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# 3.

FORCE SYSTEMS
FORCE
SYSTEMS
Characteristics of a Force

A
Force is
characterized by
F 1. Point of
application (A)
- ( 100
2. Magnitude
N)
3. Direction (from x-axis)

## Objective: To bring out the characteristics of a Force as applied in Statics

Sense of Force

y y

x x

Tension Compression

Objective: To bring out the two senses in which a Force can act
RIGID BODIES AND FLEXIBLE
BODIES
Rigid Body

## Steel, Wood, Concrete, Stone are rigid bodies, we

neglect their deformation in Statics

In Statics we deal
with
Flexible Body Rigid bodies alone

## Foam is Flexible material, which undergoes

Objective: To bring out the difference between a Rigid Body and a Flexible Body
Transmissibility

F Hence Pulling is
equal to Pushing,
provided the Forces
are on the same
horizontal line
F (same line of action)

## Objective: To explain the concept of Transmissibility

P

P
From the viewpoint of Statics, the Arch which is
loaded on the top is equivalent top the arch which
is loaded from beneath this is an application of
the principle of Transmissibility
Objective: An example which illustrates the principle of Transmissibility
Red Forces
are Applied
Forces

Blue Forces
are
Reaction
Forces

## The dotted line the Reference Boundary for the

Structural System under consideration

## Objective: To describe, System Boundary, Applied Forces and Reaction Forces

The Green Forces are the Internal Forces

## Objective: To describe Internal Forces

External Force

Internal
Forces

Reference
Boundary of the
Structural System

Reaction Forces

## Objective: An example to illustrate: System Boundary, External ,Reaction & Internal

Forces
CONCLUSIONS

1. The System
boundaries can
be defined
arbitrarily
2. What the
Applied Forces,
the Reaction
Forces and the
Internal Forces
are, will be
clarified
accordingly

Objective: To explain the idea that the System Boundary is defined, depending on the
portion of the structure one wishes to focus on

Characteristics of a Vector

## An important characteristic of vectors is that

they must be added according to the
parallelogram law . This is necessary because
vectors have both magnitude and direction .
Using parallelogram law, we may add vectors
graphically or by trigonometric relationships.
First we will see the graphical method and
then the trigonometric method.

## Objective: To explain how Vectors can be added graphically

V=900 N A box is being pulled up
PARALLELOGRAM by a Force of 900 N and
LAW OF VECTOR pulled to the right with a
ADDITION H=900 N Force of 900 N. We want
to know the Resultant.

N
1000

800

600
V=900 N

400
=1300#
R
200
= 22.6o H=900 N

## 200 400 600 800 1000 N

PARALLELOGRAM LAW OF ADDITION OF VECTORS

0#

R
50

75
900# 15

## Objective: To illustrate the parallelogram method of addition of vectors using triangles

TIP TO TAIL METHOD

A
R
O B

A
R

O
B
Determining the Resultant by Analytical Method.

## Sometimes it is more convenient to determine the Resultant by using the cosine

law as shown in the following example.
30o
F1 = 100lb 75o
F1 = 100lb = 105o
45o
o
o
30

30
R F2 = 140lb
x
R 2 = F12 + F22 2 F cos
45o
= 100 2 + 140 2 2(100)(140)(0.259)
y
F2 = 140lb = 192lb
R F2
=
sin 105o sin
F2 sin 105o
sin =
R
140 0.966
=
192
= 0.704
= sin 1 (0.704)
o
= 44.8

600 lb
45
35
900 lb

## R= 1413 lb, Angle=50.8 R=1413 lb, Angle=50.8

900 lb

600 lb R R
600 lb
45

900 lb
35
Parallelogram Method Tip-to-tail method
Graphical addition of Three or More Vectors
y

R12
y
F2 F1 F2
F1
R123 x
x
F3
F3