

No Picture 2
Page 295 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1296 Acq Date: 9211
Country: BURMA
District: NORTH

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE GLASS BEADS

Description: Valued items for wearing but


valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 296 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1297 Acq Date: 9212
Country: JUDEA
District: NEAR HEBRON

Village:

Description.: CLOAKPIN BRONZE

Description: Purchased from David Hendon -


Expert and author of "Guide to Biblical Coins".
Metal wearable items were given in minor
payments and gifts at this time.

No Picture 2
Page 297 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1298 Acq Date: 9212
Country: JUDEA
District:

Village:

Description.: WEIGHT INGOT RING SHAPE


BRONZE
Description: Of ring shape to enable being
carried on poles or to stack on scales. Used as a
currency in Ancient Israel before coins. An
identical one is on display at the Israeli Museum
and dated to 900-700BC.

Purchased from David Hendon - Expert and


author of "Guide to Biblical Coins".

A hoard of more than 300 similar ingots


(referred to in the excavation reports as
'anklets' [also impossible given the very thick
bronze, which could have never been put on a
person] was found in an Iron Age II tomb (c.
8th century BCE) Near Kibbutz Lahav in the
south of Israel (Biran & Gophna 1970: 156).

No Picture 2
Page 298 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1299 Acq Date: 9212
Country: ROMAN EMPIRE
District:

Village:

Description.: INGOT AES RUDE COPPER

Description: C500-300BC. Purchased from


David Hendon - Expert and author of "Guide to
Biblical Coins".
C 700 BC from a hoard found near the Roman
port of Ostia in 1983.
Central Italy, 8th - 3rd Century BC: AES Rude:
The First Roman "coin." Unformed cast bronze
fragment. "Tradition assigned the institution of
the Roman coinage to the period of the kings
Servius Tullus and Numa." Pliny quotes Timaeus
of Tauromenium in an inconsistent and confused
account of the establishment of Rome's coinage
and called these lumps of irregular weighing
bronzes without official stamp or mark of value
as Aes Rude or Aes Infectum. Fifth century
Rome did see the official valuation of bronze at
equivalents of oxen and sheep, when in c. 450
the decemvirs codified the Roman Law in the
famous 'Twelve Tablets' which recognized the No Picture 2
bronze currency in use in central Italy (i.e.,
1000 Asserae= 1 ox, 100 lbs of bronze = 1 ox,
10 Asserae= 1 sheep, etc). A system of barter
with copper objects had long existed in Central
Italy where copper was plentiful and valued
while silver was rare and gold nonexistent. The
Italic population had produced Aes Rude from
very early times and they are often found in
hoards of votive deposits to divinities of
fountains and rivers from the first half of the
8th century down to the end of the 4th century
B.C. Reference: Thurlow-Vecchi p. 15, pl. 2 (as
made).
Page 299 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1300 Acq Date: 9212
Country: MEXICO
District: TARASCAN

Village:

Description.: OBSIDIAN KNIFE (2-a,b)


TARASCAN
Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Pre Colombian used in trade by the Tarascan


people in the period 1100AD-1530AD

No Picture 2
Page 300 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1301 Acq Date: 9212
Country: FRANCE
District:

Village:

Description.: RING MONEY CELTIC (2-a,b)

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

The myth that the Celtic monetary system


consisted of wholly barter is a common one, but
is in part false. The monetary system was
complex and is still not understood (much like
the late Roman coinages), and due to the
absence of large numbers of coin items, it is
assumed that "proto-money" was used. This
included bronze items made from the early La
Tene period and onwards, which were often in
the shape of axeheads, rings, or bells. Due to
the large number of these present in some
burials, it is thought they had a relatively high
monetary value, and could be used for "day to
day" purchases.

No Picture 2
Page 301 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1302 Acq Date: 9212
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE RUSSIAN BLUE BEADS

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Bohemia - mid 1800s trades widely, especially


by Russians into Alaska.

No Picture 2
Page 302 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1303 Acq Date: 9212
Country: CONGO
District:

Village:

Description.: BEADS GLASS (2) AGGRY

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Venice 1750-1850.High value bead used in Gold


Coast gold trade and called "King Bead". Best
claimant as true Aggry. Quiggin p39-40.

No Picture 2
Page 303 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1304 Acq Date: 9212
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: STONE SEEDGRINDER

Description: Collected by Max Berry in about


1960 about 20 miles from Orange on the road
to Mookera.

It is a grinding dish for seeds. A favoured trade


item among the Aborigines.

This nardoo dish is 480mm long and is unique


in the fact that it is made a ripple stone. Ripple
stone occurs in Australia in high and low terrain
it is formed in ancient times by water lapping
on sands and sediments (such as seen at a
beach or river bank etc.) and then gets trapped
and petrified over millions of years.

No Picture 2
Page 304 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1305 Acq Date: 9212
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM. Also


called Beku in Trobriands
Description: These are the important green
stone axeblades fom Woodlark Island and an
important item in the Kula Trade Cycle. Called
Beku in the Trobriands and Mbu Op Butu in
Rossel.

No Picture 2
Page 305 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1306 Acq Date: 9212
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM. Also


called Beku in Trobriands
Description: These are the important green
stone axeblades fom Woodlark Island and an
important item in the Kula Trade Cycle. Called
Beku in the Trobriands and Mbu Op Butu.
This is a truly ancint example as evidenced by
the oxidation of the stone.

No Picture 2
Page 306 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1307 Acq Date: 9301
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: CHOISEUL

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING -MAULEVATA-


CLAMSHELL
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Maulevata.

A very highly valued and very large (158mm


diameter by 31mm edge height) clamshell ring
from Choiseul Island in the Solomons. Used in
high value purchases and placed on the graves
of very important men.

This item came from a grave on Choiseul Island.

No Picture 2
Page 307 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1308 Acq Date: 9301
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL

Description: This is a Barava (also called


vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Often attached to the outside of the small


chiefly skull house. They are wealth items and
symbols of authority. 19th century or earlier.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 308 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1309 Acq Date: 9301
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA PLAQUE CLAMSHELL


FRETWORK
Description: The most complex clam shell
objects were barava (also called vinasari),
ornate openwork plaques created in the western
Solomon Islands. The designs on some barava
are geometric, but many include stylized human
figures interspersed with forms that resemble
faces, shown with spiral eyes and grinning
mouths filled with minute teeth. Barava appear
to have been associated with burial places and
were reportedly used to adorn structures
housing the skulls of prominent men, slain
enemies or placed on graves.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 309 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1310 Acq Date: 9301
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA PLAQUE CLAMSHELL


FRETWORK
Description: The most complex clam shell
objects were barava (also called vinasari),
ornate openwork plaques created in the western
Solomon Islands. The designs on some barava
are geometric, but many include stylized human
figures interspersed with forms that resemble
faces, shown with spiral eyes and grinning
mouths filled with minute teeth. Barava appear
to have been associated with burial places and
were reportedly used to adorn structures
housing the skulls of prominent men, slain
enemies or placed on graves.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 310 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1311 Acq Date: 9302
Country: BURMA
District:

Village: NAGA PEOPLE

Description.: ARMRING BRASS

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

No Picture 2
Page 311 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1312 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KWU-KAO) -


THYELENGWINJININDO-
Description: Made by the god Wonajo before
man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Thyelengwinjinindo". These were used in
Brideprice, the price for killing a man, warfare
payments, funerary payments, and as the price
for part of the body of the victim at a cannibal
feast (the Rossel Islanders were cannibals
because their god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #13.
Previously owned by Philipe Abel of Abeleti
Village.
Page 312 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1313 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KWU-KAO) -TEBEDUMBO


-
Description: Made by the god Wonajo before
man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Tebedumbo". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #11.
Previous owner was Philipe Abel of Abeleti
Village.
Page 313 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1314 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL -NII-


(SMALLEST)
Description: Stated in Armstrongs book that
only chiefs can wear these nosesticks of over a
certain length. This one would have only been
worn by a man of ordinary status. Of high
value.
Previous owner was Takama Bata of Abeleti
Village.

No Picture 2
Page 314 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1315 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: YELLOW ROOTS - A DYE

Description: Previously owned by Cathy Tom of


Abeleti Village. Used to dye grass skirts and
dried coconut leaves for baskets and mats. In
the olden days used in Rain Magic to stop rain.
A useful and important plant in native life.

No Picture 2
Page 315 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1316 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: KOLUA ROOTS

Description: EPrevious owner was Thomas Pindi


of Abeleti Village. A green plane with round
leaves. The roots are used to make magic and
also a medicine for sorcery sickness. The root
smells when cut or bitten. A useful and
important plant in native life.

A minor trade item on the Island.

No Picture 2
Page 316 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1317 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: MEUM ROOTS

Description:

No Picture 2
Page 317 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1318 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: SANDALWOOD BARK CALLED


KYMAE
Description: Previously owned by Thomas Pindi
of Abeleti Village.
On Rossel the bark called Ome is used for
magical purposes and they also chew it. It is
also exportrd to Sudest.

Visitors from Sudest might be given pieces of


sandalwood bark which is valued as a powerful
magical item and for medicinal purposes.

was a popular trade item to Sudest.

No Picture 2
Page 318 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1319 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KOMONDAP Class #4

Description: Previously owned by Piwe Abel of


Jaru Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Komondap". These were
made by a god and were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest
rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 200 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 319 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1320 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment at a Bride Price
payment. The bride was Aggatha Yuto (a close
relation to Kaiyobu) and the groom was Paul
Peter and the bride price feast was held at Jinjo
Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates No Picture 2
about 59 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items
and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty
five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. An important and extremely rare item.
Page 320 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1321 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: SHELL LID FROM TRUMPET SHELL

Description: Previously owned by Kadawa Tom


of Abeleti Village. It was used as a medicine
when a person was poisoned through witchcraft.

No Picture 2
Page 321 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1322 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: DAMANU VILLAGE

Description.: MAGIC STONE USED TO KILL OR -


PURRY-PURRY- PEOPLE
Description: Previously owned by Magwa Boede
of Damanu Village. This stone is reported as
being black on the outside but green on the
inside. They are found ONLY on the sea shore
near Damanu Village in the West. Only a few
Big People own them on all of Rossel. In the
olden days people used these magic stones with
magic words to kill.

No Picture 2
Page 322 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1323 Acq Date: 9302
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARMRING COPPER

Description: Monetary Bracelet

No Picture 2
Page 323 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1324 Acq Date: 9302
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARMRING COPPER

Description: Monetary Bracelet

No Picture 2
Page 324 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1325 Acq Date: 9302
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARMRING COPPER

Description: Manilla Style Monetary Bracelet

No Picture 2
Page 325 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1326 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NIGERIA
District: Eastern Fulani

Village: Mumuye People

Description.: IRON BAR CALLED "TAJERE"

Description: Eastern Fulani, 16-19th c., iron bar,


with expansion in center, like a snake that
swallowed a pig. Called "losol," "sasoreng,"
"tajere," or "saka." Made by Batta and Mumuye
peoples, in servitude to the Fulani,
Refer illustration p87 Fig 23 Quiggin's

No Picture 2
Page 326 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1327 Acq Date: 9302
Country: OLBIA
District: Black Sea Region

Village: and Lower Danube area

Description.: ARROWHEAD MONEY

Description: A true money.


7th to 5th century BC. Refer Monetary
Circulation and the Political History of Archaix
Borysthenes by Sergei Solovyov.

No Picture 2
Page 327 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1328 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: CHOISEUL

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING -MAULEVATA-


CLAMSHELL LARGER
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Maulevata.

A very highly valued and very large (190mm


diameter by 50mm edge height) clamshell ring
from Choiseul Island in the Solomons. Used in
high value purchases and placed on the graves
of very important men.

This item came from a grave on the island.

No Picture 2
Page 328 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1329 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA NEWER FRETWORKED

Description:

No Picture 2
Page 329 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1330 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL

Description: This is a Barava also called


vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Often attached to the outside of the small


chiefly skull house. They are wealth items and
symbols of authority. 19th century or earlier.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 330 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1331 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL

Description: This is a Barava also called


vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Often attached to the outside of the small


chiefly skull house. They are wealth items and
symbols of authority. 19th century or earlier.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 331 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1332 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA

Village:

Description.: DAFI WITH NECKLACE

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This Dafi pearlshell pendant was a highly valued


ornament through some areas of the Solomons.
Some have the tortoiseshell figate bird emblem
as a further decoration.
Page 332 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1333 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING LEG DECORATION


KETEKOME PAIR (a,b)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Ketekome.

A shell money used as a leg decoration.

No Picture 2
Page 333 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1334 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA NORTH

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING MONEY CALLED -


FULU- OR -AEGALU-
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

This is a superb, long string of custom money


from North Malaita. It is called Fulu or Aegalu.

No Picture 2
Page 334 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1335 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA

Village:

Description.: Nosestick Clamshell (possibly


bone) with Bamboo Container
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

If shell it is a highly valued money/trade item of


the area, if made of bone it is a minor item of
value. Since it was stored in a protective
container it is probably shell.

No Picture 2
Page 335 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1336 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: CHOISEUL

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Large axe blade which was a popular trade


item.

No Picture 2
Page 336 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1337 Acq Date: 9302
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA NORTH

Village:

Description.: BELT OF WOVEN SHELLDISCS


CALLED -ESU-
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued wearable money.

No Picture 2
Page 337 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1338 Acq Date: 9302
Country: UBANGI To THE CONGO
District:

Village: BANGALA AREA

Description.: SPEARHEAD IRON (BANGALA)


CEREMONIAL
Description: Called Mbili.

Attributed to Bangala (Opitz p.102, Althoff p.30)


and Lobala and Banja groups of the Ngbaka
people. Illustrated P65 Fig 11 Quiggin's.

This Bangala iron money shows where the


original spearhead has evolved into a currency
item which would be useless for use as a spear.

No Picture 2
Page 338 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1339 Acq Date: 9303
Country: PERU
District:

Village:

Description.: SILVER PANEL THIN

Description: Obtained from Spinks Auctions,


Sydney.

Chimu Culture 13-15th Century AD.

Little information is found of the Chimu who


were absorbed by the Inca. However they
peoduced unmarked discs of silver ans scales
which have led to suggestions that forms of
silver may have enjoed monetary use.

This pane has circular impressions in squares of


dots which would make it quite easy to break
off small sections?

See Taxay page 18.

No Picture 2
Page 339 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1340 Acq Date: 9304
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL

Description: This is a Barava (also called


vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Often attached to the outside of the small


chiefly skull house. They are wealth items and
symbols of authority. 19th century or earlier.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 340 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1341 Acq Date: 9304
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE WITH DOLPHIN TEETH

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A high value necklace consisting of a money


shellstring with porpoise teeth inclusions.
The porpoise teeth are a high value money
through most of the Solomons.

No Picture 2
Page 341 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1342 Acq Date: 9304
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA CRUZ

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 342 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1343 Acq Date: 9304
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA CRUZ

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 343 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1344 Acq Date: 9304
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA CRUZ

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE TEREBRA SHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Nice adzeblade made from a Trerebra shell.


Stone was very scarce in the area.

No Picture 2
Page 344 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1345 Acq Date: 9306
Country: INDONESIA
District: MADURA

Village:

Description.: ANKLERINGS (PAIR) WHITE


METAL
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

Very old and well worn.


Made from a white metal.

No Picture 2
Page 345 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1346 Acq Date: 9306
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMATRA

Village: BATAK

Description.: ARMRING COPPER (HOLLOW)

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

No Picture 2
Page 346 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1347 Acq Date: 9306
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: SHELL MELO PENDANT ON CORD

Description: From the Sepik area.

These were rare and difficult to obtain, which


made them a high value object.
They were ornaments, a currency and used in
some areas as bride price.

See Quiggin page 175.

No Picture 2
Page 347 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1348 Acq Date: 9306
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: Pig Tusk Pendant with Inscribed


Dog Teeth on Cord.
Description: From the Admiralty Islands area,
easily recognised by the inscribed dog teeth..

Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions.

Pig Tusks are highly valued throughout the


Pacific. Some notes on this include:

Laynard (1942) Tusk of the pig are valued


greatly (in New Hebrides) and High ranking men
wear the curled tusks as a sign of their status..

Strathern, M. (1977), For the people of Kalauna


(PNG), tusks were a valuable item used in
trading and Tusks were used in bride wealth
payments; the tusks were said to resemble the
fangs of the python which had great significance
in PNG mythology.
No Picture 2
Quain, B. (1948), Pig tusks are used as
ornaments and are highly valued items (in Fiji).

Rakua F (1987) After cooking, the head of the


pig is removed with the tusks intact and is
presented to the head of the
village.
Simon Feeny (2016) states that the use of
traditional money such as pig tusks is still
common in the Solomons and Vanuatu.
Couper (2009) In the New Guinea Highlands pig
tusks were a medium of exchange and bride
price.
Gallego on Mendanas discovery of the Solomons
in 1568 wrote to say that the natives on the
Page 348 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1349a Acq Date: 9307
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Tinete)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete. Hokata is the


general name for armrings.

Hokata are the smallest and slimmest of the


shell valuables and can be made from either
clamshell or from Conus shells. This ring is
made of clamshell and is corroded from
weathering (probably on a shrine or grave).

These were normally less valuable than the


Poata and were used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chiefs by men for the sexual services of
''ritually designated women''.

No Picture 2
Page 349 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1349b Acq Date: 9307
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Tinete)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete. Hokata is the


general name for armrings.

Hokata are the smallest and slimmest of the


shell valuables and can be made from either
clamshell or from Conus shells. This ring is
made of clamshell and is corroded from
weathering (probably on a shrine or grave).

These were normally less valuable than the


Poata and were used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chiefs by men for the sexual services of
''''ritually designated women''''.

No Picture 2
Page 350 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1349c Acq Date: 9307
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Tinete)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete. Hokata is the


general name for armrings.

Hokata are the smallest and slimmest of the


shell valuables and can be made from either
clamshell or from Conus shells. This ring is
made of clamshell.

These were normally less valuable than the


Poata and were used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chiefs by men for the sexual services of
'ritually designated women'.

No Picture 2
Page 351 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1350 Acq Date: 9307
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Tinete)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomon Islands.

Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete. Hokata is the


general name for armrings.

Hokata are the smallest and slimmest of the


shell valuables and can be made from either
clamshell or from Conus shells. This ring is
made of clamshell.

These were normally less valuable than the


Poata and were used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chiefs by men for the sexual services of
''ritually designated women''.

It is a true money item and is the lowest value


of the three true money items of the area - No Picture 2
Mbakia, Poata and Hokata.
Page 352 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1351 Acq Date: 9307
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELL MITRE GROUND - LIGOMO

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Cut Spiral Terebra Shells.

These were called Ligomo and Rango..

They were important and valued charms and


valuables that were used for war and sailing
expeditions. They were also used to decorate
skull shrines of important men where they
represented spirits of dead chiefs and were
used by living chiefs to communicate with their
dead ancestors, either to placate them or to
seek their aid.

No Picture 2
Page 353 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1352 Acq Date: 9307
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELL MITRE GROUND - LIGOMO

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Cut Spiral Terebra Shells.

These were called Ligomo and Rango..

They were important and valued charms and


valuables that were used for war and sailing
expeditions. They were also used to decorate
skull shrines of important men where they
represented spirits of dead chiefs and were
used by living chiefs to communicate with their
dead ancestors, either to placate them or to
seek their aid..

No Picture 2
Page 354 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1353 Acq Date: 9307
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: GELA

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING VALUABLE RED

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This is a superb, long string of red custom


money from Gela. It is called Kogana.

No Picture 2
Page 355 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1354 Acq Date: 9309
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP YERANGGEWINDO Class


#10
Description: Received by Jerome of Njaru
Village from the Kebo clan at the burial feast of
his uncle Chimba Tilly. It was previously used in
many pig and burial feasts.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Yeranggewindo ". These
were made by a god and were used in
Brideprice, the price for killing a man, warfare
payments, funerary payments, and as the price
for part of the body of the victim at a cannibal
feast (the Rossel Islanders were cannibals
because their god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of
the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 44 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 356 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1355 Acq Date: 9310
Country: GERMANY
District:

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE BRONZE

Description: Bronze socketed axe excavated in


Germany. The axes are mainly unused and may
have been a form of ingot of primitive currency.
They contain a high amount of lead or consist of
pure lead and are distributed from the Iberian
Peninsula to eastern Germany, Ireland and
Southern Britain, with some pieces from
Scotland, Poland and Switzerland. ca800BC

No Picture 2
Page 357 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1356 Acq Date: 9310
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: BELL MONEY BRONZE

Description: CHINA, ZHOU Dynasty, 1122-255


BC

No Picture 2
Page 358 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1357 Acq Date: 9310
Country: BRUNEI
District:

Village:

Description.: CANNON BRONZE MINIATURE

Description: Models of bronze cannons were


used in Indonesia as prestigious objects and a
means of payment for the bride price.
Apparently only the weight of the cannon was
decisive, not whether it was still in a position to
fire. The bride price is estimated by explorers to
have been between 3 and 5 pikuls (1 pikul = 60
kilograms in bronze), so that it was certainly
wise to have a heavy cannon available.
See Quiggin page 258.

No Picture 2
Page 359 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1358 Acq Date: 9310
Country: KATANGA
District: Ingombe Ilede / Chedzurgwe

Village:

Description.: CROSS COPPER MEDIUM H 70mm

Description: Ingombe-Ilede Cross Large


"Katanga" cross with raised rims from the
Ingombe Ilede / Chedzurgwe culture complex
(northern Zimbabwe) of the 15th-16th Century,
A true money.
Refer the book - Luba - by MN and AF Roberts
A geat deal of copper was cast in the form of H
or X shaped copper crosses that were used as
currency (money).
During the period from 1200 to 1600 civilization
flourished in the Luba heartland. One sign of
growth was the greatly increased production of
copper crosses in a range of sizes. They suggest
that towns were springing up and people were
becoming specialized in a range of occupations.
Tiny crosses made by the thousand served as
small change in market transactions.
For many centuries copper crosses were traded
all over central Africa. They have been found in No Picture 2
Zimbabwe, for instance, and across both
Tanzania and Angola to the Indian and Atlantic
Oceans. Portuguese merchants even took them
from Africa to South America. Wide distribution
of copper crosses made Luba kingdoms famous
as centres of wealth and power.
Refer to the lower part of page 77 of Quiggin.
Page 360 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1359 Acq Date: 9310
Country: Sudan and Congo
District:

Village: Azande People

Description.: IRON BLADE

Description: Called Marakumbi.

The Pitt Rivers Museum has an almost exactly


similar item in its collection.
These blades were used as bride money, and
according to Percy Horace Gordon Powell-Cotton
has the local name bananan (see 1934.8.131,
which has a similar form and function). The
University of Leeds also have a comparable
blade in their Anthropology collections,
equipped with handle, which is attributed to
Sudan or the Democratic Republic of Congo (FL
1965.388, WHMM 53562).
Page 361 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1360 Acq Date: 7808
Country: JAPAN
District:

Village:

Description.: COIN OVAL BRASS HUNDRED


MON TEMPO TSUHO 1835-70
Description: Coin of japan.

No Picture 2
Page 362 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1361 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL THIN-


WALLED
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

This is an unusual money ring from New


Georgia.

It is unusual in the crudeness of manufacture


with regard to top and bottom. The walls
however are smooth and regular. It is as thin
walled as a hokata but the walls are quite high
90mm diameter, walls 9 x 33mm.

The name of this ring is not known.

No Picture 2
Page 363 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1362 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: BARAVA SHELLRING BROKEN

Description: This broken ring of clamshell is a


Barava called Bokolo (bokolo is also the name
given to a normal clamshell hokata money ring)
(also called vinasari).

It was used in bride price, to buy land and for


tribal reconciliation and compensation. It was
also "Kastom Money" and placed on shrines and
graves. This one came from a grave.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 364 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1363 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: DUFF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL LARGE

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 365 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1364 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: DUFF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL SMALL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 366 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1365 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: REEF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE TEREBRA SHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Nice adzeblade made from a Trerebra shell.


Stone was very scarce in the area.

No Picture 2
Page 367 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1366 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: REEF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE TEREBRA SHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Nice adzeblade made from a Trerebra shell.


Stone was very scarce in the area.

No Picture 2
Page 368 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1367 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: GUADALCANAL

Village:

Description.: FISHHOOK SHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Fishhooks have been one of the most popular


trade items throughout the Pacific. This use
item had good trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 369 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1368 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: FISHHOOKS (2-a,b)


TORTOISESHELL
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Fishhooks have been one of the most popular


trade items throughout the Pacific. This use
item had good trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 370 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1369 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: Malaita

Village: Fataleka People

Description.: SHELLSTRING called Fata

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This money shellstring is called Fata and comes


from the Fataleka people of Malaita.

No Picture 2
Page 371 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1370 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: T

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING called To'ob

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This money shellstring is called To'Ob.

No Picture 2
Page 372 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1371 Acq Date: 9310
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: DUFF ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE CLAMSHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A highly valued trade/money item of the area.


Shell was used as stone was scarce.

No Picture 2
Page 373 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1372 Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM-


EBONY SMALL
Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .
In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 374 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373a Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 375 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373b Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 376 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373c Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


and shaped like the bottom half of a female
body.

In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita


and pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being
one of three design types - anthropomorphic
shape, drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor
teeth to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at No Picture 2


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November
1993.
Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art
Dealer who had collected the pieces over a
twenty-five year period, during more than
twenty visits to Papua New Guinea. He sailed
from island to island and obtained items from
many out-of -the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 377 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373d Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 378 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373e Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 379 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373f Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 380 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373h Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 381 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373i Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 382 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373j Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 383 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373k Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


and is of drum shape.
.
In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art No Picture 2
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 384 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373l Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 385 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373m Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 386 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373n Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 387 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373o Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: The obvious display of the female


sex dates this to pre-missionary days. It
appears to be carved by the same craftsman as
the spatula in the S.B. Fellows Collection Code
Black Lime Spatulas #27. Probably 19th
Century.
In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita
and pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being
one of three design types - anthropomorphic
shape, drum shape and canoe shape. They were
mainly used by people with poor teeth to crush
betel nuts, they are also used for mixing the
magic concoction which apprentices drink to
internalise master carver knowledge and for
mixing and applying facial paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and are
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.
Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .
The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at
the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November
1993.
Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art
Dealer who had collected the pieces over a
twenty-five year period, during more than
twenty visits to Papua New Guinea.
He sailed from island to island and obtained
items from many out-of -the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 388 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373p Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 389 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373q Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 390 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373r Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 391 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373s Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 392 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373t Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 393 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373u Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 394 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373v Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 395 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373w Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 396 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373x Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 397 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1373y Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 398 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1374 Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE-CANOE- SMALL

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 399 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1375 Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: MORTAR & PESTLE-CANOE-


LARGE
Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .
In the Trobriands mortars are called Kaipita and
pestles Kaimili. They are classified as being one
of three design types - anthropomorphic shape,
drum shape and canoe shape.
They are mainly used by people with poor teeth
to crush betel nuts. They are also used for
mixing the magical concoction which
apprentices drink to internalise master carver
knowledge and for mixing and applying facial
paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November No Picture 2
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.
Page 400 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376a Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 401 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376b Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 402 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376c Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 403 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376d Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 404 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376e Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 405 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376f Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 406 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376g Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 407 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376h Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 408 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376i Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 409 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376j Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 410 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376k Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 411 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376l Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 412 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376m Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 413 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376n Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 414 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376o Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 415 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376p Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 416 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1376q Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 417 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1377a Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Milne Bay

Village: Bou Village (eastern tip of Mainland)

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188
Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the
mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.

No Picture 2
Page 418 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1377b Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188
Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the
mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.

No Picture 2
Page 419 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1377c Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188
Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the
mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.

No Picture 2
Page 420 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1377d Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188
Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the
mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.

No Picture 2
Page 421 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1378a Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK AREA

Village:

Description.: LIMESTICK CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Normally made from the bones of the


cassowary but some were made from the leg
bones of deceased relatives.

Some limesticks have magic attributes, others


have homicide emblems showing the number of
heads taken and others show the degree of
importance of the owner. Important ones are
handed down as valued heirlooms.

No Picture 2
Page 422 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1378b Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK AREA

Village:

Description.: LIMESTICK CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Normally made from the bones of the


cassowary but some were made from the leg
bones of deceased relatives.

Some limesticks have magic attributes, others


have homicide emblems showing the number of
heads taken and others show the degree of
importance of the owner. Important ones are
handed down as valued heirlooms.

No Picture 2
Page 423 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1379 Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: PESTLE EBONY - MASSIM

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale .


In the Trobriands pestles are called Kaimili.
They are mainly used with the mortar by people
with poor teeth to crush betel nuts. They are
also used for mixing the magical concoction
which apprentices drink to internalise master
carver knowledge and for mixing and applying
facial paint.
Some are marvellous works of art and can be
handed down from father to son as family
heirlooms.

The Hallinan Collection of New Guinea Art, at


the time the largest collection of Tribal Art
offered in Australia, was auctioned by Sothebys
at the Powerhouse Museum on 28th November
1993.

Peter Hallinan was a famous Brisbane Art Dealer No Picture 2


who had collected the pieces over a twenty-five
year period, during more than twenty visits to
Papua New Guinea. He sailed from island to
island and obtained items from many out-of -
the-way places.

In Betel Chewing Equipment of East New


Guinea, Harry Beran says that betel chewing
utensils are also traded widely.

This is has an exceptional carving depicting a


naked Massim woman on each of its four sides.
Page 424 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1380 Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: DAGGER/GOUGE CASSOWARY


BONE SMALL
Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale
28/11/93 part lot #188
Possibly a gouge rather than a dagger. Tools
and daggers made from cassowary bones were
a recognised trade item through much, but not
all, of New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 425 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1381 Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: DAGGER/GOUGE CASSOWARY


BONE SMALL
Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale
28/11/93 part lot #188Possibly a tool or a short
dagger. Tools and daggers made from
cassowary bones were a recognised trade item
through much, but not all, of New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 426 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1382 Acq Date: 9311
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kukukuku Marawaka

Village: Marawaka

Description.: SALT BLOCK IN BINDINGS


Kukukuku
Description: Th e Marawaka Kukukuku o f the
Vailala headwaters also made plants salt
( Sinclair 1 9 6 69 ) and it is evident that the
method was widely known throughout inland
eastern New Guines.

A true high value money item. Also a rare item


in itself.

No Picture 2
Page 427 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1383 Acq Date: 9311
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: SPEAR HAFTED IRON BLADE


SHORT WOOD HAFT
Description: Iron was money in many parts of
Africa (see Quiggin) and spearheds were
particularly valued as a monetary weapon.

No Picture 2
Page 428 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1384 Acq Date: 9311
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARROW METAL HEAD WOOD


SHAFT
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

The metal, whether in arrowheads or


spearheads was always a popular trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 429 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1385 Acq Date: 9311
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARROW METAL HEAD WOOD


SHAFT
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

The metal, whether in arrowheads or


spearheads was always a popular trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 430 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1386 Acq Date: 9311
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARROW METAL HEAD WOOD


SHAFT
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.The metal, whether in arrowheads or
spearheads was always a popular trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 431 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1387 Acq Date: 9312
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: VARAI BARI VILLAGE (Veraibari village)

Description.: ARMBAND CONESHELL

Description: Ex the Peter Hallinan collection sold


at Sotheby Sydney Sale in 1993.
It wascollected by Peter Hallinan in in Varai Bari
Village, Papuan Gulf. He was told that it was
worn on the upper arm by means of string
threaded through the holes in the corners of the
shells. Haddon states that a good armlet was
worth a wife.
Harry Beran, in his and Pam Swadling's article
"What was the function of the prehistoric Conus
armshells found in the
Massim region and in Collingwood Bay?" in
which he illustrates this item and states "these
two shells are the only examples of their type I
am aware of". Note that the two illustrations are
of this item and are not two items but two sides
of this one artefact (Hallinan's). I also have one
from Goabari Island ex Richard Aldridge.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of No Picture 2
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson
Page 432 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1388 Acq Date: 9312
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: RENDOVA

Village:

Description.: DAFI PEARLSHELL CRESCENT

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This Dafi pearlshell pendant was a highly valued


ornament through some areas of the Solomons.
Some have the tortoiseshell frigate bird emblem
as a further decoration.
Page 433 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1390 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -KWOJUMA-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Kwojuma". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #22.
Previous owner was John Lomonge of Jinjo
Village who inherited it on the death of his
father Lomonge.
Page 434 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1391 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP YELENGWINJININDUO Class


#11
Description: Previously owned by John Lomonge
of Jinjo Village who inherited it o the death of
his father Lomonge.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Yelengwinjininduo ". These
were made by a god and were used in
Brideprice, the price for killing a man, warfare
payments, funerary payments, and as the price
for part of the body of the victim at a cannibal
feast (the Rossel Islanders were cannibals
because their god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of
the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 40 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 435 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1392 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP GAMA Class #2

Description: Previously owned by Sixtus Tom of


Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Gama". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 79 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 436 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1393 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: EAST POINT VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -DIAMUNDI-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Diamundi". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #18.
Previous owner was Mayia Sigana of East Point
Village who inherited it from his father Sigana.
Page 437 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1394 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -KWOJUMA-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Kwojuma". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #22.
Previous owner was Moses Mole of Jinjo Village
who inherited it from his father Mole.
Page 438 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1395 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KWU-KAO) -PIMBA-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Pimba". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #14.
Previous owner was Moses Mole who inherited it
from his father Mole.
Page 439 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1396 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: HAFT FOR AXE WOODEN MASSIM

Description: Used to hold the extremely


important greenstone axe heads originally
imported from Woodlark Island.
The handle is called valela vaigua
(its handle is wealth).
Illustrated in Seligmann Plate LXI.

No Picture 2
Page 440 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1397 Acq Date: 9401
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: HAFT FOR AXE WOODEN MASSIM

Description: Used to hold the extremely


important greenstone axe heads originally
imported from Woodlark Island.
The handle is called valela vaigua
(its handle is wealth).
Illustrated in Seligmann Plate LXI.

No Picture 2
Page 441 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1398 Acq Date: 9402
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: DANI AREA

Description.: FETISH STONE AND BAG STRING


- DANI
Description: A Fetish which possesses a gender
and spirituality

No Picture 2
Page 442 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1399 Acq Date: 9402
Country: SIAM
District:

Village:

Description.: BEADSTRING

Description: Valued items for wearing but


valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 443 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1400 Acq Date: 9402
Country: SIAM
District:

Village:

Description.: BEADSTRING

Description: Valued items for wearing but


valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 444 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1401 Acq Date: 9402
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAK ISLAND, ADMIRALTIES

Village:

Description.: ADZE HAFTED STEEL BLADE

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

From the collection of Peter Hallinan with his


collection number - H1141.

An early example with a steel blade.

No Picture 2
Page 445 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1402 Acq Date: 9402
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: PESTLE BONE

Description: Betel Pestle made of bone.

Bone pestles were usually of a higher value


than wood and this one probably comes from
the Massim area.
It is probably made of pig or human bone.

Very old and has had much use as evidenced by


the build-up of betel sediment.

No Picture 2
Page 446 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1403 Acq Date: 9402
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 447 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1404 Acq Date: 9402
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD JA

Description: Ex Sothebys Peter Hallinan Sale


28/11/93 part lot #188.

Clapper type said to have been used in sorcery.

Armstrong states that most lime spatulas found


on Rossel are of Massim manufacture, not from
Rossel ,but Harry Beran illustrates two from
Rossel that appear to be of a standard type -
the clapper type and the canoe tip type (both of
which are the main types represented in this
collection.).

No Picture 2
Page 448 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1405 Acq Date: 9403
Country: INDONESIA
District: BALI

Village:

Description.: ARMRING BRONZE ANCIENT

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Related to and obtained by Scott Semans with


a hoard of Korintji Ring Money - Quiggin p266
Possibly - Bronze Age - 200BC

No Picture 2
Page 449 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1406 Acq Date: 9405
Country: OLBIA
District:

Village:

Description.: Bronze Dolphin Coin

Description: Dolphin Coin c 5th Cent. BC -


These small copper pieces cast in the shape of a
dolphin are totally different from other Greek
coins. They are made of bronze, but the earliest
bronze Sicilian coins appeared about 100 years
later. They are cast, but older by over 200 years
than the earliest Italic and Roman cast money.
Finally, they are made in the shape of a sea
mammal, the dolphin (the Greeks considered
the dolphin to be a fish). There was no other
such money in the Greek world. Bronze dolphins
first appeared in Olbia between 550-525 B.C.
Apollo-Dolphinium had been the most important
god of the Miletian settlers, and the dolphin was
the main attribute of this god. Small, cast
dolphins at first were made as sacrificial
subjects for Apollo, but soon they became
currency, employed by the local settlers as a
primitive money, circulating in Olbia and No Picture 2
vicinity.
Page 450 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1407 Acq Date: 9405
Country: INDIA
District:

Village:

Description.: COPPER LARIN

Description: INDIAN OCEAN, Uncertain. 16th-


18th centuries. Copper Larin imitating a Silver
Larin of the Safavid Abu'l-Muzaffar Isma'il I
(1501-1524). Pseudo-Persian inscription
stamped on either side of a copper bar
resembling a hairpin. Rare.
Also known colloquially as "hairpin money",
larins were intended for trade Indian Ocean
trade, especially Sri Lanka (Ceylon). While
some larins were struck in heavily debased
silver, this particular example has been made of
copper. With the pseudo-lettering stamped on
either side.

No Picture 2
Page 451 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1408 Acq Date: 9405
Country: Nigeria
District: Congo

Village: Mumuye People

Description.: IRON BAR DUBIL

Description: named "dubil" and "li." This simple


design used from the 16th century. Mentioned
as a bride price item in the Madagali region.
In areas of Nigeria and central Africa unadorned
copper and iron rods, wires, bars and blades
served as currency. Instead of being valued
according to weight, these currencies were
priced by length. Bars of iron such as these
were used as currency particularly in parts of
Nigeria where blacksmiths were in need ore for
smelting.
19th - 20th century.

No Picture 2
Page 452 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1409 Acq Date: 9405
Country: KATANGA
District: Sanga - North of Katanga

Village:

Description.: CROSSES COPPER MINI H 5mm


(2)
Description: Sanga Cross Shaba Kingdom.
Small, early copper cross money very
irregularly cast in a rough H-shape excavated at
Sanga, north of Katanga, reliably dated to 15-
18th Century. A true money.
Refer the book - Luba - by MN and AF Roberts
A geat deal of copper was cast in the form of H
or X shaped copper crosses that were used as
currency (money).
During the period from 1200 to 1600 civilization
flourished in the Luba heartland. One sign of
growth was the greatly increased production of
copper crosses in a range of sizes. They suggest
that towns were springing up and people were
becoming specialized in a range of occupations.
Tiny crosses made by the thousand served as
small change in market transactions.
For many centuries copper crosses were traded
all over central Africa. They have been found in No Picture 2
Zimbabwe and across both Tanzania and Angola
to the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Portuguese
merchants even took them from Africa to South
America. Wide distribution of copper crosses
made Luba kingdoms famous as centres of
wealth and power.
Refer to the lower part of page 77 of Quiggin.
Page 453 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1410 Acq Date: 9405
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: KNIFE MONEY WANG MANG "Ch'i


dao Wu-Pai
Description: Minted from 7-9Ad by Emperor
Wang Mang and worth 500 Wu Chu bronze
coins. The characters on the coin translate as
"Inscribed Knife Five Hundred". Demonetized in
9AD.

No Picture 2
Page 454 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1411 Acq Date: 9405
Country: MALAYSIA
District:

Village:

Description.: INGOT TIN FISH

Description: The history of tin animal money


started in the days of the Malacca Empire. After
cowrie shells, some form of money had to be
used as Malacca was the trading port. The
surrounding area had abundance of tin ore
which was considered a precious metal with the
Chinese believing that tin brings luck, prosperity
and wards off evil spirits. At the entrance of
many Chinese houses, tin is used to line the
walls and columns. This is believed to bring luck
to the inhabitants of the house. Tin was chosen
as the medium as it was considered precious,
malleable & soft thus easily shaped and tin is
widely accepted. This gave birth to the "Tin
Animal Money". This form of money, made
by Chinese, comes in a few denomination, the
largest weighing 1 kati and the smallest 1/20
kati. The full denomination are 1 kati, 1/2 kati,
1/10 kati and 1/20 kati. The rarest of them are No Picture 2
the 1 and 1/2 kati. Various animal shapes have
been found. To date, four distinct animal which
is the tortoise, fish, rooster (chicken) and crab
(very rare). Each animal comes in several
designs and variants. They incorporate designs
from the Ming Dynasty, brought by the Chinese
settlers that came from China. Trade was then
effected using this form of medium of
exchange.
Page 455 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1412 Acq Date: 9405
Country: AFRICA
District: Kusu People

Village:

Description.: COPPER BAR Called "BOLOKO" or


KONGA" or "OKANU"
Description: They were made by the Nkutshu
smiths who gave them to the Songo-Meno in
exchange for copper in its raw state. Illustrated
in outline p67 Fig 13 Quiggin's

No Picture 2
Page 456 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1413 Acq Date: 9405
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: IRON FANG MINIATURE AXES

Description: Illustrated p72 Fig 16 Quiggin.


Called bikei and used as Bride Price. A similar
set of axes is in the Pitt Rivers Museum.

No Picture 2
Page 457 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1414 Acq Date: 9405
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: BAG STRING NASSA DECORATION

Description: Illustrated on front age of


November 1966 Australian Coin Worls. Ex
collection of Errol Mair.
The nassa shell was one of the main money
items in the Northern coastal area of New
Guinea. They were used for strictly items of
money and also wearable valuables.

No Picture 2
Page 458 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1415 Acq Date: 9405
Country: COLOMBIA
District: TAIRONA

Village:

Description.: BEADS STONE UNFINISHED (4)

Description: Valued items for wearing but


valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 459 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1416 Acq Date: 9405
Country: COLOMBIA
District: TAIRONA

Village:

Description.: BEAD STONE AGATE TUBE

Description: Valued item for wearing but valued


in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 460 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1417 Acq Date: 9405
Country: COLOMBIA
District: TAIRONA

Village:

Description.: BEADS STONE AGATE DONUTS (3)

Description: Valued items for wearing but


valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 461 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1418 Acq Date: 9405
Country: COLOMBIA
District: SINU CULTURE

Village:

Description.: ANCIENT SHELL BEADS (3)

Description: Valued items for wearing but also


highly valued in trade.

From the Sinu Culture which existed from 200


BC to 1600 AD.

No Picture 2
Page 462 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1419 Acq Date: 9405
Country: IVORY COAST
District:

Village:

Description.: IRON ROD SOMPE

Description: A true money - somewhat similar


to the Kissie Penny.
Among the Guro of the Ivory Coast, long iron
bars with wing like ends called Sompe were
used for trading and making payments for
goods and services.

No Picture 2
Page 463 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1420 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SEPANA VILLAGE,BRAZZA RIVER

Description.: ADZE HAFTED STONE BLADE

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


From the Asmat people and was collected by
Todd Barlin in 1987-88 from the Brazza River
area.

It was still being used when he traded a steel


knife for the adze.
Page 464 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1421 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: NOMAD AREA

Village:

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: From the Nomad area. A normal


item of all Biami warriors. These daggers had a
much more narrow and pointed end than the
rest of New Guinea. The Biami were cannibals -
refer book "Cannibal" by JL Anderson and his
photgraph on page 108, of the book, showing a
similar dagger.
Page 465 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1422 Acq Date: 9407
Country: CONGO
District:

Village: Boa People

Description.: KNIFE STEEL BLADE (SMALL)

Description: A currency blade also valued by the


nearby Azande people.

No Picture 2
Page 466 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1423 Acq Date: 9407
Country: Congo
District:

Village: Boa/Azande People

Description.: KNIFE STEEL BLADE (LONG)

Description: Currency blade of the Azande.


These people call themselves Azande but
outsiders call them Zande and, in the past,
foreigners frequently called them Niam-Niam.
The name Niam-Niam is of Dinka origin, and
means 'great eaters' in that language. However
the well known author, and recognised expert
on 19th Century Africa, Chris Peers, states that
'Niam-niam' was a name derived from their
cannibal war cry 'Niama! Niama!' which
translates as 'meat, meat' or 'food, food'.Carlo
Piaggia, an Italian stayed near the country of
the Niam-Niam for about a year in 1863-4 and
in 1863 he journeyed into Azande territory and
witnessed an instance of cannibalism.
Schweinfurth was the first European to obtain
full information about cannibalism among the
Azande. When in the territory of the man-eaters
at its south-eastern extremity, in the region of
the Nile-Congo watershed, he noticed many
instances of the practice and the Azande
themselves made no secret of their use of
human flesh as nutriment. They spoke freely on
the subject: any person who died without
relatives was sure to be devoured in the very
district in which he had lived; and in times of
war, any member of a conquered tribe was
regarded as suitable for eating.
Of the various fatty substances employed for
cooking, the one in most frequent use was
human fat.
Page 467 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1424 Acq Date: 9407
Country: CONGO
District:

Village: Azande People

Description.: KNIFE STEEL BLADE SABRE

Description: Currency blade of the Azande.


These people call themselves Azande but
outsiders call them Zande and, in the past,
foreigners frequently called them Niam-Niam.
The name Niam-Niam is of Dinka origin, and
means "great eaters" in that language. However
the well known author, and recognised expert
on 19th Century Africa, Chris Peers, states that
Niam-niam was a name derived from their
cannibal war cry Niama! Niama! which
translates as meat, meat or food, food.Carlo
Piaggia, an Italian stayed near the country of
the Niam-Niam for about a year in 1863-4 and
in 1863 he journeyed into Azande territory and
witnessed an instance of cannibalism.
Schweinfurth was the first European to obtain
full information about cannibalism among the
Azande. When in the territory of the man-eaters
at its south-eastern extremity, in the region of
the Nile-Congo watershed, he noticed many
instances of the practice and the Azande
themselves made no secret of their use of
human flesh as nutriment. They spoke freely on
the subject: any person who died without
relatives was sure to be devoured in the very
district in which he had lived; and in times of
war, any member of a conquered tribe was
regarded as suitable for eating.
Of the various fatty substances employed for
cooking, the one in most frequent use was
human fat.
Page 468 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1425 Acq Date: 9407
Country: ZAIRE
District:

Village: Momvu People

Description.: KNIFE STEEL BLADE (CULT)

Description: A valued item of exchange.


Quiggin, on Plate 1 #17, shows a similar that
she says (p71) from the Bayanzi people

No Picture 2
Page 469 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1426 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL

Description: An important and valued item used


in the Kula Trade Cycle as a trade item and for
important gifts.

No Picture 2
Page 470 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1427 Acq Date: 9407
Country: BURMA
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE METAL DISCS AND


BELLS
Description: A necklace of old brass beads and
small bells. A decorative and wearable
money/trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 471 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1428 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: HEADBAND NASSA SHELL ON


BARK
Description: An important wearable
trade/money item of the area.
A standard item of value and payment in the Te
Exchange Ceremony.
The nassa shell was also one of the main money
items in the Northern coastal area of New
Guinea. They were used for strictly items of
money and also wearable valuables.

No Picture 2
Page 472 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1429 Acq Date: 9407
Country: HAWAII
District:

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE STONE

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

No Picture 2
Page 473 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1430 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -TEJUMA-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Tejuma". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #19.
Previous owner was a female called Tomonga
Sigana of Jinjo Village who inherited it on the
death of her father Sigana. Originally owned by
a man named Dawe who used it to pay for a
taro garden that he purchased from Sigana.
Page 474 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1431 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NECKLACE SAPI SHELL DISCS


CALLED -WOLWOL
Description: The previous owner was Robert
Pindi of Abeleti Village.

Called Wolwol, the common name for necklaces.


This necklace has the red sapi-sapi shell discs
that are used in Bagi and other valuables in the
Kula Trade Cycle. They have been traded from
Rossel to the Massim area for many decades. It
is made up as a wearable necklace but is a true
money item.

No Picture 2
Page 475 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1432 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: PEARLSHELL GRATER

Description: The shell comes from a reef around


the island and it is used as a hand scraper for
coconut, for use as a spoon and as a minor
valuable.
Called Ngwe.

No Picture 2
Page 476 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1433 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TANGWOLONDUO Class #12

Description: Previously owned by John Mebe of


Jinjo Village who inherited it on the death of his
father.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tangwolonduo". These were
made by a god and were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest
rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 36 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.
An important and extremely rare item.
Page 477 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1434 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -TANGWOLONDUO-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Tangwolonduo". These were used in Brideprice,
the price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 800 in total of Nko coins split between 16
different denominations. This makes any Nko an
item of the highest rarity. Opitz, in his book on
Primitive Money allocates a full page to Ndap
and Nko and in-depth articles have been printed
in the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates a full three pages to these items and
Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty five No Picture 2
pages to them. It is probable that, after the Yap
Stone Money, these are the most important of
Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Class #12.
Previous owner was John Mebe of Jinjo Village
who inherited it on the death of his father.
Page 478 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1435 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: COPPER SHEET FROM ST. PAUL

Description: Previously owned by Robert Pindi


of Abeleti Village. It was taken from the St Paul
which was wrecked on the reef close to
Chinamen Island near Jinjo Village. The ship
was wrecked there many years ago. Obtained
by diving to the wreck.

No Picture 2
Page 479 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1436 Acq Date: 9408
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: KNIFE MONEY LARGE

Description: Information ex British Museum


From Qi state (Shandong province), north-
eastern China Eastern Zhou dynasty, During the
fourth and third centuries BC, a distinctive type
of money was issued in the Qi state, in the form
of large knives. The knife money was associated
with particular cities within the state, and the
knives are almost always found in modern-day
Shandong province. The inscriptions on some of
the knives indicate that they were sometimes
issued in commemoration of important events,
such as the inauguration of a new ruling
dynasty. The inscription on this knife money
indicates that it is ''''legal currency of Qi''''.
Knife money has its origins in the scraper-
knives of nomadic hunters and fishermen of
northern and eastern China. By the sixth and
fifth centuries BC the northern and eastern
states of Yan, Qi, Zhongshan and Zhao were No Picture 2
using knife money with inscriptions. The
inscriptions were usually numerals or single
words such as ''''fish'''' and ''''sheep'''', perhaps
indicating value. The pointed blades on the
early knives break very easily. Later knife
money of the Qi state - like this example - is
usually more rounded or thicker,
and therefore less fragile.
500BC (?). In most early references they are
described as the earliest knife form, going back
to before 600 BC. Hartill''s book (Cast Chinese
Coins) dates them to between 400 and 220 BC,.
Obverse: Three characters reading ''CH''I FA
HUO''.
Page 480 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1437 Acq Date: 9408
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: HOE IRON SAKANIA CEREMONIAL

Description: 'Iron Money - Current among the


Sara Tribe of Chad Colony. They occupy,
roughly, an area bounded onthe N. by a line
from Lake Iro to about 9 N 17E, S the Rivers
Nana Baria, Sido and Aouk, E. a line southwards
from Lake Iro to the Aouk, and W. about 17 E.
The money is also called 'Kokey' of two sizes.
Refer illustration p95 Fig 30 Quiggin's

No Picture 2
Page 481 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1438 Acq Date: 9408
Country: AFRICA
District: Gworzo (northeast region)

Village:

Description.: HOE IRON PURR-PURR


CEREMONIAL
Description: Gworzo (northeast region), 18-
19th c., iron purrpurr, imitation trowel,
Used as late as the 1930s and finally valued at
threepence. Opitz p 273

No Picture 2
Page 482 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1439 Acq Date: 9408
Country: Western Niger
District: Djerma People

Village:

Description.: ARMRING COPPER LARGE ORNATE

Description: Called Keguru and mondua

Beautifully worked designs in the copper.


Monetary Bracelet

No Picture 2
Page 483 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1440 Acq Date: 9408
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: BEADS BRASS W/LOOP MUNSHI

Description: Described as a currency by


Quiggin.
Munshi Beads The Tiv (a.k.a. Munshi) tribe of
Shima, northern Nigeria used looped brass
beads of average 12mm imitating a seed,
valued at 1/4 silver Dirhem of the
Mediterranean caliphates. Quiggin illustrates
them (p.60) and discusses them (p.59)

No Picture 2
Page 484 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1441 Acq Date: 9408
Country: INDIA
District:

Village:

Description.: INGOT SILVER BAR

Description: These coins from Gandhara


Janapada are considered one of the earliest, if
not THE earliest, coins of India. It is difficult to
pinpoint with certainity the actual Janapada,
Dynasty or King that issued coins first in India
or the time period as much of the ancient
history is obscured in the mists of time. These
coins, found in Gandhara of which Taxila was
the capital, are also termed as 'Bent Bars' or
'Double Sigloi'. Gandhara was listed as one of
the sixteen mahajanapadas in the Buddhist text
Anguttara Nikaya.

The rock inscriptions of Darius "The Great" (540


BC) indicate Gandhara as the 20th and richest
satrapy of the Persian Empire. The peculiar
"bent bar" silver coins found in Gandhara with a
prominent solar symbol punched on extreme
ends of the bar are so radically different from No Picture 2
the silver 'sigloi' coins of the Persian Empire
featuring the King (or an archer) as
sitting/kneeling that it is now commonly
accepted that such a radically different coinage
in the shape and form of the bent bar would not
have been introduced by the Persians for a
particular region alone (Gandhara) but that it
points to a much earlier existence of the coin
type which, for purposes of trade and continuity
of tradition, was continued by the Persians. The
coins, based on the date of Darius rock
inscriptions, are therefore attributed to 600 BC
although their origin may have been earlier.
Page 485 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1443 Acq Date: 9408
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: BAMBOO MONEY

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

Tally sticks of bamboo were issued in China in


the second half of the 19th century and again
during and after the two world wars. The
Chinese called these bamboo tallies dai yong bi,
which means something like "transitional
currency." Dai yong bi were a form of
emergency money, mainly issued by banks, but
also by companies and customs authorities.
They were carved or inked, or inscriptions were
burned into them, indicating the issuer, the
date, the value and so on. They had face values
between 1 and 1,000 cash. Most of the bamboo
tallies were lacquered and punched, in order to
string them as the Chinese did with their cash
coins as well.
Obverse (side shown in picture) translates as
"wen shi" (cash ten), "chuang" (string), No Picture 2
"chien' (money), "liang" (two), "bai" (hundred),
"wen" (cash). The meaning of the inscription is
that this token is equivalent to a string of 20
Ten Cash coins.
Page 486 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1444 Acq Date: 9711
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP WUOBA Class #6

Description: Previous owner was the family of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village and was paid to
them by the family of Tadia Tebi of Mala Village
at the ceremonial purchase of a huge pig which
was subsequently eaten at a feast.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Wuoba ". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 66 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. An important and extremely rare item.
Page 487 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1445 Acq Date: 9409
Country: CONGO
District:

Village: Boa People

Description.: KNIFE STEEL BLADE (SMALL WITH


MANILLA DECORATIONS)
Description: Very unusual.
It has a number of depictions of manillas etched
into the blade. Possibly for ju-ju purposes or as
a mark of monetary value?
Probably a ceremonial knife with special
qualities from the inscribed manillas.
A currency blade.

No Picture 2
Page 488 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1446 Acq Date: 9302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP WUOBA Class #6

Description: Previously owned by Cathy Tom of


Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Wuoba ". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 66 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have No Picture 2
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 489 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1447 Acq Date: 9410
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: PATA VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KECHEM Class #3

Description: Previously owned by Yamna


Jumlum of Pata Village who obtained it for the
payment of the house from his father Jumlum
of Jela River Side Village of Njaru Ward.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kechem". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 74 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. Important
and extremely rare item.
Page 490 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1448 Acq Date: 9410
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: NAIL COPPER EX THE SAINT PAUL

Description: Refer to The Saga of the St Paul by


Col Davidson. This is an actual ship's nail from
the wreck. Copper nails such as this were a true
trade money of much of the Pacific.

No Picture 2
Page 491 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1449 Acq Date: 9410
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK AREA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL

Description: From the collection of Bruce Miller.

Called Yua.

Rings (yua) fashioned from the hard, marble-


like shell of the giant clam were, and to some
extent remain, the primary form of wealth
among the Abelam people. Ceremonial
valuables, yua were displayed or exchanged as
part of most major rituals and rites of passage.
At birth, a ring is presented to the childs
maternal uncle, who later will help guide him
through the complex male initiation cycle. At
marriage, the groom presents yua to the
brides parents, the number he is able
to give becoming a lifelong source of pride. At
death, gifts of yua to maternal relatives help
ease the passage of the spirit to the afterlife.
Shell rings also play an integral role in No Picture 2
ceremonial life. They are displayed during male
initiation, the dedication of mens ceremonial
houses, and other occasions, as symbols of the
strength and wealth of the community.

The rings are so prized that a man, wishing to


emphasize another mans status or his
affection for him, will address him as wuna yua
(my ring).
Page 492 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1450 Acq Date: 9410
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK AREA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CONUS

Description: This money shellring from the


Sepik area appears to be a copy in cous shell of
the highly valuable Dubalin.

No Picture 2
Page 493 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1451 Acq Date: 9410
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK AREA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL -called


Greg- or Dubalin (Hornbill)
Description: High vaue money ring.

Called Dubalin or Kueruek or Greg.

These come from the Mountain Arapesh people


of the Sepik area. All of these shell rings are
imported from the Plains people. They are made
by the Plains Arapesh who obtain the shell on
the Beach. This is the variety called the ring
"with a nose" which they call the hornbill
(dubalin).

No Picture 2
Page 494 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1452 Acq Date: 9411
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: KIKORI

Description.: SKULL TROPHY HUMAN

Description: Ex Max Wilcox of Melbourne.


Obtained in mid-1954 when he was in
Administration, Public Service Commission
(Personnel), Port Moresby, PNG.

Given to him by a (Mr?) Howard? A Radio


Technician on the official punitive expedition to
the Kikori region.

Heads were of immense importance, both


socially and religiously and in trade, the head of
a woman or child being equal in value to that of
a man. It seems that when the head was taken,
the flesh was eaten and the skull kept and used
for ancestor worship, forecasting the future,
prestige and status. They were the main
payment by the Torres Straits Islanders for the
Fly River canoes (skull=canoe, lower jaw=small
canoe). H M Dauncey, a missionary of Delena, No Picture 2
present in the punitive raid after Chalmers
death, counted over 700 skulls in one Dobu
house and estimated 10,000 skulls in the
twenty Dobu Houses burnt.
Page 495 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1453 Acq Date: 9502
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: MUSKET FLINT

Description: Excavated at the site of the Military


Garrison, corner of Blues Point Road and
Mitchell Street, North Sydney.
Although not an item of trade in Australia flints
such as this were used as a trade item in
Colonial America.
Exactly the same as held by the National
Museum of Australia, Canberra in Josef Lebovic
Gallery Collection no 1 - Ref #
1986.0117..4410

No Picture 2
Page 496 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1454 Acq Date: 9503
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village: MASAI

Description.: SPEARHEAD IRON MASAI

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

Iron was money in many parts of Africa (see


Quiggin) and spearheds were particularly valued
as a monetary weapon.
These spearheads were used in the young
men''s right of passage in killing a lion.

No Picture 2
Page 497 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1455 Acq Date: 9504
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Trobriands

Village:

Description.: CONUS SHELL

Description: A plain raw conus shell prior to


working into money armrings, etc.

No Picture 2
Page 498 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1456 Acq Date: 9504
Country: Brazil N.West/ Columbia South
District: AMAZON

Village: MAKU and YAGUA PEOPLE,

Description.: BLOWPIPE, DARTS, QUIVER,


FEATHERS
Description: The blowpipe is from the Yagua
people and the dart quiver was made by the
Maku. They were collected together and so the
blowpipe would have been traded to the Maku
by their neighbours the Yagua.
Yagua blowpipes were traded over thousands of
kilometres to the Andean foothills and the
Ucayali region. In the other direction (north-
east) blowpipes travelled a long way up to the
Guianas

No Picture 2
Page 499 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1457 Acq Date: 7503
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING CLAMSHELL

Description: This is the standard money


shellstring of the Solomons.

No Picture 2
Page 500 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1458 Acq Date: 9505
Country: Marshall Islands
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE SHARKTEETH ON


FIBRE
Description: See Quiggins page126 where she
states ,regarding Melanesia and the Pacific, that
"Porpoise, cuscus, bat and fish teeth are often
bound on to cord,
projecting at intervals, and such bands may be
ornaments or currency".
Also see page 128 and page 129.

No Picture 2
Page 501 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1459 Acq Date: 9505
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: PU MONEY WANG MANG 1000

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters show that it was worth 1000
cash.
Minted under the emperor Wang Mang of the
Xian Dynasty 9-23 AD..

No Picture 2
Page 502 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1460 Acq Date: 9505
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: CIGARETTES IN PACKET

Description: Wartime Era


After World War II cigarettes were monetised in
much of Europe. They possessed many of the
characteristics of currency. They were easily
recognisable, practically homogeneous, fairly
durable, divisible, readily transportable and
hard to counterfeit. In 1947, 25 cartons would
purchase a Leica camera in Germany, and in
Vienna, apartments could be rented for two
packs a month. In Hamburg, police offered a
1000 cigarette reward for information leading to
the arrest of a suspected murderer.

No Picture 2
Page 503 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1461 Acq Date: 9505
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: CIGARETTES IN PACKET

Description: Wartime Era


After World War II cigarettes were monetised in
much of Europe. They possessed many of the
characteristics of currency. They were easily
recognisable, practically homogeneous, fairly
durable, divisible, readily transportable and
hard to counterfeit. In 1947, 25 cartons would
purchase a Leica camera in Germany, and in
Vienna, apartments could be rented for two
packs a month. In Hamburg, police offered a
1000 cigarette reward for information leading to
the arrest of a suspected murderer.

No Picture 2
Page 504 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1462 Acq Date: 9506
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: STONE PESTLE -MPUEMA- OR -


MBIMA-
Description: Previous owner was Kennis
Kwamba of Jinjo Village.

Called Mpuema.

Used in the olden days but was used by Kennis


Kwamba simply on a flat piece of stone or
wood. It was also used in rain making and was
regarded as being a gift from the magic people
of Rossel Island.

No Picture 2
Page 505 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1463 Acq Date: 9506
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: SANDALWOOD PIECES (2) -


CALLED OME OR KYMAE
Description: Previously owned by Jerome
Kaiyobu of Rossel.
On Rossel the bark called Ome or Kymae and is
used for magical purposes and they also chew
it. It is also exportrd to Sudest.
Visitors from Sudest might be given pieces of
sandalwood bark which is valued as a powerful
magical item and for medicinal purposes.

No Picture 2
Page 506 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1465 Acq Date: 9509
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM SMALL


_ VAPATU.
Description: These are the important green
stone axeblades fom Woodlark Island and an
important item in the Kula Trade Cycle. Called
Beku in the Trobriands and Mbu Op Butu

No Picture 2
Page 507 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1466 Acq Date: 9509
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM SMALL


_ VAPATU.
Description: These are the important green
stone axeblades fom Woodlark Island and an
important item in the Kula Trade Cycle. Called
Beku in the Trobriands and Vapatu in Rossel.

No Picture 2
Page 508 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1467 Acq Date: 8911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village:

Description.: CASSOWARY FEATHER ORNAMENT

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 509 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1468 Acq Date: 9510
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: COWRIE IMITATION GOLD PLATED


BRONZE
Description: Excavated from early graves.

No Picture 2
Page 510 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1469 Acq Date: 9510
Country: CAMEROON
District:

Village: MATAKAM PEOPLE

Description.: THROWING KNIFE STEEL CALLED


"SENGESE"
Description: Called Sengese.

A beautiful example of a throwing knife which


was used as currency by the Matakam people.
The handles are tightly wrapped in a raffia-like
material.

Used as a terrible weapon of war but also as a


currency object.

Opitz mentions that these throwing knives were


considered a store of value, a standard of value,
a token of wealth, a treasured heirloom and
were used in bride price.

No Picture 2
Page 511 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1470 Acq Date: 9510
Country: AFRICA
District: Ngelima People of the lower Ituri and
the Mbole People of the Lomami
Village:

Description.: COPPER BAR OF 2+KG

Description: Used by the Ngelima of the lower


Ituri and the Mbole of the Lomami, and peoples
in between (Zaire).

No Picture 2
Page 512 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1471 Acq Date: 9510
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: RAFFIA CLOTH

Description: Kuba Cloth (Mbal or Madiba) from


the Lele tribe of the Congo, Kuba Kingdom,
Sundstrom reports the use of Kuba cloth for
everyday local purchases, major purchases such
as slaves, cattle or ivory, loans, tolls, and for
destruction at funerals as "conspicuous
consumption." Opitz p.109-111 shows many
examples of larger cloths made from original
units, and discusses specific uses. Squares of
cloth woven from raffia palm leaf fibres, they
were called mbal. Today these former monetary
units are found sewn into larger compositions
and decorated. The decorations (raised plush,
sewn-on angular patches, eyelets, etc.) were
originally added to hide fraying or holes, but
soon evolved into meaningful symbols. Each
culture group within the Kuba region had its
own style and pattern of decoration.
No Picture 2
Page 513 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1472 Acq Date: 9510
Country: KATANGA
District: Ingombe Ilede / Chedzurgwe

Village:

Description.: CROSS COPPER LARGER H


100mm
Description: Ingombe Ilede / Chedzurgwe
culture
A true money.
Refer the book - Luba - by MN and AF Roberts
A geat deal of copper was cast in the form of H
or X shaped copper crosses that were used as
currency (money).
During the period from 1200 to 1600 civilization
flourished in the Luba heartland. One sign of
growth was the greatly increased production of
copper crosses in a range of sizes. They suggest
that towns were springing up and people were
becoming specialized in a range of occupations.
Tiny crosses made by the thousand served as
small change in market transactions.
For many centuries copper crosses were traded
all over central Africa. They have been found in
Zimbabwe, for instance, and across both
Tanzania and Angola to the Indian and Atlantic No Picture 2
Oceans. Portuguese merchants even took them
from Africa to South America. Wide distribution
of copper crosses made Luba kingdoms famous
as centres of wealth and power.
Refer to the lower part of page 77 of Quiggin.
Page 514 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1473 Acq Date: 9510
Country: KATANGA
District: Sanga - North of Katanga

Village:

Description.: CROSS COPPER MINI H 27mm

Description: Sanga Cross Shaba Kingdom.


Small, early copper cross money very
irregularly cast in a rough H-shape excavated at
Sanga, north of Katanga, reliably dated to 15-
18th Century. A true money.
Refer the book - Luba - by MN and AF Roberts
A geat deal of copper was cast in the form of H
or X shaped copper crosses that were used as
currency (money).
During the period from 1200 to 1600 civilization
flourished in the Luba heartland. One sign of
growth was the greatly increased production of
copper crosses in a range of sizes. They suggest
that towns were springing up and people were
becoming specialized in a range of occupations.
Tiny crosses made by the thousand served as
small change in market transactions.
For many centuries copper crosses were traded
all over central Africa. They have been found in No Picture 2
Zimbabwe and across both Tanzania and Angola
to the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Portuguese
merchants even took them from Africa to South
America. Wide distribution of copper crosses
made Luba kingdoms famous as centres of
wealth and power.
Refer to the lower part of page 77 of Quiggin.
Page 515 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1474 Acq Date: 9510
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: BURIAL IMITATION COIN CLAY

Description: Buried with the body to provide


money in the next life.

No Picture 2
Page 516 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1475 Acq Date: 9510
Country: AFRICA
District: LAKE TUMBA

Village:

Description.: ARMRING COPPER

Description: Monetary Bracelet. Used by tribes


along the River Itimbiri

No Picture 2
Page 517 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1476 Acq Date: 9510
Country: ETHIOPA
District:

Village:

Description.: CARTRIDGE

Description: A true money - refer to Quiggins


pages 106-107.

No Picture 2
Page 518 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1477 Acq Date: 9512
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: FLORIDA Nggela Islands

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING -MALONA-

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This is a superb, long string of red custom


money from Nggela. It is called Malona.

No Picture 2
Page 519 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1478 Acq Date: 9510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: MAGIC STONE WHITE NGEME

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu .
The stone was used for rain and thunder
making. When used for rain making the thunder
sound would be loud and frightening to children.
The people prayed to the stone for it will bring
them rain.

No Picture 2
Page 520 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1479 Acq Date: 9510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM LARGE


-VAPATU.
Description: These is a larger and important
green stone axeblades fom Woodlark Island and
an important item in the Kula Trade Cycle.
Called Beku in the Trobriands and Vapatu in
Rossel.

No Picture 2
Page 521 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1480 Acq Date: 9410
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: WOKEA VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Previously owned by Samson John


of Wokea Village who obtained it as part of the
Bride Price at the marriage of his daughter
Jopewo Samson to Dou Gawo of Peme Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 59 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 522 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1481 Acq Date: 9510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: PUM VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP GAMA Class #2

Description: Previous owner was Gada Muo of


Pum Village who received it from his aunt Neme
Tuda.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Gama". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 79 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item.
Page 523 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1482 Acq Date: 9511
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING WHITE CONUS


1460MM X 4MM
Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

This is a money shell string of tiny coneshell


discs. This is unusual as most shellstrings from
the Solomons are made of solid flattened shell
discs.

It is over 100 years old.


Page 524 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1483 Acq Date: 9511
Country: GILBERT ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING -TEKARORO-


900MM X 6MM
Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

Refer Quiggins p140, Fig 52.

Called Tekaroro.

This was a standard type of money in the


Gilberts made from alternating discs of conus
shell and coconut shell. They were traded
widely.

This is over 100 years old.


Page 525 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1484 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ADMIRALTIES

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING WHITE 850MM X


3MM
Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

This is a standard money shellstring from the


Admiralties. It has small diameter shell beads
and a few red trade beads.

Shellstring from this area is scarce in


collections.

Over 100 years old.


Page 526 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1485 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ADMIRALTIES

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING WHITE 570MM X


4MM
Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell''s
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell''s just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

This is a standard money shellstring from the


Admiralties.

Shellstring from this area is scarce in


collections.

Over 100 years old.


Page 527 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1486 Acq Date: 9511
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING WHITE 800MM X


3MM (4)
Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

This is a quality four string shell valuable. The


white shell discs are small in diameter and are
interspersed with coconut shell beads. A broken
shell is tied to the string as a pendant and,
instead of having the usual tortoiseshell
dividers, it has three ancient, European
corroded metal buttons.

It is over 100 years old.


Page 528 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1487 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ADMIRALTIES

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND SHELLDISCS/GLASS


BEADS
Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.
Page 529 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1488 Acq Date: 9511
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: BELT GLASS BEADS

Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in


catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.
Page 530 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1489 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Huon Gulf/East New Britain

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND TORTOISESHELL

Description: Called Navoi.

Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in catalogue as


"...were obtained from the Tyrell''s Curio shop
on Castlereagh Street, Sydney around 1930.
Many of these fine objects were collected by
Tyrell''s just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

A highly sought after valuable. It is called a


Navoi.

Over 100 years old.


Page 531 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1490 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CALLED Iwan ON


WOVEN ARMBAND CLAMSHELL
Description: Part of Lot 105 of Sothebys sydney
auction. Stated in catalogue as "...were
obtained from the Tyrell's Curio shop on
Castlereagh Street, Sydney around 1930. Many
of these fine objects were collected by Tyrell's
just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

Although noted on the original descriptive


docket attached to the armring as Solomom
Islands, this item is from the Sepik area.

Almost 100 years old.

Called Iwan.

These come from the Mountain Arapesh people


of the Sepik area. All of these shell rings are
imported to them from the Plains people and
the Wallis Island people.. They are made by
these people who obtain the shell on the
beaches. This is the simplest of their money
rings and is simply a flat disc of shell.
Page 532 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1491 Acq Date: 9511
Country: PACIFIC
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING BLACK


SNAILSHELL/COIX SEED 900MM
Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

A string of black snail-like shells with Jobs Tears


as spacers.

Over 100 years old.

Unidentified.
Page 533 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1492 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik Area

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING NASSA 1250MM

Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in


catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell''s
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell''s just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

Refer Quiggins p173, Fig 69

The nassa shell was also one of the main money


items in the Northern coastal area of New
Guinea. They were used for strictly items of
money and also wearable valuables.

Over 100 years old.


Page 534 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1493 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Southern Highlands

Village: Mendi Area

Description.: PENDANT CONUS DIBIDIBI (PAIR)

Description: These are two of the highly valued


Dibi Dibi which have been imported from the
Torres Strait area.
Their value each in the upper Wahgi Valley in
the early 1940s was half of a grown pig.
A true monetary trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 535 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1494 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Southern Highlands

Village: Mendi Area

Description.: PENDANT CONUS DIBIDIBI

Description: This is a highly valued Dibi Dibi


which has been imported from the Torres Strait
area.
Their value in the uppe r Wahgi Valley in the
early 1940s was half of a grown pig.
A true monetary trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 536 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1495 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Southern Highlands

Village: Mendi area

Description.: PENDANT CONUS DIBIDIBI

Description: This is a highly valued Dibi Dibi


which has been imported from the Torres Strait
area.
Their value in the upper Wahgi Valley in the
early 1940s was half of a grown pig.
The added cowries add to its value.
A true monetary trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 537 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1496 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Southern Highlands

Village: Mendi Area

Description.: PENDANT CONUS DIBIDIBI

Description: This is a highly valued Dibi Dibi


which has been imported from the Torres Strait
area.
Their value in the upper Wahgi Valley in the
early 1940s was half of a grown pig.
A true monetary trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 538 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1497 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Southern Highlands

Village: Mendi Area

Description.: PENDANT CONUS DIBIDIBI

Description: This is a highly valued Dibi Dibi


which has been imported from the Torres Strait
area.
Their value in the upper Wahgi Valley in the
early 1940s was half of a grown pig.
A true monetary trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 539 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1498 Acq Date: 9511
Country: SIAM
District: KAREN

Village:

Description.: PIPE

Description: ne of a pair.

Not a monetary item but used as part of the


Karen Wedding ceremony where one is
presented to the groom and the other to the
bride.

No Picture 2
Page 540 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1499 Acq Date: 9511
Country: SIAM
District: KAREN

Village:

Description.: PIPE

Description: One of a pair.

Not a monetary item but used as part of the


Karen Wedding ceremony where one is
presented to the groom and the other to the
bride.

No Picture 2
Page 541 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1500 Acq Date: 9512
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA ISABEL

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Rade) CARVED BIRD
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Rade.

An important and scarce money shellring, made


of clamshell and which shows a bird form on its
edge.

Shell armrings were mentioned by the Spanish


explorer in 1568 when he visited this island,
Santa Isabel. He obtained a shell armring from
a chief of the island.

No Picture 2
Page 542 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1501 Acq Date: 9512
Country: JAPAN
District:

Village:

Description.: COIN RECTANGULAR GOLD Nissho


Kin Ansei Period 1832-58
Description: Coin of Japan.

No Picture 2
Page 543 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1502 Acq Date: 9602
Country: GHANA
District: ASHANTI PEOPLE

Village:

Description.: WEIGHT ASHANTI BRASS

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A very old gold weight of the Ashanti people. It


is in the shape of a human figure.

They were true weights and used to weigh gold,


gems and te like but always, because of the
metal content, had a monetary/trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 544 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1503 Acq Date: 9602
Country: GHANA
District: ASHANTI PEOPLE

Village:

Description.: WEIGHT ASHANTI BRASS

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A very old gold weight of the Ashanti people. It


is in the shape of a human figure.

They were true weights and used to weigh gold,


gems and te like but always, because of the
metal content, had a monetary/trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 545 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1504 Acq Date: 9602
Country: GHANA
District: ASHANTI PEOPLE

Village:

Description.: WEIGHT ASHANTI BRASS

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A very old gold weight of the Ashanti people. It


is in the shape of a human figure.

They were true weights and used to weigh gold,


gems and te like but always, because of the
metal content, had a monetary/trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 546 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1505 Acq Date: 9602
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM

Village:

Description.: HAFT FOR AXE WOODEN MASSIM

Description: Also called a Garden magician''''s


axe and associated with rituals associated with
garden magic. Similar to photograph on page
76 of The Kula A Bronislaw Malinowski
Centennial Exhibition Robert H Lowie Museum of
Anthropology California 1985.
Used to hold the extremely important
greenstone axe heads originally imported from
Woodlark Island.
The handle is called taramasima (we went to
Misima.)
Illustrated in Seligmann Plate LXII

No Picture 2
Page 547 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1506 Acq Date: 9603
Country: UNITED STATES
District:

Village:

Description.: WALRUS TOOTH

Description: Unidentified - Walrus Tooth (?)

No Picture 2
Page 548 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1507 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KECHEM Class #3

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment of a pig sold to
the family of John Tebi of Ngowangoko Village
on 16/4/95.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kechem". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 74 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important
of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Page 549 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1508 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KECHEM Class #3

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment of a pig sold to
the family of John Tebi of Ngowangoko Village
on 16/4/95.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kechem". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 74 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important
of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Page 550 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1509 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KECHEM Class #3

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment of a pig sold to
the family of John Tebi of Ngowangoko Village
on 16/4/95.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kechem". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 74 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important
of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Page 551 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1510 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin , with others, in payment of a pig sold to
the family of John Tebi of Ngowangoko Village
on 16/04/95.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. An important and extremely rare item.
Page 552 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1511 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP GAMA Class #2

Description: Previously owned by Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received it, with
others, in payment of a pig sold to the family
John Tebi of Ngowangoko Village on 16/04/95.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Gama". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 79 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast. No Picture 2
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. Important

and extremely rare item.


Page 553 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1512 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: PEARLSHELL KNIFE -KEME-

Description: Previousl owner was Cathy Tom of


Abeleti Village. The shell comes from a reef
around the island and it is used as a hand
scraper for coconut, for use as a spoon and as a
minor valuable.
Called Keme or Kuma.
On Sudest Island there is a custom called Buwa
where, the first time a man or boy is discovered
to have spent the night with a girl, the girl's
family presents him with a basket of gifts
(which often includes a pearlshell knife). He
does not keep this gift but must add the
equivalent to the basket and return it to the
girl's family. A somewhat similar custom is seen
on Rossel Island.

No Picture 2
Page 554 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1513 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: VIKWO VILLAGE

Description.: MAGIC SHELL ROUND WALACHEW

Description: Called Walachew.


Previous owner was Waibuva Tepa of Vikwo
Village on the South coast of Rossel. These
shells were traded between clans in ancient
times and used by taro growers by burning it in
their garden - the smell given off helps in the
gowth of the taro plants.

No Picture 2
Page 555 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1514 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP YENANINDO Class #15

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin as a gift from his grandfather Tepa
Dobugodes.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Yenanindo ". These were
made by a god and were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest
rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 10 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.
An important and extremely rare item.
Page 556 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1515 Acq Date: 9711
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Previous owner was the family of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village and was paid to
them by the family of Tadia Tebi of Mala Village
at the ceremonial purchase of a huge pig which
was subsequently eaten at a feast.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 59 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 557 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1516 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment at a bride price
payment. The bride was Aggatha Yuto (a close
relation of kaiyobu) and the groom was Paul
Peter.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in No Picture 2
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 558 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1517 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment at a Bride Price
payment. The bride was Aggatha Yuto (a close
relation to Kaiyobu) and the groom was Paul
Peter and the bride price feast was held at Jinjo
Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates No Picture 2
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items
and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty
five pages to them. It is probable that, after the
Yap Stone Money, these are the most important
of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Page 559 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1518 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NKO (KE-KAO) -YENANINDO-

Description: Made by the god Wonajo before


man came to Rossel, this is an example of the
rare Shell Coin of Rossel Island called Nko. This
example is the denomination "Nko Ke-Kao
Yenanindo". These were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal).
Armstrong estimates about 800 in total of Nko
coins split between 16 different denominations.
This makes any Nko an item of the highest
rarity. Opitz allocates a full page to Ndap and
Nko and in-depth articles have been printed in
the Eucoprimo and TMA Journals. Quiggins
allocates three pages and Armstrong gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most No Picture 2
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An
important and extremely rare item. Class #15.
Previous owner was Jerome Kaiyobu of Jinjo
Village who received it as a payment from
Patrick Bwadua of Dabe Vilage in the Njaru area
at a pig feast. The past owners were his
generations of relations.
Page 560 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1519 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KWEIA Class #5

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment at a pig feast and
was paid it by Peter Tepa and his wife Canmerl
Marge.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kweia". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 69 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 561 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1520 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KWEIA Class #5

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment at a Pig Feast and
was paid it by Peter Tepa and his wife Canmerl
Marge.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kweia". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 69 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 562 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1521 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP GAMA Class #2

Description: Previous owner was Jerome


Kaiyobu of Jinjo Village who received this shell
coin, with others, in payment at a Pig Feast and
was paid it by Peter Tepa and his wife Canmerl
Marge.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Gama". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 79 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important
of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and
extremely rare item.
Page 563 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1522 Acq Date: 9605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Daggers of cassowary bone,


especially those that were carved, were a
popular trade item in the Sepik and even more
valued in the Papuan Gulf/Torres Strait region

No Picture 2
Page 564 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1523 Acq Date: 9608
Country: INDONESIA
District: FLORES ISLAND

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE EGG COWRIE


SHELLS/SHELL DISCS/PENDANTS
Description: A wearable value/trade item. The
ovula cowry was highly valued.

No Picture 2
Page 565 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1524 Acq Date: 9608
Country: INDIA
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE AGATE AND BONE


BEADS
Description: Valued items for wearing and
valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 566 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1525 Acq Date: 9608
Country: GHANA
District: ASHANTI PEOPLE

Village:

Description.: PENDANT ASHANTI BRASS

Description: This very old bras pendant was


made from brass using the lost wax method.
The figure on the coiled base is a tortoise.
These castings often show figures relating to a
story or parable.
Probably a charm or fetish and a trade valuable
because of this and also becaues of the metal
content.

No Picture 2
Page 567 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1526 Acq Date: 9608
Country: GHANA
District: ASHANTI PEOPLE

Village:

Description.: PENDANT ASHANTI BRASS

Description: This very old brass pendant was


made from brass using the lost wax method.
The figure on the coiled base is a kneeling man
with upraised arms. These castings often show
figures relating to a story or parable.
Probably a charm or fetish and a trade valuable
because of this and also becaues of the metal
content.

No Picture 2
Page 568 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1527 Acq Date: 9608
Country: GHANA
District: ASHANTI PEOPLE

Village:

Description.: PENDANT ASHANTI BRASS

Description: This very old bras pendant was


made from brass using the lost wax method.
The three figures on the coiled base are frog,
scorpion and lizard. These castings often show
figures relating to a story or parable.
Probably a charm or fetish and a trade valuable
because of this and also becaues of the metal
content.

No Picture 2
Page 569 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1528 Acq Date: 9608
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: HIGHLANDS

Village:

Description.: ADZE HAFTED STONE BLADE

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

No Picture 2
Page 570 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1529 Acq Date: 9610
Country: ZAIRE
District:

Village: YAKA PEOPLE

Description.: KNIFE STEEL SWORD

Description: Ex Sothebys. Ex. Alan D.


Christensen Fund Collection. Christensen was
an American mining engineer who founded
Texada Mines in Carnarvon West. Australia. In
the 1950's and established the "Christensen
Fund" a private foundation that supported
scientific research in Papua New Guinea.
Through 1950s he acquired a significant
collection of quality Oceanic and African art and
was instrumental in helping museums enhance
their collections. On his death the Fund shifted
its focus and sold some of its collection.
Sothebys Ref #304, Christensen Fund Ref
#CC40494. Acquired from Alex Bortignon who
obtained it from Hales (arms dealer) London.
Also, advice by Todd Barlin (who managed the
Sotheby sale) that this sword was owned by -
Yakubu of Bauchi and of considerable
historical importance. Before the Fulani Islamic No Picture 2
jihad the Bauchi region was inhabited by a large
number of small tribes, some of whom spoke
languages related to Hausa, and some of whom
were Muslims. The province of Bauchi was
conquered between 1809 and 1818 by Fula
warriors led by Yakubu a Muslim General and
son of a local Muslim ruler.

The emirate remained under Fula rule until


1902 when a British expedition occupied the
capital without fighting. The British abolished
the slave trade, which had flourished until then,
and appointed a new emir, who died a few
months later. In 1904 the emir who had
succeeded took the oath of allegiance to the
Page 571 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1530 Acq Date: 9610
Country: CAMEROON
District:

Village: BENGE PEOPLE

Description.: KNIFE

Description: Currency Blade. Sothebys


Ex. Alan D. Christensen Fund Collection. The
late Mr. Christensen, 1907-1989, was an
American mining engineer who founded Texada
Mines in Camarvon West. Australia. In the
1950''s he established the "Christensen Fund" a
private foundation that supported scientific
research in Papua New Guinea. Through out the
1950''s he acquired a significant collection of
quality Oceanic and African art and was
instrumental in helping museums enhance their
collections. . On his death the Fund shifted its
focus and sold some of its collection.
SOTHEBY'S REF #307, CHRISTENSEN FUND
REF #CC40514. ACQUIRED FROM Alex
Bortignon WHO OBTAINED FROM HALES (ARMS
DEALER) LONDON.

No Picture 2
Page 572 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1531 Acq Date: 9610
Country: ZAIRE
District:

Village: ABARAMBO PEOPLE

Description.: KNIFE

Description: Currency Blade. Sothebys


Ex. Alan D. Christensen Fund Collection. The
late Mr. Christensen, 1907-1989, was an
American mining engineer who founded Texada
Mines in Camarvon West. Australia. In the
1950''''s he established the "Christensen Fund"
a private foundation that supported scientific
research in Papua New Guinea. Through out the
1950''''s he acquired a significant collection of
quality Oceanic and African art and was
instrumental in helping museums enhance their
collections.. On his death the Fund shifted its
focus and sold some of its collection.
SOTHEBY'S REF #307, CHRISTENSEN FUND
REF #CC40529. ACQUIRED FROM Alex
Bortignon WHO OBTAINED IT FROM HALES
(ARMS DEALER) LONDON.

No Picture 2
Page 573 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1532 Acq Date: 9610
Country: ZAIRE
District:

Village: MANGBETU PEOPLE

Description.: KNIFE - CALLED "TROMBASH"

Description: CONGO, MANGETU-BUSHONGO, 18


-19th c., iron trombash knife. Sothebys. Ex Alan
D. Christensen Fund Collection. The late Mr.
Christensen, 1907-1989, was an American
mining engineer who founded Texada Mines in
Camarvon West. Australia. In the 1950s he
established the "Christensen Fund" a private
foundation that supported scientific research in
Papua New Guinea. Throughout the 1950s he
acquired a significant collection of quality
Oceanic and African art and was instrumental in
helping museums enhance their collections. .
On his death the Fund shifted its focus and sold
some of its collection. Sothebys Ref #309,
Christensen Fund Ref #CC40508. Acquired from
Alex Bortignon who obtained it from Hales (an
arms dealer) London.
The Mangbetu practiced polygamy and were
associated with cannibalism. No Picture 2
These knives were originally used as weapons
of war and agricultural implements. They later
developed into luxury items to provide symbols
of status and as a form of currency..
The circular holes in the blades of these knives
were once believed to indicate the number of
wives the owner had-in this case, just two.
Page 574 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1533 Acq Date: 9610
Country: SUDAN (ZAIRE?)
District:

Village: ABARAMBO PEOPLE

Description.: KNIFE WITH IVORY HANDLE

Description: Purchased Sotheby Sydney ref


#309, Christensen Fund ref #CC40528.
Originally acquired from Alex Bortignon who
obtained it from Hales (an arms dealer) London.
Ex. Alan D. Christensen Fund Collection. The
late Mr. Christensen, 1907-1989, was an
American mining engineer who founded Texada
Mines in Camarvon West. Australia. In the
1950''''s he established the "Christensen Fund"
a private foundation that supported scientific
research in Papua New Guinea. Through out the
1950''''s he acquired a significant collection of
quality Oceanic and African art and was
instrumental in helping museums enhance their
collections.. On his death the Fund shifted its
focus and sold some of its collection.
The ivory handle denotes its high value as does
its quality steel blade - possibly coming from
Arab traders. No Picture 2
Page 575 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1534 Acq Date: 9610
Country: ZAIRE
District:

Village: ABARAMBO PEOPLE

Description.: KNIFE

Description: Currency Blade. Sothebys


Ex. Alan D. Christensen Fund Collection. The
late Mr. Christensen, 1907-1989, was an
American mining engineer who founded Texada
Mines in Camarvon West. Australia. In the
1950''''s he established the "Christensen Fund"
a private foundation that supported scientific
research in Papua New Guinea. Through out the
1950''''s he acquired a significant collection of
quality Oceanic and African art and was
instrumental in helping museums enhance their
collections.. On his death the Fund shifted its
focus and sold some of its collection.
SOTHEBY'S REF #310, CHRISTENSEN FUND
REF #CC40498.

No Picture 2
Page 576 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1535 Acq Date: 9610
Country: ANGOLA/ZAIRE
District:

Village: KUSU (TETELA) PEOPLE

Description.: KNIFE

Description: Currency Blade. Sothebys


Ex. Alan D. Christensen Fund Collection. The
late Mr. Christensen, 1907-1989, was an
American mining engineer who founded Texada
Mines in Camarvon West. Australia. In the
1950''s he established the "Christensen Fund" a
private foundation that supported scientific
research in Papua New Guinea. Through out the
1950''s he acquired a significant collection of
quality Oceanic and African art and was
instrumental in helping museums enhance their
collections.. On his death the Fund shifted its
focus and sold some of its collection.
SOTHEBY'S REF #310, CHRISTENSEN FUND
REF #CC40527. ACQUIRED FROM Alex
Bortignon WHO OBTAINED IT FROM HALES
(ARMS DEALER) LONDON.

No Picture 2
Page 577 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1536 Acq Date: 9703
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sudest - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA TORTOISESHELL


called "Ghena"
Description: This Ghena was used by the
daughters of a chief as a lime spatula and as a
status symbol (worn in an armband). It is
almost identical to the other spatulas
tortoiseshell, but have no holes drilled at the
top.
Advised September 27, 2011 by Richard
Aldridge:-SPATULAS MASSIM tortoiseshell
Ghena
Basically, Ghena spatulas are not at all lime
spatulas, but they are presented to a widow as
the last part of the price of a wife when her
husband dies. Ghena is the rough translation of
a crescent, so they can be made of wood
(Ghena GSFA) in the language Sudest (gobayla
in the language of Calvados) or tortoise (Ghena
wanamo).
On the islands southeast and Calvados custom
holidays are the most important social event. No Picture 2
The parties may request more than five years of
preparation and they are organized by the
family of a deceased person. Sudest of a funeral
feast can last a week. The widow and her family
are shown with stone axes and shell money
called Ghena Daveri and spatulas. Spatula
Ghena has the most meaning and is kept in
memory of the deceased, although the bagi
(currency red Spondylus) which is attached
along its top edge is often recycled. Essentially
the party purifies the widow, allowing her to
remarry. Women are painted with traditional
designs of tattoos and long skirts are shortened
according to the usual ceremony. At that time
they will be presented with stone ax blades and
Page 578 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1537 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA/AUSTRALIA
District: TORRES STRAITS

Village:

Description.: PENDANT CONUS CALLED -O-

Description: Ex Hartmann Collection collected in


1885. The item is from the original expeditions
of Carl Hartmann, explorer, botanist and
collector. A native of Leipzig he came to
Australia shortly after qualifying as a
professional botanist. In 1861 he established a
nursery on the Parramatta River which was not
successful. He began exploring for gold to
supplement his earnings and with the profits
from the gold he found he was able to dedicate
more of his time to botany. In Toowoomba,
Queensland he established another nursery. In
1885 he heard a speech by American Professor
William Denton and decided to go to New
Guinea and explore the rich flora and fauna with
his son. He explored the Fly River area and the
Gulf of Carpentaria. His success on that visit led
the British Acting High Commissioner to offer
him a second trip in an official capacity. In 1887 No Picture 2
Hartmann went back to New Guinea to establish
domesticated plants and animals for the settled
British areas of New Guinea as well as act as a
diplomat to help settle a dispute between the
Rerapuna and Aroma tribes. He penetrated the
more remote regions of New Guinea but, when
he returned to Brisbane he fell ill and died of
malaria.

His collection of New Guinea artefacts and art


was passed on to his nephew John Oswald
Hartmann, curator of the Hartmann Museum.
Page 579 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1538 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA/AUSTRALIA
District: TORRES STRAITS

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL CRESCENT SMALL


THICK HOLED
Description: Ex Hartmann Collection collected
in 1885. The item is from the original
expeditions of Carl Hartmann, explorer, botanist
and collector. A native of Leipzig he came to
Australia shortly after qualifying as a
professional botanist. In 1861 he established a
nursery on the Parramatta River which was not
successful. He began exploring for gold to
supplement his earnings and with the profits
from the gold he found he was able to dedicate
more of his time to botany. In Toowoomba,
Queensland he established another nursery. In
1885 he heard a speech by American Professor
William Denton and decided to go to New
Guinea and explore the rich flora and fauna with
his son. He explored the Fly River area and the
Gulf of Carpentaria. His success on that visit led
the British Acting High Commissioner to offer
him a second trip in an official capacity. In 1887 No Picture 2
Hartmann went back to New Guinea to establish
domesticated plants and animals for the settled
British areas of New Guinea as well as act as a
diplomat to help settle a dispute between the
Rerapuna and Aroma tribes. He penetrated the
more remote regions of New Guinea but, when
he returned to Brisbane he fell ill and died of
malaria.
His collection of New Guinea artefacts and art
was passed on to his nephew John Oswald
Hartmann, curator of the Hartmann Museum.
Most of the contents of the collection were then
passed on to the Lake Placid Resort, Cairns
upon his retirement. The late Mr. Anthony
Harper acquired the resort in the late 1970s and
Page 580 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1539 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA/AUSTRALIA
District: TORRES STRAITS

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL CRESCENT SMALL


THICK
Description: Ex Hartmann Collection collected
in 1885. The item is from the original
expeditions of Carl Hartmann, explorer, botanist
and collector. A native of Leipzig he came to
Australia shortly after qualifying as a
professional botanist. In 1861 he established a
nursery on the Parramatta River which was not
successful. He began exploring for gold to
supplement his earnings and with the profits
from the gold he found he was able to dedicate
more of his time to botany. In Toowoomba,
Queensland he established another nursery. In
1885 he heard a speech by American Professor
William Denton and decided to go to New
Guinea and explore the rich flora and fauna with
his son. He explored the Fly River area and the
Gulf of Carpentaria. His success on that visit led
the British Acting High Commissioner to offer
him a second trip in an official capacity. In 1887 No Picture 2
Hartmann went back to New Guinea to establish
domesticated plants and animals for the settled
British areas of New Guinea as well as act as a
diplomat to help settle a dispute between the
Rerapuna and Aroma tribes. He penetrated the
more remote regions of New Guinea but, when
he returned to Brisbane he fell ill and died of
malaria.
His collection of New Guinea artefacts and art
was passed on to his nephew John Oswald
Hartmann, curator of the Hartmann Museum.
Most of the contents of the collection were then
passed on to the Lake Placid Resort, Cairns
upon his retirement. The late Mr. Anthony
Harper acquired the resort in the late 1970s and
Page 581 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1540 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA/AUSTRALIA
District: TORRES STRAITS

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL CRESCENT SMALL


THICK
Description: Ex Hartmann Collection collected in
1885. The item is from the original expeditions
of Carl Hartmann, explorer, botanist and
collector. A native of Leipzig he came to
Australia shortly after qualifying as a
professional botanist. In 1861 he established a
nursery on the Parramatta River which was not
successful. He began exploring for gold to
supplement his earnings and with the profits
from the gold he found he was able to dedicate
more of his time to botany. In Toowoomba,
Queensland he established another nursery. In
1885 he heard a speech by American Professor
William Denton and decided to go to New
Guinea and explore the rich flora and fauna with
his son. He explored the Fly River area and the
Gulf of Carpentaria. His success on that visit led
the British Acting High Commissioner to offer
him a second trip in an official capacity. In 1887 No Picture 2
Hartmann went back to New Guinea to establish
domesticated plants and animals for the settled
British areas of New Guinea as well as act as a
diplomat to help settle a dispute between the
Rerapuna and Aroma tribes. He penetrated the
more remote regions of New Guinea but, when
he returned to Brisbane he fell ill and died of
malaria.
His collection of New Guinea artefacts and art
was passed on to his nephew John Oswald
Hartmann, curator of the Hartmann Museum.
Most of the contents of the collection were then
passed on to the Lake Placid Resort, Cairns
upon his retirement. The late Mr. Anthony
Harper acquired the resort in the late 1970s and
Page 582 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1541 Acq Date: 9705
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NORTHERN TERRITORY

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE BLANK

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

Axe stone was a more utilitarian item that was


traded great distances. In south eastern
Australia axes have been shown by the doyen of
axe trade studies, Isabel McBryde, to have been
traded 600 to 700 kilometres from their source,
and some even as far as 800 kilometres. ..
Work at the quarry would have consisted of the
stone being extracted and roughly trimmed into
'blanks', pieces of a convenient size and shape
for making into axes. The final trimming of the
axe and the grinding of the blade would have
been done elsewhere.... The 'rate of exchange'
is unknown, except that in the 1840s the donor
of one possum skin rug received three axe
blanks. Since it would take much longer to
make a possum skin rug, which involved No Picture 2
obtaining, preparing and sewing together as
many as seventy skins, than the two hours or
so of work to turn an axe blank into the finished
tool, this indicates the high value placed on axe
stone.
Page 583 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1542 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Daggers of cassowary bone,


especially those that were carved, were a
popular trade item in the Sepik and even more
valued in the Papuan Gulv/Torres Strait region.

No Picture 2
Page 584 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1543 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: LIMESTICK CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Normally made from the bones of


the cassowary but some were made from the
leg bones of deceased relatives.

Some limesticks have magic attributes, others


have homicide emblems showing the number of
heads taken and others show the degree of
importance of the owner. Important ones are
handed down as valued heirlooms.

No Picture 2
Page 585 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1544 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: D'ENTRECASTEAUX ISLANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE CALLED BEKU


OR BENAM MASSIM SMALL
Description: Ex Harry Beran Collection.
Originally collected by Reverend Harry Robinson
in the1930s-1940s in the D'Entrecasteaux.

Used to buy pigs, food, canoes and land; to


procure sorcery; to pay for those slain in battle;
to appease an enemy; to make peace; to
procure the death of an enemy; to buy dances
and excahange for other wealth. Extremely
important.

No Picture 2
Page 586 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1545 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: D'ENTRECASTEAUX ISLANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE CALLED BEKU


OR BENAM MASSIM SMALL
Description: Ex Harry Beran Collection.
Originally collected by Reverend Harry Robinson
in the1930s-1940s in the D'Entrecasteaux.

Used to buy pigs, food, canoes and land; to


procure sorcery; to pay for those slain in battle;
to appease an enemy; to make peace; to
procure the death of an enemy; to buy dances
and excahange for other wealth. Extremely
important.

No Picture 2
Page 587 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1546 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: D'ENTRECASTEAUX ISLANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE CALLED BEKU


OR BENAM MASSIM SMALL
Description: Ex Harry Beran Collection.
Originally collected by Reverend Harry Robinson
in the1930s-1940s in the D'Entrecasteaux.

Used to buy pigs, food, canoes and land; to


procure sorcery; to pay for those slain in battle;
to appease an enemy; to make peace; to
procure the death of an enemy; to buy dances
and excahange for other wealth. Extremely
important.

No Picture 2
Page 588 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1547 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: D'ENTRECASTEAUX ISLANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: MAGIC STONE USED IN GARDEN


MAGIC - MASSIM
Description: Used for Garden magic.

It comes from the collection of Harry Beran and


was originally collected by the Reverend Harry
Robinson in the 1930-1940s from the
D''Entrecateaux Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 589 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1548 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: D'ENTRECASTEAUX ISLANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: MAGIC STONE USED IN GARDEN


MAGIC - MASSIM
Description: Used for Garden magic.

It comes from the collection of Harry Beran and


was originally collected by the Reverend Harry
Robinson in the 1930-1940s from the
D'Entrecateaux Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 590 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1549 Acq Date: 9705
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village: MAASAI TRIBE

Description.: SPEAR HAFTED IRON BLADE


SHORT WOOD HANDLE MASAI
Description: Iron was money in many parts of
Africa (see Quiggin) and spearheds were
particularly valued as a monetary weapon.

These spearheads were used in the young


men's right of passage in killing a lion.

The Maasai spears and their magic were widely


sought after by the Abagusii and the Luo
people. When traded these people repaid with
foodstuffs.

No Picture 2
Page 591 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1550 Acq Date: 9705
Country: Cook Islands
District: Mangaia

Village:

Description.: ADZE HAFTED CEREMONIAL

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

The blade is ancient but the haft is 20th


century.

No Picture 2
Page 592 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1551 Acq Date: 9705
Country: INDONESIA
District: JAVA

Village:

Description.: KNIFE KRIS TALISMANIC

Description: Some have been used as a


substitute for the groom in some wedding
ceremonies. Valued as a currency in some areas
- see Quiggins page 258. Also see Fig 112 for
illustration.
This example is the sacred Kris Majapahit or
Kris sajen. Not used as a weapon and is dated
to 1294AD - 1527AD

No Picture 2
Page 593 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1552 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MASSIM AREA

Village:

Description.: HAFT FOR AXE WOODEN MASSIM

Description: Also called a Garden magician''s


axe and associated with rituals associated with
garden magic. Similar to photograph on page
76 of The Kula A Bronislaw Malinowski
Centennial Exhibition Robert H Lowie Museum of
Anthropology California 1985.
Used to hold the extremely important
greenstone axe heads originally imported from
Woodlark Island.
The handle is called taramasima (we went to
Misima.)
Illustrated in Seligmann Plate LXII

No Picture 2
Page 594 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1553 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: LOUISIADES AREA - Massim

Village:

Description.: AXE HAFTED STONE BLADE


MASSIM
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

Similar to photograph on page 50 of The Kula A


Bronislaw Malinowski Centennial Exhibition
Robert H Lowie Museum of Anthropology
California 1985

No Picture 2
Page 595 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1554 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: trobriands

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL KNIFE WITH SAPI


ATTACHMENT - MASSIM
Description: Lawson's lot #655 (ref No. on item
#EC139) (was lot 543 Sothebys Sydney
28/10/96) sold by Glenbow Museum Calgary
Canada for the Museum's Endowment Fund. Ex
Ingeborg Marshall and collected by Edith
Twyford and Jane Pearce Methodist missionaries
in Trobriands between 1919 and 1925.
Similar to photograph on page 93 of The Kula A
Bronislaw Malinowski Centennial Exhibition
Robert H Lowie Museum of Anthropology
California 1985

No Picture 2
Page 596 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1555 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: Pendant Conus - DOGA - Massim,


glass beads
Description: Part of Lawson's lot #655 (Ref
number on the item is #EC140). This lot was
originally unpaid Lot 543 of Sotheby's Sydney
28/10/96 auction of items sold by Glenbow
Museum, Calgary, Canada for the Museum's
endowment Fund. Originally from Ingeborg
Marshall and was collected by Edith Twyford and
Jane Pearce, Methodist Missionaries in the
Trobriands in the period between 1919 and
1925
Page 597 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1556 Acq Date: 9708
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA BONE WITH SAPI


ETC DECORATION - MASSIM
Description: Cassowaries are not found in the
Massim Islands. Their bones had to be obtained
by trade and the spatulas subsequently made in
these islands. In the Trobriands these spatulas
were reserved for people of rank.
This spatula, because of its decorations,
appears to have been used by an important
man.

Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the


mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A No Picture 2
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.
Page 598 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1557 Acq Date: 9708
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA BONE WITH SAPI


ETC DECORATION - MASSIM
Description: Cassowaries are not found in the
Massim Islands. Their bones had to be obtained
by trade and the spatulas subsequently made in
these islands. In the Trobriands these spatulas
were reserved for people of rank.
This spatula, because of its decorations,
appears to have been used by an important
man.

Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the


mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A No Picture 2
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.
Page 599 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1558 Acq Date: 9708
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA BONE WITH SAPI


ETC DECORATION - MASSIM
Description: Cassowaries are not found in the
Massim Islands. Their bones had to be obtained
by trade and the spatulas subsequently made in
these islands. In the Trobriands these spatulas
were reserved for people of rank.
This spatula, because of its decorations,
appears to have been used by an important
man.

Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the


mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A No Picture 2
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.
Page 600 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1559 Acq Date: 9708
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: LIMESTICK BONE CASSOWARY


WITH NASSA DECORATION
Description: Normally made from the bones of
the cassowary but some were made from the
leg bones of deceased relatives.

Some limesticks have magic attributes, others


have homicide emblems showing the number of
heads taken and others show the degree of
importance of the owner. Important ones are
handed down as valued heirlooms.

The nassa shell ornament on the head of the


stick were one of the main money items in the
Northern coastal area of New Guinea. They
were used for strictly items of money and also
wearable valuables.

No Picture 2
Page 601 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1560 Acq Date: 9708
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: LIMESTICK BONE CASSOWARY


WITH CARVED CASSOWARY
Description: Normally made from the bones of
the cassowary but some were made from the
leg bones of deceased relatives.

Some limesticks have magic attributes, others


have homicide emblems showing the number of
heads taken and others show the degree of
importance of the owner. Important ones are
handed down as valued heirlooms.

No Picture 2
Page 602 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1561 Acq Date: 9708
Country: INDONESIA
District:

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE RED GLASS BEADS

Description: Valued items for wearing and


valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 603 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1562 Acq Date: 9708
Country: MALI
District:

Village:

Description.: AXE HAFTED METAL BLADE BONE


HAFT CEREMONIAL
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

Metal axe heads and hoes were a popular


monetary/trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 604 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1563 Acq Date: 9708
Country: INDONESIA
District: TANIMBAR ISLAND

Village:

Description.: ARMRING BRONZE ANCIENT

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

Probably - Bronze Age - 200BC

No Picture 2
Page 605 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1564 Acq Date: 9708
Country: INDONESIA
District: TANIMBAR ISLAND

Village:

Description.: ARMRING BRONZE ANCIENT

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

Bronze Age - 200BC

No Picture 2
Page 606 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1565 Acq Date: 9708
Country: INDONESIA
District: TANIMBAR ISLAND

Village:

Description.: ARMRING BRONZE ANCIENT

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

Probably Bronze Age - 200BC

No Picture 2
Page 607 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1566 Acq Date: 9708
Country: INDONESIA
District: TANIMBAR ISLAND

Village:

Description.: ARMRING BRONZE ANCIENT

Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

Probably Bronze Age - 200BC

No Picture 2
Page 608 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1567 Acq Date: 9708
Country: Zaire
District:

Village: Kuba People

Description.: KNIFE BLADE IRON

Description: Excavated in Africa with the haft


being added later.
A Custom knife, of the Kuba people, called
Ikula.
Most have very intricate inlaid metal work on
the handles, with standard grooves in the blade,
and were probably intended for status or
currency rather than use as a knife.
The Kuba people always refer to themselves as
the Bakuba which translates to 'people of the
throwing knife'.
These ceremonial knives were introduced by an
early Kuba king as a peaceful replacement for a
more warlike throwing knife.
Knives, daggers and swords from the Kuba
people are used as prestige items. Historical
documents indicate that quantities of them
were brought to the Congo by Portuguese and
Dutch traders beginning around the 16th No Picture 2
century. Many daggers were then forged by
Congolese blacksmiths to emulate foreign
examples. They were reserved for nobles and
used for important ceremonial occasions.
Page 609 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1568 Acq Date: 9708
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: SPEARHEAD IRON

Description: Excavated in Africa. Iron was


money in many parts of Africa (see Quiggin)
and spearheds were particularly valued as a
monetary weapon.

No Picture 2
Page 610 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1569 Acq Date: 9711
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DIAMA Class #9

Description: Previous owner was the family of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village and was paid to
them by the family of Tadia Tebi of Mala Village
at the ceremonial purchase of a huge pig which
was subsequently eaten at a feast.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Diama". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 49 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. Important
and extremely rare item.
Page 611 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1570 Acq Date: 9110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: DAMUNU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Originally collected from Nyiui


Mwase of Yonga Bay in a shell money collecting
mission around the island by Mundi Kwomele of
Damunu Village in Western Rossel for the
payment of his daughter''''s Bride Price. It was
not required and so came to Jerome kaiyobu.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 59 of this denomination to be in No Picture 2
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items
and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty
five pages to them.

It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,


these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. An important and extremely rare item.
Page 612 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1571 Acq Date: 9711
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP YENANINDO Class #15

Description: Previous owner was the family of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village and was paid to
them by the family of Tadia Tebi of Mala Village
at the ceremonial purchase of a huge pig which
was subsequently eaten at a feast.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Yenanindo ". These were
made by a god and were used in Brideprice, the
price for killing a man, warfare payments,
funerary payments, and as the price for part of
the body of the victim at a cannibal feast (the
Rossel Islanders were cannibals because their
god Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest
rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 10 of this denomination to be in No Picture 2
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys.

An important and extremely rare item.


Page 613 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1572 Acq Date: 9410
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: WALI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Previously owned by Walum Bupi


who obtained it at a pig feast at Yonga Bay from
Tadua Tobo of Voupu Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 59 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.
An important and extremely rare item.
Page 614 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1573 Acq Date: 9711
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP DWONDWO Class #1

Description: Previous owner was the family of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village and was paid to
them by the family of Tadia Tebi of Mala Village
at the ceremonial purchase of a huge pig which
was subsequently eaten at a feast.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the
denomination "Dwondwo". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 84 of this denomination to be in No Picture 2
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items
and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives twenty
five pages to them. It is probable that, after the
Yap Stone Money, these are the most important

of Pacific Primitive Moneys. An important and


extremely rare item.
Page 615 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1574 Acq Date: 9711
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KWEIA Class #5

Description: Previous owner was the family of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village and was paid to
them by the family of Tadia Tebi of Mala Village
at the ceremonial purchase of a huge pig which
was subsequently eaten at a feast.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kweia". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 69 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. Important
and extremely rare item.
Page 616 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1575 Acq Date: 9711
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: NJARU VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP KWEIA Class #5

Description: Previous owner was the family of


Jerome Kaiyobu of Njaru Village and was paid to
them by the family of Tadia Tebi of Mala Village
at the ceremonial purchase of a huge pig which
was subsequently eaten at a feast.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination "Kweia". These were made by
a god and were used in Brideprice, the price for
killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 69 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a No Picture 2
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them.
It is probable that, after the Yap Stone Money,
these are the most important of Pacific Primitive
Moneys. Important
and extremely rare item.
Page 617 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1576 Acq Date: 9712
Country: NEW ZEALAND
District:

Village:

Description.: JADE TIKI

Description: Provenance: Collected by Captain


William Campbell Thomson. Born in 1855 in
Glasgow, Scotland his obituary notes that he
commanded A.U.S.N. steamers from 1875 to
1919 most notably, the Arawatta, Aramac,
Levuka, Wyreema, Wyandra and Wodonga.
During his 44 years of service, he traveled the
eastern Australian coast, New Guinea, New
Caledonia, Fiji and other parts of the South
Pacific. He was a well respected seaman who
was the author of at least three publications
and was captain of the Croydon when it was
chartered by Alexander Agassiz, the famous
American scientist, on a voyage from Brisbane
to Cooktown in April/May 1896. Thomson
gathered a fine collection of items, including
items from northern Queensland, PNG and Fiji.
Part of the collection, left to one of his
daughters, Eulie Round (born Esther Eulalie
Thomson), rested in a house in Caloundra,
Queensland, from 1935 until it was moved to
Brisbane many decades later. This part of the
collection numbers over 20 items, including
oceanic artefacts. Sold at Pickles Auctions,
Sydney September 1986. It dates to the 19th
century but was made with European tools.
Page 618 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1577 Acq Date: 9802
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: WEST NEW BRITAIN

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING -VULA- C.17M

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.

The Kaliai women make the shellstring called


Vula for the men to use.

They were used to purchase masks, in the


building of men''s houses, bride wealth and in
mortuary presentations.

See Opitz pages 362-363.

No Picture 2
Page 619 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1578 Acq Date: 9805
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Purari River Area

Description.: CLUBHEAD STONE DISC

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.
Collected in September/October 1942 by
Lieutenant Alfred Austin Bloxham of The
Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit
(ANGAU).

Bloxham was originally a District Officer in PNG


in early 1930s. During his time of duty he
undertook to illustrate with watercolours the
artefacts and totems of the areas he visited.
With the advent of WWII he used the
illustrations as a seal on friendly messages that
were sent to the villages during the Japanese
occupation.

These artefacts were probably collected in his


search from Kainantu to the Purari River when
he was searching for an overland route to the
South Coast for the Australian Army.
Refer
https://www.awm.gov.au/images/collection/pdf
/RCDIG1070182--1-.pdf

Called gabagaba, it was one of the highest


valued items of the area.
Page 620 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1579 Acq Date: 9805
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Purari River Area

Description.: CLUBHEAD STONE DISC

Description: Obtained from Lawsons Tribal Art


Auctions, Sydney.
Collected in September/October 1942 by
Lieutenant Alfred Austin Bloxham of The
Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit
(ANGAU).

Bloxham was originally a District Officer in PNG


in early 1930s. During his time of duty he
undertook to illustrate with watercolours the
artefacts and totems of the areas he visited.
With the advent of WWII he used the
illustrations as a seal on friendly messages that
were sent to the villages during the Japanese
occupation.

These artefacts were probably collected in his


search from Kainantu to the Purari River when
he was searching for an overland route to the
South Coast for the Australian Army.
Refer
https://www.awm.gov.au/images/collection/pdf
/RCDIG1070182--1-.pdf

Called gabagaba, it was one of the highest


valued items of the area.
Page 621 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1580 Acq Date: 9805
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MOUNT HAGEN

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE GREEN

Description: #158 Collected in


September/October 1942 by Lieutenant Alfred
Austin Bloxham of The Australian New Guinea
Administrative Unit (ANGAU) was originally a
District Officer in PNG in early 1930s. During his
time of duty he undertook to illustrate with
watercolours the artefacts and totems of the
areas he visited. With the advent of WWII he
used the illustrations as a seal on friendly
messages that were sent to the villages during
the Japanese occupation. During the war he was
sent to search for an overland route to the
South Coast from and trekked from Kainantu to
the Purari River for the Australian Army.
Refer
https://www.awm.gov.au/images/collection/pdf
/RCDIG1070182--1-.pdf
One of their superb green stone axe blades
used in their Bride Price Axes.
Page 622 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1581 Acq Date: 9808
Country: MARSHALL ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: FISHHOOK SHELL

Description: A high valued money item of the


area.
Refer Quiggins p142, Fig 54.

No Picture 2
Page 623 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1582 Acq Date: 9808
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: PU MONEY WANG MANG 900

Description: Obtained from Spinks Auctions,


Sydney.

Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters show that it was worth 900
cash.
Minted under the emperor Wang Mang of the
Xian Dynasty 9-23 AD..

No Picture 2
Page 624 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1583 Acq Date: 9808
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: PU MONEY WANG MANG 800

Description: Obtained from Spinks Auctions,


Sydney.

Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters show that it was worth 800
cash.
Minted under the emperor Wang Mang of the
Xian Dynasty 9-23 AD..

No Picture 2
Page 625 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1584 Acq Date: 9902
Country: KENYA
District:

Village: Turkana People

Description.: KNIFE STEEL WRIST

Description: Called ararait, a valued blade worn


on the wrist by the Turkana people.

It is also commonly worn by the Pokot, and


Karamojong men.

The British banned the making and wearing of


these objects during colonial rule as they were
considered lethal in close-combat fights.
Nevertheless, the Turkana are a war-like tribe
that continues to wear and use this weapon.

No Picture 2
Page 626 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1585 Acq Date: 9902
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: NEW IRELAND

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING SHELL MONEY

Description: From Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,


Sydney.

A long and high value shell string from New


Ireland.

No Picture 2
Page 627 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1586 Acq Date: 9905
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village:

Description.: PEARLSHELL CRESCENT (Mairi)


KINA GRASS AND SEED POD
Description: The Kina (called Mairi in the
Papuan Gulf), made of gold lip pearlshell, was
used for bride price, pig purchases and other
payments. In the 1960s it was values as legal
tender at twelve shillings per pair.
Refer Opitz p176 and Quiggins p180 Fig 76
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson

No Picture 2
Page 628 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1587 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: CENTRAL PROVINCE

Village: RIGO

Description.: PEARLSHELL CRESCENT KINA DOT


DECORATION
Description: The Kina, made of gold lip
pearlshell, was used for bride price, pig
purchases and other payments. In the 1960s it
was values as legal tender at twelve shillings
per pair.
Refer Opitz p176 and Quiggins p180..

No Picture 2
Page 629 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1588 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: CENTRAL PROVINCE

Village: RIGO

Description.: NECKLACE PIG TUSK -Doga (?)

Description: A "poor man's Doga".


The necklace is a lesser type of the standard
high value red shell money string with pig tusks
of the area. Instead of red shell money the
necklace has discs of coconut.
See C.0548

No Picture 2
Page 630 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1589 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD

Description: Part of Lawson''s lot #164 (Ref


umber on the item is #EC122). This lot was
originally unpaid Lot 544 of Sotheby''s Sydney
28/10/96 auction of items sold by Glenbow
Museum, Calgary, Canada for the Museum''s
endowment Fund. Originally from Ingeborg
Marshall and was collected by Edith Twyford and
jane Pearce, Methodist Missionaries in the
Trobriands in the period between 1919 and
1925

No Picture 2
Page 631 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1590 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD

Description: Part of Lawson''s lot #164 (Ref


number on the item is #EC124). This lot was
originally unpaid Lot 544 of Sothebys Sydney
28/10/96 auction of items sold by Glenbow
Museum, Calgary, Canada for the Museums
endowment Fund. Originally from Ingeborg
Marshall and was collected by Edith Twyford and
jane Pearce, Methodist Missionaries in the
Trobriands in the period between 1919 and
1925

No Picture 2
Page 632 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1591 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA TORTOISESHELL

Description: Tortoiseshell Spatuals were more


highly valued than similar ones of wood.

Part of Lawsons lot #164 (Ref umber on the


item is #EC125). This lot was originally unpaid
Lot 544 of Sothebys Sydney 28/10/96 auction
of items sold by Glenbow Museum, Calgary,
Canada for the Museums endowment Fund.
Originally from Ingeborg Marshall and was
collected by Edith Twyford and jane Pearce,
Methodist Missionaries in the Trobriands in the
period between 1919 and 1925

No Picture 2
Page 633 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1592 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA BONE

Description: Cassowaries are not found in the


Massim Islands. Their bones had to be obtained
by trade and the spatulas subsequently made in
these islands. In the Trobriands these spatulas
were reserved for people of rank.

Part of Lawson's lot #164 (Ref number on the


item is #EC126). This lot was originally unpaid
Lot 544 of Sothebys Sydney 28/10/96 auction
of items sold by Glenbow Museum, Calgary,
Canada for the Museum's endowment Fund.
Originally from Ingeborg Marshall and was
collected by Edith Twyford and Jane Pearce,
Methodist Missionaries in the Trobriands in the
period between 1919 and 1925

No Picture 2
Page 634 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1593 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD

Description: Part of Lawson''s lot #655 (No Ref


umber on the item). This lot was originally
unpaid Lot 544 of Sotheby''s Sydney 28/10/96
auction of items sold by Glenbow Museum,
Calgary, Canada for the Museum''s endowment
Fund. Originally from Ingeborg Marshall and
was collected by Edith Twyford and jane Pearce,
Methodist Missionaries in the Trobriands in the
period between 1919 and 1925

No Picture 2
Page 635 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1594 Acq Date: 9908
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD

Description: Part of Lawsons lot #164 (Ref


umber on the item is #EC126). This lot was
originally unpaid Lot 544 of Sothebys Sydney
28/10/96 auction of items sold by Glenbow
Museum, Calgary, Canada for the Museums
endowment Fund. Originally from Ingeborg
Marshall and was collected by Edith Twyford and
Jane Pearce, Methodist Missionaries in the
Trobriands in the period between 1919 and
1925

No Picture 2
Page 636 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1595 Acq Date: 9908
Country: KENYA
District:

Village: Turkana People

Description.: KNIFE STEEL WRIST

Description: Called ararait, a valued blade worn


on the wrist by the Turkana people.

It is also commonly worn by the Pokot, and


Karamojong men.

The British banned the making and wearing of


these objects during colonial rule as they were
considered lethal in close-combat fights.
Nevertheless, the Turkana are a war-like tribe
that continues to wear and use this weapon.

No Picture 2
Page 637 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1596 Acq Date: 9908
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village: ZIMBABWE

Description.: ARROW METAL HEAD WOOD


SHAFT
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

The metal, whether in arrowheads or


spearheads was always a popular trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 638 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1597 Acq Date: 9908
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village: ZIMBABWE

Description.: ARROW METAL HEAD WOOD


SHAFT
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

The metal, whether in arrowheads or


spearheads was always a popular trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 639 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1598 Acq Date: 9912
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Fly River, Telefomin Area

Village:

Description.: ARROW WOODEN CARVED POINT

Description: Fly River. Typically used on head


hunting and revenge raids. Identified by Barry
Craig (author & SA Museum) as from the
Mountain Ok people, Telefomin area Western Fly
River .

No Picture 2
Page 640 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1599 Acq Date: 0008
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NSW, NEAR BATHURST

Village: Wiradjuri Tribe

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE

Description: From Te-Koona property,


Fitzgerald's Valley, near Bathurst.
Although never attaining a true currency or
money the stone axe blade was a popular trade
item throughout Australia.

No Picture 2
Page 641 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1600 Acq Date: 0008
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: NSW, NEAR BATHURST

Village: Wiradjuri People

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE BLANK

Description: Axe stone was a more utilitarian


item that was traded great distances. In south
eastern Australia axes have been shown by the
doyen of axe trade studies, Isabel McBryde, to
have been traded 600 to 700 kilometres from
their source, and some even as far as 800
kilometres. .. Work at the quarry would have
consisted of the stone being extracted and
roughly trimmed into 'blanks', pieces of a
convenient size and shape for making into axes.
The final trimming of the axe and the grinding
of the blade would have been done
elsewhere.... The 'rate of exchange' is unknown,
except that in the 1840s the donor of one
possum skin rug received three axe blanks.
Since it would take much longer to make a
possum skin rug, which involved obtaining,
preparing and sewing together as many as
seventy skins, than the two hours or so of work No Picture 2
to turn an axe blank into the finished tool, this
indicates the high value placed on axe stone.
Page 642 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1601 Acq Date: 8211
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARROW WOODEN (2) BARBED


POINTS
Description: Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions,
Sydney.

These items came from a private museum at


Chevy Chase, Dangarsleigh, Arrmidale, N.S.W.
This museum was established by Robert Issell
Perrott (1822-1895), who came to Australia
with his father, Dr Thomas Montgomery Perrott
in 1839. Most of the objects in the collection
were collected between 1850 and 1900.

No Picture 2
Page 643 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1602 Acq Date: 0008
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: SPEAR WOODEN

Description: A favoured trade item among the


Aborigines in many parts of Australia.

No Picture 2
Page 644 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1603 Acq Date: 0008
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: SPEAR HAFTED IRON BLADE

Description: Iron was money in many parts of


Africa (see Quiggin) and spearheds were
particularly valued as a monetary weapon.

No Picture 2
Page 645 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1604 Acq Date: 0109
Country: JAPAN
District:

Village:

Description.: COIN OVAL GOLD KOBAN Bunsei


Period 1819-28
Description: Coin of Japan.

No Picture 2
Page 646 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1605 Acq Date: 0109
Country: JAPAN
District:

Village:

Description.: COIN OVAL GOLD KOBAN Manen


Period 1860-67
Description: Coin of Japan.

No Picture 2
Page 647 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1606 Acq Date: 0111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kukukuku

Village: Okapa Village

Description.: Necklace of Bird of Paradise


feathers,possum testicles, orchid stems
Description: Collected in 1973 by John
Pelepczuk who was appointed as an Assistant
Patrol Officer in 1969 and served until 1974
mainly in Henganofi, Okapa and Obura Villages
- All Kukukuku villages. The Kukukuku or Anga
people were cannibals until 1956 (see Jens
Bjerre, The Last Cannibals, published by Michael
Joseph, 1956).

This is a necklace, worn by women, and


consists of pendants of Bird of Paradise
feathers, possum testicles and tree kangaroo
testicles. The feathers are a true money item
used to purchase salt and other items from the
Kukukuku. The other items are probably charms
and amulets to promote fertility.

No Picture 2
Page 648 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1607 Acq Date: 0111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kukukuku People

Village: Okapa Village

Description.: STONE MORTAR Kukukuku

Description: Collected in 1973 by John


Pelepczuk who was appointed as an Assistant
Patrol Officer in 1969 and served until 1974
mainly in Henganofi, Okapa and Obura Villages
- All Kukukuku villages. The Kukukuku or Anga
people were cannibals until 1956 and possibly
for some time after (see Jens Bjerre, The Last
Cannibals, published by Michael Joseph, 1956).
.
Dr Pamela Swadling, Visiting Fellow,
Department of Archaeology and Natural History,
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies,
ANU,Canberra ACT, Australia identified this as
definitely prehistoric (probably 3500-7500 years
old).
The local people advised that it "came from the
ancestors".

A marvellous and unique stone mortar from No Picture 2


Okapa Village in New Guinea.

An interesting series of stone mortars, pestles


and figures, many of which appear to have been
traded, have been found throughout much of
New Guinea and the North Eastern islands. All
are rare.

This item is rare and unique.


Page 649 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1608 Acq Date: 0111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kukukuku People

Village: Okapa Village

Description.: STONE PESTLE (PENIS SHAPE)


Kukukuku
Description: Collected in 1973 by John
Pelepczuk who was appointed as an Assistant
Patrol Officer in 1969 and served until 1974
mainly in Henganofi, Okapa and Obura Villages
- All Kukukuku villages. The Kukukuku or Anga
people were cannibals until 1956 and possibly
for some time after (see Jens Bjerre, The Last
Cannibals, published by Michael Joseph, 1956).
Dr Pamela Swadling, Visiting Fellow,
Department of Archaeology and Natural History,
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies,
ANU,Canberra ACT, Australia identified this as
definitely prehistoric (probably 3500-7500 years
old).
The local people advised that it "came from the
ancestors".

A marvellous and unique stone penis-shaped


pestle from Okapa Village in New Guinea. No Picture 2

An interesting series of stone mortars, pestles


and figures, many of which appear to have been
traded, have been found throughout much of
New Guinea and the North Eastern islands. All
are rare.

This item is rare and unique.


Page 650 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1609 Acq Date: 0111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kukukuku People

Village: Okapa Village

Description.: ARMBAND FIBRE Kukukuku

Description: Collected in 1973 by John


Pelepczuk who was appointed as an Assistant
Patrol Officer in 1969 and served until 1974
mainly in Henganofi, Okapa and Obura Villages
- All Kukukuku villages. The Kukukuku or Anga
people were cannibals until 1956 (see Jens
Bjerre, The Last Cannibals, published by Michael
Joseph, 1956).

No Picture 2
Page 651 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1610a Acq Date: 0111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kukukuku Baruya (Anga) People

Village: Obura Village

Description.: CLOAK BARK Kukukuku

Description: Collected in 1973 by John


Pelepczuk who was appointed as an Assistant
Patrol Officer in 1969 and served until 1974
mainly in Henganofi, Okapa and Obura Villages
- All Kukukuku villages. The Kukukuku or Anga
people were cannibals until 1956 (see Jens
Bjerre, The Last Cannibals, published by Michael
Joseph, 1956).

A true money item used to purchase salt.

No Picture 2
Page 652 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1610b Acq Date: 0111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kukukuku Baruya (Anga) People

Village: Obura Village

Description.: CLOAK BARK Kukukuku

Description: Collected in 1973 by John


Pelepczuk who was appointed as an Assistant
Patrol Officer in 1969 and served until 1974
mainly in Henganofi, Okapa and Obura Villages
- All Kukukuku villages. The Kukukuku or Anga
people were cannibals until 1956 (see Jens
Bjerre, The Last Cannibals, published by Michael
Joseph, 1956).

A true money item used to purchase salt.

No Picture 2
Page 653 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1611 Acq Date: 8111
Country: COLOMBIA
District: TAIRONA PEOPLE

Village:

Description.: NOSERING METAL TAIRONA

Description: Ex S.Semans, USA.

This ia nosering of the Tairona people of


Colombia and dates to ca 900-1200 AD. It is
gold plated copper (tombaga) and would have
been a valuable wearable money/trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 654 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1612 Acq Date: 8811
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: JADE DRAGON ANCIENT

Description: Peoples of the stone age


painstakingly crafted sharp axe heads and
traded jade trinkets as currency and it has been
suggested that pieces of jade were a form of
money as early as the Shang Dynasty.
Jade is known to have been used in ritual
ceremonies in China from about 5000 to 1700
B.C." (Del Sesto P.T34). For the ancient Chinese
people, jade was very important to daily life.
For hundreds, and even thousands of centuries,
jade has been closely associated with the
Chinese culture and the oldest jade object
found in China was the 12,000 year old
serpentine-like piece of jade that was found in
the Immortal Cave in Haicheng of Liaoning
Province.
In China it has always been a high value item if
not a money or currency.
This item is of great antiquity and is ex the No Picture 2
collection of Oscar Edwards collected 1930s -
catalogue said "Possibly Han" .
Page 655 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1614 Acq Date: 0203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL

Description: Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete.


Hokata is the general name for armrings.

Hokata are the smallest and slimmest of the


shell valuables and can be made from either
clamshell or from Conus shells. This ring is
made of clamshell.

These were normally less valuable than the


Poata and were used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chiefs by men for the sexual services of
'ritually designated women'.

No Picture 2
Page 656 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1615 Acq Date: 0203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CONUS 86mm

Description: Called Hokata, Bokolo or Tinete.

The smallest and slimmest of the shell valuables


are hokata made from conus shells. These were
less valuable and used in barter, marital rituals,
as small compensation transfers and were given
to chiefs by men for the sexual services of
ritually designated women. They were also used
to decorate skull shrines of important men.

It is presumed, from the shape and size, that


this shell is conus (it might be clamshel as, at
86mm, it is quite large for a conus?)

No Picture 2
Page 657 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1616 Acq Date: 8806
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: COWRIE IMITATIONS BONE (5)

Description: Imitation shell carved from bone,


probably used as charms and gifts to the
Temple.

No Picture 2
Page 658 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1617 Acq Date: 8808
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: BAMBOO TALLY

Description: ENTRY TICKET TO A PARK IN


CHINA. SIMILAR TOKENS WERE ALSO USED AS
MONEY.

No Picture 2
Page 659 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1618 Acq Date: 0204
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: GOURD INSCRIBED WITH PIG


TUSK STOPPER
Description: A minor gift in the Kula Trade
Cycle, in trade and in gift giving.

No Picture 2
Page 660 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1619 Acq Date: 0210
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: MOUNT ISA QUARRY

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE BLANK

Description: Axe stone was a more utilitarian


item that was traded great distances. In south
eastern Australia axes have been shown by the
doyen of axe trade studies, Isabel McBryde, to
have been traded 600 to 700 kilometres from
their source, and some even as far as 800
kilometres. .. Work at the quarry would have
consisted of the stone being extracted and
roughly trimmed into 'blanks', pieces of a
convenient size and shape for making into axes.
The final trimming of the axe and the grinding
of the blade would have been done
elsewhere.... The 'rate of exchange' is unknown,
except that in the 1840s the donor of one
possum skin rug received three axe blanks.
Since it would take much longer to make a
possum skin rug, which involved obtaining,
preparing and sewing together as many as
seventy skins, than the two hours or so of work No Picture 2
to turn an axe blank into the finished tool, this
indicates the high value placed on axe stone.
Page 661 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1620 Acq Date: 0210
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: EDITH RIVER, NT

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE BLANK

Description: Axe stone was a more utilitarian


item that was traded great distances. In south
eastern Australia axes have been shown by the
doyen of axe trade studies, Isabel McBryde, to
have been traded 600 to 700 kilometres from
their source, and some even as far as 800
kilometres. .. Work at the quarry would have
consisted of the stone being extracted and
roughly trimmed into 'blanks', pieces of a
convenient size and shape for making into axes.
The final trimming of the axe and the grinding
of the blade would have been done
elsewhere.... The 'rate of exchange' is unknown,
except that in the 1840s the donor of one
possum skin rug received three axe blanks.
Since it would take much longer to make a
possum skin rug, which involved obtaining,
preparing and sewing together as many as
seventy skins, than the two hours or so of work No Picture 2
to turn an axe blank into the finished tool, this
indicates the high value placed on axe stone.
Page 662 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1621 Acq Date: 0210
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: EDITH RIVER, Northern Territory

Village:

Description.: SPEARHEAD STONE

Description: Shaped stone tools were used as


spearheads and knives and were a very popular
trade item in the North of Australia.

These were valuable use/trade items.

No Picture 2
Page 663 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1622 Acq Date: 0210
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: EDITH RIVER, Northern Territory

Village:

Description.: SPEARHEAD STONE

Description: Shaped stone tools were used as


spearheads and knives and were a very popular
trade item in the North of Australia.

These were valuable use/trade items.

No Picture 2
Page 664 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1623 Acq Date: 0211
Country: MARSHALL ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: FISHHOOK SHELL

Description: A high valued money item of the


area.
Refer Quiggins p142, Fig 54.

No Picture 2
Page 665 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1624 Acq Date: 8706
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: ADZE HAFTED STONE BLADE

Description: A nice quality stone bladed adze


from New Guinea.

No Picture 2
Page 666 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1625 Acq Date: 8706
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: WOODEN PIG

Description: Schulman (page 63) stated that it


was a form of money. This is doubtful but it is
possible that it was a symbol of wealth.

No Picture 2
Page 667 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1626 Acq Date: 0211
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM BEKU


or BENAM - SMALL THIN
Description: A small green stone axe originally
from Woodlark Island. An important item in the
Kula Trade System. Called Beku.
Used to buy pigs, food, canoes and land; to
procure sorcery; to pay for those slain in battle;
to appease an enemy; to make peace; to
procure the death of an enemy; to buy dances
and excahange for other wealth. Extremely
important.

No Picture 2
Page 668 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1627 Acq Date: 0212
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: MOUNT HAGEN

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE GREEN

Description: One of their superb green stone


axe blades used in their Bride Price Axes.

No Picture 2
Page 669 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1628 Acq Date: 9111
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: SANTA CATALINA

Village: MANIWARO VILLAGE

Description.: SHELL NOSE PLUG

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Obtained from a native named Josef Faerua.
The local name of the plug is Gima - only worn
by women.
For 30 years Todd has been a collector, scholar
and dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 670 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1629 Acq Date: 0306
Country: AUSTRALIA
District: Sydney

Village:

Description.: Nail Iron

Description: Nails similar to this were used as


an item of trade throughout the Pacific in this
era.

No Picture 2
Page 671 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1630 Acq Date: 0402
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Jade Eagle (?) Ancient

Description: Peoples of the stone age


painstakingly crafted sharp axe heads and
traded jade trinkets as currency and it has been
suggested that pieces of jade were a form of
money as early as the Shang Dynasty.
Jade is known to have been used in ritual
ceremonies in China from about 5000 to 1700
B.C." (Del Sesto P.T34). For the ancient Chinese
people, jade was very important to daily life.
For hundreds, and even thousands of centuries,
jade has been closely associated with the
Chinese culture and the oldest jade object
found in China was the 12,000 year old
serpentine-like piece of jade that was found in
the Immortal Cave in Haicheng of Liaoning
Province.
In China it has always been a high value item if
not a money or currency.
This item is of great antiquity. No Picture 2
Page 672 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1632 Acq Date: 0402
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Jade Holed Eight Sided disc

Description: Peoples of the stone age


painstakingly crafted sharp axe heads and
traded jade trinkets as currency and it has been
suggested that pieces of jade were a form of
money as early as the Shang Dynasty.
Jade is known to have been used in ritual
ceremonies in China from about 5000 to 1700
B.C." (Del Sesto P.T34). For the ancient Chinese
people, jade was very important to daily life.
For hundreds, and even thousands of centuries,
jade has been closely associated with the
Chinese culture and the oldest jade object
found in China was the 12,000 year old
serpentine-like piece of jade that was found in
the Immortal Cave in Haicheng of Liaoning
Province.
In China it has always been a high value item if
not a money or currency.
This item probably 20th century. No Picture 2
Page 673 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1633 Acq Date: 0502
Country: BORNEO
District:

Village:

Description.: CANNON BRONZE MINIATURE

Description: Models of bronze cannons were


used in Indonesia as prestigious objects and a
means of payment for the bride price.
Apparently only the weight of the cannon was
decisive, not whether it was still in a position to
fire. The bride price is estimated by explorers to
have been between 3 and 5 pikuls (1 pikul = 60
kilograms in bronze), so that it was certainly
wise to have a heavy cannon available.
See Quiggin page 258.

No Picture 2
Page 674 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1634 Acq Date: 0504
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE DOGSTEETH

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Papuan Gulf Area.
One of the most valued money items
throughout New Guinea. Also used in Bride
Price.

This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of


Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 675 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1635 Acq Date: 0504
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Lower Ramu

Village:

Description.: Pig Tusk pendant

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


lower Ramu area.

A wearable, decorative valuable.

Pig Tusks are highly valued throughout the


Pacific. Some notes on this include:

Laynard (1942) Tusk of the pig are valued


greatly (in New Hebrides) and High ranking men
wear the curled tusks as a sign of their status..

Strathern, M. (1977), For the people of Kalauna


(PNG), tusks were a valuable item used in
trading and Tusks were used in bride wealth
payments; the tusks were said to resemble the
fangs of the python which had great significance
in PNG mythology.
Quain, B. (1948), Pig tusks are used as No Picture 2
ornaments and are highly valued items (in Fiji).

Rakua F (1987) After cooking, the head of the


pig is removed with the tusks intact and is
presented to the head of the
village.
Simon Feeny (2016) states that the use of
traditional money such as pig tusks is still
common in the Solomons and Vanuatu.
Couper (2009) In the New Guinea Highlands pig
tusks were a medium of exchange and bride
price.
Gallego on Mendanas discovery of the Solomons
in 1568 wrote to say that the natives on the
island of Veru valued pig tusks very highly.
Page 676 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1636 Acq Date: 0504
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Purari Delta Area

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Purari area.
Purari boys who do not eat human flesh always
remain boys. They can never become men.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 13 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 677 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1637 Acq Date: 0504
Country: CHINA
District: Miao

Village: Hmong Tribal

Description.: Pendant Metal

Description: The Hmong ( a group within the


Miao people) are spirit worshippers, or animists
who believe that every animate and inanimate
object has a soul, spirit or phi, some of which
are inherently good and some which are bad.
The spirits of deceased ancestors are also
thought to influence the welfare and health of
the living. All these souls need to be constantly
placated with offerings and prayers to ward off
sickness and catastrophe. Shamans play a
central role in village life and decision-making
and every household has an altar where spirits
are supplicated and protection for the
household is sought.
This ornate and large chest pendant would have
been worn by a Hmong girl for important
occasions.

The custom designs on the item include Chinese


auspicious motifs and are charms to ward off
evil spirits, promote fertility, etc.

Possibly of a low quality silver.


A very similar item is illustrated page 246 of
Ethnic Jewellery and Adornment by Daalder.

A valued item.
Page 678 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1638 Acq Date: 0504
Country: SOUTH AMERICA
District:

Village:

Description.: Cloth Fragments Pre-Columbian

Description: To the Aztec, cottom meant not


only warmth, but protection. From it he made
the heavy quilted armour that was judged by
the Spaniard to be superior to his own. Cotton
could not be grown in the Anahuac Valley
because of its high elevation and so cloth
became a principal article of Aztec trade and
tribute.
According to the Codex Mendoza one large
cotton mantle would pay for a canoe. It was
noted elsewhere that thirty would pay for an
ordinary slave and forty, for one who could sing
and dance.

Among the Maya small squares of cotton fabric


served as the unit of exchange.

In Brazil Smyth noted that cotton was one of


the principal trade items and the most widley No Picture 2
used commodity money was a coarse cotton
cloth called tucuya. In Ecuador a similar
currency was reported as late as 1923.

Accosta mentions the currency use of cloth in


Bolivia.

See Taxay.
Page 679 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1639 Acq Date: 0505
Country: NEW ZEALAND
District: Kaitorete Spit, East Side of South
Island
Village:

Description.: Implement Greenstone

Description: Tool made of Nephrite - a true Jade


- and a highly valued trade item among the
Maori.

No Picture 2
Page 680 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1640 Acq Date: 0505
Country: NEW ZEALAND
District: Kaitorete Spit, East Side of South
Island
Village:

Description.: Implement Greenstone

Description: Tool made of Nephrite - a true Jade


- and a highly valued trade item among the
Maori.

No Picture 2
Page 681 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1641 Acq Date: 0505
Country: JAPAN
District:

Village:

Description.: Tsuba Sword Guard From a


Katana Edo Period 1603-1868
Description: Tsuba Sword Guard From a Katana
Edo Period 1603-1868.

Appears to be a Chinese copy of an old tsuba


made by Wada Isshin - a famous maker.

No Picture 2
Page 682 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1642 Acq Date: 0506
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA BONE

Description: Cassowaries are not found in the


Massim Islands. Their bones had to be obtained
by trade and the spatulas subsequently made in
these islands. In the Trobriands these spatulas
were reserved for people of rank.

This example is unusual in that is a very thin,


flat sliver of bone.

Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the


mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A No Picture 2
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.
Page 683 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1643 Acq Date: 0508
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: New Britain

Village:

Description.: Necklace of Shellmoney with


Pearlshell Pendant
Description: A beautiful example of a money
shellstring from New Britain with a pearlshell
and nut pendant.

From the Daniella del Tutto gallery in Rome who


obtained it from Tribalmania gallery in America.

No Picture 2
Page 684 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1644 Acq Date: 0510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK BONE

Description: A "poor man's shell nosestick". This


nosestick is made of bone, not shell, and would
be a minor trade valuable

No Picture 2
Page 685 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1645 Acq Date: 0510
Country: VIETNAM
District: Northern District

Village:

Description.: Bronze Dagger Knife Dong Song

Description: Excavated in North Vietnam.


600BC to 100BC

No Picture 2
Page 686 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1646 Acq Date: 0510
Country: FRANCE
District:

Village:

Description.: Ring Money Celtic

Description: The myth that the Celtic monetary


system consisted of wholly barter is a common
one, but is in part false. The monetary system
was complex and is still not understood (much
like the late Roman coinages), and due to the
absence of large numbers of coin items, it is
assumed that "proto-money" was used. This
included bronze items made from the early La
Tne period and onwards, which were often in
the shape of axeheads, rings, or bells. Due to
the large number of these present in some
burials, it is thought they had a relatively high
monetary value, and could be used for "day to
day" purchases.

No Picture 2
Page 687 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1647 Acq Date: 0510
Country: FRANCE
District:

Village:

Description.: Bell Money Celtic

Description: Ancient Celtic Bell Money (7th-5th


cent. BC). Were used as pre-monetary means of
exchange - pieces of bronze were given a rough
shape of bells and used as money.
Before the introduction of struck coinage in
Celtic lands, Celtic ring money (gold, silver and
bronze rings), celtic arrowhead and bell money
were used as currency in Celtic lands in Danube
area, France, England and Ireland. Sometimes
these rings took an elaborate shape (such as
"wheel money" in Gaul, star-shaped rings,
interlinked rings etc.

No Picture 2
Page 688 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1648 Acq Date: 0510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: Baler Shell Fishhook with twine

Description: Fishhooks have been one of the


most popular trade items throughout the Pacific.
This use item had good trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 689 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1649 Acq Date: 0510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Southern Highlands

Village: Mendi Area

Description.: PENDANT CONUS DIBIDIBI

Description: This is a highly valued Dibi Dibi


which has been imported from the Torres Strait
area.
Their value in the uppe r Wahgi Valley in the
early 1940s was half of a grown pig.
A true monetary trade item.

No Picture 2
Page 690 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1650 Acq Date: 0511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Irian Jaya

Village: manokwari Area

Description.: Necklace pendant Human


Vertebrae
Description: Probably from the collection of the
missionaries of the Holy Heart (in the
Netherlands). According to their archive/books
a lot of primitive jewellery was collected by a
missionary named Zegwaard in the end of 1958
or the beginning of 1959. This missionary was
stationed in 1958 in Agats and from there he
did a lot of tours, most of his beginning years
he spent in the (unknown) Southern part of the
Asmat-area. In November 1959 the
missionaries in Holland received a small
container with Shields and some Asmat
Jewellery for their own collection (to inform the
Dutch people where and why they were working
in New Guinea). This necklace probably came
from the village of Baous (lying south of Agats).
Pendants like these were mostly from the body
of the enemy and were worn by warriors to
prove they were successful headhunters. These No Picture 2
pendants represented a high value. Zegwaard
later wrote a lot of papers about the Asmat.
Page 691 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1651 Acq Date: 0511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ADMIRALTY ISLANDS

Village:

Description.: Necklace Dogteeth Inscribed

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Admiralty Islands.

One of the most valued money items


throughout New Guinea. Also used in Bride
Price.

Dogs teeth from this area are unusual in that


they are inscribed with custom designs.

No Picture 2
Page 692 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1652 Acq Date: 0511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: New Ireland - called Manum

Village:

Description.: Necklace Money Shellstring Mis

Description: Called Manum. See Plates XX, XXI


and XXII MELANESIAN SHELL MONEY in Field
Museum Collections (1929) Lewis.
A rare and highly valued money item.

No Picture 2
Page 693 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1653 Acq Date: 0512
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Fish Money bronze

Description: Said to have been used as money


ib the Zhou Dynasty 1122-255 BC

No Picture 2
Page 694 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1654 Acq Date: 0601
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Knife Money - Straight Knife Kan


Tan "Dao"
Description: Obverse : "Gan Dan Bi" which
translates to "Gan Dan Coin". Gan Dan is
probably a mint name.. Also translated as "Kan
Tan Bi" . The more stylized straight knifes, with
characters on one side may be contemporary
with the later Ming knifes, probably ca. 300

No Picture 2
Page 695 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1656 Acq Date: 0601
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu Round Shoulder Cheng Cheng


Cheng Shan Chin Tang Huan
Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.
The characters read Liang Zheng Bi Bai Dang
Lie meaning "Liang regular coin 100 to a lie" (1
Jin). Has also been translated as "Cheng
Cheng Cheng Shan Chin Tang Huan".
Chou Dynasty. Before 256 BC.

No Picture 2
Page 696 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1657 Acq Date: 0601
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu An Yang

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters read An Yang.
Chou Dynasty. Before 256 BC.

No Picture 2
Page 697 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1658 Acq Date: 0601
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Hollow Handle Spade Pu Bo

Description: Early Period.


Zhou (Chou) Dynasty (770 BC - 221 BC).

No Picture 2
Page 698 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1659 Acq Date: 0601
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu Ping Yang

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters read P'ing Yang.
Chou Dynasty. Before 256 BC.

No Picture 2
Page 699 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1660 Acq Date: 0602
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Knife Money Wang Mang - Gold

Description: Minted from 7-9Ad by Emperor


Wang Mang and worth 5000 Wu Chu bronze
coins. The characters at the top of the coin are
of inlaid gold and all characters translate as
"Inscribed Knife Five Hundred". Demonetized in
9AD.. Of highest rarity.

No Picture 2
Page 700 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1661 Acq Date: 0608
Country: MALI
District: Sahara

Village:

Description.: Beads (17) Neolithic 5000BP

Description: Beads Neolithic 5000BP

No Picture 2
Page 701 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1662 Acq Date: 0608
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Cowrie Imitation Gold Plated


Bronze
Description: Excavated from early graves.

No Picture 2
Page 702 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1663 Acq Date: 0608
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu Round Shoulder An Yi Pu

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters read An Yi Er Jin (value 2).
Sometimes translated as An Yi Pu.
Chou Dynasty. Before 256 BC.

No Picture 2
Page 703 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1664 Acq Date: 0611
Country: MALI
District: Sahara

Village:

Description.: Stone Celt Neolithic 5000BP

Description: Found in the Sahara area of Mali


this small axe blade or adze blade is dated to
Neolithic Times around 3000BC.

No Picture 2
Page 704 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1665 Acq Date: 0611
Country: JUDEA
District: Holy Land

Village:

Description.: Glass Beads - Ancient

Description: Valued items for wearing but


valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 705 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1666 Acq Date: 0611
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Trobriands - Massim

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM BEKU


or BENAM.
Description: A large green stone axe originally
from Woodlark Island. An important item in the
Kula Trade System. Called Beku.
Used to buy pigs, food, canoes and land; to
procure sorcery; to pay for those slain in battle;
to appease an enemy; to make peace; to
procure the death of an enemy; to buy dances
and excahange for other wealth. Extremely
important.

No Picture 2
Page 706 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1667 Acq Date: 0611
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu Round Foot Ping Chou

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters read Ping Chou.
Chou Dynasty. Before 256 BC.

No Picture 2
Page 707 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1668 Acq Date: 0612
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Cowrie Imitation Ant Coin

Description: Cowrie Imitation - Ant Coin

No Picture 2
Page 708 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1669 Acq Date: 0701
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK BONE (possibly


clamshell)
Description: A "poor man's shell nosestick". This
nosestick is made of bone, not shell, and would
be a minor trade valuable

No Picture 2
Page 709 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1670 Acq Date: 0701
Country: MALI
District:

Village:

Description.: Arrowhead Stone (3) neolithic


5000BC
Description: A popular trade item throughout
the ages.

No Picture 2
Page 710 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1671 Acq Date: 0702
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMBA ISLAND

Village:

Description.: Mamuli

Description: Ex Charles Opitz.

Mamuli are nothing more than ritual


representatives of one or several horses.
Originally they consisted of the gold of the coins
that an inhabitant of Sumba Island received
when he sold horses to the Dutch. As he had no
idea of what to do with it he had it changed into
mamuli and woven chains by a goldsmith.
Mamuli played an outstanding role in the bride
price that was paid on Sumba Island. This
ceremony is an outstanding example of how
closely this exchange of gifts brought the two
tribes together. The gifts were given by both
sides. While the grooms family gave mainly
horses, buffalos and such mamuli, the brides
family donated sarongs, sheets and pigs.
Nowadays coins and paper money supplement
the bride price. But mamuli are still handed No Picture 2
over today made of silver or base metals which
fulfils the ritual purpose in the same way.
Page 711 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1672 Acq Date: 0702
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Cowrie Imitation Jade

Description: Peoples of the stone age


painstakingly crafted sharp axe heads and
traded jade trinkets as currency and it has been
suggested that pieces of jade were a form of
money as early as the Shang Dynasty.
Jade is known to have been used in ritual
ceremonies in China from about 5000 to 1700
B.C." (Del Sesto P.T34). For the ancient Chinese
people, jade was very important to daily life.
For hundreds, and even thousands of centuries,
jade has been closely associated with the
Chinese culture and the oldest jade object
found in China was the 12,000 year old
serpentine-like piece of jade that was found in
the Immortal Cave in Haicheng of Liaoning
Province.
In China it has always been a high value item if
not a money or currency.
This item is of great antiquity and was No Picture 2
excavated from early graves. Thought to be
Shang Dynasty.
Page 712 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1673 Acq Date: 0702
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu Money Wang mang 200

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters show that it was worth 200
cash.
Minted under the emperor Wang Mang of the
Xian Dynasty 9-23 AD..

No Picture 2
Page 713 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1674 Acq Date: 0702
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Cowrie Imitation Silver

Description: Excavated from early graves.

No Picture 2
Page 714 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1675 Acq Date: 0702
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Hollow Handle Spade Wu

Description: Zhou (Chou) Dynasty (770 BC -


221 BC).

No Picture 2
Page 715 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1676 Acq Date: 0703
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu Round Shoulder An Yi Yi Chin

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters show An Yi value two chin.
Minted under the Chou Dynasty between the
8th to 3rd centuries BC..

No Picture 2
Page 716 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1677 Acq Date: 0703
Country: YAP
District: Ulithi Atoll

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND TORTOISESHELL

Description: Rare item from a scarce locality.

No Picture 2
Page 717 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1678 Acq Date: 0707
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Kiriwina/Trobriands

Village: Luya Village

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD Small


Decorated
Description: Lime spatulas are used to transfer
lime to the mouth of a person chewing betel
nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.

No Picture 2
Page 718 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1679 Acq Date: 0707
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TORRES STRAITS - PAPUAN GULF

Village:

Description.: CLUBHEAD STONE TRIANGULAR -


Called "Duimau Kuma"
Description: Description: Gaba-gaba stone
headed clubs were first described by one of
Torres captains in 1606. They were used in
warfare, trade, ceremonies and kept as
treasured heirlooms. The ones used by the
islanders seem mainly to have been
manufactured in the islands and have been
traded (or travelled as spoils of war) as far west
as the Tugeri lands of Irian Jaya and I have
obtained a Disc-shaped one from as far east as
Dobu Island and they have also been reported
from the Ramu River area and New Britain.
In the Torres Straits they were traded to and
from the mainland and, as a matter of interest,
Chalmers was killed with a stone gaba-gaba
club. The triangular shaped clubhead is called
Duimau Kuma.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 23 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of No Picture 2
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson
Page 719 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1680 Acq Date: 0710
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Massim

Village:

Description.: Pearlshell Pendant for Bagi -


MASSIM
Description: This is the goldlip pearlshell
pendant for the famous Massim Kula Cycle
valuable called Bagi or Soulava.

No Picture 2
Page 720 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1681 Acq Date: 0711
Country: INDONESIA
District: JAVA

Village:

Description.: Bronze Ring

Description: Probably - Bronze Age - 200BC

No Picture 2
Page 721 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1682 Acq Date: 0712
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: New Georgia

Village:

Description.: Shellring Valuable

Description: This ring of clamshell is a Barava


called Bokolo (bokolo is also the name given to
a normal clamshell hokata money ring).

It was used in bride price, to buy land and for


tribal reconciliation and compensation. It was
also "Kastom Money" and placed on shrines and
graves. This one came from a grave.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 722 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1683 Acq Date: 0803
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sudest - near Rossel

Village: Areatha Village

Description.: Daveri Shell Money (2) In Fibre


pouches - MASSIM
Description: Traded from Harry Beran on behalf
of John Friede USA.
A rare and true money from Sudest Island -
rather similar in many respects to the Ndap of
Rossel.

Some of the small Daveri shell money, called


tongue of the snake, is believed to grow larger
through magic when places in its fibre
container.

No Picture 2
Page 723 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1684 Acq Date: 0803
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sudest - Near Rossel

Village: Areatha Village

Description.: Daveri Shell Money (2) plain -


MASSIM
Description: Traded from Harry Beran on behalf
of John Friede USA.
A rare and true money from Sudest Island -
rather similar in many respects to the Ndap of
Rossel.

No Picture 2
Page 724 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1685 Acq Date: 0804
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Irian Jaya

Village: Asmat

Description.: Wooden Axe Handle

Description: A nicely carved handle to hold the


stone axe blade of the Asmat.

No Picture 2
Page 725 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1686 Acq Date: 0716 No Picture 1
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Oro

Village:

Description.: Headband Shell and fibre

Description: This warrior's headband is a


standard type of decoration and is valued as
such. See Fig 3.6 of Oro Province
Art...Beran/Aguirre.

No Picture 2

N
o
Page 726 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1687 Acq Date: 0811
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pig Tusk Pendant

Description: A wearable, decorative valuable.


Pig Tusks are highly valued throughout the
Pacific. Some notes on this include:
Laynard (1942) Tusk of the pig are valued
greatly (in New Hebrides) and High ranking men
wear the curled tusks as a sign of their status..
Strathern, M. (1977), For the people of Kalauna
(PNG), tusks were a valuable item used in
trading and Tusks were used in bride wealth
payments; the tusks were said to resemble the
fangs of the python which had great significance
in PNG mythology.

Quain, B. (1948), Pig tusks are used as


ornaments and are highly valued items (in Fiji).

Rakua F (1987) After cooking, the head of the


pig is removed with the tusks intact and is
presented to the head of the No Picture 2
village.
Simon Feeny (2016) states that the use of
traditional money such as pig tusks is still
common in the Solomons and Vanuatu.
Couper (2009) In the New Guinea Highlands pig
tusks were a medium of exchange and bride
price.

Gallego on Mendanas discovery of the Solomons


in 1568 wrote to say that the natives on the
island of Veru valued pig tusks very highly.
Page 727 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1688 Acq Date: 0812
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik

Village:

Description.: Bracelet Conus Shell and Fibre

Description: An item of wearablewealth. The


conus discs were a valuable money item of the
area.

No Picture 2
Page 728 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1689 Acq Date: 0904
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Massim

Village:

Description.: Pendant Egg Cowrie with Seeds on


fibre - MASSIM
Description: A valued trade item throughout
much of New Guines. Added to enhance the
appearance of the Mwali used in the Kula Trade
and to other valuables in other areas.

No Picture 2
Page 729 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1690 Acq Date: 0904
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Massim

Village:

Description.: Necklace Plastic Bead - MASSIM

Description: Valued modern items for wearing


but still valued in trade for decoration.

No Picture 2
Page 730 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1692 Acq Date: 0904
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: Vella Lavella

Village:

Description.: Pendant Poata/Tortoiseshell

Description: This is a shell ring breast ornament


from the Vella Lavella area of the Solomons. It
is worn only by men of chiefly rank as a marker
of their authority. The main element is the
Poata, a true standard item of shell money. The
poata is backed with turtleshell and embellished
with ornaments. In the distant past the usual
shell ring was the Bakiha, which has a yellow
stain on one section.
A valuable monetary wearable.

No Picture 2
Page 731 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1693 Acq Date: 0906
Country: PERU/ECUADOR
District:

Village: Jivaro tribe

Description.: Headband Red feathers and Fibre

Description: A rare and very highly valued item


of trade in the area.
This item was actually used to decorate a
shrunken head.

Picture not found:


C:\USERS\COL\DOCUMENTS\KEEPERNET\PIC94-9984-2.JPG
Page 732 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1694 Acq Date: 0907
Country: MEXICO
District: YUCATAN

Village:

Description.: BELL COPPER YUCATAN

Description: Well described in Taxay. Cogolludo,


a Franciscan Friar in Yucatan mentioned in his
book - -Historia de Yucatn- published in 1688,
that the Maya used copper bells sa money. They
were valued by size.

No Picture 2
Page 733 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1695 Acq Date: 0908
Country: SAUDI ARABIA
District:

Village:

Description.: Hairpin Money-Toweelah (3)

Description: 800 yrs OLD. FOLLOWING IS A


COPY OF A LETTER FOUND WITH THESE: FROM
THE MINT OF CARMANIAN KINGS OF ARABIA
SOME 800 YEARS AGO. IN SOME ISOLATED
AREAS OF THE DESERT BEHIND THE PIRATE
COAST OF THE PERSIAN GULF THEY ARE STILL
THE ONLY COINS IN CIRCULATION . CALLED
THE TOWEELAH OF HASA (LONG BIT OF HASA -
THE COUNTRY)

No Picture 2
Page 734 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1696 Acq Date: 0909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Collingwood Bay

Village:

Description.: Axeblade Stone Jade Nephrite

Description: Appears to be part antigorite


(serpentine) and part nephrite (jade),
Sir William MacGregor (Administrator of Brit
New Guinea) himself says: Mr. Jack classes the
jade of Collingwood Bay with that of New
Zealand. He also says that the stone axes of
New Guinea are not used as a tool in building
canoes, or in any other such work; but they
represent the standard of currency in great
transactions, such as the purchase of a canoe or
a pig, or in obtaining a wife. The natives always
carefully explain that, as concerns the wife, the
stone axes are not given as payment for her,
but as a present to the father of the girl
The greatest standard of currency in New
Guinea is the jade, or greenstone axe;
The material is fairly similar in looks to the
Maori greenstone (Jade).
No Picture 2
Page 735 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1697 Acq Date: 0909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf

Village: Kivaumai

Description.: GOPE BOARD WOOD

Description: Gope Boards are wooden ritual


objects made in the Papuan Gulf of New Guinea.
They represent spirits which can protect clans
from sickness, evil spirits, and death.
Gope boards are also used in raids on other
clans and headhunting missions. They are
consulted as to which enemy to attack, and the
spirits contained in the boards are thought to go
ahead of the warriors to sap the enemies of
their strength. They are also used to display
skulls won in battle.
Non-monetary.

No Picture 2
Page 736 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1698 Acq Date: 9602
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Massim

Village:

Description.: Inscribed Coconut Lime Container


larger - MASSIM
Description: Used as minor gift/trade items.

No Picture 2
Page 737 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1699 Acq Date: 9602
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Massim

Village:

Description.: Inscribed Coconut Lime Container


Smaller - MASSIM
Description: Used as minor gift/trade items.

No Picture 2
Page 738 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1700 Acq Date: 0009
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL

Description: Called Iwan.

These come from the Mountain Arapesh people


of the Sepik area. All of these shell rings are
imported to them from the Plains people and
the Wallis Island people.. They are made by
these people who obtain the shell on the
beaches. This is the simplest of their money
rings and is simply a flat disc of shell.

No Picture 2
Page 739 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1701 Acq Date: 0403
Country: SIAM
District:

Village:

Description.: Votive tablet

Description: A votive tablet from Siam.

Not a monetary item.

No Picture 2
Page 740 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1702 Acq Date: 0608
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: Wood Carving Man

Description: Non monetary.

No Picture 2
Page 741 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1703 Acq Date: 9912
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Nomad Area

Village:

Description.: Arrow Wooden with carved head

Description: Fly River Nomad area. Traditional


blood and lime binding on flight shaft join.
Typically used on head hunting and revenge
raids.

No Picture 2
Page 742 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1704 Acq Date: 7906
Country: NEW ZEALAND
District:

Village:

Description.: Jade Boulder

Description: This is a small boulder of Nephrite


- a true jade.
The Mori valued pounamu in the same way
Europeans valued gold. Around the 1870s, Te
Otatu from Coromandel remarked: Let the gold
be worked by the white men. It was not a thing
known to our ancestors. My only treasure is the
pounamu. (Kati ano taku taonga nui i te
pounamu.)
The South Island Ngi Tahu people have a
particularly close relationship with pounamu,
which is found only within their tribal area. It is
valued for its strength, durability and beauty.
However, its value transcends the aesthetic and
practical properties. Because of its link with
chiefs and peace making, it is considered to
have mana (status) and to be tapu (sacred).
The stone is highly treasured by all tribes
throughout New Zealand, and it was extensively No Picture 2
traded in the North Island.
Page 743 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1705 Acq Date: 9202
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Coin Sword Made Of Cash Coins

Description: Important part of traditional


wedding. These have legendary powers to slay
demons bent on causing marital troubles. Used
in rituals to ward off evil spirits. Also hung
above beds of sick people to drive off spirits.
Hung on the curtains of cots to protect newborn
babies from the spirits of women who had died
chuldless and who tried to steal infants.

No Picture 2
Page 744 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1706 Acq Date: 0202
Country: BORNEO
District:

Village:

Description.: Sword Dyak

Description: he MANDAU (or Parang Ihlang) is


the traditional sword of the Dyak tribes of
Borneo. It was primarily associated with the
Head Hunting tradition of the Dyaks but also
used as a general-purpose jungle knife. It has a
slightly curved single edge blade with a
convex / concave cross section. It is a fearsome
and very efficient weapon in the experienced
hand, and was really used for head hunting.
Like the Keris, the Dayak Parang, is believed
to have supernatural power and is transmitted
from generation to generation. Good quality
blades are made of iron which does not oxidize.
Also like the Keris, meteorite ore including
titanium, was used to make blades.
In the 17th century Parangs were
manufactured in the Moluccas and by Tidorese
smiths and from Tobunku, Belitung and
Karimata and were traded as far as the No Picture 2
MacCluer Gulf and parts of the Bird''s Head in
New Guinea. The Bugis from N.E. and E. coasts
of Borneo, from Bali, Celebes, Sumbawa, and
other islands brought goods to Singapore to
trade for Parangs and other items.
Page 745 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1707 Acq Date: 0509
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Irian Jaya

Village: Asmat

Description.: Human Jawbone Pendant

Description: Information from previous owner:


"I bought the 2 Asmat pendants and 1 jawbone
in the eighties from the collection of the
missionaries of the Holy Heart (in the
Netherlands). According to their archive/books
the 3 pieces with a lot of other primitive
jewellery and shields were collected by a
missionary named Zegwaard in the end of 1958
or the beginning of 1959. He was stationed in
1958 in Agats and from there he did a lot of
tours, most of his beginning years he spent in
the (unknown) Southern part of the Asmat-
area. In November 1959 the missionaries in
Holland received a small container with Shields
and some Asmat Jewellery for their own
collection (to inform the Dutch people where
and why they were working in New Guinea).
The two necklaces came from the village of
Baous (lying south of Agats). Pendants like
these were mostly from the body of the enemy
and were worn by warriors to prove they were
successful headhunters. These pendants
represented a high value. This is all the
information I got from the missionaries of the
"Holy Heart". Quote from "The Sorcery of
Sweetness" J A Bell page 133; Jawbone
necklaces were important valuables used in
bridewealth and peace payments." Zegwaard
later wrote a lot of papers about this. In the
Nineties I had a lot of talks about this with
Zegwaard

at that time. In the late nineties he died. In a


book from the Konrads (Asmat-Leben mit den
Page 746 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1708 Acq Date: 0509
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Irian Jaya

Village: Baous (South of Agats)

Description.: Necklace pendant Human


Vertebrae
Description: Information from previous owner: I
bought the 2 Asmat pendants and 1 jawbone in
the eighties from the collection of the
missionaries of the Holy Heart (in the
Netherlands). According to their archive/books
the 3 pieces with a lot of other primitive
jewellery and shields were collected by a
missionary named Zegwaard in the end of 1958
or the beginning of 1959.
This missionary was stationed in 1958 in Agats
and from there he did a lot of tours, most of his
beginning years he spent in the (unknown)
Southern part of the Asmat-area. In November
1959 the missionaries in Holland received a
small container with Shields and some Asmat
Jewellery for their own collection (to inform the
Dutch people where and why they were working
in New Guinea). The two necklaces came from
the village of Baous (lying south of Agats).
Pendants like these were mostly from the body
of the enemy and were worn by warriors to
prove they were successful headhunters. These
pendants represented a high value. This is all
the information I got from the missionaries of
the "Holy Heart"
Zegwaard later wrote a lot of papers about
this. In the Nineties I had a lot of talks about
this with Zegwaard,
he lived very nearby in that time. In the late
nineties he died.

In a book from the Konrads (Asmat-Leben mit


den Ahnen) which means Asmat-Life with
Page 747 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1709 Acq Date: 0909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Woodlark Island Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA TORTOISESHELL


with decoration
Description: Tortoiseshell Spatuals were more
highly valued than similar ones of wood.

Collected by Richard Aldridge on Woodlark


Island - at least 80 years old

No Picture 2
Page 748 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1710 Acq Date: 0909
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: EAST SEPIK - YANGARU AREA

Village: KUBALIA

Description.: Shell Melo Pendant Bailer Shell


With Coconut Lizard
Description: From the East Sepik Yangaru area.

These were rare and difficult to obtain, which


made them a high value object.
They were ornaments, a currency and used in
some areas as bride price.

The lizard carved in coconut shell makes it


interesting.

See Quiggin page 175.

No Picture 2
Page 749 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1711 Acq Date: 0910
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Trobriand Islands - Massim

Village:

Description.: Doba - banana leaf women's


money
Description: In the Trobriand Islands women
make their own money. Fresh banana leaves
are scraped against a board that is engraved
with the family seal. Strips of the impressed leaf
are bundled into hundreds and are worth about
one Kina/one dollar.
The Trobriand Island women have their own
form of wealth in bundles of banana leaves. The
dried banana leaf bundles which women bring
to the market in Kiriwina (a recently founded
market initiated by women) allow for those
without Western money to be able to make
purchases regardless of their lack of cash.
Women and the wealth of their banana
leaves. Women manufacture and control their
own wealth The Trobriand women typically
perform these extravagant displays of wealth
after the death of a fellow islander. Payment of
yams, bundles of banana leaves, and eventually No Picture 2
the distribution of red skirts are given to the
family members of the deceased.
These forms of payment are also used to pay
workers during the mourning period when a
Trobriand Islander dies.
Page 750 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1712 Acq Date: 0911
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sudest Island - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA TORTOISESHELL

Description: Tip has been careffully scraped


clean as is the custom on Sudest.

Tortoiseshell Spatuals were more highly valued


than similar ones of wood.

No Picture 2
Page 751 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1713 Acq Date: 0912
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS - Massim

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA BONE

Description: Cassowaries are not found in the


Massim Islands. Their bones had to be obtained
by trade and the spatulas subsequently made in
these islands. In the Trobriands these spatulas
were reserved for people of rank.

Lime spatulas are used to transfer lime to the


mouth of a person chewing betel nut.
They can also be important in other ways. They
are a gift in the Kula trade to encourage a
future trading partner or as a pari (landing gift).
Some are used as house guardians to ward off
supernatural threats, others are magical and
are used to encourage growth in crops or
produce good weather for a Kula trip. No doubt
some are used for less peaceful purposes. A
special class were to only be used by chiefly
persons. These include extra-long ones and
those decorated with Bagi shells. The clapper No Picture 2
type of spatula is used by chiefs to tap against
the thigh to warn commoners of his coming.
Page 752 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1714 Acq Date: 1004
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Knife "Dao"

Description: EASTERN ZHOU, 770-400 BC,


bronze dao knife, 150mm long
Rev. Coole quotes original Chinese texts as
stating that copper knives were being used as
coinage in the twelfth century BC. When the
Duke of Ch'i overran the Chi-Mo
"barbarians" in the seventh century BC they had
already, according to the records, been
making knife money for over two hundred
years. Thereafter manufacture of the knife
coins was controlled by Ch'i.

No Picture 2
Page 753 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1715 Acq Date: 1004
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Coin Value of "One Knife"

Description: Bronze coin Zhou Dynasty 300-


256BC. Cast at the end of the Zhou Dynasty or
possibly the beginning of the Ch'in Dynasty. The
two characters translate as "one knife" and
appear to replace the actual knife money
although reduced considerably in size.

No Picture 2
Page 754 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1716 Acq Date: 1004
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Knife Money Pointed Tip "Dao"

Description: Warring States period. It is


assumed that the pointed knifes, with a smooth
curve down the back, are the earliest form of
knife money. They have the closest style to
genuine knives, and like the early hollow-
handled spades often appear without inscriptio

No Picture 2
Page 755 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1717 Acq Date: 1004
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Trobriand Islands - Massim

Village:

Description.: Earring Shell and Tortoiseshell

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge.


Old Massim Kula ear ring.
This ear ring is not for every day wear and
usually are only displayed during Kula Exchange
ceremonies. They are worn by chiefs wives as
they are a status symbol due to the use of
traditional shell money. Made from Spondylus
shell on a turtle shell frame

No Picture 2
Page 756 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1718 Acq Date: 1004
Country: CHINA
District:

Village:

Description.: Pu Money Wang Mang 400

Description: Pu Money of Ancient China.


The characters show that it was worth 400
cash.
Minted under the emperor Wang Mang of the
Xian Dynasty 9-23 AD..

No Picture 2
Page 757 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1719 Acq Date: 1005
Country: TIBET
District:

Village:

Description.: Dzi Beads (10)

Description: 10pcs Old Chinese Tibetan Mystical


Natural Dragon Eyed DZI Agate Chalcedony
Beads. The unique DZi bead of etched or
treated agate is revered in China Tibet. To
Tibetans and other Himalayan people the dZi is
a "precious jewel of supernatural orign" with
great power to protect its wearer from disaster.
This is an infrequent old natural dragon eyed dzi
Chalcedony Veins agate bead
Pendant , the bead is in good condition. Dzi
Agate was highly valued as a talisman or
amulet. Dzi Agate beads that have Chalcedony
Veins patterns are believed to possess special
powers that can ward off evil and subdue
demons. In general,
Agate bead is able to provide its bearer with
strength, courage & peace and calmness of the
mind. No gemstone is more creatively striped
by nature than Dzi agate. This Agate is formed No Picture 2
in concentric layers and in a wide variety of
colors and textures. Each individual agate is
created when molten minerals filled up a cavity
in host rock. As a result, agate is often found as
a round nodule, with concentric bands like the
rings of a tree trunk. These bands sometimes
bear significant markings like dragon eyes.
Page 758 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1720 Acq Date: 1005
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: Timika

Description.: Stone Blade Bound In String

Description: These hand axes serve mainly for


ceremonial purposes. Hand axes, axe blades
from stone and shafted stone blades belonging
to the bride price of a woman and were forming
an essential constituent of the family property
and were highly valued traditional payment.

To the sign of the mourning, a woman (some


tribes also the man) chops off herself a phalanx
of the finger with this special stone tool after
the death of her husband or a family member
Refer He-Artefacte (Germany)

The blade itself is similar to ones traded from


near Port Moresby all the way along the coast to
the Asmat area.

See Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade


Items by Col davidson No Picture 2
Page 759 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1721 Acq Date: 1005
Country: MOROCCO
District:

Village:

Description.: Money Tree

Description: Ex CNG auction 35.


Landsberg acquired some material that was de-
accessioned from the Detroit Museum of Art
some years back as they were divesting odd,
curious, and primitive coinage. Dated 1263 AH
(1847 A.D.), Morocco, twelve one falus coins.
Actual entry in catalogue "MOROCCO. 1790-
1873. Money Tree. Three rows of four falu
coins each, all featuring pellet within star. Cf.
Opitz, pg.75. Good VF, intact and complete.
($300)" Reserve was US$300 and it sold for
US$360.

No Picture 2
Page 760 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1722 Acq Date: 1005
Country: MOESIA
District: ISTROS

Village:

Description.: Wheel Money (Cast Coin)

Description: A crudely cast coin from Istros in


Moesiia. Dating to about 145-460BC. Often
called wheel money.

No Picture 2
Page 761 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1723 Acq Date: 1006
Country: FRANCE
District:

Village:

Description.: Assignat Paper Banknote 50 Sols

Description: French Revolution Period. dated


23rd March 1793 and Year 2 of the Republic.

No Picture 2
Page 762 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1724 Acq Date: 1006
Country: SCYTHIA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARROWHEAD MONEY (5)

Description: A true Money.


Black Sea region 7th-5th century BC.
Illustrated in publication by Nieczitajlo-Mihailov.
Refer Monetary Circulation and the Political
History of Archaic Borysthenes - Sergei L
Solovyov.
The ancient Scythians had many bloody tribal
customs, including cutting off the heads of slain
enemies, and making leather bound drinking
cups from the skulls. They lined these trophies
with gold and displayed them to impress their
guests.

We do know from history that their bows could


deliver an arrow 521.6 meters which is a little
more then 567 yards according to the
inscription found in a Greek grave which says
"Anaxagoras son of Dimagoras" shot such a bow
in the city of Olbia. When in war the Scythians No Picture 2
are said to have carried from 30 to 150 arrows
into battle.

The arrow heads were developed and designed


by the Scythians were superior than arrows
used by their Middle East neighbors. They were
considered much better than the traditional leaf
shaped arrow heads used in Mesopotamia.

The Scythian arrow head is known as the


"Scythian point". This arrow head had more of a
bullet shape with three sides and each of those
three sides had very small wings. The reason
for this innovation was to penetrate armor
better.
Page 763 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1726 Acq Date: 1006
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Orokolo

Description.: PRESENTATION STICK BONE

Description: Collected by Richard in Orokolo


A form of currency display for bride price.
Richard asked old
villagers what they look like when they are
complete and was told they had strings of small
red shell beads threaded through each hole. He
saw most of them between Orokolo Bay and
Ihu. At first he thought they were limesticks but
an old guy set him straight and pointed out that
bone limesticks are flat at the bottom so they
can be used like little spoons and that these
were to display red bead shells (Bagi?). He has
seen about a dozen in total and probably
collected 8.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 764 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1727 Acq Date: 1006
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Orokolo

Description.: PRESENTATION STICK BONE

Description: Collected by Richard in Orokolo


A form of currency display for bride price.
Richard asked old
villagers what they look like when they are
complete and was told they had strings of small
red shell beads threaded through each hole. He
saw most of them between Orokolo Bay and
Ihu. At first he thought they were limesticks but
an old guy set him straight and pointed out that
bone limesticks are flat at the bottom so they
can be used like little spoons and that these
were to display red bead shells (Bagi?). He has
seen about a dozen in total and probably
collected 8.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 765 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1728 Acq Date: 1007
Country: AFRICA
District:

Village:

Description.: Weight Cast Bronze Figure

Description: A very old gold weight of the


Ashanti people. It is in the shape of a camel.

They were true weights and used to weigh gold,


gems and te like but always, because of the
metal content, had a monetary/trade value.

No Picture 2
Page 766 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1729 Acq Date: 1007
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Middle Sepik

Village:

Description.: Clamshell Discs Belt

Description: A valuable monetary item from the


area - used in Bride Price and other important
purchases.

No Picture 2
Page 767 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1730 Acq Date: 1007
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL

Description: A highly valued money/trade item


of the area.
From Lawsons Tribal Art auctions

No Picture 2
Page 768 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1731 Acq Date: 1007
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sepik

Village:

Description.: NOSESTICK BONE

Description: A "poor man's shell nosestick". This


nosestick is made of bone, not shell, and would
be a minor trade valuable.

No Picture 2
Page 769 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1732 Acq Date: 1010
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMBA ISLAND

Village:

Description.: Mamuli (Large)

Description: Handmade pendant of


copper/brass in traditional Sumbanese style
bought in Bonda Kodi village, far west Sumba in
late 90s. They are earings and pendants
symbolising fertility,the centre of the pendant
being female,the outer male.Worn by both
males and females in marriage and merapu
ceremonies, this one depicts warriors on
horseback. They are ritual representatives of
one or several horses. Originally they consisted
of the gold of the coins that an inhabitant of
Sumba Island received when he sold horses to
the Dutch. As he had no idea of what to do with
it he had it changed into mamuli and woven
chains by a goldsmith.
Mamuli played an outstanding role in the bride
price that was paid on Sumba Island. Gifts were
given by both sides - the grooms family gave
mainly horses, buffalos and mamuli - the bride's No Picture 2
family donated sarongs, sheets and pigs.
Nowadays coins and paper money supplement
the bride price but mamuli are still handed over
made of silver or base metals which fulfils the
ritual purpose in the same way.
Page 770 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1733 Acq Date: 1010
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMBA ISLAND

Village:

Description.: Mamuli (Large)

Description: Handmade pendant of


copper/brass in traditional Sumbanese style
bought in Bonda Kodi village, far west Sumba in
late 90s. They are earings and pendants
symbolising fertility,the centre of the pendant
being female,the outer male.Worn by both
males and females in marriage and merapu
ceremonies, this one depicts a warrior with
spear and shield, They are ritual representatives
of one or several horses. Originally they
consisted of the gold of the coins that an
inhabitant of Sumba Island received when he
sold horses to the Dutch. As he had no idea of
what to do with it he had it changed into
mamuli and woven chains by a goldsmith.
Mamuli played an outstanding role in the bride
price that was paid on Sumba Island. Gifts were
given by both sides - the grooms family gave
mainly horses, buffalos and mamuli - the No Picture 2
bride''''''''s family donated sarongs, sheets and
pigs.
Nowadays coins and paper money supplement
the bride price but mamuli are still handed over
made of silver or base metals which fulfils the
ritual purpose in the same way.
Page 771 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1734 Acq Date: 1010
Country: INDONESIA
District: SUMBA ISLAND

Village:

Description.: Mamuli (Smaller)

Description: Hand made pendant of


copper/brass in traditional Sumbanese style -
purchased in Waingapu in 2001.These are ear
rings and pendants decorated with
granulation ,spirals and birds - 1960s or earlier.
An important piece of Sumbanese regalia, it
symbolise fertility. The shape combines both
female and male genitalia and its design is
believed to be thousands of years old. It
appears on textiles , tombs and tattoos. They
are ritual representatives of one or several
horses. Originally they consisted of the gold of
the coins that a Sumbanese received when he
sold horses to the Dutch. He had no idea of
what to do with it and had it changed into
mamuli and woven chains by a goldsmith.
Playing an outstanding role in the bride price
paid on Sumba Island the ceremony is an
example of how closely this exchange of gifts No Picture 2
brought two tribes together. Gifts were given by
both sides. The grooms family gave mainly
horses, buffalos and mamuli, the brides family
donated sarongs, sheets and pigs. Nowadays
coins and paper money supplement the bride
price, but mamuli are still handed over today
made of silver or base metals which fulfils the
ritual purpose in the same way.
Page 772 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1735 Acq Date: 1005
Country: FRANCE
District:

Village:

Description.: Ring Money Celtic

Description: Celtic Bronze Ring Proto-money.

Circa 600-400 BC. Bronze ring known as a "Ring


Proto-Money". Used as currency before the
introduction of the coins in the Eastern Danube
region and the Black sea area by the Eastern
Celts.

The myth that the Celtic monetary system


consisted of wholly barter is a common one, but
is in part false. The monetary system was
complex and is still not understood (much like
the late Roman coinages), and due to the
absence of large numbers of coin items, it is
assumed that "proto-money" was used. This
included bronze items made from the early La
Tene period and onwards, which were often in
the shape of axeheads, rings, or bells. Due to
the large number of these present in some No Picture 2
burials, it is thought they had a relatively high
monetary value, and could be used for "day to
day" purchases.
Page 773 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1736 Acq Date: 1011
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: BOOMERANG HOOK BOOMERANG

Description: Letter from W Somerville regarding


this item states "..part of a collectiob which I
purchased from the Osborne family of Sydney
about 1960. Their documentatio indicated the
whole collection was assembled during the Sir
Thomas Mitchell surveying expeditions of
western NSW during the late 1820s..ancestors
of..Osborne family purchased..in the
1850s..some..sold to Australian Museum in the
1930s.
Aboriginal groups exchanged natural resources,
such as ochres, and tools, stone axes and
boomerangs, thus creating extensive trading
networks. Goods travelled hundreds of
kilometres from their original source. (probably
incorrect as to area in which obtained).

For example, boomerangs made in Central


Australians would find their way to Arnhem
Land and the surrounding islands. Didgeridoos
from Arnhem Land would find their way down to
Central Australia. Pearl shells from the
Kimberley were traded through Central Australia
down into South Australia.
Page 774 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1737 Acq Date: 1011
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: Hafted Stone Axe

Description: Letter from W Somerville regarding


this item states "..part of a collectiob which I
purchased from the Osborne family of Sydney
about 1960. Their documentatio indicated the
whole collection was assembled during the Sir
Thomas Mitchell surveying expeditions of
western NSW during the late 1820s..ancestors
of..Osborne family purchased..in the
1850s..some..sold to Australian Museum in the
1930s.
Page 775 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1738 Acq Date: 1011
Country: AUSTRALIA
District:

Village:

Description.: Woomera

Description: Letter from W Somerville regarding


this item states "..part of a collectiob which I
purchased from the Osborne family of Sydney
about 1960. Their documentatio indicated the
whole collection was assembled during the Sir
Thomas Mitchell surveying expeditions of
western NSW during the late 1820s..ancestors
of..Osborne family purchased..in the
1850s..some..sold to Australian Museum in the
1930s.

Woomeras were an Aboriginal trade item


through some areas of Australia.
Page 776 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1739 Acq Date: 1011
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Purari Delta Area

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Purari area.
Purari boys who do not eat human flesh always
remain boys. They can never become men.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 13 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.
A high value item of the Papuan Gulf.

No Picture 2
Page 777 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1740 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: CHOISEUL

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING KESA

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This shell cylinder is called a Mata. Three Mata


make up a Salaka and three Salaka make up
one Kesa. So this shell is one ninth of a Kesa.

Kesa Shell Money, Western Solomon Islands,


18th - 19th Century; "kesa" is a cylindrical shell
wealth that came in different sizes and values.
It is old, and is said to have been made by the
spirit Pongo. People preserved kesa by wrapping
them in ivory palm leaves and burying them in
the ground, or by storing them in caves for
safety from raids. They came in different
denominations, from Kalusape, the highest
value, only possessed by the chiefs, to the
lowest value called Tuekesa.
No Picture 2
Page 778 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1741 Acq Date: 9203
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: CHOISEUL

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING KESA

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

This shell cylinder is called a Mata. Three Mata


make up a Salaka and three Salaka make up
one Kesa. So this shell is one ninth of a Kesa.

Kesa Shell Money, Western Solomon Islands,


18th - 19th Century; "kesa" is a cylindrical shell
wealth that came in different sizes and values.
It is old, and is said to have been made by the
spirit Pongo. People preserved kesa by wrapping
them in ivory palm leaves and burying them in
the ground, or by storing them in caves for
safety from raids. They came in different
denominations, from Kalusape, the highest
value, only possessed by the chiefs, to the
lowest value called Tuekesa.
No Picture 2
Page 779 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1742 Acq Date: 1011
Country: NEW ZEALAND
District:

Village:

Description.: JADE TIKI

Description: The appraisal was done by John


Charles Edler. Mr Edler is a well known author
and sought out expert.. As to toolmarks he
said, "The style and combinationof technical
construction and variations of tool marks
suggest that this figure was probably made in
the late 19th or early twentieth century.
The Mori valued pounamu in the same way
Europeans valued gold. Around the 1870s, Te
Otatu from Coromandel remarked: Let the gold
be worked by the white men. It was not a thing
known to our ancestors. My only treasure is the
pounamu. (Kati ano taku taonga nui i te
pounamu.)
The South Island Ngi Tahu people have a
particularly close relationship with pounamu,
which is found only within their tribal area. It is
valued for its strength, durability and beauty.
However, its value transcends the aesthetic and No Picture 2
practical properties. Because of its link with
chiefs and peace making, it is considered to
have mana (status) and to be tapu (sacred).
The stone is highly treasured by all tribes
throughout New Zealand, and it was extensively
traded in the North Island.
Page 780 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1743 Acq Date: 1012
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Trobriand Islands - Massim

Village:

Description.: Canoe Prow Wood

Description: Called Dogina Lagim this old


Massim prow was collected by Clarence Stanton
who was working as a fisherman in New Guinea
in 1961. It is carved from hardwood and sits in
front of the splashboard in the bow of the kula
trading canoe.
These were a custom trade item as evidenced
by :
http://web.sbu.edu/theology/bychkov/kula.pdf
The regional trading systems of the islands
around the eastern end of New Guinea were
particularly elaborate. In the Massim--what is
now Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea
(taking in the D''Entrecasteaux Islands, the
Louisiades, and nearby islands)--the trade of
pottery from the Amphletts, canoe timber and
greenstone blades from Murua (Woodlark),
carved platters and canoe prow boards, and
other specialized products was complemented No Picture 2
by a flow of yams and pigs from resource-rich
areas to smaller, ecologically less-favoured
islands.
Page 781 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1744 Acq Date: 1102
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: West New Britain

Village:

Description.: Mokmok

Description: Similar Mokmoks are illustrated in


Harry Berans article: Mokmok stones of New
Britain (HB 1/6/2010). The prehistoric
"mokmok" could be the most valuable
possession of a Loko man or woman of West
New Britain. Passed down from generation to
generation, it is a round flat stone with a
bevelled edge and a hole in the middle. It is not
known where they have come from originally
and some say that "God" put them down here
for them to find. They come in all sizes and the
larger the stone the more valuable. Its great
value seems to be attributable to its hardness
and mysterious origin. They are generally held
by the clan leader and are rarely seen but have
great significance in relation to land ownership.
They are also used in various customs. Certain
stones have their own name and represent the
authority of the clan leader over the land. No Picture 2
On special occasions they are used as
decorations for a "big man" and are worn
around the waist and neck. They have been
used in a "contests of wealth"and have been
used in the past to pay for a murderers "wrong"
so that he shouldn''t die for it. It is also used to
pay sorcerers to murder someone using black
magic.
Page 782 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1745 Acq Date: 1104
Country: CONGO
District:

Village: Mongo Tribe

Description.: ELEPHANT TAIL

Description: Elephant tail bristles or hairs were


a readily accepted money in many areas of
Africa. The tail was an extremely high value
article and, at one time, was worth two slaves.
Quiggins says (page 80) - Andrew Battell, at the
beginning of the 17th century carried all
commodities fit for that country as long glass
beads, and round blue beads and seed beads
and looking-glasses, blue and red cloth and
Irish rugs for trade. He exchanged these for
ivory palm fibre, cloth and elephants
tails. These were to be traded again, the
elephants tails in particular fetching a high
price, 50 hairs being valued at 1,000 rets and
one tail being equal to 2 or 3 slaves.

No Picture 2
Page 783 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1746 Acq Date: 1104
Country: CONGO
District:

Village: Yaka Tribe

Description.: KNIFE STEEL Disc Shaped Blade

Description: An unusual shaped blade, possibly


for ceremonial or men''s club use but also
valued in trade.

No Picture 2
Page 784 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1747 Acq Date: 1104
Country: CONGO
District:

Village: Bwaka and Bangi (Mbang) People

Description.: THROWING KNIFE STEEL

Description: This throwing knife was used by thr


Ngombe(Bangi) people and their nearby
neighbours the Azande and other closeby tribes,
Names given include trombash, kpinga,
kulbeda, etc.It was used as a weapon and as a
currency object.
Quiggin shows one on Plate 1 #20 which she
describes as a Bangala type from the Ubangi
area.
This example is a very old one.
Used as a terrible weapon of war but also as a
currency object.

Fischer advises that this type of knife was


money.

Opitz mentions that these throwing knives were


considered a store of value, a standard of value,
a token of wealth, a treasured heirloom and No Picture 2
were used in bride price.
Page 785 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1748 Acq Date: 1105
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: East Kerema

Description.: PENDANT -KAP KAP- COCONUT


SHELL & CONUS SHELL
Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in
East Kerema but he did collect a few a couple of
years before in or near Uruma Island so he
thinks that they were quite well spread across
the Eastern Gulf. At first he thought they were a
decorated button for a bark belt but on both
occasions he had collected them they were in
groups of 4-5 so he doesn't think they are
anything to do with belts but rather a form of
currency / trade valuable.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 786 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1749 Acq Date: 1105
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: East Kerema

Description.: PENDANT -KAP KAP- COCONUT


SHELL & CONUS SHELL
Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in
East Kerema but he did collect a few a couple of
years before in or near Uruma Island so he
thinks that they were quite well spread across
the Eastern Gulf. At first he thought they were a
decorated button for a bark belt but on both
occasions he had collected them they were in
groups of 4-5 so he doesn't think they are
anything to do with belts but rather a form of
currency / trade valuable.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 787 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1750 Acq Date: 1105
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Kerema

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in


Kerema Village.

This actual item is iIllustrated on page 13 of


Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 788 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1751 Acq Date: 1107
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: COLLINGWOOD BAY

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE Pig tusks and ground


shell
Description: Very Highly Valued.
A necklace of the type "Doga" which was a
valued moey item from the Massim people to
well into the Papuan Gulf area.
Ex Markaloo, Canada who obtained it from
Bonham's Auctions in San Francisco.

No Picture 2
Page 789 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1752 Acq Date: 1107
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Goabari

Description.: ARMBAND CONESHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge from


Goabari.
Chalmers the missionary was killed and eaten
by the cannibals at Goabari in 1901.
Haddon a good armlet was worth a wife.
Harry Beran, in his and Pam Swadling's article
"What was the function of the prehistoric Conus
armshells found in the
Massim region and in Collingwood Bay?" in
which he illustrates an example of another of
these items owned by me. He states "these
two shells are the only examples of their type I
am aware of". Note that the two illustrations are
not of two items but two sides of the one
artefact (Hallinan's). This one is similar and
was collected Goabari Island by Richard
Aldridge.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of No Picture 2
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.
Page 790 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1753a Acq Date: 1107
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Uruma Island/Baimaru Area

Description.: EARRING CONESHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Uruma Island/Baimaru Area.
Conus shell had a high monetary value in the
area.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 791 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1753b Acq Date: 1107
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Uruma Island/Baimaru Area

Description.: EARRING CONESHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Uruma Island/Baimaru Area.
Conus shell had a high monetary value in the
area.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 792 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1754 Acq Date: 1107
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK AREA, EAST, Boiken

Village:

Description.: EARRING TORTOISESHELL

Description: A valued item of wearable money.

No Picture 2
Page 793 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1755 Acq Date: 1107
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Orokolo

Description.: PRESENTATION STICK BONE

Description: Collected by Richard in Orokolo


A form of currency display for bride price.
Richard asked old
villagers what they look like when they are
complete and was told they had strings of small
red shell beads threaded through each hole. He
saw most of them between Orokolo Bay and
Ihu. At first he thought they were limesticks but
an old guy set him straight and pointed out that
bone limesticks are flat at the bottom so they
can be used like little spoons and that these
were to display red bead shells (Bagi?). He has
seen about a dozen in total and probably
collected 8.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 794 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1756 Acq Date: 1108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Mai Village (West of Kerema)

Description.: HEADBAND CONUS AND FIBRE

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in


Mai Village
An identical Headband being worn by a native is
shown in "anthropologist in Papua" by FE
Williams 1922 -39 Page 77.
A very important trade/money item
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 795 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1757 Acq Date: 1108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Kerema

Description.: NOSESTICK CLAMSHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in


Kerema Village.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 13 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.
A high value item of the Papuan Gulf.

No Picture 2
Page 796 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1758 Acq Date: 1108
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Baimaru , Kikori region

Description.: PENDANT CONUS DIBIDIBI

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Baimaru , Kikori region.
Refer Quiggins p182 Fig
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 7 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson

No Picture 2
Page 797 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1759 Acq Date: 1109
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA

Village:

Description.: Shellstring with small tortoiseshell


pendant
Description: A minor shellmoney valuable.

No Picture 2
Page 798 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1760 Acq Date: 1110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Orokolo Bay

Description.: LIME SPATULA CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in


Orokolo. Gulf lime spatulas are listed as RARE in
the book Red Eye of the Sun by Hamson and
Aldridge.

No Picture 2
Page 799 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1761a Acq Date: 1110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Uruma Island/Baimaru Area

Description.: EARRING CONESHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Uruma Island/Baimaru Area.
Conus shell had a high monetary value in the
area.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 800 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1761b Acq Date: 1110
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: PAPUAN GULF

Village: Uruma Island/Baimaru Area

Description.: EARRING CONESHELL

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in the


Uruma Island/Baimaru Area.
Conus shell had a high monetary value in the
area.
This actual item is iIllustrated on page 20 of
Money Substitutes and Favoured Trade Items of
Torres Straits and Papua Gulf by Col Davidson.

No Picture 2
Page 801 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1762 Acq Date: 1110
Country: SCYTHIA
District:

Village: Lower Danube Area of Bulgaria

Description.: ARROWHEAD MONEY

Description: A true Money.


Black Sea region 7th-5th century BC.
Illustrated in publication by Nieczitajlo-Mihailov.
Refer Monetary Circulation and the Political
History of Archaic Borysthenes - Sergei L
Solovyov.
The ancient Scythians had many bloody tribal
customs, including cutting off the heads of slain
enemies, and making leather bound drinking
cups from the skulls. They lined these trophies
with gold and displayed them to impress their
guests.

We do know from history that their bows could


deliver an arrow 521.6 meters which is a little
more then 567 yards according to the
inscription found in a Greek grave which says
"Anaxagoras son of Dimagoras" shot such a bow
in the city of Olbia. When in war the Scythians No Picture 2
are said to have carried from 30 to 150 arrows
into battle.

The arrow heads were developed and designed


by the Scythians were superior than arrows
used by their Middle East neighbors. They were
considered much better than the traditional leaf
shaped arrow heads used in Mesopotamia.

The Scythian arrow head is known as the


"Scythian point". This arrow head had more of a
bullet shape with three sides and each of those
three sides had very small wings. The reason
for this innovation was to penetrate armor
better.
Page 802 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1763 Acq Date: 1111
Country: THRACE, OLBIA
District:

Village:

Description.: Bronze Dolphins (3)

Description: Dolphin Coin c 5th Cent. BC -


These small copper pieces cast in the shape of a
dolphin are totally different from other Greek
coins. They are made of bronze, but the earliest
bronze Sicilian coins appeared about 100 years
later. They are cast, but older by over 200 years
than the earliest Italic and Roman cast money.
Finally, they are made in the shape of a sea
mammal, the dolphin (the Greeks considered
the dolphin to be a fish). There was no other
such money in the Greek world. Bronze dolphins
first appeared in Olbia between 550-525 B.C.
Apollo-Dolphinium had been the most important
god of the Miletian settlers, and the dolphin was
the main attribute of this god. Small, cast
dolphins at first were made as sacrificial
subjects for Apollo, but soon they became
currency, employed by the local settlers as a
primitive money, circulating in Olbia and No Picture 2
vicinity.
Page 803 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1764 Acq Date: 1111
Country: RUSSIA
District:

Village:

Description.: Coins (4) Silver "Wire" Kopecks

Description: Coins struck from silver wire.


Kopecks of Ivan The Terrible 1535-1572. Made
from stamped silver wire.

No Picture 2
Page 804 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1765 Acq Date: 1201
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Papuan Gulf Area

Village: Mai Village

Description.: NECKLACE DOGSTEETH

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge in


Mai Village.

One of the most valued money items


throughout New Guinea. Also used in Bride
Price.

No Picture 2
Page 805 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1766 Acq Date: 1205
Country: Sarmatia/Skythia
District: Olbia

Village:

Description.: Bronze Dolphin "OY" Inscription

Description: These small copper pieces cast in


the shape of a dolphin are totally different from
other Greek coins. They are made of bronze,
but the earliest bronze Sicilian coins appeared
about 100 years later. They are cast, but older
by over 200 years than the earliest Italic and
Roman cast money. Finally, they are made in
the shape of a sea mammal, the dolphin. There
was no other such money in the Greek world.
Bronze dolphins first appeared in Olbia between
550-525 B.C. Apollo-Dolphinium had been the
most important god of the Miletian settlers, and
the dolphin was the main attribute of this god.
Small, cast dolphins at first were made as
sacrificial subjects for Apollo, but soon they
became currency, employed by the local settlers
as a primitive money, circulating in Olbia and
vicinity. Around 430-410 BC., the dolphin issue
was taken under control of the polis. Dolphins No Picture 2
became flat on one side and an inscription
appeared in that area (APIXO or OY). These
dolphins were issued for a very short time, and
they are rare. These fish-coins were the last
figure-shaped coins of the Greek world.
Page 806 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1767 Acq Date: 1205
Country: Spain
District: Iberia

Village: Celtic

Description.: Bronze Ring

Description: Item of apparel but could be used


for small purchases and giftgiving.

No Picture 2
Page 807 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1768 Acq Date: 1205
Country: Spain
District: Iberia

Village: Celtic

Description.: Bronze Fibula

Description: Item of apparel but could be used


for small purchases and giftgiving.

No Picture 2
Page 808 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1769 Acq Date: 1206
Country: Cyprus
District:

Village:

Description.: Knife Iron

Description: From: Email from Michael Turner,


Sent: Monday, 18 June 2012 9:16 AM..To: Craig
Barker Subject: FW: Identification of Ancient
Cypriot artifact MICHAEL TURNER FSA Senior
Curator | The Nicholson Museum Dear
Col,Thank you for your inquiry about your iron
knife or dagger, I am an archaeologist at the
Nicholson Museum who works in Cyprus. I"ve
not seen one precisely the same as yours but
certainly could think of no reason to doubt its
authenticity. Cyprus was important in the
process of developing early iron technology, it
seems that in the eastern Mediterranean area
iron came into use between 1200 BC and 1000
BC, and that by the beginning of the tenth
century BC blacksmiths were able to steel iron.
The earliest known quenched-steel object is a
knife (carburized iron knife) from Cyprus, dated
about 1100 BC. No Picture 2
My instinct would be that with the intricate
handle that yours is later (heading towards an
Archaic period date) in date, but I will take a
look around and see if I can come across a
parallel for you (generally the Cypriot knives
I"ve seen of Geometric date have a simpler
handle than your example. Regards, Craig
Page 809 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1770 Acq Date: 1206
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Huon Gulf Area

Village:

Description.: Adze Hafted Steel Blade

Description: Collected by Richard Aldridge.

In this case a steel blade had supplanted the


stone.

No Picture 2
Page 810 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1771 Acq Date: 1206
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: West New Britain

Village:

Description.: Obsidian Stemmed Tool

Description: These have been found in levels


below volcanic ash layer dated to 3500 years
BP. Some have been found well below this level.
It has been determined that they are older
than 3900 years BP and possibly dating to
10,000BP. It is also thought that they were a
visible sign of an important man and were
traded in antiquity. .

No Picture 2
Page 811 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1772 Acq Date: 1208
Country: OLBIA
District: Black Sea Region

Village: and Lower Danube Area

Description.: ARROWHEAD MONEY

Description: A true money.


7th to 5th century BC. Refer Monetary
Circulation and the Political History of Archaix
Borysthenes by Sergei Solovyov.

No Picture 2
Page 812 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1773 Acq Date: 1210
Country: Cyprus
District:

Village:

Description.: Bronze Fibulas (2) Ring shaped

Description: Item of apparel but could be used


for small purchases and giftgiving.

No Picture 2
Page 813 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1774 Acq Date: 1301
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Trobriand Islands - Massim

Village:

Description.: Wooden Finger Drum called


katunenia.
Description: Somewhat similar to photograph
on page 89 of The Kula A Bronislaw Malinowski
Centennial Exhibition Robert H Lowie Museum of
Anthropology California 1985.

Non-monetary. Used in Kula and other


celebrations.

No Picture 2
Page 814 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1775 Acq Date: 1302
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SENTANI

Description.: Glass Ring Green

Description: Called Ebha.

Ancient and highly valued glass ring, Malayan


and Chinese traders from past centuries
brought these to New Guinea as barter object,
called OBA

No Picture 2
Page 815 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1776 Acq Date: 1302
Country: MEXICO
District: MICHOACAN

Village: Chupicuaro culture

Description.: Obsidian Axe Blade MICHOACAN

Description: A superbly made obsidian axe


blade, It dates to the Pre-Classic period ca 200
BC and comes from the famous collection of
Lorenz Borenstein, New Orleans, collected in
the 1950s.
A high value trade item of the Michoacan
people..

No Picture 2
Page 816 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1777 Acq Date: 1307
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Sudest Island - Massim

Village: South Coast

Description.: LIME SPATULA Dugong Tooth


Carved
Description: Very highly valued because of the
very scarce material from which it is made.
Collected by Richard Aldridge "I didn''t record
village name but it was on the south coast of
Sudest. Not sure of the fathers date of death
just that the guy i bought it from was also old
so presume it was 20-30 years ago. These
spatulas from what I have been told last a life
time as long as you don''t lose them and are
liked because they are so smooth".

No Picture 2
Page 817 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1778 Acq Date: 1307
Country: Sarmatia
District: OLBIA

Village:

Description.: Bronze Dolphin Coin

Description: Dolphin Coin c 5th Cent. BC -


These small copper pieces cast in the shape of a
dolphin are totally different from other Greek
coins. They are made of bronze, but the earliest
bronze Sicilian coins appeared about 100 years
later. They are cast, but older by over 200 years
than the earliest Italic and Roman cast money.
Finally, they are made in the shape of a sea
mammal, the dolphin (the Greeks considered
the dolphin to be a fish). There was no other
such money in the Greek world. Bronze dolphins
first appeared in Olbia between 550-525 B.C.
Apollo-Dolphinium had been the most important
god of the Miletian settlers, and the dolphin was
the main attribute of this god. Small, cast
dolphins at first were made as sacrificial
subjects for Apollo, but soon they became
currency, employed by the local settlers as a
primitive money, circulating in Olbia and No Picture 2
vicinity.
Page 818 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1779 Acq Date: 1312
Country: ROMAN EMPIRE
District: Umbria

Village: Gubbio

Description.: INGOT AES RUDE COPPER

Description: Central Italy, 5th - 3rd Century BC:


Roman Republican Aes Rudes (or Aes
Infectum). Documented hoard found during
turn-of-the-century excavations near Gubbio,
Umbria. AES Rude: The First Roman "coin."
Unformed cast bronze fragment. This specimen
belonged to turn-of-the-century collector
involved in excavations of Gubbio in Umbria,
central Italy, not far from Perugia. In ancient
times the city was called Eugubium, which
translates to "Of the Umbri." The mountain
above the town is called "Foce" and was the site
for hundreds of years of pagan rituals of the
Cult of the Umbri and goes back to pre-Etruscan
civilizations. "Tradition assigned the institution
of the Roman coinage to the period of the kings
Servius Tullus and Numa." Pliny quotes Timaeus
of Tauromenium in an inconsistent and confused
account of the establishment of Rome''''s Picture not found:
coinage and called these lumps of irregular C:\USERS\COL\DOCUMENTS\KEEPERNET\PIC94-10181-2.JPG
weighing bronzes without official stamp or mark
of value as Aes Rude or Aes Infectum. Fifth
century Rome did see the official valuation of
bronze at equivalents of oxen and sheep, when
in c. 450 the decemvirs codified the Roman Law
in the famous ''''Twelve Tablets'''' which
recognized the bronze currency in use in central
Italy (i.e., 1000 Asserae= 1 ox, 100 lbs of
bronze = 1 ox, 10 Asserae= 1 sheep, etc).

A system of barter with copper objects had


long existed in Central Italy where copper was
plentiful and valued while silver was rare and
gold nonexistent. The Italic population had
Page 819 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1780 Acq Date: 1405
Country: SERBIA
District:

Village:

Description.: AXEBLADE IRON

Description: Iron socketed axe excavated in


Serbia dating to 1050-750 BC .

Al iron items, especially axes, had high


trade/monetary value in the area at the time.

No Picture 2
Page 820 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1781 Acq Date: 1405
Country: OLBIA
District: Black Sea Region

Village: and Lower Danube Area

Description.: ARROWHEAD MONEY

Description: A true money.


7th to 5th century BC. Refer Monetary
Circulation and the Political History of Archaix
Borysthenes by Sergei Solovyov.

No Picture 2
Page 821 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1782 Acq Date: 1406
Country: Greece/Macedonia
District:

Village:

Description.: Bronze Knife

Description: 1600-1050 BC. BRONZE AGE. Circa


2nd millennium BC.

No Picture 2
Page 822 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1783 Acq Date: 1406
Country: JAPAN
District:

Village:

Description.: Bead called Magatama

Description: Illustration in Plate I of "Coins of


Japan" by N G Munro
Privately obtained from a collection in an old
manor house situated on the Welsh Marches, on
the border of England and Wales (Herefordshire
& Powys). Not far from the tiny medieval
English village of Pembridge. A number of
quality ancient world pieces of Jade, etc were
also obtained.
Page 823 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1784 Acq Date: 1410
Country: LAOS
District: Xiang Khoung

Village: Plain of Jars Area

Description.: Axeblade bronze/copper (2)

Description: These were actually found in one of


the great jars in the Plain Of Jars area.
Page 824 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1785 Acq Date: 1308
Country: NIGERIA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARMRING ELEPHANT HAIR

Description: Elephant tail bristles or hairs were


a readily accepted money in many areas of
Africa. The tail was an extremely high value
article and, at one time, was worth two slaves.
Quiggins says (page 80) - Andrew Battell, at the
beginning of the 17th century carried all
commodities fit for that country as long glass
beads, and round blue beads and seed beads
and looking-glasses, blue and red cloth and
Irish rugs for trade. He exchanged these for
ivory palm fibre, cloth and elephants
tails. These were to be traded again, the
elephants tails in particular fetching a high
price, 50 hairs being valued at 1,000 rets and
one tail being equal to 2 or 3 slaves.

No Picture 2
Page 825 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1786 Acq Date: 1503
Country: Greece/Sicily
District: Akragas

Village:

Description.: Coin Bronze Four Tetras Cast

Description: c450 B.C. cast coin. Cone Shape.


Heads of two eagles back-to-back. Crab on
other side . 3 pellets on base . ref: Calciati 1;
SNG ANS 1017..

No Picture 2
Page 826 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1787 Acq Date: 9111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: URFUSEI VILLAGE

Description.: EARRING GLASS

Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.


Ancient Glass Earrings, Geelvink Bay Area, West
Papua; these glass earrings were collected on
the Waropen Coast along the North Coast of
West New Guinea, traditionally called "dimbo" in
the local Warpoen language, they were an
important type of traditional wealth used for
bride price payments, other types of
compensation payments and for goods,
especially bird of paradise skins that Malay
traders came to obtain by trading glass and
metal objects.
Old men say that their fathers told them that
these Dimbo came from special trees in the
jungle. Ornament Magazine dates them as 13th
Century Javanese glass with Islamic influence.

No Picture 2
Page 827 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1788 Acq Date: 9708
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Daggers of cassowary bone,


especially those that were carved, were a
popular trade item in the Sepik and even more
valued in the Papuan Gulv/Torres Strait region

No Picture 2
Page 828 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1789 Acq Date: 9708
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: DAGGER CASSOWARY BONE

Description: Daggers of cassowary bone,


especially those that were carved, were a
popular trade item in the Sepik and even more
valued in the Papuan Gulv/Torres Strait region

No Picture 2
Page 829 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1790 Acq Date: 9209
Country: SOLOMONS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village: ROVIANA LAGOON, Mokasi Island

Description.: Ear Plug Wood and Shell

Description: Ex Sid Hagley Collection.


Collected by AW Dobbie probably from Roviana
Lagoon (Mokasi Island), New Georgia, Solomon
Islands in 1899. The person, later recording
details of the item, incorrectly identified it as
the lid or stopper of a New Guinea coconut
bottle, presumably because Dobbie spent more
time in New Guinea rather than the Solomons.
Alexander William Dobbie (1843-1912) was a
member of the Royal Society of South Australia,
he entered business for himself at the age of
nineteen and became a prosperous merchant
and inventor. A world traveller, he visited many
countries including Europe, Egypt and Ceylon
and, in 1899, New Guinea and The Solomon
Islands. Refer to the South Australian Museum
Archives: AA390/1671: A.W.Dobbie 42
photographs 1899 Solomon Is, PNG: Madang,
New Britain, Milne Bay & Central Prov. No Picture 2
In 2007-2008 the Art Gallery of South Australia
acquisitioned a number of photographs by AW
Dobbie taken in New Guinea and the Solomons
Rubiana Lagoon, Mokasi Island - all taken in
1899.
This would have been a valued wearable
ornament worn by an important person.

In 2007-2008 the Art Gallery of South Australia


acquisitioned a number of photographs by AW
Dobbie taken in New Guinea (Dobu Island, New
Britain, Milne Bay, Normanby Island, Thursday
Page 830 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1791 Acq Date: 9111
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: RAMU RIVER - LOWER SEPIK

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE PORCELAIN BUTTONS


(PORTION)
Description: Antique European porcelain buttons
used in the place of the standard strings of shell
money. Shell armrings, dogs teeth and similar
items have been copied bu early Europeans to
trade with the natives.
A valued item at the time.

No Picture 2
Page 831 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1792 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: TRUMPET TRITON SHELL CALLED


-DWOR-
Description: It is a trumpet made from a Triton
Shell and comes from Rossel Island in New
Guinea.

Previously owned by Thomas Pindi of Abeleti


Village. It was blown for big gathering of people
- like fightings against two people for a wrong
doing or quarrels against two villages foe a
wrong doing or a Patrol Officer visit to a Ward
Village to collect Local Government taxes.

These items were favourite trade items


throughout the Pacific.

No Picture 2
Page 832 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1793 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: Coral Black

Description: Previously owned by Thomas Pindi


of Abeleti Village.

Used as a true money on Santo where it was


valued at six pigs or one wife. See Quiggin page
168

No Picture 2
Page 833 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1794 Acq Date: 9604
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: JINJO VILLAGE

Description.: Axeblade Stone Massim - Vapatu.

Description: PREVIOUS OWNER WAS JEROME


KAIYOBU OF JINJO VILLAGE.
AXEBLADE STONE MASSIM LARGE -VAPATU.
Also called Beku in Trobriands

No Picture 2
Page 834 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1795 Acq Date: 8609
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TORRES STRAITS

Village:

Description.: WOVEN CANE ARMBAND

Description: See "The Torres Strait Collections


of A C Haddon by David R Moore (1984) Plate 5
#55. Almost exactly similar to that collected by
A C Haddon in 1898 and now in the Cambridge
University Museum of Archaeology &
Anthropology.
Collected by William Campbell Thomson. Born in
1855 in Glasgow, he commanded A.U.S.N.
steamers from 1875 to 1919 most notably, the
Arawatta, Aramac, Levuka, Wyreema, Wyandra
and Wodonga. During his 44 years of service he
traveled the eastern Australian coast, New
Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji and other parts of
the South Pacific. Thomson was a well
respected seaman and the author of at least
three publications. He was captain of the
Croydon when it was chartered by Alexander
Agassiz, the famous American scientist and
engineer, on a voyage from Brisbane to
Cooktown in April/May 1896. Thomson gathered
a collection of items from northern Qld, PNG
and Fiji. Part of the collection, left to one of his
daughters, Eulie Round, was in a house in
Caloundra, Qld, from 1935 until moved to
Brisbane decades later. This part of the
collection of over 20 items sold at Pickles
Auctions, Sydney Sept 1986.
Page 835 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1796 Acq Date: 9512
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: Reef Islands

Village:

Description.: ADZEBLADE TEREBRA SHELL

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

Nice adzeblade made from a Trerebra shell.


Stone was very scarce in the area.

No Picture 2
Page 836 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1797 Acq Date: 9512
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: NEW GEORGIA

Village:

Description.: SHELLRING CLAMSHELL (called


Mbakia)
Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,
Honiara, Solomons.

Called Mbakia, Bakiha, Bakisa or Erenge.

These are a variety of the standard Poata - the


difference being the yellow stain at one edge
which is the yellow colour from the hinge of the
giant clam. Only a few shellrings can be made
showing the stain.

As with the Poata these rings are almost


perfectly uniform in the circle shape with very
regular, unvarying, thickness and width from
hole to edge.

Bakiha were graded by size, texture and the


concentration and extent of the yellow to red
stain on their surface No Picture 2

Bakiha were shell rings made from the hinge


section of fossilized Tridacna gigas clamshells
and graded according to size, texture, and color,
with only the adductor muscle area yielding the
most reddish and highest valued rings.
These were used in a wide variety of social
exchanges ranging from bride price to the
settlement of hostilities, but
they are pre-eminently seen as emblems of
chiefly power and as offerings made at ancestor
shrines, with skulls of
chiefs often being placed on top of bakiha. It is
as offerings at shrines that they appear
archaeologically.
Page 837 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1798 Acq Date: 9304
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: BARAVA CLAMSHELL CANOE


ORNAMENT
Description: This is a Barava (also called
vinasari) made of clamshell. They were placed
in shrines and on graves with the skull of the
deceased. They were also used as part of a
vovoso, a powerful charm carried in war canoes
during head hunting expeditions to protect the
crew and ensure success.

Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi, Honiara,


Solomon Islands.

No Picture 2
Page 838 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1799 Acq Date:
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Manam Island

Village: Abaria Village

Description.: PENDANT -KAP KAP-


TORTOISESHELL & SHELL (damage)
Description: Collected by Todd Barlin.
For 30 years has been a collector, scholar and
dealer of Oceanic Art. His appreciation of
Oceanic art began at Auckland Museum in 1985
culminating in a two month trip to New Guinea
which ignited a lifelong passion for the Pacific
peoples; their art and their cultures. In the next
25 years Todd made over 40 trips to Papua New
Guinea, West Papua, Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. He stayed in remote villages and lived
as they did, ate what they ate and suffered
their problems such as malaria and dengue
fever. This was before the internet, etc which
exposed remote villages to the outside world.
He often travelled for six or eight months a year
to out of the way areas and spent months living
with cultural groups including the Asmat, the
Mimika, the Marind Anim , the people of Lake
Sentani and Geelvink Bay and spent time in the
Sepik River area, the Southern Highlands and
Enga Provinces of Papua New Guinea and
remote villages in Vanuatu and the Solomon
Islands. Todd started dealing in tribal art in
1987 and, in 1995, became the Tribal Art Expert
for Sothebys Australia staying in this position
until 1999. His items are in many of the Great
Museums.
Page 839 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1800 Acq Date: 9608
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE CONUS SHELLS

Description: Refer Quiggins p175, fig72

High value conus disc necklace. A true money


item.

No Picture 2
Page 840 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1801 Acq Date: 9205
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: BALIEM

Description.: NECKLACE MELO PENDANT &


NASSA SHELL - DANI
Description: Called Mikah.

One of the main valuables of the Dani warrior


and Big Man.
Ex Lawsons Tribal Art Auctions.
Page 841 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1802 Acq Date: 9304
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District: MALAITA

Village:

Description.: NECKLACE WITH DOG'S TEETH

Description: Obtained from Sir Mariano Kelesi,


Honiara, Solomons.

A money shellstring from Malaita. It consists of


money black and white shell discs with very old
Flyng Fox teeth which are also valuables and
monetary.

No Picture 2
Page 842 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1803 Acq Date: 9705
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: ARMBAND CONUS (SECTIONED) -


not joined
Description: Part of Lawson's lot #655 (Ref
umber on the item is #EC145). This lot was
originally unpaid Lot 543 of Sotheby's Sydney
28/10/96 auction of items sold by Glenbow
Museum, Calgary, Canada for the Museum's
endowment Fund. Originally from Ingeborg
Marshall and was collected by Edith Twyford and
jane Pearce, Methodist Missionaries in the
Trobriands in the period between 1919 and
1925

No Picture 2
Page 843 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1804 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: EAST SEPIK

Village: MURIK LAKES AREA

Description.: SHELL NASSA SHELL MONEY -


MAIJ-
Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys Sydney
November 1995. Stated in catalogue as -were
obtained from the Tyrells Curio shop on
Castlereagh Street, Sydney around 1930. Many
of these fine objects were collected by Tyrells
just after World War I. From the collection of
the late Clive Thompson1915-88. He lived in
Victoria until WWII when he served the Military
in New Guinea. On returning to Australia he
worked in the remote goldmines of Western
Australia.

A very scarce example of the MAIJ shell money


of the Sepik Area of New Guinea. These are
illustrated In Quiggins book (p173) on Primitive
Moneys and also by the German ethnologists
Finsch and Schneider. These are not to be
confused with the normal nassa shells on string
which are used as decoration throughout New
Guinea. The Maij is a specific item which was
used as a money only. Both Finsch and Quiggins
advise that they are a true money and currency.
They were also known by the names SSanem
and Darram and these are the names that Finch
and Schneider usually use. From the Murik
Lakes area.

Over 100 years old.


Page 844 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1805 Acq Date: 9511
Country: SOLOMON ISLANDS
District:

Village:

Description.: SHELLSTRING WHITE CONUS AND


BROWN DISC-1140MM X 5-6MM
Description: Part of Lot 104 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell''s
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell''s just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

This is a money shell string of tiny coneshell


discs. This is unusual as most shellstrings from
the Solomons are made of solid flattened shell
discs.

It is over 100 years old.


Page 845 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1806 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: TROBRIANDS

Village:

Description.: ARMRING CONUS MWALI

Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in


catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell''s
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell''s just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

one of the two items valued in the Kula trade


cycle. Called a Mwali.

Over 100 years old.


Page 846 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1807 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: SEPIK

Village:

Description.: EARRING TORTOISESHELL

Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in


catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.
A valued item of wearable money.
Page 847 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1808 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Gulf??

Village:

Description.: ARMLET WITH JOB'S TEARS


possibly Eastern Gulf
Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the
Tyrell''''s Curio shop on Castlereagh Street,
Sydney around 1930. Many of these fine objects
were collected by Tyrell''''s just after World War
I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.

Probably a mourning decoration.

Over 100 years old.


Page 848 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1809 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Gulf??

Village:

Description.: HEADBAND WITH JOB'S TEARS


possibly Eastern Gulf
Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in
catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I'
'From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.
Probably a mournng decoration.
Page 849 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1810 Acq Date: 9511
Country: NEW GUINEA
District:

Village:

Description.: BAG STRING

Description: Part of Lot 105 Sothebys. Stated in


catalogue as "...were obtained from the Tyrell's
Curio shop on Castlereagh Street, Sydney
around 1930. Many of these fine objects were
collected by Tyrell's just after World War I"
"From the collection of the late Clive
Thompson1915-88. He lived in Victoria until
WWII when he served the Military in New
Guinea. On returning to Australia he worked in
the remote goldmines of Western Australia.
Page 850 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1811 Acq Date: 1506
Country: FIJI
District:

Village:

Description.: Bowl Wooden (tanoa)

Description: See
https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/1013
8/40203/erasaari_dissertation.pdf?sequence=1
page 167: 2. yau ('wealth'): this category
includes mats, bark cloth as well as other
indigenous exchange items that are considered
particular pieces
traditional wealth and are hence only rarely
seen in Naloto, such as the woven fans (iri) of
Daku village; the basket (voco) characteristic of
Vugalei, the bark cloth (masi) of Vatulele or the
wooden kava bowls (tanoa) of Kabara and
Fulaga islands.

No Picture 2
Page 851 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1812 Acq Date: 9407
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: ROSSEL ISLAND

Village: ABELETI VILLAGE

Description.: NDAP TEBUDA Class #7

Description: Previously owned by Thomas Pindi


of Abeleti Village who obtained it from Sixtus
Tom also of Abeleti Village.
Made by the god Wonajo before man came to
Rossel
This is an example of the rare Shell Coin of
Rossel Island called Ndap. This example is of
the denomination " Tebuda". These were made
by a god and were used in Brideprice, the price
for killing a man, warfare payments, funerary
payments, and as the price for part of the body
of the victim at a cannibal feast (the Rossel
Islanders were cannibals because their god
Wonajo was a cannibal). Of the highest rarity)
Armstrong, in his book on Rossel, estimates
about 59 of this denomination to be in
existence. This item was part of the price of a
pig at a ceremonial pig feast.
Opitz, in his book on Primitive Money allocates a No Picture 2
full page to Ndap and in-depth articles have
been printed in the Eucoprimo and TMA
Journals. Quiggins, in her book on Primitive
Money, allocates a full three pages to these
items and Armstrong, in his 1928 book, gives
twenty five pages to them. It is probable that,
after the Yap Stone Money, these are the most
important of Pacific Primitive Moneys.
An important and extremely rare item.
Page 852 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1813 Acq Date: 1509
Country: Danube Region
District:

Village:

Description.: Beads - Two Bronze Coins Holed


For Suspension
Description: Here are two beads made from
bronze coins.The larger appears to be an
ancient Macedonian coin of Philip II or
Alexander the Great.

They were probably made into beads by the


Celts from the Danube Region.

Ca. 4th Cent. BC

No Picture 2
Page 853 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1814 Acq Date: 1510
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: IRIAN JAYA

Village: SENTANI

Description.: Glass Ring Clear

Description: Called Ebha.

Ancient and highly valued glass ring, Malayan


and Chinese traders from past centuries
brought these to New Guinea as barter object,
called OBA

No Picture 2
Page 854 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1815 Acq Date: 1512
Country: Balkan Peninsula
District:

Village:

Description.: Bronze Spiral Bracelet - Celtic

Description: Celtic Hallstatt Culture Period - c.


1000 BC

No Picture 2
Page 855 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1816 Acq Date: 1512
Country: Central Europe
District:

Village:

Description.: Bronze Bracelet - Celtic

Description: Celtic Hallstatt Culture Period - c.


1000 BC.
A standard item of value.

No Picture 2
Page 856 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1817 Acq Date: 1601
Country: Sarmatia/Skythia
District: Olbia

Village:

Description.: Bronze Dolphin "APIXO"


Inscription
Description: These small copper pieces cast in
the shape of a dolphin are totally different from
other Greek coins. They are made of bronze,
but the earliest bronze Sicilian coins appeared
about 100 years later. They are cast, but older
by over 200 years than the earliest Italic and
Roman cast money. Finally, they are made in
the shape of a sea mammal, the dolphin. There
was no other such money in the Greek world.
Bronze dolphins first appeared in Olbia between
550-525 B.C. Apollo-Dolphinium had been the
most important god of the Miletian settlers, and
the dolphin was the main attribute of this god.
Small, cast dolphins at first were made as
sacrificial subjects for Apollo, but soon they
became currency, employed by the local settlers
as a primitive money, circulating in Olbia and
vicinity. Around 430-410 BC., the dolphin issue
was taken under control of the polis. Dolphins No Picture 2
became flat on one side and an inscription
appeared in that area (APIXO or OY). These
dolphins were issued for a very short time, and
they are rare. These fish-coins were the last
figure-shaped coins of the Greek world.
Page 857 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1818 Acq Date: 1601
Country: SCYTHIA
District:

Village: Lower Danube Area of Bulgaria

Description.: ARROWHEAD MONEY

Description: A true Money.


Black Sea region 7th-5th century BC.
Illustrated in publication by Nieczitajlo-Mihailov.
Refer Monetary Circulation and the Political
History of Archaic Borysthenes - Sergei L
Solovyov.
The ancient Scythians had many bloody tribal
customs, including cutting off the heads of slain
enemies, and making leather bound drinking
cups from the skulls. They lined these trophies
with gold and displayed them to impress their
guests.

We do know from history that their bows could


deliver an arrow 521.6 meters which is a little
more then 567 yards according to the
inscription found in a Greek grave which says
"Anaxagoras son of Dimagoras" shot such a bow
in the city of Olbia. When in war the Scythians No Picture 2
are said to have carried from 30 to 150 arrows
into battle.

The arrow heads were developed and designed


by the Scythians were superior than arrows
used by their Middle East neighbors. They were
considered much better than the traditional leaf
shaped arrow heads used in Mesopotamia.

The Scythian arrow head is known as the


"Scythian point". This arrow head had more of a
bullet shape with three sides and each of those
three sides had very small wings. The reason
for this innovation was to penetrate armor
better.
Page 858 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1819 Acq Date: 1605
Country: NEW GUINEA
District: Oro Province, Collingwood Bay

Village:

Description.: LIME SPATULA WOOD-ORO-


MASSIM
Description: Satulas from the Oro Province are
quite scarce.

Ex collection of Dr H Herzum, Bad Homburg,


Germany

No Picture 2
Page 859 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1820 Acq Date: 1605
Country: Sarmatia
District: OLBIA

Village:

Description.: Bronze Dolphin Coin

Description: Dolphin Coin c 5th Cent. BC -


These small copper pieces cast in the shape of a
dolphin are totally different from other Greek
coins. They are made of bronze, but the earliest
bronze Sicilian coins appeared about 100 years
later. They are cast, but older by over 200 years
than the earliest Italic and Roman cast money.
Finally, they are made in the shape of a sea
mammal, the dolphin (the Greeks considered
the dolphin to be a fish). There was no other
such money in the Greek world. Bronze dolphins
first appeared in Olbia between 550-525 B.C.
Apollo-Dolphinium had been the most important
god of the Miletian settlers, and the dolphin was
the main attribute of this god. Small, cast
dolphins at first were made as sacrificial
subjects for Apollo, but soon they became
currency, employed by the local settlers as a
primitive money, circulating in Olbia and No Picture 2
vicinity. Ca. 5th to 4th Cent. BC
Page 860 Monday, 1 May 2017
C No: C.1821 Acq Date: 1605
Country: SCYTHIA
District:

Village:

Description.: ARROWHEAD MONEY WITH "X"


TAMGA
Description: A true Money.
Black Sea region 7th-5th century BC.
Illustrated in publication by Nieczitajlo-Mihailov.
Refer Monetary Circulation and the Political
History of Archaic Borysthenes - Sergei L
Solovyov.
The ancient Scythians had many bloody tribal
customs, including cutting off the heads of slain
enemies, and making leather bound drinking
cups from the skulls. They lined these trophies
with gold and displayed them to impress their
guests.

We do know from history that their bows could


deliver an arrow 521.6 meters which is a little
more then 567 yards according to the
inscription found in a Greek grave which s