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# BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 1.1 THE CORRELATION OF DIFFERENT SIZES OF CUBES WITH TOTAL

SURFACE AREA/ VOLUME (TSA/V) RATIO/KORELASI ANTARA KIUB YANG
BERLAINAN SAIZ DENGAN NISBAH JUMLAH LUAS PERMUKAAN / ISI PADU
(JLP/I)

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT :

What is the relationship between the TSA/V ratio and the movement of solutes
to the interior of an object?
Apakah hubungan antara nisbah JLP/I dengan pergerakan bahan terlarut ke
dalam sesuatu objek?

2. HYPOTHESIS :

The smaller the TSA/V ratio, the lesser the movement of solutes to the interior
of an object.
Semakin berkurang nisbah JLP/I, semakin berkurang kadar pergerakan bahan
terlarut ke dalam sesuatu objek.

3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated variable :
Size of object
Saiz objek

Responding variable :
The percentage of coloured areas
Peratusan kawasan yang berwarna

Constant variable :
Temperature//concentration of coloured water//volume of coloured water//type
of potato
Suhu//kepekatan air berwarna//isipadu air berwarna/ jenis ubi kentang

## 4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS :

Apparatus :
Knife, tile, beaker, ruler, and stopwatch
Pisau, jubin, bikar, pembaris dan jam randik

Materials :
Coloured Water and potatoes
Air berwarna dan ubi kentang

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

5. PROCEDURE

## K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus

K2 : Operating the CV
K3 : Operating the RV
K4 : Operating the MV
K5 : Steps to increase reliability of result accurately / precaution

1. Cut the potatoes into cubes with sides 4 cm, 3 cm and 2 cm respectively. K1
Potong ubi kentang kepada kiub-kiub yang bersisi 4 cm, 3 cm dan 2 cm
masing-masing.
2. Calculate the total surface area and volume of each tube. K1
Hitung jumlah luas permukaan dan isi padu setiap kiub.
3. Put the potato cubes into a beaker of coloured water. K1
Masukkan kiub-kiub ubi kentang ke dalam bikar yang berisi air
berwarna.
4. Used a stopwatch to record the time.
Masa di rekod menggunakan jam randik.
5. Let the potatoes cubes in coloured water for 30 minutes. K2
Biarkan kiub kentang di dalam air berwarna selama 30 minit.
6. Removes the potatoes cubes from the beaker after 30 minutes. K1
Keluarkan kiub-kiub kentang dari bikar selepas 30 minit.
7. Cut cubes with sides 4 cm into two halves. K1
Potong ubi kentang yang bersisi 4 cm kepada dua bahagian.
8. Observe and estimate the percentage of area coloured using grid paper. K3
Perhatikan dan anggarkan peratusan kawasan berwarna dengan
menggunakan kertas grid.
9. Repeat step 7 and 8 by using cubes with sides 3 cm and 2 cm. K4
Ulangi langkah 7 dan 8 dengan menggunakan kiub yang bersisi 3 cm
dan 2 cm.
10. The experiment is carried out using same volume of coloured water and K2
concentration of coloured water.
kepekatan air berwarna yang sama.
11. Record all data in table. K1
Rekodkan semua data di dalam jadual.
12. Repeat steps 9 using another grid paper to get average reading. K5
Ulang langkah 9 menggunakan kertas grid yang lain untuk
mendapatkan bacaan purata.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA

## Side (cm) Total surface Volume TSA/V Estimated percentage of

Sisi (cm) area (cm2) (cm3) (ratio) coloured area (%)
Jumlah luas Isipadu JLP/I Anggaran peratusan
permukaan (cm3) (nisbah) kawasan berwarna(%)
(cm2)
2
3
4

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 1.2 BARK RINGING TO SHOW THE ROLE OF PHLOEM IN TRANSPORT OF

FUNGSI FLOEM DALAM TUMBUHAN.

1. 1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What is the effect of removing a ring of phloem tissue from the stem of a tree?
Apakah kesan pada tisu kulit pokok di bahagian atas dan bawah gelang
apabila gelang kulit dibuang daripada pokok batang.
2. HYPOTHESIS:

The tissue just above the ring swells whereas the tissue below the ring withers.
Bahagian atas gelang kulit yang dibuang daripada batang pokok membengkak
selepas beberapa minggu, manakala bahagian bawah gelang kulit mengecut.
3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variables:
A stem that is ringed and a stem that is not ringed.
Bahagian gelang kulit yang dibuang dan bahagian gelang kulit yang tidak
dibuang.

Responding variables:
The condition of the stems above and below the ring after one month
selepas gelang kulit pada batang dibuang.

Constant variable:
The plant type (hibiscus rosa-sinesis sp. ) , duration of the experiment
Jenis pokok yang digunakan (hibiscus rosa-sinesis sp.), tempoh masa
eksperimen
4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

APPARATUS:
A healthy tree with small stems, Vaseline
Pokok yang sihat dengan dahan yang kecil, Vaseline

MATERIALS:
A sharp knife, meter ruler, pen/ marker pen
Pisau tajam, pembaris meter, pen/ marker pen
5. PROCEDURE:

## K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus

K2 : Operating the CV
K3 : Operating the RV
K4 : Operating the MV
K5 : Steps to increase reliability of result accurately / precaution

## 1. A knife is used to remove a complete ring of bark from a tree stem. K1

Pisau tajam digunakan untuk membuang satu gelang kulit dari batang
pokok kawasan berkayu.

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 2. Vaseline is applied on the exposed tissue. K1

Vaseline disapu pada tisu yang terdedah.

## 3. Leave the plant (hibiscus rosa-sinesis) in sunlight for one month. K2

Biarkan pokok bunga raya itu dibawah cahaya matahari selama satu
bulan.

4. After one month, the condition and the diameter of the stem above K1,
and below the ring is recorded. K2,
Selepas satu bulan, perhatikan perubahan yang berlaku (perubahan K3
diameter) pada tisu kulit pokok di bahagian atas dan bawah gelang
yang dibuat.

5. Make sure the plant is water every day and it obtains maximum K5
sunlight.
Pastikan pokok itu disiram dengan air setiap hari dan menerima
maksima cahaya matahari.

## 6. A drawing of the stem condition is made. K3

Lukiskan pemerhatian pada bahagian gelang kulit.

7. The condition of the stem is compared to the stem that is not ringed. K1,
Bandingkan perubahan yang berlaku pada tisu kulit pokok di bahagian K4
atas dan bawah gelang yang dibuat.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

The condition of The diameter of the stem above and below the
plant stem ring (cm)
batang pokok bahagian atas dan bawah gelang (cm)

## Stem that is ringed

(remove complete
ring of bark)
Bahagian gelang
kulit yang dibuang
Stem that is not
ringed
(have a remove
complete ring of
bark
Bahagian gelang
kulit yang tidak
dibuang.

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 1.3 THE EFFECT OF AIR MOVEMENT ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION.

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT :
What is the effect of air movement on the rate of transpiration?
2. HYPOTHESIS :
The faster the movement of air, the greater the rate of transpiration.
Semakin laju pergerakan udara, semakin tinggi kadar transpirasi.
3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated variable :
Air movement
Pergerakan udara

Responding Variable:
The distance travelled by the air bubble in 5 minutes
Jarak yang dilalui oleh gelembung udara dalam 5 minit.

Constant Variable:
Surrounding temperature, light intensity, relative humidity, type of plant
used.
Suhu persekitaran, keamatan cahaya, kelembapan relatif, jenis pokok.
4. APPARATUS AND MATERIAL:
A leafy shoot, Vaseline, dry cloth and coloured water (dilute eosin solution,
optional), a potometer, a beaker, secateurs, a basin of water and stopwatch.
Pucuk berdaun, vaselin, kain kering dan air berwarna (larutan eosin,
pilihan), potometer, beaker, pemotong ranting, besen air dan jam randik.

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

5. PROCEDURE:

## K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus

K2 : Operating the CV
K3 : Operating the RV
K4 : Operating the MV
K5 : Steps to increase reliability of result accurately / precaution

1. Choose a leafy shoot from a plant. Cut off the shoot with secateurs
and immediately immerse the cut end into a basin of water.
Pilih satu pucuk berdaun daripada sebatang pokok. Potong pucuk
dengan memotong ranting dan rendamkan segera hujung yang
dipotong ke dalam besen.

2. From the cut end of the shoot, cut about 1 cm of the stem obliquely
under the water.
Daripada hujung pokok yang dipotong, potong 1 cm batang di
dalam air.

## 3. Immerse the potometer in the water and move it around to remove

all the air bubbles. The tap of the reservoir must be open to fill the
graduated capillary tube with water. ( You may use dilute eosin
water so that the movement of air bubbles can be seen easily)
Rendamkan potometer dalam air dan gerakkan untuk membuang
gelembung udara. Klip air dibuka untuk mengisi tiub kapilari
dengan air. (Gunakan larutan eosin untuk melihat pergerakan
gelembung udara dengan lebih jelas)

4. Carefully insert the cut end of the stem into the hole in the cork of the
potometer under water. Make sure the leaves are kept out of the
water as much as possible.
Dengan berhati-hati, masukkan hujung batang ke dalam
penyumbat gabus potometer di dalam air. Pastikan daun dijauhkan

5. Close the reservoir tap before you remove the apparatus from the
water so that graduated capillary tube is full.
kapilari dipenuhi air.

6. Remove the apparatus from the water and set it up. The end of the
capillary tube is immersed in a beaker of water.
bikar yang mengandungi air.

7. Wipe the leaves and the apparatus dry by using dry cloth.
Lapkan daun dan radas dengan kain kering.

8. Smear Vaseline around the region of the stem which passes through
the cork of the potometer to ensure there is no leakage of water and
the apparatus is airtight.
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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

PRESENTATION OF DATA:

## Condition Distance travelled by the air bubble in 5 minutes Rate of

Jarak yang dilalui gelembung udara dalam 5 minit (cm/minute)
transpirasi
(cm/minit)
Bacaan Bacaan Bacaan Purata
pertama kedua ketiga
Non windy
Udara
tenang

Windy
Udara
bergerak

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 1.4 THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF

TRANSPIRATION /KESAN KEAMATAN CAHAYA KE ATAS KADAR
TRANSPIRASI

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

## What is the effect of light intensity on the rate of transpiration?

Apakah kesan keamatan cahaya ke atas kadar transpirasi?

2. HYPOTHESIS:

The higher the light intensity, the higher the rate of transpiration of Hibiscus sp.
Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya, semakin tinggi kadar transpirasi Hibiscus sp.

3. VARIABLES:

Manipulated variable:
Light intensity// Power of bulb// Distance of Hibiscus sp. From the light source.
Keamatan cahaya// kuasa mentol// Jarak Hibiscus sp. daripada punca cahaya

Responding variable:
Rate of transpiration// Time taken for air bubble to move a distance of 5cm//
Distance of air bubble move in 5 minutes
Kadar transpirasi// Masa yang diambil untuk gelembung udara bergerak
sejauh 5cm// jarak gelembung udara bergerak dalam 5 minit.

Constant variable :
Type of plant// Air movement// Relative humidity// The number of leaf of the
plant
Jenis tumbuhan// Pergerakan udara// Kelembapan relatif// Bilangan daun
tumbuhan

## 4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

Apparatus:
Potometer// Beaker+capillary tube+retort stand+rubber tubing, ruler, stopwatch,
Potometer// Bikar+tiub kapilari+kaki retot+salur getah, pembaris, jam randik,
pen penanda/benang,pisau

Materials:
Leafy/ Hibiscus sp.shoot, water, Vaseline/grease
Pucuk berdaun/ Hibiscus sp. ,air,vaselin/gris

5. PROCEDURE:

## K1: Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus

K2: Operating The CV
K3: Operating The RV
K4: Operating The MV

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## K5: Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately/Precaution

1. Cut a leafy shoot under water in a basin. K1,
Potong pucuk berdaun di bawah air dalam basin K5
2. Used a potometer K1
Gunakan photometer
K1
3. Fill the potometer with water
Isikan potometer dengan air

## 4. Attached a leafy shoot to the photometer K1

Sambungkan pucuk berdaun ke photometer

## 5. Wipe leaves dry using a cloth/tissue K5

Lap kering daun menggunakan kain/tisu

## 6. Make all the connection parts of joint air-tight using Vaseline. K5

Jadikan semua bahagian yang bersambung kalis udara menggunakan
Vaseline
7. Mark 2 points A and B ,5cm on the capillary tube. K1
Tandakan 2 titk A dan B , 5cm di atas tiub kapilari

## 8. An air bubble is introduced into potometer.

K1
Satu gelembung udara dimasukkan dalam potometer.

## 9. Place the potometer under the shade.

Letakkan potometer tersebut di tempat yang teduh K1

10. Using stopwatch, record the time taken for the air bubble to move from
point A to point B.
Dengan menggunakan jam randik, rekodkanmasa yang diambil untuk K3
gelembung udara bergerak daripada titik A ke titik B.
11. Repeat step 3 to 10 by placing the potometer under strong light intensity. K4
Ulangi langkah 3 ke 10 dengan meletakkan potometer tersebut di bawah
keamatan cahaya yang tinggi
12. The experiment is carried out in the same plant/temperature/relative K2
humidity.
Ulang eksperimen ini dengan tumbuhan /suhu/kelembapan relative yang
sama.

## 13. Record all data in a table. K1

Rekodkan semua data di dalam jadual.

## 14. Calculate the rate of transpiration using the following formula:

K3
Distance
Time
Hitungkan kadar transpirasi menggunakan formula berikut:
Jarak

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

Masa

## 15. Repeat experiment to get average reading. K5

Ulang eksperimen untuk mendapatkan bacaan purata
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

## Light intensity Time taken for air bubble Rate of transpiration(cm

Keamatan cahaya to move from point A to min-1 )
Masa yang diambil untuk min-1)
gelembung udara
bergerak dari titik A ke
titik B(min)
intensity)
Teduh (keamatan
cahaya rendah)
Strong light (higher
light intensity)
Cahaya
terang(keamatan
cahaya tinggi)

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 3.1 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT QUANTITIES OF WATER INTAKE ON URINE

OUTPUT./ KESAN PENGAMBILAN MINUMAN YANG BERLAINAN ISIPADU

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
What is the effect of different quantities of water intake on urine output?
penghasilan air kencing?

2. HYPOTHESIS:
The more the water intake, the more the volume of urine produced.
Semakin banyak air diminum, semakin banyak air kencing dihasilkan.
3. VARIABLES:
Manipulated Variable:
Volume of water intake.

Responding Variable:
Volume of urine produced.

Fixed Variable:
Time, no food before experiment
Masa, tidak makan sebelum eksperimen

## 4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS:

APPARATUS:
Measuring Cylinders
Silinder Penyukat

MATERIALS:
Paper cups and mineral water
Cawan kertas dan air mineral

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Students Volume of Volume of urine produced (ml)
Pelajar water taken BIOLOGY: FORM
Isipadu air kencing yang 5dihasilkan (ml)
(ml)
5. PROCEDURES: yand Student Mean
1. Getdiminum
4 students, A, B, C and Pelajar
Pelajar
(ml) Min
Pertama
Dapatkan empat orang pelajar, A, B, C danKedua
D dan kosongkan pundi
kencing mereka K1
A 200
B 300
2. Give student A 200ml of drinking water, student B 300ml of drinking
C 400
water, student C 400ml of drinking water and student D 500ml of
D 500 to drink.
drinking water K1,
Berikan pelajar A 200ml air minuman, pelajar B 300ml air minuman, K4
murid C 400ml air minuman dan murid D 500ml air minuman untuk
diminum.

3. Ask the four students to empty their bladders after an hour and collect
their urine in paper cups before pouring into the measuring cylinders. K1,
Minta keempat-empat pelajar pelajar kosongkan pundi kencing mereka K2
selepas satu jam dan kumpulkan air kencing mereka di dalam cawan
kertas sebelum dituangkan ke dalam silinder penyukat.

## 4. Measure and record the volume of urine produced by each student. K3

Sukat dan rekodkan isipadu air kencing yang dihasilkan oleh setiap
pelajar.

5. Another four students A1, B1, C1 and D1 were asked to repeat the step 1
to step 4 K4
4 pelajar A1, B1, C1 dan D1 disuruh untuk mengulangi langkah 1 hingga
langkah 4.
K1
6. Record all data in a table.
Rekodkan semua data di dalam jadual.
K5

## 7. Repeat experiment to get average reading.

Ulang eksperimen untuk mendapatkan bacaan purata

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 4.2 GROWTH PATTERN OF MAIZE PLANT/ POLA PERTUMBUHAN POKOK

JAGUNG

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT :

What is the effect of time on the growth pattern of maize plant/mass of maize
seedlings?
Apakah kesan masa ke atas pola pertumbuhan pokok jagung/jisim benih
jagung?

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

2. HYPOTHESIS :

## When the time is longer, the mass of maize seedlings increases.

Apabila masa lebih panjang, jisim benih jagung bertambah.
3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated variable :
Time of growth/Masa pertumbuhan

Responding variable :
Mass of seedlings/Jisim anak benih

Constant variable :
Amount of water/Jumlah air
4. APPARATUS& MATERIALS :

Apparatus :
Oven, weighing scale, seedling trays of the size of 1.5 m x 1.5 m
Ketuhar, penimbang,kotak semaian berukuran 1.5 m x 1.5 m

Materials :
50 maize grains of the same type and size, soil and tissue paper.
50 biji benih jagung yang sama jenis dan saiz, tanah dan tisu.
5. PROCEDURE :

## K1:Preparation of materials and apparatus

K2: Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV
K4: Operating the MV
K5: Steps To Increase Reliability of Result Accurately/ Precaution

## 1. 50 maize grains and one seedlings tray was prepared.

50 biji benih dan satu kotak semaian disediakan.

## 2. Three maize grain is weighed.

Tiga biji benih jagung di timbang.

## 3. Three maize grains is dried in an oven at a temperature of 100 0 C. The dry

mass of the grains is weighed and recorded.
Tiga biji benih jagung di keringkan di dalam ketuhar pada suhu 100 0 C.Jisim
kering biji benih di timbang dan direkod.

4. The remaining maize grains are sown in the seedling tray, each grain at a
distance of 15 cm from each other.
Biji benih yang selebihnya disemai di dalam kotak semaian,dengan jarak 15
cm antara setiap biji benih.

## 5. The seedlings are watered every day.

Anak benih disiram setiap hari.

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

6. Three seedlings are obtained at random every week from the seedling tray.
Tiga anak benih dikeluarkan dari kotak semaian secara rawak setiap
minggu.

7. The seedling are washed and wiped dry. The seedlings are weighed.
Anak benih dibasuh dan dikeringkan. Biji benih ditimbang.

8. The seedlings are dried in an oven and the dry mass is recorded.
Anak benih dikeringkan dalam ketuhar dan jisim kering direkodkan.

## 9. Steps 7 to 9 are repeated for over 12 weeks.

Langkah 7 hingga 9 diulangi selama 12 minggu.

## 10. The result obtained is recorded.

Keputusan yang diperolehi direkodkan.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA :

## Time (week) Mass of three seedlings (g)/ Jisim tiga

/Masa (minggu) anak benih (g)
Fresh/Segar Dry/ Kering
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

## 6.1 TO INVESTIGE THE VARIATION IN THE HEIGHT OF STUDENTS/UNTUK

MENYIASAT VARIASI KETINGGIAN MURID

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT :

## How does height vary among the students in a class?

Bagaimanakah ketinggian antara murid berbeza dalam satu kelas?

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

2. HYPOTHESIS :

## The height of students in a class naries with no distinct differences.

Ketinggian murid dalam satu kelas menunjukkan perbezaan yang tidak jelas.
3. VARIABLES :

Manipulated variable :
The height of students
Ketinggian murid

Responding variable :
The number of student
Bilangan murid

Constant variable :
The age dan sex of the students
Umur dan jantina murid
4. APPARATUS& MATERIALS :

## Measuring tape and marker pen

Pita pengukur dan pen marker
5. PROCEDURE :

## K1:Preparation of materials and apparatus

K2: Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV
K4: Operating the MV
K5: Steps To Increase Reliability of Result Accurately/ Precaution

11. The height of each student in the class was measured and recorded
Ketinggian setiap murid di dalam kelas diukur dan direkodkan.

## 12. The results of the whole class was recorded in a table.

Keputusan bagi seluruh kelas direkodkan dalam sebuah jadual.

13. The heights of the students were then grouped into different ranges.
Ketinggian murid kemudiannya dikumpulkan dalam julat yang berlainan.

14. A histogram for the number of students against the height ranges was drawn.
Histogram bagi bilangan murid melawan julat ketinggian dilukis.

15. A curve was drawn joining the midpoints of the top of each box to form a
normal curve.
Satu garis lengkung dilukis dengan menyambungkan titik tengah di bahagian
atas setiap jalur julat untuk membentuk satu lengkung normal.

6. PRESENTATION OF DATA :

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

Height
range
(cm)/
Julat 135-139 140-144 145-149 150-154 155-159 160-164 165-169
ketinggian
(cm)
Number of
students/
Bilangan
pelajar

## 6.1 TO INVESTIGE THE VARIATION OF TOUNGE ROLLING OF

STUDENTS/UNTUK MENYIASAT VARIASI MENGGULUNG LIDAH MURID

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

How does the tongue rolling vary among the students in a class?
Bagaimanakah kebolehan menggulung lidah berbeza dalam sebuah kelas?
2. HYPOTHESIS:

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

Rolling tongue of students in the class are distinctively different and can be
classified into specific group.
kumpulam yang khusus.
3. VARIABLES:

## Manipulated variable/ Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan: Rolling tongue/

kebolehan menggulung lidah
Responding variable/ Pembolehubah bergerak balas: The number of students in
each group/ bilangan murid dalam setiap kumpulan
Constant variable/ Pembolehubah dimalarkan: the age of the students/ umur
murid
4. APPARATUS& MATERIALS:

Students / pelajar

5. PROCEDURE:
K1:Preparation of materials and apparatus
K2: Operating the CV
K3: Operating the RV
K4: Operating the MV
K5: Steps To Increase Reliability of Result Accurately/ Precaution

## 1. Observe each student for the ability to roll the tongue.

Perhatikan kebolehan menggulung lidah bagi setiap murid
2. Record the number of students with can rolling the tongue or cannot rolling the
tongue.
Catatkan bilangan murid bagi yang boleh menggulung lidah dan tidah boleh
mengggulung lidah.
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA :

## Trait Abitity to roll the tongue

Kebolehan menggulung lidah
Characteristic/ ciri Yes No
Boleh Tidak boleh
Number of students
Bilangan murid

## 6.2 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE PLANTS

GROWTH/ KESAN FAKTOR PERSEKITARAN YANG BERBEZA KE ATAS
PERTUMBUHAN POKOK

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## Apakah kesan keamatan cahaya ke atas pertumbuhan pokok?

2. HYPOTHESIS / HIPOTESIS :

The higher the light intensity, the higher the average length of leaves of a
balsam plant.
Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya, semakin tinggi panjang purata daun
pokok keembung.
3. VARIABLES / PEMBOLEHUBAH :

Manipulated variable:
Light intensity // Location where the plant is placed.
Keamatan cahaya // Tempat di mana pokok diletakkan.

Responding variable:
Length for 10 leaves from balsam plant chosen randomly
Panjang bagi 10 helai daun pokok keembung yang dipilih secara rawak

Constant variable:
Type of plant // Type of soil // Type of fertilizer // The number of leaf of the
plant.
Jenis tumbuhan // Jenis tanah // Jenis baja // Bilangan daun tumbuhan.
4. APPARATUS & MATERIALS / BAHAN & RADAS :

Apparatus :
Pasu, pembaris,Pisau

Materials :
Balsam plant, soil, fertilizer, water
Pokok keembung, tanah, baja,air.
PROCEDURE / PROSEDUR :

## K1 : Preparation Of Materials & Apparatus

K2 : Operating The CV
K3 : Operating The RV
K4 : Operating The MV
K5 : Steps To Increase Reliability Of Result Accurately / Precaution

1 Three balsam plant from the same parent were chosen and placed K1
into three different pots .
Tiga pokok keembung dari induk yang sama dipilih dan dialihkan
ke dalam tiga pasu yang berasingan.

2 The pots were put with the same type of soil. K1,
Pasu-pasu itu diisikan dengan jenis tanah yang sama. K2

3 One packet of same fertiliser was added into each of the pot. K2,
Sebanyak satu peket baja yang sama jenis ditambah ke dalam
setiap pasu.

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BIOLOGY: FORM 5

## 4 The pots were labelled as pot A, pot B and pot C. K1

Pasu-pasu itu dilabelkan sebagai pasu A, pasu B dan pasu C.

## 5 The three pots were put at three diffrent location : K1

(a) Pot A - beside the classroom, facing the sunlight K4
(b) Pot B - under the big tree, a shaded area
(c) Pot C - inside the laboratory preparation room, dark area
Ketiga-tiga pasu diletakkan di tiga lokasi yang berbeza :
(a) Pasu A - bersebelahan bilik darjah, mengadap matahari
(b) Pasu B - di bawah sebatang pokok yang besar, kawasan teduh
(c) Pasu C - di dalam bilik persediaan makmal, kawasan gelap

6 The plants were watered twice per day with same amaun of water K1,
for two months. K2
Pokok-pokok itu disiram sebanyak dua kali setiap hari dengan
jumlah air yang sama selama dua bulan.

7 After two months, ten leaves from each plant were taken using a K2,
knife and the length of each leaf was measured using a ruler. K3
Selepas dua bulan, sebanyak sepuluh helai daun dari setiap pokok
diambil dengan menggunakan pisau dan panjang setiap daun
diukur dengan menggunakan pembaris .

## 8 The average value of the leaves length was calculated : K3,

(Total length of 10 leaves ) 10 K5
Nilai purata panjang daun dihitungkan :
(Jumlah panjang 10 daun) 10

## 9 Semua ukuran dan pemerhatian direkodkan dalam jadual . K1

All measurement and observation were recorded in a table.
6. PRESENTATION OF DATA / PERSEMBAHAN DATA :

## Location of plant Length of leaves (cm)

Lokasi pokok Panjang daun (cm)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

## beside the classroom

bersebelahan bilik
darjah
under the big tree
di bawah sebatang
pokok yang besar
inside the laboratory
preparation room
di dalam bilik
persediaan makmal

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