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FORCE SYSTEMS

FORCE

SYSTEMS

Characteristics of a Force

A

Force is

characterized by

F 1. Point of

application (A)

- ( 100

2. Magnitude

N)

3. Direction (from x-axis)

Sense of Force

y y

x x

Tension Compression

Objective: To bring out the two senses in which a Force can act

RIGID BODIES AND FLEXIBLE

BODIES

Rigid Body

neglect their deformation in Statics

In Statics we deal

with

Flexible Body Rigid bodies alone

large deformations under loading

Objective: To bring out the difference between a Rigid Body and a Flexible Body

Transmissibility

F Hence Pulling is

equal to Pushing,

provided the Forces

are on the same

horizontal line

F (same line of action)

P

P

From the viewpoint of Statics, the Arch which is

loaded on the top is equivalent top the arch which

is loaded from beneath this is an application of

the principle of Transmissibility

Objective: An example which illustrates the principle of Transmissibility

Red Forces

are Applied

Forces

Blue Forces

are

Reaction

Forces

Structural System under consideration

The Green Forces are the Internal Forces

External Force

Internal

Forces

Reference

Boundary of the

Structural System

Reaction Forces

Forces

CONCLUSIONS

1. The System

boundaries can

be defined

arbitrarily

2. What the

Applied Forces,

the Reaction

Forces and the

Internal Forces

are, will be

clarified

accordingly

Objective: To explain the idea that the System Boundary is defined, depending on the

portion of the structure one wishes to focus on

Vector Addition

Characteristics of a Vector

they must be added according to the

parallelogram law . This is necessary because

vectors have both magnitude and direction .

Using parallelogram law, we may add vectors

graphically or by trigonometric relationships.

First we will see the graphical method and

then the trigonometric method.

V=900 N A box is being pulled up

PARALLELOGRAM by a Force of 900 N and

LAW OF VECTOR pulled to the right with a

ADDITION H=900 N Force of 900 N. We want

to know the Resultant.

N

1000

800

600

V=900 N

400

=1300#

R

200

= 22.6o H=900 N

PARALLELOGRAM LAW OF ADDITION OF VECTORS

0#

R

50

75

900# 15

TIP TO TAIL METHOD

Another Method of Vector Addition

A

R

O B

A

R

O

B

Determining the Resultant by Analytical Method.

law as shown in the following example.

30o

F1 = 100lb 75o

F1 = 100lb = 105o

45o

o

o

30

30

R F2 = 140lb

x

R 2 = F12 + F22 2 F cos

45o

= 100 2 + 140 2 2(100)(140)(0.259)

y

F2 = 140lb = 192lb

R F2

=

sin 105o sin

F2 sin 105o

sin =

R

140 0.966

=

192

= 0.704

= sin 1 (0.704)

o

= 44.8

VECTOR ADDITION

600 lb

45

35

900 lb

900 lb

600 lb R R

600 lb

45

900 lb

35

Parallelogram Method Tip-to-tail method

Graphical addition of Three or More Vectors

y

R12

y

F2 F1 F2

F1

R123 x

x

F3

F3

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