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3.

FORCE SYSTEMS
FORCE
SYSTEMS
Characteristics of a Force

A
Force is
characterized by
F 1. Point of
application (A)
- ( 100
2. Magnitude
N)
3. Direction (from x-axis)

Objective: To bring out the characteristics of a Force as applied in Statics


Sense of Force

y y

x x

Tension Compression

Objective: To bring out the two senses in which a Force can act
RIGID BODIES AND FLEXIBLE
BODIES
Rigid Body

Steel, Wood, Concrete, Stone are rigid bodies, we


neglect their deformation in Statics

In Statics we deal
with
Flexible Body Rigid bodies alone

Foam is Flexible material, which undergoes


large deformations under loading
Objective: To bring out the difference between a Rigid Body and a Flexible Body
Transmissibility

F Hence Pulling is
equal to Pushing,
provided the Forces
are on the same
horizontal line
F (same line of action)

This is known as the Principle of Transmissibility

Objective: To explain the concept of Transmissibility


P

P
From the viewpoint of Statics, the Arch which is
loaded on the top is equivalent top the arch which
is loaded from beneath this is an application of
the principle of Transmissibility
Objective: An example which illustrates the principle of Transmissibility
Red Forces
are Applied
Forces

Blue Forces
are
Reaction
Forces

The dotted line the Reference Boundary for the


Structural System under consideration

Objective: To describe, System Boundary, Applied Forces and Reaction Forces


The Green Forces are the Internal Forces

Objective: To describe Internal Forces


External Force

Internal
Forces

Reference
Boundary of the
Structural System

Reaction Forces

Objective: An example to illustrate: System Boundary, External ,Reaction & Internal


Forces
CONCLUSIONS

1. The System
boundaries can
be defined
arbitrarily
2. What the
Applied Forces,
the Reaction
Forces and the
Internal Forces
are, will be
clarified
accordingly

Objective: To explain the idea that the System Boundary is defined, depending on the
portion of the structure one wishes to focus on
Vector Addition

Characteristics of a Vector

An important characteristic of vectors is that


they must be added according to the
parallelogram law . This is necessary because
vectors have both magnitude and direction .
Using parallelogram law, we may add vectors
graphically or by trigonometric relationships.
First we will see the graphical method and
then the trigonometric method.

Objective: To explain how Vectors can be added graphically


V=900 N A box is being pulled up
PARALLELOGRAM by a Force of 900 N and
LAW OF VECTOR pulled to the right with a
ADDITION H=900 N Force of 900 N. We want
to know the Resultant.

N
1000

800

600
V=900 N

400
=1300#
R
200
= 22.6o H=900 N

200 400 600 800 1000 N


PARALLELOGRAM LAW OF ADDITION OF VECTORS

0#

R
50

75
900# 15

Objective: To illustrate the parallelogram method of addition of vectors using triangles


TIP TO TAIL METHOD
Another Method of Vector Addition

A
R
O B

A
R

O
B
Determining the Resultant by Analytical Method.

Sometimes it is more convenient to determine the Resultant by using the cosine


law as shown in the following example.
30o
F1 = 100lb 75o
F1 = 100lb = 105o
45o
o
o
30

30
R F2 = 140lb
x
R 2 = F12 + F22 2 F cos
45o
= 100 2 + 140 2 2(100)(140)(0.259)
y
F2 = 140lb = 192lb
R F2
=
sin 105o sin
F2 sin 105o
sin =
R
140 0.966
=
192
= 0.704
= sin 1 (0.704)
o
= 44.8
VECTOR ADDITION

600 lb
45
35
900 lb

R= 1413 lb, Angle=50.8 R=1413 lb, Angle=50.8

900 lb

600 lb R R
600 lb
45

900 lb
35
Parallelogram Method Tip-to-tail method
Graphical addition of Three or More Vectors
y

R12
y
F2 F1 F2
F1
R123 x
x
F3
F3