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tN I~ LOSS PREVENTION GUIDES

----I I it) 10-------------

BILLS OF
LAI)ING
A GUIDE TO
GOOD PRACTICE

MIL
and orth of England
PI ' oei tion

ANCHORAGE. PRE ~
Published by Anchorage 'rcss
27 - r /f.l::tr~(S Rood
' n"ickcrlham n; ! I P

Telephone 44 181 892990$


RI>: +44 18 l 91 l46Z
I!.-mail un homgc@Cilrt'l pw;crVC.t:u lI1

All righ rs reserved. 0 part 0 rhi publi :!rion m:ly be rep roduced,
lored in 3 reuieval tem or Hun milled in 3n form m by any mt::lns
(e1ecrroni mechanical. photOcop ing. recording or odlem isc) wilhout
lhe wrim:n penmssion of the publi hel.

Cop)-nghl e [ephen lIIills and die 'onh uf England


PS: 1 ssociarion 199

ID 0953178-28

A ~. rh r. Srepnen Mills

Prinred and bound in [he UK

The publisher and urhor ",ish lO I hank IIIe l niled t\a~ions


lkp~ttmcnr (\ Public Infonn"tlon for pcnlll Ion 10 publish the
I l ambur~ Rul s, The CoIlIToller 9f Hcr M j Sty's Sl1I.lione.ry Office fur
permision [0 p u bl~ h Lilo: ~bguc .Vi,1 I~ulc~ (permission rc:fercn c
9BOOIM,l) and The '&!Jck a_nd I ntCffi!lfinn~11 Maririme Council for
permission ro publish (he Congt:nhill rr.tlilio n '19' 4,

"l'hi' publicaeion is intended lilT l/;c:nC:1\I1guidance only [Q assist in [he


Hlidan c of dispur and problems un.>,n' from improper lISt: of bill uf
IJding. Re:Jders hoold mke re lO cll!>ure thal Ihe recommendation
oontaint:d in this publication arc appro mre ror a parricular sim3Lion
ber. ~ implementing (hem. "l1c~ <:\'1: 1) dTo" has bcc.n Imde to
en -urc .ha! ra::ommcndanons arc comprch nm ,die publisheL die
'nnh nfF..I1g!and P&l Associalion and Ihe author do nOl under an
ircumsrances wilatsoever accept rc.>pon ibili for CITOIS, omission and
mis- rarcmcnts or for [be conseqIJen of 'implememin or:urempLing
10 il1'lpi:cmem recommendations.
CONTENTS

(,'hap,I"" Page
r KoDucrrol J
LO&~ prevention and bills of lading
How to u e this guide

( HIC :I>. 1(1 .1-1'.111 .;"'t Le 7


Ho\ co use ,his seCl io~
The bill of lading - , quick glJidc to il5 rolc and its problem

I , I 11" ' I 11
iglling bills of fading (ptmJgmph.r I - 14)
Delivering the cargo at djs~harg" porr (puragrop/ls 15 - lS)
AI''iPi ,I bi l.l or Jndi n~ - theBt f OCilngenbill
(poT/lJ[frJphs Z(j 46)

11 11-111{) 31
History and Onlext fltorogrttfi/ 47 . 1)/)
igning rhe bill of ladln~ (/Jtlrnr,rUpJH 92 160)
Sources of information for the bill of la ding (pur'W"phs l6! - 17:>7
i\lovemem of rhe bi ll of lading und'er che sale conrrncr
(/XIt'(IgTYi/lN 1/6 . 186)
The \'\ly.tge - deviation. delivery, ID and dal'l1:1ge 10 cargo
(/Xlmgrtl/lhs "'17 -Z(6)
Delivery of [he cargo I,fxtragmplts !iTl l2J)
rher m.tlcr; IpomgropllJ 224 l34)

79

86
Glossary of terms
U Recommended _tancb.rd letter of amhori ry [0 issue bills of hIding
III Recommended standard terrer or ddiver), of cargo \ ithoU[ production
of b~l of ladi n~
IV Rccommended smndard lener for change of destination
V Hague R11les
VI Hague-Visby Rules
VII Hamburg Rules
VLU List of w unrrics .ppl ring the:. conventions
IX UK Carriage of(loods hy Sea Ac t 1992
X Bibliogr:lphy

[ DEl{ 121
INTRODUCTION
lOSS PREVIE NTION AND BILL S OF LADING
In 1 rhe orth of England p&r
iation ' ued a imple qlJelitionru.U1'C to
ICUc.lC of i~ IO!>S prt:1f-enrion m:wslcrtcr' igllllls. It asked fot their c:xperie ., wid'!
regard [0 Ihe is:;ue of bills of lading :!Od ubsequenr delil"el)' of I."lHgD ~n l Ih
bill. ofl:!dlng. The: majorl[}' of aJ\S\ 'ers -en; recciVt:d from hipO\ ners' oOioc or
fmm m SU:I:l. with agents, Oper.iIOI!>, lillun ie: and others also rt:sponding.
f\ number of specific-problems, [ll re urring theme
pressure 011 Lhe masler to issue clC311 bi lls of lading
dis;lWClenU!nt bc",,,een ship' and . h n: liglJf(:S
agcJ1l ig,ning bil ls of lading withol.ll reference to the mate' receipt or in
. ceSs of their Elllthotiry from rhe nustcr
'. rcque r ' to deliver me cargo wLlh(Jur roducrion of the origin.aJ bill of lading.
cncrul paim also
emerged \\ hich can be
ummafbt:d by onc
member' comment 7
'r Itot~ lIotletd a dislina
by slrippn"J;
t(I,J'l/flIIlI'.ss

f"1I(!Wt'rs (Jntl tllfd agtllfJ 01


/(}{Jdldisrhllf]!l /lOfts about
flit impor/tJfIa 10 flu mtJJ1('f"
of bill alluding. Condllwm:
IIry Of"f' wtrJrmll of ifs ~al
purfJfJStiS '
tfOng words, bu(
po&Sibl (rue. though the
bill of lading is a key
d cumenc in a rransa. cion
where the cmgo and freight
mgcth r may be: worth
several millio ns of dollars, a
m:l$[cr who i diligcnr or
C3uriou ~n hi hnndl i!lg of
[h:!t documenr ma of~en be
, 'n by orhers lIS ob ITUCUVC
or 3W~ anl I r masters are to

3
mnd (hei r ground and juS[ify their smnce, then the mu need (0 know nor only
what they have to do. but why they an:: doing it.
The aim ofrhis guide' [0 assi [ 'hip' ollicer. opcfmor and m:mage:r irHhe
understanding of hill of Ilading and che probJems and practical i. III Ii UITounding
rheir e'Veryda use. The hope i ' that cltey \\~II rhen be ble [Q de:1l with these
ilmuion and the man other:; that arise ill connecti 11 \\ IIh what i a \;tal and
unique documen'L

HOWTO USETHIS GUIO:E


The gui de has four main COIOlf-coded sectio
quick reference (red)
prnnical guidance (orange)
theory (green)
legal notcs (blue).

Q1I id- n :fn l/ 11 Cf'


T he qUick reference seuion i for du)Sc occasiolls when guida nce is needed
(j uickly and [here is no op porHmi . to re. d about or understand rh . unde rlyi ng
pri nciples of rhe bill of lading. On rhc'c occ:J.sion.~ [he quiCK refer n 'ec[Jon>

indicates thc part of the book which i mo"[ likely to help. It is a ~un.'C of
referelloc and reassurance and houlLl nOt be seen a su bsdlUtc for . eeking
proper guidan e from owners, the i, P& l du ' or h if lu" 'pj.

flral f 1(411 "IW/CIII et


The praclical section gives specific guid:mc:e on I nin . and refu ing 10 sign,
bills of lading!lJ1d del~1:r:y or cwgo. It then anal}' from pm ti \;ewpoim
ea h part of the Congenbill, :l \\~dely used bill of ladin A , pccimem bill i
illldudtd in this section.
Common problem arteaS :m: txamilll!:d 3IlId some guid n given to hm
these pmblCITll sbould be handled from h paim fvi","'w 0 ch m ~er. hipolmer
or operawr.
Each pa:ragrnph has a unique numlx:r for ease of cm s-rcfcrencing.

Tln'ol)'
.n,tl theory section eXBm i ne,~ the evolution of Ihe bill of lad'ing from its simple

4
he inning fa ir.-; modem role U~ u fund:Jmcnml document in [11 . irm:mmion.11 'ale
,1110 ctllTiage of goods. The tf<ic.llll()f'l[11 three-part analysis of mhe bi ll of I3ding a~ a
n:cci pr, n comr3 of ourbgc and 11 document of dde is nO[ follow >d - instead
[here 18 J n nly~is of the parh rht: hi ll of lading will follm from jr i ~llJe to fuIfiJmelH
and lh" probl IllS [ha~ can he In "(along rhe "Way.
The:ma1 il; in hides dIe problem., in describing (he n run: qllamiry and
condillon orlhe good put on board rhe H:ssel; rhe aJr.l 0 p~ ::ma Implied
[cm"" ~LarUlc , l.wes and colllvcmions wilhin which [he hill of rllding opef",I.[C
and rh relarionship of [he bi ll of lading ,,~thi the underl mg . le contrncr.
It i.1 nor essential [0 re I d, . theory se cion in order to undcrsund d,e
pmcLi(.'al secrioll.
lIin, d/ch paragraph ha.~:L unjque number for se of cross I"tlferencing.

5
Legal7wtes
Both die practical guidance and theo ~C[l(lns ale supplemented by kg;IJ
nu[(:~ indicated by _ symbol in the teXl. To a oid di.mncdon. these nOles
are gathered oogerher in a separme section. T he purpo.'Ie of th notes, essemiall~
Legal in narure, i' to idcrltify for those who ma be ked W Il i [ the m [er (e.g.
hipowner club or their lawye ) (he leg.1l basi of (he dvice being offered b
~hi guide.

Reader hould also nme the '-0110\ ing.

Low
dvice in this guide is based [In Engli h law.

'Clausi,tg' and 'el/dOl'sillg'


In this guide the verb ' to clause m eanS to write UIl a ! ill of lading a commem
which castS doubr on rhe appan:nt good oed 'r and condidon of the cargo. ll1c
verb '[I) endorse' means to stamp and OJ sign the btlck of a bi ll of lading in order [Cl
effect legal t:ransfer of rights llnder che bill of ladi ng co ~nothe r person. Th is
distinction is made throughout the guide, I)u t ie il ' rccogni 'cd th'lt within the
indus try [he word 'en.dor e' is often IJsed to describe hoth funct1ons.

'Shipowner' and 'carrier'


The words 'shipOwner- and 'carrieT' ,hould be:: u ed ')'111 n mousJyas it i.,
assumed mat tile hipowner is the master' employer and, when the master i ues
a bill of lading, he will bind me shipowner as carrier. I-TO\,t;;VCf, in certain
cilrcumscancc other panies Ilch as chllI1erers or fn:ight forwarders ma be the
legal if not ph , ical 'carriers'.

Rol of the nra5Jer


'he assumption made duougbour this guide -:md indeed (he asmmption
m:lde in most printed fonns of chatterpart)' and bill I dlllg - ' thac the master wiU
check and sign the bill of lading:lt [he jlQR 0 I ding and "iU receive the bill of
lading in rerum for delivery of !'he broods at me di harge porr. 1ni i bccallSe legal
IieSponsibiliry for me bill oflading ~u:dly lies with {he m' {er and me . hipownct
However; for practical and commercial reason ,th re mn be an array r
harterers, age;nts. brokers and f igln fOlW:mIers between rhe master and [he biU of
lading and a ma8!er ma rarely or never 'c:,c a bill of lad in !lnle a problem occurs.

6
QUICK REFERE CE
HOW TO USETHIS SECnON
All words and expressions shown in hold printare: in the index at the md of
.his guide. The indc:.'!( refers to unique paragraph numbers in the I r I I
~ I 11 and/or rhen" sccrion.> where rhese subjcctS and renns are de cribed and
discussed in more detail.

THE BILL OF LADING - A QUICK GUIDE TO ITS ROLE


AND ITS PROBLEMS
In most imemaoonal sales uansacdons where tbe goods are to be carried by
sea, the seller of the good promises to do t\vo trung'>
pm me goods on board a ship
provide the commercial documents required b\i the contracr, the cenrr-a1 one
usually being (he bill of lading.

M1he fI1<JSter can do is' describe !he ,apparent 0Idet and ~ of the CDrgo - in /his case the outfr
of tM rolled $teel cargo are in 'opfIGl'Mt good onter and condition'
C!lVer$

7
' Ine bill oflaillng say a lot ofthing~ to ( ho wh(IlXJrne into I "session of ir.
It help la idendfY the owner 0 the good~ - In rhl, re I [I! i, d wnent
of title.
It idcmif!e the p:my woo can reccive rhe good~ - :lgai n :IS :I docum nl of tiUe,
It Co :I means of trdl'lSfcrring lidl; from onc person (0 anOtllcr.
h provide information on
the description of good
the condition of goods
the quantity of goodJ
the loading port and date 0 :.hiPIUCIll
- the di.scharg port
the name of me hip
- whether freight has been paid
rh tcrnl of carriage under which the car 0 i ' ing rri d
- delivelY instruction ' (c.g. cb notif part or con ij!ncc).
In th i~ respect me bi ll of lading is both I1 t1eC i!'ll Cl r rhe ood, hipped lnd
(;vidcTIL"C uf the contract of curringe.
s rhe various functions of bills of lading:re > s~ 'flli:11 [0 inr 'rI1}tional sale
mlfl ', ,tions, it IS important that 'illfurnJ<ltion )l;ivcn in car.:h bill is mC:3llingful and
consistent in pression. tempts te) ensure rh i~ h :lVC gi cn ri, [O :lgf d code
and conventions ,md recognised pmcticcs.
Agreed codes and convcntion include:
. CP 500 ( nifonn Cu 'corns and Practice for I 'umcma Credits),
Hague Rules
Hagu - ISby Rules
Hamburg Rules
Inoolenn ' .
Recognised pra cices in ludc u~del ccepccd IcrminolOf,'Y for Iou .ng (c.g.
in rcspecf of tee!! cargoes) and the use of wid'l und r:smod bbrc\;:uion..
These include FOB and and (I frequ ntl ). :\( fi 'J . PR, CP r,
II~ DAF, DES, DEQ, DD and DDI~ all of \ hi h re Incotcrnl .
It is imporr3m iliar (he informalion in bill ing i ITeCI. HQwever, the
m [er when issuing me
bill of lading mn (ju. rifiabl ) wi ' h to limir hi
responsibiliry fOf infonnarion which he i n l in ' po iti 11 10 le k for 11 urn
This has given ri c ro me or
use of commonly us d words d scripL]On in bill of
lading such a
'weighl, measure, quantity, cond:ilion, ,c ontents mul alue unknown'
sh.ipper's lond and COLI nl'

8
'apparent orde r a nd condition'
'said to be'.
Somecimes .an emp (S are made. or press ure pur on [he master, [0 hide
infommtion that will make rhe bill of lading Ics atrracdve to me bu 'e r of the
l:3rgo, Th is gives rise ro reques ts fm the is 'lie of clean bins of lading \\,'he n,
b OG,l USC of dle cond ition of the cargo, t he bill s shou ld be la used. 'These requests
(which ~ ho u l d be refuscd) arc ofte n made with promises of letters of indemnity
which say the ' will protec t the issuer of the bill of lad ing.
. number of imporran t 4uestions need to be addressed.
Must rhe mas te r sign an bill of lading as presented?
Who prc p;n es the bill of ladi ng?
Who eI e has rhe rigJn: of signing the bill of lading un rlle master's behalf?
What is the auth ority of c harterers or agents?
Wha t is the master to do whe o asked to del.iver rhe argo [Q a c ha nge o f
destination from mar named in rhe bill of lading?
.. n [he master delivcrtht; c rgo without presentation of the biIJ of lading?
.lI1 rhe master deliver [Q one person wh ere more than onc person demands
de livery unde r {he b ill of lading?
I dlese qu,esciolls are d iscussed in the pr ,lllll.1I 'tII.l.lIll and rhco~
>ections, 1n additio n, tht; following more specifIC topic are covered
the purpose of (he biU of l:ldiJ1g in a prac rical and legal scn.~c
.. wha! information the bill of lading musr cQn(ain
.. the sources of rhe most accurate infonnation. if! part icular
the mate'/!j reCe ipl
- {he shipping note
(he sh ippe r
- sutlleyors and in pectQI"S
- (he draught survey
- (for liquid c;ugoes) uUages
- certificates of origin. quantity and qu.ality.
Ln addition there is di~ us ion of sinmtiQ ns freq uenrly encoume re d. These
include
blending liquid CllrgoeS
mh:ing dry cargoes
mu ltiple ' et of bills oflading
backdating (ante.cJating, pro-dating) or post-dating bills of lad ing
amending bills of lading
con flic t w ieh mate's receipts

9
[he relevance ,o f [he sale contra t
where pressure or dUTCS' is put on the master (0 'ign
.. reqllest:; for shipped or received for shi pmeni bill. of I d i ng
describ i ng [he quality of [he llIgO
offers of letters ofind mnit
me relationship with letters 0 credit
(he bill of lading and me charterp-art)'
how a peP.iOn acqllin:s a bill of lading: endorsemenl and consiltnm nl
respoll!Sibi.li~ for packag'ing and mar . 19 of go
[enns [0 freight
cargo damaged afrer loading bUl befOJ"1: it \.Ie of bill of I ding
dela m me vessel, delay in i uing, (he bill of lading
charterer's bill,> of lading
place of issue omer than at [he loading 1>O[t.
rlhc r;c is also a brief di.scussion of rypc of bills ofbding and re lated
documents including
'hi p's d~J ivery QI-uier!)
sea waybills
groupage, house or service bills of hlding
stnUght or non-negotiable bills of lading
shipped and receiverl for shipment bills uf I dingo

10
PRAC CAL GUIDA CE
SIGNING BILLS O F LADING
I. ne of t he most importan t fu nct ion of a bill of lad ing is tha[ it p rovides
infomlation as to [he desc ri ption of .he goods, the condir ion of the goods, rhe
Iluantiry of the guods, the loading pon: and da te of shipment, t he discharge POrt,
[he name of t he ship, whe the r freight has been paid and the terms of carriage. As
rhese fu nc tions arc essential ro erade it is import.1[l[ that information give n in a bill
uf ladi ng is accurate. Failure [() ensure accuracy can give ril'e [0 liabili cy of fit:
~ h ipowner.

2. The essential rule is mac in no circumstances, othe r cha n those described at


rXlr.l.graph I1 (J I, hould the master sign a documem whieh he knows 00 be untrue,
ur which he believes may be untrue, or where he has (l ot given careful t houghr [0
rhe fa [S contained in it.
3 T he follow1n man c rs are importam. If the maste r cannoc COntacT the
~ hipo\~ner or ob tain guidance from ir, rhe following general princip les should be
appJied.
I , he masrer mllst e nsure mat rhe information on the bill of lading agrees wirh
chac on t he marc' receipt(s).

Where there is nberty to corry OO.gD on deck it ;s essetllidllflat the bill 0( /ddillg stares mar. the cargo
oClua~ is being oorricd on cfec/r.. In such cirollllWlnces it would also be. usual (or lire shlpawr>er to
,nsert prolectNe ciooses pkldflg the risk of deck cargo on the shipper

II
The maS'tcr must check me fact aoout [he l':IIb'O. It would unu$uuJ for [he
mas(Cr or [he ship's ..gem to plC pare the hill of klding. 111 bill of lading is
usually prepared by tile hipper 0 the hipper' agent. 11 i!llltt'Ordingl. essential
for me master [Q check me information :loom !h rgo in the bill of lading.
-llIe ma,[er willno[ !mmv uJl of the Ii ct abour rh' rgo th.1[ !lppe-Jr on die bLU
of I ding which he is being asked m sign, This problem i dc-.ur Wilh pccifiically
in tile section entitled 'lnfonnablln in the bill of I dill '(par-J aph ).
The master mu I check (he fa [l,.:loom [he ~o. e. Ir [he place or wile 0
loading is incorrect, or if the di5Ch:uge port l~ oll[l,ide rhe h rr rparry range.
the master should ref\lse to ign.
It is recognised that refusal 10 sign is nor al\\':1 ':' . arc or p d I. Where in rhi!!
pm deal guidance section of me book Ih ma Ic r i lldvi -d [0 refuse to ign.
be hould ~efer [0 paragraph 1 for guidam:t:.
bifonnatiof1, i11 the bill 0/ lading
.4 his section deals wim ways of describing the mr () :lnd rhe voy-agc. It is
imended [0 give (he master guid[IOCC where he i unable [ ohm!n guidarlce from
rhe shipowners. It may i1lso as~i!;[ [he mam:.r in it! mif) 'ng wh~[ is a usual and
what IS an unusual situation.
f '" Some of [he informniol'l in che bill f kldin 1 i~ wiehin lh masrcr's knowledge,
for example [he port of shiplllent, the d~te of compl lion or loading of [he
parcel described in rht: 'bill of ladil'lg or rh ' d3le uf issue 0 the bill of lading. Ir
[heo;e faclS are not correct the mas ter ~ h ou l d r fll ' [ ign che bi 11 of lading.
II me tn foml;uion in [he bill of ladin mOlY noc be wimin the prc isc
kno,wled~ !)f the masrer. for example the quami or wei~h{ or '[he :lcmal
condirion of the goods loaded. The following rule m;j~ ' illt.
QI/antity
The master hou/d if possible: . dd lite word!. hipper' figure' or ' holiC
figure$' lO any S[llcement:as ~o quanriry r weigh! n the bill of I di .
If the masterdocs nOe kno\' rhe wd' [ or qlJ3Jldr)' loaded (bec3use there
has been no opponunity for a mJJy or an accumte dmu~lu u" ) [hen
rhe wo rd~ ' eight and quantity unknown' I uld be wri n en alongside me
figure.
I r) rf the snip has it.'i oWn figures and these di er from [ha in [he bill of
lading, men the ship's figure hould be wrirten ~Ion ide rhe shipper's
figllfes and/or the vord 'weighr and quantiry lJJnkn wn' added
I Ir in siruadon (iil} [he masLer is not permined lO add rhe ship's figures
and if the difference ocrwl:cn [he ship pd. figures and the ship' figuJCS

12
is mure d lafl could reasonably be explained b th practical imprecision of
draught surveys or tallying then {he master should refuse (0 sign the bill
of lading. Ir the di fTerence is small he shOldd follo~ (ii) above.
C(mditiotl
Usual l. tbe master only knows [hc app-.rrcnt condition of the cargo.
Accordingly if he C:ln ee no apparent problem with rhe goods when
loaded he should mark the bill ofla<.ling 'received in apparel)[ good order
and condirion' ~ .
; ,' I f the master can see that the goods are damaged i.n some wa then he
should say o. more difficult question is whc l1: the master thinks l har
rhe goods may Ix: defective or substandard, for example because they
appem dirty, mixed wirh foreign particles or debri , or are di coloured or
odou mus. He may need guidance - , ce paragrnph I',S. If su h commcO(
are appropriate he should do his beSt to explain ill ordinary language in
wriringon rite r~ce ofthe bill of lading what he believes is wrong with [he
condidon of the C'MgO. If he: requires [0 add an addi rionaJ heet of papc::r
then he should [,ne (in writing on the bill of lading) how man. sheer of
paper are ;Ictached to each bill of ladillg. lie shou ld seek guidanoc from

Contoiners are usually sealed and !he masrer would not havI: an oppwnmiry of inspecting !he COIlle/J13 -
il is ther!!/Dre audaJ!hat the master mal<es "suitobk remarl< 011 !he m~s receipt and biIJ oflad"mg to
indicate gny (lbYiou~ damage to the cooroiner itself. In a serious case such as dils it Il1<l)' be appropriate
to arrange {or !he conwiner ro beoperted prior to shipment and the contents inspected

13
(he P&l club or ilts loc.1~ corre pondent or age m or from a surveyor as 'to
the precise wording co be used,
Iyii ile is always useful to de~cribe the n!uure of the packaging of goods, far
example 'in paper bags' or 'in polythene sacks'. If these are tom or
damaged the bill of lading should say so, such a~ 'about 4-7 ltY.lgs com'. If
only a rough esrimne can be made of [he quantity damaged. however,
thi'S should be stated, for examplc 'aOOm 10 % wm' or 'aboU[ 5000 bags
dam~ged'. Whether it is on the basj~ of ~ wHy or estifl1~HC, thc m3StC[
must have evidence co support his remarks.
(\uil Special ciausi!1gi are often u~ed, for example for timber or rod cargoes,
and if possible the shipowner or rhe P&l club correspondent should be
consu lted (for fu nher djsc!Jssion see paragraphs 153 ~Ilt.l 1 .~ 4).
(I ) lrin situation (vi or (vii) , the master is nor permirred ro add comments
which aocUfdtely describe apparent dcfects ill the good or packing, he
should refuse to sign rhe bill of lading.
QIHmWy .(:md CQnditi01l
1\, The words 'weighl, measure, qU3miry, COlldidon. comenrs and value
I,mknown' area useful and dc.-; i....iblc words to ~dd to a bill oflading if they
are not already part of che printed form,
Oll(llif]'
i'Ul The m3srer need nm describe the quality of the cargo (see paragrnph 1.7).

(ll fur we avoidance of doubt the maste.r hould place his signature and/or rhe
ship's mmpal dle foot ofrhe biU oflading only ~ .

Specific situations
5. Freight I hire / demurrage / lilms
The master may be worried that a bill of lading p[~ented ~Q him does not give
the shipowner sufficit:Dt protection in tenns of freiglH. hire or demurrage, or liens
for any of chose, or he may be worried about othe.r terms of c-,mi3gc. l'h~ arc; all
mancrs for tbe shipowner or its P&l club ro consider. The master should always
check wirh the hipowner's managcr.~ as to whether they rcquire;<; prQ[eccive [erms
to be added, bur leave the decision (Q them. tf it is impossible [0 get guidance
from [he shipowne r then see paragraph .;.
6. Charterparty bills of lnditlg
Wherever there is lit reference to 3 charte.rparty in me printed form of a bill of
ladlng (for example in the Gencon chanerp;my). the ma.~[cr shouJd check with
rhe shipowner as ro rhe dare of the chmerparty [0 be inserted in the bill of lading
(in the absence of guidance ee paragraph 232),

14
DecA' cargl)
Excep r in purpose-builr conrainer shi ps or in special [fades wh ere cargo is
customari ly mJTicd on deck, cnm agc of cargo on deck s hould :!lways bc checked
wir h rhe shipowner. Where cargo is carri ed on dec k lr is e sem ial W SI3re on the
1: Il:c uf [he bil l of lai.ling [hat cargo is being carried un Jeck. I [ is for [ he m& tcr (0
ci1eck with [he shipowne r and for [he sh ipowner to ensure [h a! such carriage is
pt.: rmissible.
!I How mUIIY bilL~ '1/lading to be sign.ed
Th e ma.~[e r shotl~d check with [he sh ipper and wirh rhe charterparty. l Ie
, llOuld also check the rerms of rhe bill s oflading rlu:msdvt:s as rhey may show me
Ilwnber W be i \.led. There L no general rule as w what number should or mu.H
be is,ued fo r a pmcel of cargo ~ .
Q. Bltmding I CQ-1fl itlgl:ing of ()il carg()cs
, I Oil cargoes arc unusual in that charterers and traders mil wish to co-mingle
cargoes shipped from differem pons on d iffe rem dB((:~, gnd of]:en with
diffe renr specifications.
,I I If cargoes ~ h ipped from separa te pons, O[l separare dates and/or of 5eparate
origins are to-minglei.l, then complie.ltions arise as w [he aceur<}[e d escription
of [he pOrT of sh.ipme m, date of shipmcn t and type of cargo in the bi Us of
I ~ding. fu rt her problem may llrise at che discharge pan i r che cargo mixed in
[he ran ks no longer re t:mbk:~ cllL argo dt;~ cribt;d in om: or more of [ht:
original bills of lad ing.
\~'herever there is co-mingling of cargo shippt:d on differem dates from
difTerem pons and of d iffercm lYpes , it ~ essem ial [hat the shi powner's
insU\lct irm, arc ob tained before bills elf lading arc i sued. If thc shipowner's
insU1.lcrions canno( be obtained [he master should refuse w sign and should
expla in his reasons fot doing so by refere nce [Q (b) 3bo~t:.
I c,. Letters of ind",mz ily
I1 is nor for a master to agree to ign a bill of lading in rerum for s. lerte r of
mdemniry. Thlll is for [he hipowne r [Q decid e. 1f (he shipowner cannot be
m macted [hen till: master shou ld refuse [Q sign. It is better for the mascer to
IlI lInw the steps a[ paragraph I I [h3.11 tn accept a lerter of indemniry wirhoU[ rhe
,I ll! owne r's aurhoriry ~ .

Neji,sai to sign
I I. In c i.rcurf}sranCCS where che rna.,{er fcd ~ [har he shou ld rdust:. rt) ~ign !l bill of
l:rJing he shou ld eek guidance from (he s hipowne r or from the P&r cl ub or i~
currespondent. if no gu idanct can be ob mined. rhe following general princi ples
,lIou ld be applied .

I~
I. tI rf the refusal ohhe master sign a cl tuncm i' met wit h physical threats or
[0

coercion against the hip or iler masrer or ere\ , rhen rh ma. (cr shllJld sign
rhe doc:ummr. When rh vessel has sailed and upon rca hing a po ilian o
s;Ifecy, the mas[er (or d'le hipo\ ner. if iu is now in conract with the ma.'l:ccr)
ma, give notice of protest [0 all parties and mhoriric oncerned re rhe effecl
thar the document has been igned under dUf' 'S and th . shipowner and tile
m leC con ider themselves not bound by the masler', i 3We. (OfcoullSe
thought mu t be given ru. to whether the ~hip, m:IMcr or:ln si [cr l>hip i
likely to rerum (0 crus daAgerous regime).
,I Sometimes legal pressure will be exerted on Ihe rn' [er to . ign. The mosr
common example will be where the hip ' operdling under a charrCiparcy.
The hmerparry ma, list the master" obligati n~ wirh re . rd [0 . igning bill
of lading. fur example he m3 have 10 ign bill of lading 'a prc emcd'. This
and similar expressiuns do nor mean char rhl: masrcr mu. [ ign :my bill of
lading whatcver i[s rerms. The ma 'ter can refu [u sign a bill of ladlllg 'as
pre'lCnred' ifil
" comail1s faeL~ about [he c;Jrgo whi h ~r rAAlllnd \,vlll(;h C:lunar ht:
;n
sadsfacwri ly dealr with by fol!owing, rhe ticeps in (he ~cction enilrled
' Information in tbe bill of lading' (p:lrllgruph I)
1111 contains faCtS abouc the voyage which arc ill 'orrect ne name discharge
porrs o;J[s ide th ch!1Herp.my f"Jng
I1II says mal deck cargo is bcingcHrricd under de k
I I contaill.') (erm wruch the charterparty~. pres ly prohibit in the.: bill of
lading.
However. if the master i required by rhe ch:ln~rvJIry to ~ign hill oi luding ':IS
presented' be houId not refu~ to ign:J bill ofladin impl becall ' ir is
marked, for example 'liner out', or becau it contains some forcigl'l
jurisdiction clause. These art: not filers bur [erms f [he shipper' or
charlcrer's :rade. They are maners [or Il he hipowner 10 argue ;looUl with tlile
charterer ifnecessary. If the master i requested co sign 'freight prepaid' bills
of lading his position is ~ligh[1y I ' s clear. od r fercl'! e hould be m2de 10
pa11IgT.Iphs 11-1111 and p-dJ'"'dgraph _ l.
metime.~ commercial
pr sure will be e ened n the ma.~l!;r 10 sign in
circumstances wl1e.:R: he shOUld, as ad\~ d ~bovc, rcfu elOign. I [ is for the
shipowner t Q make commer<.:ial de ision in spon ' . [0 lIeh pressure. The
shipowner may wisb [0 nel:0tiate, take [he commercial risk or accept a leerer
of in demnity. The master, however, ds nOl ha 'the.~ options. lie should
maintain his refusal to sign. Delay to [h v . 's(;;1or Odl(;;r o(l n,~cquenccs of

16
threar made by [he hipper or charterer may then perhnpl be \ id db , the
followin reps.
TIle JroS1er hould ign d"e document in the form dm he ' pre red to ghe.
roe example. in rhe case of a bill of lading \\ here dle quantity or dcscripri n 0
the cargo is in dispme. me masrer should ign 3 bill of ladin howi ng the
quamity or descripcion which he 00 i~ to be aCCUt.l1 . Th blll f lading
hould be k.-J:t with the ship" agem (and a pnm:clin :lgC11I appoinlcd r [hiB
purpo if possible). I otiet: can then be given chat:J bill on ding r, r [he
cargo has been igned and issued and i '.aV'dilabl for coil lion .
I f\Jtemll[ively, .he ma.'5ter should give notice [hilt he has given authority ro
[he ship' prmcccing agem [0 sign biJls of I~d ing on hi bch[llf ubje [ 0
instru~tions and approval from the shipvwncr \ h '1'1 tll'liltlble.

The mast:er should not sign bills of lading in bl ~n k,

Where any person coming on bo;ud i!lsist~ [hac [he ma: re r rakes delivery of
Llo ' UlIlCIH from [hem he should mark it 'Ibr receip[ only'.

{le T club cover


All [he L"Ommemary in paragraphs I - I , isimporrant tU the 'hipowner
Io.:causc signing a document, and in particula~ a bill of Jading, whi " onmin
111I:nrrc I infommion can expose me hip [0 liabililies which i[ w uld nor
I>lhcn\'i f ce. In addition ro faci:lg those liabilitie ,rhe hipown r m lose Ih
I,mlc lion of it P&l insurance ifinac:cuf3tc bills of lading re igned :md e pose
Iht: ~hipo\\"l1cr to increased liahilily.

DELIVER NG THE CARGO AT IO'ISCHARGE PORT


e m3S(Cr can deliver me ClIgO to the holder of a 'bearer' bill of lading (see
ItlrJg;mph 1H.~(t."J) .. rfa bill of lading ho" a named c.on~igntlC or named end rsec
('CC paragraphs 1&iI aud IS6) me person dcnlancling delivery of [he cargo mu. t
provide some evidence [hat: it is the person idenfified in [he bill of I din. the
lllll of lading would lIsually be presentcd rhmugh die sh.ipowner' r lim .
L h'lrtcrers' agents whic.h are local 10 and fam il ia! with the cli harge p rt, the m (cr
probabl need only be worrie-d aoom idcmificalion of Iht: person dt:m:wding
Lk livery if the master has actual reason for bel ieving there has be n r ud, ,that rh
I,ill f lading may h,WC been stOlen, [hat rhe person i ' not emided to cl' im rh ,
I-(md , or if Ile has been notified o( a competing claim for (he goods ~ ..
The problems which usuall uise are where
no bill of lading is available at the di.-cllarge port
del ivc . of cargo iB requcsted ae a port which i1; not che n~rned discharge port.

17
In che ahsence of de~r !!Uidunr: fru111 the shiJlowner~ or Ih 11I(,;::1i 1'&1
corr~spondt:nr. the master 'hot:lld mkc oote nf rille fol lowing pilincs,

The unav-di labillry 0 :I bil l of bdin~:I[ rhe dl~ Ihar~ ' port is not d1C master'
problem. I r I. rhe problem 0 [he bU\cr~ :lIltl 'lIIer, of rhe t,lr~o ,
The ma [er hould nor a~ee to Ol eh:lr~c the 'ar~o :.tp.a i n\~ a Icucr or
imkmni~' (unlcs, rhe .hif1O\\'ncr h:t, e prc, I~ .. ~rc 'd ro rhh),

Dcla~ to the \'essd while wairing for the bill of "'dlng \\ ill u u'llIy be paid for
,.f
under rhe ham::rpaIt'- in rhe funn hin: or d 'murrJ~ (or:1.' p:1fl 01 the
I \'lime which h:l been ~id for In cl frciglu p:l~mcm) . EI'cn if [he v _'lel i
Ihrc-atenL:d wirh the co. [() me dcla,: rh:n Ihr 011 h uld IlOt jUMif) ddilcry of
rhe rgo \ irhour proJucriun () rhr.: bill (If l;Jliin!!,lIr :1I rh, wTong porr.
Deli"erywirhoU[ proJut:[ion of the bi ll (j bdin!\, m .If rh 'wrong l1<n, wil l be
3 b re::Jch of rhe renns of
rhe hipOll1ler's P& l
insur:mce and there will
be nu i n,urance i f in
consequence a claim i
sub$cqucnrly broughc by
I rme. cargo owner.
{le

In some j u risdic[ ion~ rhe


cargo can be di scharged
(at [he named di , Charge
porr) imo [he cuswd'y of
[he port or :I priv.ue
warehouse where i [ will
rcmain under the 1e,2al
umml oflhe masrer
unci I me bill of lading
h been produced. 11le
m [cr hould
in.otigatt: this, if
possible rhrou"h the
P&l correspondem.
pecifrc i 'sues
-
I I J'tters of illdem 11 ity
le gi \~ng of k:t[cr~ of

ind mniry in rewrn for


dclivclY of cargo ar the Many o/PllS or WrgD may be dwna~ as Cl reuit
prior to shipment any sucli oomagt shO!{1d be carefUlly
or /wndling
wfOng dischctrgc port or nOled and recorded on lire mate's receipt and bill lading or
18
IIl tl.iItprodu don of the origin31 bi ll of bding 11> no! wron ', nor i. ie lInll~U!11. It i ,
I II 1'1U, J maller fur [he .hipoII ner to delidc lt l~(JI1. It i~ ~I cOlnme rcia l de(;ision

, I( IfIlllake :1I1d onc which ir will rnakt: mking illto co n~ id l.:ra ( i(ln Ih ' 1'. 11.:( lhl1l ir

" \ It,I\'e no P&l ~I)V r as:J conscque lwc of doing ~o,


Ikc:()mmerndcd sranda rd lettcrs or ,ndem rlllY urt: inclucl cl in the Llpp ndicc,.
11t~ 'l' ~ l:lI1dard fonn ' show l'ollllter-sigll:ltllr.... by a bunk.. U~IIk.';JJ ' f"Jrc ly pn.:parctl
"gn :111 indemni . for unqllamiJi 'd amOllm~_ Fl'I:qll 'ndv, lhcrt:fi)rc, rhe leuer i~
,,- pled without a bank' counter- 'ign:1turc, Icmari, 'ch ~ limit l:.g. 1"0 ,. of
1" lue of the :I1go) LS placed on the bank's liJb ili~ under Ih.... I<.:[lcr. J 'illII,
I, ''>C .lre collllller illl de Isions for rhe ~hill()\\n r 10 lake.

/ '1IQI(I Q/1)' or fa 'ed hjlls of /(ldill ,


"1II.... llme., the m:JSlcr i asked to ddi\'Cr .lg.tin~r u cOP' or Jxed bill of I.lding, the
,,:.:mJI bemg una\':J.ibble, t 'nJe pecl.lI aJroll1 'emem' ha\c Ix:cn made 111 \\ nllllg
.\ 1I c hipowner (0 accept u h iI bill of l'lding. 1.11:11\ Cr\ 'h uld he n.:fu ~d. The
" " .,1 rule:: " that dclin:~' shall be gin:n agalll' t p . 'fl[acion of ar lea" onc original
11111 ,,1' bding,
.1/nlfiple OI'i inals
11,11- 411' bding ,ue often i sued in set f .mee n[ four origin:I"- 11,e bill of I. ding
I I IlIu!>ually provide:: on itS face that production or or
any 011 [huse llrigin~Js will be
" \ q}[ablc. Al the Sllm, rime, lhe uril,r ori~iml l :lIC ~ n '1I.krcd t lx.' \ Old anti
11 tn: IIcd.
IMention of 'he original bill of [adillJ!,
I ht: m3,ter ~h{)u l d retain the ori gi nal bill of lading agail1!>[ whi h c~ ..go has been
tlt'ill'cred. Ilowever, originals are somer ilm:. " Juired by le -11 oni c i:d ~ (Ir cu ' WillS
".d in those circumstance rhe mast I' should cnsurc thal he (ur l1i~, a~cnr) i~
,alloll'ed to see th e origin:d bill of I:lding ~nd rhat he i ' :llloIVcd [0 r min:l
1'1t,,!(lCopy uf the front and reverse 'idc IIf the llrigin.1. This ,hould, if fl s~ib l ,be
I n H ied byrhe recei er or his oem as fo llow: 11,i ' i ' cctlificd to be 3 [rue copy
"I rh ' original bill of lading which i ' now:lcromp!i hcd.
Mare thall ofte persOI) ,denlllltaiffg aelivet), 0 the catto
I h" siruarion may arise where
no bill, of J ding are ll\'ail bJe at the dio;charl1l porr
more rhan one SCI of bill oflading has been placcd In irculalion, all or 50me
o \ hi h an: unaurhmi d
lhe original hipper Ius paned with rhe hill, of IJdln and I~" erring [hac lhe
holder has nor complied lIiul it obliguuon!> ul1der lh' .>a!e ( Illr.ll.'t, for
e. mple i( has 5Omebo"- acquued the blU~ of h1din " 'i[hour m3king Jl:1ym nr.

19
1 Ea h of [he SitU3tlOn places [he master (und the ~hipowner) in a vcry difli ull
posilion and can 'vc rise [0 complex Legal ~ -suc: nd m3 in\'Olve compl .
commercial :md legal lurions. Th best advic rh ,C3Jl Ix: given to [he m f' r. if
he cannOt obrain guidnn . from [he -hiplJ,orocr, i (I I. our in pardgr'".lph I .

25. Chatlge of destilllltic/II d ur i-nt vuyage


Sometimes lhe maste r m~y be. asked [0 dlal1 e de tinmiol1 during (h ay:.);c and
to proceed to a llischarge port other than that named in th e bill of lading.. rhat is, a
maner for the sh ipown 'r [0 give instructiDn upon. I n [he absence of clear
guidance from the hipowner or the loc'3i P&l (; rrc ponden[' lhe m~lCr hou ld
take note or the follo\ ; ng.
, I Even if the \' 'ming chartcrpaHY giy a mn co di charge porr . onCe a bill
of lading hilli been issued naming a discharge pon, [hat destination sh uld he
rre.:u ed as if wriCt 'n inw rh charterpar , .
nil So far a:; che bill of lad ing holder is cooc med, [he diversion of rhe Yes c l co u
different disch, rge POrt will be a d evi~[ion, he consequence~ of which C'1rt be
seriolls for [he Cllrricr.
Promi . - b. :1 parry eking to change the de rin:uion (be it charte rer; hipper
ur receiver) rh:)t j( holds all ohhe ri~n I bill of lading or rnar [he pam

With bagged ~ugar cargo the moner wauld ,usudllr be III!wlct.ed to descrlb.ing the apparent QnJer
aoo c.onditions o( rhe bogs . In tl1is case me consignment would appear to be irl apparent good
omer and concfltion

10
hulding !:he bills of lading have agreed {O rhe change, ffi:l)':I[ be.~[ be
mcanin less and at worST unrrue. U SlIch parties are genuine! in a po 'ition to
make proper arrangemems for me chan e of destination dlen [hey hould be
111 :J position to provide:l lerre[ of indernniry (see I below) including an
un dertaking for me rerum uf aI.1 uf [he originalllilb uf lailillg,
\s [3[ed al paragraphs and ',the provision oflertelS ofindemniry in
n.- mm fur delivery of cargo at a different d tin:niulil i llI;lt unusu:1il. However.
.he randard wordin a for a change of desrination letTe r ofillldemnity (see
appendi.x ) expressl pro id for dt rerum of all of the original bill of
lading and an leerer of indemnil)' \vhich omirs (his fun menw provision
should be regarded as inadequale and rejecred.

TYPICAL BIU O:F LADING THE BIMCO CONGENBI LL


\ mndard printed form ofbiU ofladirng is repruduced on pages 22 and Z3 at
,.1'[- 17..e. The randard BIMCO Congenbill has been selected because of its
, ltkspread use. Each item in lhe bill oHadin o has been madled with an mange
ILlllllx:r which refers lO rhe relev-.lIl[ paragraph number in rbe teX[ below. [hough
II.UI. 0 the tcnns and conditions hown on me reverse of the bill ofladingare
.- l:ori\'CI)' ~hort and simple comparetl wi th those of a more de:ailed liner or
"nbined mmsport bill, rhe essencial information comained in die CongenbiU is
\ I-cal of all bill ofladlng
, hipper'
ne 1 shipper lvill frequent! be che parry which pfcpar (he biU of lading and
" 'I'plies much of rbe information w go in it- This information must be checked
.In;ful~t Where the Hague Hague-. b Of Hamburg Rules appl compulsoriJ
(\.1.-': paragraphs i' ::>-I and appendi.c es )me bipper i .entitled to have
, loll! oflading gi\>IDg cenain information uoo to i lt uporn hipmcnt of the cargo
( c:: parngraphs 11 15). The shipper is under an obligarioE (0 provid . accurate
11 formation and, if an of thar infofm3(ion i maccurale and lead 00 liability of the
' .Iricr, then in certain circumstances the hipper can be liable (0 indemnify tbe
I .riee (see paragraph I ht) .

'Con ig,ru
The information contained in this secuon is nor primarily the concern of the
III:mcr. It is a mauer between (be L1erofthe goods (oflen me shipper) and the
In[ended buyer or bu ieiS. Dcpc;ndmg upon the narure of rile Lmderl)'ing sales
I r;msacrion , typical entries in the consignee beE may be the woId 'bearer' or
'hdder'; it may name a consignee; it IDlIY hQW ilie words '00 order' \\fiu, or
"Imour me name of me consignee or the box may impl be left blank. Each of
Iht:'>( affect the uansferabiliry of [h bill of lading and with it. control O\fCr the

11
lULL OF LADING

...,.,..,
CODE N~ 'ICOtiCI:NMI."
...
IQ iK VlKC Pm1 ClllAATlfII-fItII'TIil

"""""'" '"
nili iII'.U'It; IoJoI:!'IIin:::"''''''''T't0fi64. a.oIhL'Illlr.lC;.aQUtj';:;ll. ~l

ComditioA. 01 Carr"v-

I"I~ __ MIIIiII~ ...................... allIoea-. PuR dMII_-.l.~'" a.- . . .,...__ ~.-. ~

&c:cIoor.....

m ~~CII-.t
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cou - d ; ____ "'*-'.lha...,~ ___ ....
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ItI_ illifQt
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~ '" .., MfoI~ " ~ 1!,,<!1II,p Co!Jr r...... "grin '"PKI tI ~ C-,i..r (pr !hot ir"'Tllhl

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CiMIoIIlI ""... r~ . ft gM b, .dIU"" tlIIM(IlM HII*l~" NI 'i'O~h t ...I1I',.\I .... 1.14, If I"~ ~ ll'loom,..JlIJf1I1h1!' M!f II>UJI1OofIIUfIII!t.
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er-. nw. ~ ",,~ 11l1l1I (i.IIIKIG- ~..., ~ IN ~.n e~ COM PVI " iVL 1.(8

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ewr..", .......... , ... twIIfi ~""~~ ............... ...,. ..... _~.......... ill
~I/It~t.,.. ~ ~ " -,,~,,.gggh_ c.m.~~

CSJo Itdih III .n- CaiIhJ_ ~


ItttII'v.NWI ~ In . . . .~I1....."lI"IIitr'-f ... ~ .. " ... ~11 Ill ... n-VIl.,''K/II!!I'm. ...... ""' . . . ..-..'" 1I ~, neilcGllII'" m.r.
"".nll', RH;! VI 11'1"
~ ..
1ImlI"'"
tI t:IItI C.."IM, 1ft rill 1\iI"'~" OIl in.. trt. ~ 01
c..'""'~ 1111~i~!liIIIIoIII .. ID RlIi6l"~i Of ~ .. ....tg..Nt
1 1111 "w. . _.,..1
t III Ih. ~ arrlll:l heJ~1II ~IA
111111 ......111,

I'Hiflln*ii1i! ~~ 10.. "",tiWtMr",-".lTlIIkKllfIi', II!'


~ 10. ij< .liy g.... ... UIiLlN"rtII 01 1114 6'wr. Ilift.061 itlilll u.6.,~ of IMr.bltle-,h iMNIOf~h -C""pl lr>i ,,, .,.1 tM .... "'""'~. r-lli loot... - . ... 16t IU
e.l!lJoOlaJlll!l _-cM, Plt(l(jl,lllltdoOt ' .OO-..u ~ I ~~ Of I'IOn-e.IIIII'IImll ~ ., 1:'1' h'. ob_n,., ...
PI" Of~I~ tl IIIUII""r"'LT:'" t l l...,I"1I Ihl(! "',HlCIr
=-
JlMIlonIgalnljl JlfCnolliOr"lll II'I;d I~ IrJOty ..-hllt,.. tt... 1I.lMr"~la1Ifaal-.o.... n Ch ll!l"1I1J 011 .,., __ Ha! 01'0.. 1 _ arObl"ctI QoII!I,w ItW'i.Of'" IIICNon to,
Ill' coUr:l1noa _ 11 ~bftOtll 11. , I Ilull" rHQK1 -aI I Cl:lYlI&:Ic 01 Cll:l!Ut;!

12
- EEl Bill 01' ILAD ING
m lie I&ED Wlru ....... -'

~moN P<I~.lnlll' ~
CHMttR-f'MT'f'd.lllJ S H IPP D ~:=:~:.::;~-:=:~:.=
a'l1M~ \111., _ _ , IIHJ !Ill IfIto ""'I'f ~ ~ ... 1100:>9"'1
~!l_u ..

FAlftOHl' N1w'1It4 ~E:


[!'I;lGtn ..... ~I" , ~
""w.l1JfII, ,
~, CO'tG IJH)I1, ~I. ".,a """Owl
~ QO! IIIMlIIUn( ill

ID ~Wl1'N 1I ~"Wlttl.~I"'igoI""'''''''"''iI!ld VI.allI ,11111_


... r'IUIItHH 01' Bill gl LILllnt 11\kt11i1111 01111" ,H 1111 ~"'~I'NI !MIll,

.... fIn1 UNO 41' .hJch ~ IIllftnflJ' il llht4j .... CHt'., hmlll)t "~CI

FeR CCiNDmOIII!Ii OI l (JAJlJ'lI,r,QIi 8e (N I ". UoI'I

,.r"~"'.IfH,ll

11" ...... 11 MIld",

",'"I',... _U.,
~4'
... ..,. ..
,.... vIo . .. ILos..n
10.. ...........,""'- BIlk _ ....._..J
,.,..~ ~r.1~~ 1l

W-:" ~
.... .o.t:_h _

23
delivery of {he goods (see paragra ph IW'i) . They are not matters which hould
[(ouble [he master at Lhe time of issue of [he biUof lading.
29 . 'Notify add,-ess'
is is the add ress (and II ually rhe name) of [he person to whom the shipper
requires [he shi powner to give notice when the goods arrive ar their dc.'i[inlltion.
Typically, the not ify addrcs wi ll be the consignee an agent wflich ha~ been
appointed to collec[ the good ' on their arrival or a bank ~.
]0 . 'Vc 'set'
The name of the vessel should be shown. T his i necessary for the bill of
lading to p rform its viral function of howing mat the goods have commenced
their physical transponation from the eller to the buyer ~ .
31 'Porl of loadi1zg'
Part of rhe descriprion of (he goods, which may be imponam [ 0 [he buyer. is
their origin. The place of loading may be llf\ important indication ofrhe origin of
the good . his also relevam [0 ale compulsory app lica ti on of [he I Iague Ilague-
Visbyor Hambu rg Rules (see paragl".lphs 7,'1 - ~-I ). Vt.'hereru; the master hoult!
ensure that the pon of IDading is sho~ 11 in the bill of lading it is nl)t for the
maste r to i rwe.s tig<'ltf': the origi n of r h(~ gnork A hroad description I1f the name of
the load port is adequac(.:.
n . 'Port of discharge'
I[ i' usual tor the bill of lad ing [Q nam a 'iogle pon of di, charge. On ()cl'aSion,
and particularly with liquid cargoes, bills of ladiw may give the option to [he shipper
or the charterer (0 nominate a discharge port after sailing. '-"'here a dis harge port i~
named (or, in (he laner case, nomi nated) and the bill of lading iS$ued, [hen che
hi powner is obliged to go there unless danger prevenrs this. Even if che vessel is on
charter and the charterparty provides fO[ a range{)fport.~, once (he bi ll of lading has
been signed, me safe course of action is [Q as umc th;'H the sh.i powner' obligation is
to cany the cargo [0 [hat named discharge port. To do orherwi may amount to a
deviation (see paragraph It)O ). ~ TIle pan 0: discharge may also infl uence the
<.:ompul ory application of the Hamburg Rules (see paragraph '3/.1 )).
33 . 'Shippe'Y's descriptiofl of goods'
Where the Hague, Hugue-Visb or Hamburg R!.!les :!ppl " [he shi pper i '
entitled to require the carrier [0 i sue a bill of lading giving certain informarion
about the good (see paragraphs 11 ~ - 115). The buyer of the ca rgo will rei '
upon rhe bill of lading to identify that the goods are on board and in transit. It
\ ill in particular rely upon (he accuracy of fhe descripdon given in rhe bill of
lading. The description of the goods is something which rhe carrier ma wi h co
qualify because of its limited knowledge about their condi don and qUilI)[icy. The
use of qualifying words such as those shown at parag[aph~ .;'1 and In is vi tal in

24
protectmg me master trom gIving descnpnon ot the cargo wt\lchare bmdlng
upon the carrier and which it may have no means of checki n.. accurately. This is
one of [he most fUlldamemal and frequem a rea of di put and it i deah with
II.l practical terms in paragraphs I -I and in more theoretical rerms in
para.grdph 92 - I ~.J ,
J 'Gross weight'
See paragraph " . It is impon:am rhat ri,e masrer rare rl1C source of his
infonnarion as [0 weighr and, il" possible, states any confiiccing information al to
weight which he may have derived from other sources. Qualifying words may be
'shipper's' figures' or 'said ID weigh ' or, preferabl.. ili words which appear at
paragrapb 11'. This is one of [he mosr fundamenral and frequent area of dispute
and it is dealt \Vim.in practical terms in paragraphs I I and in more theoretical
renm in paragraphs ll~ - Li.J .

. '(of which [quantity] OIl; deck at Shippers risk; the Carrier not being
responsible fm'loss or damage howsoever amil,g),
Carriage of cargo on deck when the shipper has nO[ agreed m it, or whore [here
is no universal custom 'o f deck carriage. is a seriou breach of me ,comra~[ of

Il is dif!k;uJt. to esttJbIish exocily how mony roof tiles are brokn on these paUe1s a reasonable
esrimGte should be made cmd suitable remark i1l5crted an' the bill of lading la describe me apparent
order and rondirkm rmd also 10 drow attention ro the inadequacy af The pociaging

25
carriage. If cbe tcnns of rhe bill ofluding e pres 'ly 'm[\! LhaL cargu CUll be C:Jrried 011
deck (hen if i~ important to ensure (hal the bill of I"Llillg ubll ~taro;.~ ,that rhe l-argo
a wully I:. carried on deck (see parawaph I 'i'i) , 'he 't:Jmluru CClIlgcnbill form d'oe.~
Iml trlnmin ~uch an expr eml gi\Ctng liocr . ro the I."amer [Q ,:01rl1 good on deck
alllJ Lhe .,iIl1vlt: "lIluillg 'IIU\\II ht:re i~ nUl 'ufticient [U give ~uch a liberr~.

6 "Freight fJtlytJblea,~ per CH.J.LRTERP;H~ Tr dall.'ll{dall!/'


If rhe "hip i op<:mting under a durtcrpall) (h -n if, , '1') important chat rhl,:
dare of rhe charterparty is inserted here. If lhe he.ld ch:merpan~ i:. J \O):lgc
h nerp:1rT} then the date of (hi ~hould be inserted, le pO'.ition is le s delU ir
rhe head chanerparty i a lime charreIp'arl1' Ibm. III the ab. nee 0 guidoln cor
in truniolll fIom :m ' other source. [he master hould lI1'>Cn lh ' d:nc of [he head
tlme ch:merparty. Thi is (he comr:lc[ \11th \\ ilich the hipo\\11cr., familiar. The
head lime ehanerpany Ill:! ' 31 0 make expres pru\ j"jon a~ ro rhe [erms if require~
[Q be in [(cd in any bill of ladil1g which i ' is~ucd ami ex n.:s rcferen c [ rhi
chmcrparry in [he biU of lading nuy achieve incurporJcion of rhe, e remlS ~ .
' rhere may be a number of charrerparti.cs and [h 'r >rore rhe masrer ~houl d if
possib le check wirh rhe shipOWIlt;f [I) sc;e \ h:1I dn re;; i~ ro I im\,;[tcd in the bill of
lad ing. The shipowner is in rhe best position W :Idvi 'C on l'hlS, h importance of
ins 'rring [he dare in the charterparty is ( Ililt lll:1ny nf rlc' ~)I'fll.:( ' liv<' d :ll"('~ in rh
chanerpar \ hich are designed co protect the ship \Vner nHl in nI!lny k ga l
sysrt:ms be considcrt:d CO' be im::orpom~e d imo the bi ll of Illding I)nl If the. d ~[e of
the ch:\rtcrpart is hown on the bi ll ofbding :~t)e p:lmgr:.l~) h I) I), ' I'he
significance of rh is seme llce is lherefore nut limirc:d pure! to frciglH bur. Iso
e tends co a whole f".mge of other prorecrivc conditions.
37 'FREIGHT AD Vi ' CE. Received cm an-omit offreight:'
The reference (Q freight ad''aflce Ls rarel ' completed. Irothcr (CrTTlS . freight lO
have been wrirten on (he biU of ladin presc:mc:d to th ' m:JS[cr for igna(ure, he
. hould seek guidance from the hipm cC ~r practic:!I gui lal1 see paragraph
and for dle underlying theory see p3I".!gJ'.Il'hs lilt ((I 110 and p rngrnph !~.
8. 'Till/e used 101'loadi/lg [110.] ,daJ's [1I0.) 110111' . '
Thi is rarely completed. if (he ship i 01'1 charter, rhe rna, ( r should nor
refuse [0 ign any bill of lading simp bec;l\.I:;e he di awe with [he figure
inserred here b , ~he shipper unlcs.~ he h IC3r in$tN rion from the ahipo\\ner to
do so. I--j,e hOllld insert h" own and rhe hipper' figure in the bill of lading and
i ue a letter of protest to the charterer and hi per Lling out hi ' own ca.lculatioll
of timc U$cd.
39. ' HJPPJ:.lJ at th e PO/'f of Leadi1lg ill applwelll goodol'({ I' (JIld {(Jlldilioll IlIA
bom'd the Vessellol' cQn"iage to the .Port of Di~'c"a!'1f (}I' so 11 em' flret'eif) as she
11Iay safely gel the g(J()tl.~ specified (lbQVI".
For 'SI liPPED' ee paragraph ,(], For ' Porl of ading' scc parn);,'rap h ,L I,jlr

26
:lpp:ucm ~ood order and condi tion' sce paragraph 1., 1. "or ' Porr of Discharge' see
p;tmgmph :;2 , FOr 'or so near rhc rero so .~he C:ln . afcly ge t' see pmagraph p It
o ' JVeighl, measure, qnlliifJ'. quanti(\i. cOlldilian, fonte"llts tlnd v tJ/u e
11 11 fm{) 1VI!
,"'ce par.lgraphs ,. and 1I and 1.;1) :ll'ld 1.;11.
, 'IN WIT E S w hereof the Maste r (}r IJge llt of lhe mill Vessel ha.s
,i,/(IIl'd the number olbills fJ/ uulillg illdiclIteil helow all of this fe,wr lIru/
dale all)' one ofrvhich being accomplished the othel's shall be void.'
A~ a gcneml ru le, the bi ll or lading may be igned by th e shipowne r, rhe
Il1i1SlCr or his agenr. [he charrerer or hi agenr, or (h.e shipowner's loading agent. It
IS hm h t'ommon sen. co. and in accordance with UC P 500 ( c ' pamgmph ' '1770),
for the rx:rsfln signing rhe bill of lading (Q state the capa iry in Wllich he is signi ng:
ror 'x,lmplc 'charterer ' m in rhe ca.~e of an agent, '<I agem ro r (he hanere r' ,
\:\1le rhe r (I parry h~s atJthori ry (() sjgn. and \ hecher having so ' igned [h bill of
1~lding he creares a contfac[ betwcen rhe hiflowner and [he ~ipper (an owner'
hill) or bc(ween .he chartere r and rhe shipper (3 charrcrer's bill). is d e~tl[ wirh in
par~mph U9 - 2.1 1, Tradi ionally th . m JITI e r ofb ill ~ iS$llcd has been rhree in <I
,Cl. nle number acru:J.ily issued is hown on rhe face of rhc bil l of lading in rhe
:Ippropriate box: (see ~ I 0 paragraph +4 ). However w is is nm 3 un ive rsal prdnicc
:lntl onc or any number of bi lls of lading can be i slIed and rhc number shown on
[he race of ca h bill of ladin '. Eve n [houp;h a number of origiral$ ma h'lve been
Issued, Plcsc nt3tion 0 an, 011C original [0 rhe masrer (in the circumswnces
de,~ ribed in paragraphs I'; and 20 ') i sufficient and, at [h:u moment, rhe
fl lneTi n of rhe hill ofJading 114. been :lchieved (or 'accomplished') and [[le other
hills of lading become worrhlcs (ext:c pr as evidence in rhe eve n I of a di pUle, for
1\ hic h reason rhey should be re[aincd carefu ll y) .

.. 'Conditioi'll; ()f Carriage'


:4l1lerms and cOllditions, libe'r fies and ex 'eptiQIIS of th.e .charterp1lty,
i/lI tU/lIS overleaf, inci1tdil~g the Law and "bitratioll Clause, are h C1'ewitil
; 11 carpo mfed. '
The concii ti(lI1!> of atriagc referred co are set OUI on rhe back of rh biJ l o
I;lding. The back of (he bill of lading is:!. important as the face and whe rever a
opv or rhe bill of ladll1g i ,~ requested the fronc and back should be supplied nd
carefulJ. examined. The condi[ions of carriage which arc set ut on rhe rever' e
\\ill be added [Q by [he term of any tmn:erpa rry referred to in the ' Freight
p:JY' ble '!ie [ion overleaf (see paragraph ' 11). The extent to w:, ich the ch:mc rpan:y
terms can be incorporared in the bill of lading in .his wa . depe nd. upon the
t: xU:[1t ( If the incorporating wmds and rhe word used in [he cha rterparty its 'If ~nd
is a Tla rte r (If derailed Engli~h case law.

27
42 2. 'General Parammmt Ciaue
(11) Tltf /ltIglII /Wk>s conlained itlllit /nlt:t"tU1tiotio/ Cofl1;Jl"lilirJli jor rhf Ufliji.71Ii"fI liftn1(lifl
robs rdatirlg /0 Bills of Lmiutg, dOled Bmssdl rhe 2S'h AJ m 1924 (IS fI[(litfd ill till"
n
rrmlllry ofsl/jpml!1Jl, shoII apply to MiJ flill of Will/!. IYkm 1'0 ~ 1'1700 fill1'1lf is ifI jom'
ifl rlv crJII11lrj ojslliptNUJl, tile MD ,QjJfnldi,lf, Iq,IslaliufJ (Jf,lie IOfmrty 0/dfSlilltflibfl s/lrJ/1
opfJI. , Inll in mptrt ofslripmnJtr 10 ~ic" 110 Sll ~ morlt.lf111, lff( (Q"'fJllisorily oppfltnlM.
(lIt ImltS ofIIIL 50id ComJI!tJlion slroJl (l/JpIy.
(6) Tt-ndr.; ho-e Hogr~V.rslJy /Wtsopp/y. I" Ir"o&:r ivre ,lIt bll(171t1lioflbl Bmw./s
CulNl'fTlibfl 1924 os tl1lIL11tk.d by I/J( Proforo/ ~!lI(d ot On, Is tm JVlJrt/Ory Z.PIfJ68-
IIJr H~-r:;sIJy Rttlts -apply ClJ17Ipu/.wrilj'. fh prrx:wo o/Ilit 17:SfXr'1Ttr' /,gisIntion
,rhoU ojJplJI fO dri.1Bill of lGdit .
(e) 7711' Carrirr .rho!! in 110 =
IN rl!Spmrsibb for loss of or
dtm.vJgt /(} ,Iv, corgo,
hfJWJOI'Vcr arising prifJ1" .10
I(}(v/itlg infa mid after
rlisdlOTJ!:eIrv'" lhe l1!sselor
while lht tilrgo is mthe
dJfJrp;e ofmwther Carrier,
!Jor ill respect oftkd COIgn
or Iir {lIIimttl.r.'
The fi!"llt {Wo
paragraph, (aj and (b), art:
(he mechani m by which the
Hague or [he Hague- I b
rule will pply contracwilly.
Thi CQn[facrual applicalion
is O>ICr and above an '
compulsory applicadon
imposed b virtue of [he
good . having been hippcd
from, or me bill of lading
having been i~. !.led in, I!
COUnt!")' which has given
effect .1'1 the Ha!!Ue or
Hague-. by rules (see
paragraphs 7 1 - ill ). The
thi rd paragraph, (c), 1<....
3uemprs [0 limir me scope The C1pporellt order and condition of a solid bulk COIJiO
of responsibility. h is may requjre some qlJoliFIlng words, fOF exampl if It is
found 10 be lumpy

28
permissible under (he Hague 0[ Hague"Visby rules for hipmvncr~ to limit their
rcspon ibjJi~ 0 [ha.c they are not respollsiblc before loading or after discharge,
wd la avoid responsibility in re pec{ of deck cargo or live animal - However. so
rOll' as deck cargo i concerned. dIe simple auempt :u exclusion of liability at (c)
will nO( Ix; effec[ive unlcs me eargo was carried on deck hy agroemcm: or b '
univer at cusrom. and rhe bills of lading dearly show [he cargo hall been stowed
on deck. If [hose requircmems are not satisfied (he shipowner will be liable fOf
.1l'l)' damage au ed by the cargo being on deck and mayal Ci lose [he protection
of P&l club cover (see paragraphs '/0 and I :'is) .

.1. 'Ge71eral tlerage


Get1fftJl AfJtTogr: sllBlI be udjl/Slui, Sloti'D tmd5I'nkd aaxmlillf{; /0 York-AnlrrP Rules
1994, or any Wsequenl modijiuJrion r.Iterrof, in ul17om/ utlless anorhtr ploa is ogrr:erJ in the
(ITmrtrpt111J.
Cargo:r contribution to General Af..lffage shaU be paid Iu the wrriff roOT whc11 sudJ
(l'Cff'lge is the rrsult of0 fouil, lugli'CI or rm;r of IM Mostn; PiIor or Cnul The Chmtmn,
Shi;{lffS and COflSip!ees c;presslj ml(J/I/'Ia' W BeJgilm C0111l1lffdgf CIKie. Part JJ, Art. 148.'
i i 11 standard provi ion dc:>igncd m CJ1$1,m: cerrainry as rhe gencr.!il to
Jveral!:e regime [0 apply in (he event of general average sacrifICe or expenditure,
nd to identify the place of adju tment.
~A. 'New Jason Clau e
111 tl;e etlCTlt ofnaidmt, drnJger.. dmnngr: or tliraJiff lKforr: or ofo:r the trJIlIJlIl!!1IZmC111 oflne
C't7J~. roUltfllgjro1ll 011)' aTUfl'fdIOISfJI:f/"t; ~etkr dIu If) rugf1f!"1/ (1'- Tl()t,fo r ~hich, orfor
rlu- ~lU of which, tllC Carrier is fwl rcsponsibk, by stOlTdL, amlrOC1" or ()tht:ru7iIl!. the
rorgo, shippers, con.W= or rIM w:17l:1'"S oflhe ctlJ7!P .IhollW11Jrilmte wilh lhe Cumer- in Cellffal
IIfKfag~ to tire /JUJ'111ml rif011)1sacrijia:s, /.osses or exjJmsr:J ofa Cmeral.4fJtTogt: ll1tltu,.,; thul: mo]
I.." 17t'1lk or incumo altog,ollpay Sll/wgf' and sptci<11 dtorgf!J i/Jl'lJrretf ift rtspeO offhe mrgo. If
U5OJ-virTg r;esse/ is Of~!.,wd or operated by r// Carrier, solwgr: shaH be paidfor osfully as if Ik
'Did SIlking rxssel or ~ belottgtd /0 I1rtbJgtr!. Such deposil as tk Con"it:r; or his ogetJlS; moy
rlCl!Tli'i1!/flliell1 to tll'ilI!r till! estimolui mlllrilm!imr of lne goods and fmy ~ and sptrioi
r/roJxcs fhf:mm drall, if reqTLired, l 11111de Vy tk wgrJ, shippm, f'(jlLllgr-ees or OC.QTITJ if the
goods to the Corriet- before tIeIioery~
This is a standard c:lause tbar deals with obligarions of all me parries involved
in the voyage to contribute to general avet:lgt:. I r i a purely legal provision and
need I10t concern [he master.
1.5. 'B oJh-lfJ-B lame Collision Clau.se
If the Vruel COIlli!f m/o co/fmon wi1lr tlIlOlher rxssr:! os a rmdJ oflhe lJgligma oftM OIMr
(r..w/ mvi 071J' Od, ntgva or tiifOl1/t oflhe Mm/er. Mar7JIb"j Pilot or the Y:fTJtlnlS of lhe Corrir
ill tb 1IflVigoliart or in the mnnogl!1l1&T1t of lilt! li(sd, lhe I1WnI'r! of the r.ilrgt) t:Orr:VD Iiereuntkr
fiJiU indenmilJ' IlK CuTTier agoimJ nU lOM (ff liability /0 ,h, o/kr Or mJfI-a:u'7Jing t:C.'iSe1 (Jr kr

29
such lo.('i or liability rrprll.ffflts /0., of, or tkl!llll!l iO, or all ' duim
()WJIffI ill .11;,liIl" tI.f
wJlol.l"QP,fJrT 0 IIiI' O[I']fll1, ' (?f.will ctl1"go. /.Jmd ()r /Xtyllbif' by lhe ollil'!' m' jJOII-CdJ""ryillg tJe.rri!l or
hcr ()WrIer; fO tI//1 (Jit!'J IITS qfsaid mrgll (lIld .wr-of!, r-ermJ!)F,d (Ir rl'coveri!d b,l' tile olher or 11011-
rtllTJ'flg IX""! liT her (),@/II1"f {IS parI if tlreir r/(li}fl agoin"t thr ("(ITT)'lilg T .fw1 or IhI' Corrin:
Thl'.fot'egoillgprooisitJJlf J/uJ!f tt/so apply when' IIt1! O'liJf'tJers, (jp'm/ors, or tiroS!' ill di,,,"'?e of
urr)' vessel or =e~ 01" objea- other (/vm. or ill lIddiliw to. llie i:ollldil1g vessels or (j~illC1S (Ire (If
jcml! in 1"1'.(/>"'1 oftl roUisJ(}fI I"H' <Otlld'!. ;
This is a tandmd clause dealing wi.h CHlS5 :md counte r claims in coUision
cases. I.. is a purely legal pfOvi ion and need no. concern [h mascer.
42,6 . Occasionally, addirional (trill S and c(lndicions ill be added el'en cC) tandard
bil ls of lading such as the Cong<::nbil l. A typical tGrm may be II lien clause or il
choice ofju risdiclioll Of place of arbinatioll clallse .. If {hI..: vcssd is operating under
a chal1c[pany. thi will ometimes require additional c1au e to Ix: in 'Crlcd in the
bill.oflading.
43 . '/;'reight Pi.lyable at [place]'
Thi, may ~h[)w 1I . pcciiic plUCt; for paym(;nt bur, if complctcd, i more li.kf:ly
co show freight payable at 'destination'.
44. 'iVmn/lf!T of odgillo1 BsIL'
Traditionally rile number of bills issued ha been three in a seL However this
is nOt a univcr~,,1 pmClicc and (Jnl.: Of any num ber of bills cal l be issued and shown
on the face of thl..: bill of lading itself. i ually the bil l of bd.ing will be given a
number shown in (he top right hand corner of the from of the bill. Bill of lading
for carriage {O (he niccd Lines will show an SCAC number (comp ri sing a filu[
digit number and then a second reference of up to twelve letters or numbers).
which is unique [Q the carrier and m [he bill of lading.
45 . 'Place mId date of issue'
The dJle of i sue is exuemely imponam , a often the value of rhe cargo or
[he price (0 be paid or rhe eifecci\'eness of rhe underlying salesrransactic)n wi ll be
governed by [h dare of iss ue of [he bill of ladillg ( ee paragraph l:if) . I r is
essential that a 'shipped' biLl of lading shows the dare on which completion of
loading oeeu rred in respect of (he parcel of cargo jdenciJied i.n rhe bill of lading. It
i~ no. cssc.:mial fhat tllC bill of l;Iding is is ued:lt the pon of loading - although, of
course, rhe port of loading must be named. Lf the place of issue i not [he port of
loading, rhe place of issue t ill has ~ignifj cam;e bCl-lIuse it can affect the
compul ory application of the H ague, Hague-Visby Or Hamburg rules.
-46 , 'Signa tun'
See paragraph -11.

30
THEORY
H I'STORYAND CONTEXT
7. LeA' I re. r boo Huuirionlllly define and anal 'c the bill Qf hH.ling h i(" ~h~cc
dl\linCI fU!lc(ion '
l a receipr which sho\\ what ha been load d on [he ship
.1.\a document of titlc \\ hich how~ who C'Jn dcm:md rh . ~ood~ :It [11
Ji'>Chargc port
a com m r of rnage.
18. Alrhllu'l1 Ihi gu ide !Idoprs the more pm ri ca l JpproJch r Cl lIowing [he life of
Ihe bill fTOm irs iss lle co delivery of rhe cargo. it is useful ro keep these th ree
Iimcriolis in mind. They can most easily be understood y c.'Wrn in1ng rhe imple
I ,ri~ins of rhe hill of lading.

Hvolulion
~9 . \.Vhen rhe owm;r of goods pu s them on bo~rd a 'hip [l~ Cll f/!, he wiJi c rpCC[
I II rI.x:civc from [hc mas.er 3 document, signed b [he mo ' (er. cunnrminf!. (hat rhe
:':HOtlS have becll received on board . Thi~ docume n r ( r receipr wus rhe fir [ ryp' of
lIill ~r I dingo

-
Menrion snoold be made of contents spilling from bags

31
50. fll (he r.:arly (kl)' of commerce [he owner of h.e good ,~, II merchant or HJde r
of ,ome ~o rt. would often (fa e l , iIh [he goods and sell them lit thei r de tinmion.
He \wlllld tender rhe bill of lading {Q rhe master at rhe discharge port ~nd, in
re turn . t he maSter wou ld release the goods (0 him or, a[ h.is personal direction. lO
th . b~l yer. The func; tillli fir (Jle I:>i ll ofl ading remained simple.
5 1. rV3 commerce became mor sophisticated [he merdl~ J1tS
and traders L-eCilml:
involved in more hipmems and were unl ikely ro sllil . . l'ith my 'of [hern. In [hose
circumstance ir became importam for them to be ~ble tIl give the master orders as
w dt.:l ivery of rhe goods. The delivery order wOllld I) e wdnen UpO.ll rhe bill of
hiding and would [ell the master widl whom he shou ld de<d at the di ch'lrge port.
52. The law developed alongside these commcrcil!1developments and soon
recognised rhe bill of lading as a document whi(:h gal," crtain right.~ [0 rile pers() n
holding if. The rmnsfer of lhe bill of lading accordingly bcGlme [he practical
met hod of rtail fer of owner hip of rhe good . h be 'am a documenr of rirle.
53. As che bill of klding \vas now ~ym holic of rhe goods themselves, it ""d~ more
impormm man ever fo r dle bi ll ofJuding t l 'wre dearly the f,[eIS ahour those
goods, namely dl:J.t (hey had been shipped 0/1 board. their ge neral dr.;.';cn prion,
rhl'.;r '11l:H1r;ry, :mrl their ::lppmem ord e r Hnd c(lI1di rion. The buyer h:ld :. ~3 1 e
c:onrracr llnd he wanred re check rhe detai I of the goods before he paid rhe price.
He rcli eu principally on [he bill of lading for (hi . The dllC)' ro make [he bill of
bding accur;ne was rh:u of [he masrer and so the bill of bdillg as a receip became
more importanr and more bu rdensome re hi m.
54. The law reinforced die buye r's expectatLon~ b ' recognising U1a( the bill of
lading; gave the buyer no[ only Ihe right {Q derrnnd deli\<ery of ..he ~oods . bUl aJ 0
.. h right to sue the Shipowner for an [ailure on i parr. The buyer was entit led w
expec! rhe goods ro be carried safe! ' w tlleir destinaTion. If they were nor. [he
hipowuerwould be liable. T he cmbvdimenr in t he bill oOading of tht:sc
liabilities. and reasonable defence, to them. was rhe chird f1ll1C(ion of the bill uf
lading. a a conract of carriage.
55. With its three inrer-wovcn func tions, as a receipr, a a doc umenr of tirle, and
as a comrnct of carriage, the bi11 of lading plays H un ique and Importanr pa rt in an
lmemmional sale rnm~accion, le ig "()~ , however. rhe mosr imporl~r d()~U llieIH.
The moo.! impomlllt: document: is t ht: Clntl"dc[ 'If salt:. Al though dlC mas ter may
never see ueh a comr~cr. ir i impo rtant to understand tht; basic nam re of rhar
(;onrraCr and [hi~ is considered in more kmll b~lo\ . But fi rst, the bw.
Th e la w
56. This gu id e assumes ~he appJit:arion of ~ng! i sh [SlW to the sale trJn~al:ri on and
[Q the bill of lading. Often English law will be c;h()~cn by the partics to apply. On
nrhcr occa iolls ir will ,govern by implication, Even where English bw is not

32
hrcct lv nr il:Jdirccriy chosen i( prol'ides U u . -ful gUlue. U to a ){rl:U l c .\lell! English
.1\\ rcnt:Ctl the practiol needs of commerce. "hich III 1ll0l1l -C'llCC(\ arc Ihl.: \:Jrnc
hmughoU[ rh world_
111e la\\ appl~ ing m a bill of lading ,,-ill r.udv be found ,iml)l~ b~ loo in.!!.;][
'111: hilluf lading itsd . Furthermore. if English 1;1\\ .. pplic~. if a,)IlO[ be lIunti I
, Il l<: I()k ur t~Jde:
In J {)'l1i~...1 omm..:rcial rl""d11l><Inion in which a bill c)fIJuin~ i, invohcc.l che
li~hr~ :Jnd obli~(lol'\s of the: parties tIl<l~ )me frum J numlM:1 nf SOli re .

, \ 1any of lht: rigtns:md obhgarions are " 'nm::n on lhe f~ '~ :mtl RWCrsl: of 'l ilt:
Ilill of ladin~. SI). for example, (h name 0 [ ill: load POrl, Ihe dischar/..'I: pon , 11
whic h rh vesse l mu, [ proceed. ~lJld [h e b-illib on which I!, 'nt:!"JI Jvcr~J~e !S Ul
he ~ Ijllsrcd and p~id . Ill~y b . wri([en on Ihe IJi ll or "lIjin~ und oif I hey ~rc. me
know n as express [e rms of [ile con tr"cr.
II Sc)I1JCli n~ c~ 'ht.: law fi nd s i( ~c n 'ibl . tIl ~dtl its own [l;r111 ' 1'0 , I COIl[]'at.:t $0 dl~ 't
it 1lI;lk c~ good bll~i ncs~ sense. So. for r;:xam plr;:, even che sim p il: ~ ( bill of I ~ ling
c;lrrics wirh if ~n im plied [erm [h~[ (he carrying \'c~M;1 will I . N(;;IIV(]n h y.
Somc~i rnt.:s [crnls arc imp!)s..:d on che po rtics to the COil (r.! l b)l i,ne 'rnlltiOfl~lJ
com't: nri[)l1. When :J numoc r of couflnie, agree on a pcCinl' cc of ril:l;hrs ,mu
I)b li)!;:Lrion.' which should appl ' to the c'irri~e or good ' b~ sea ur (0 Ihl:
I)wnI;ll'ihip and opc r(l(ioTl of hip (ht:~ will u~uallr . r (h 'Ill down III Ihe rorm
of an ;.wccd code or coIlven[ion. The Ix: I known or
Ihe . COIW 'nrions,
dea lin,!!; with [he ri~h[S and oblig..ldon applying to [he c:I.rri:lgc (J good~ b se:!.
3r rhe Hague Rul . [he Ilaguc- I by Rule: :md. more rtccnrl~. (h lambmg
Rule. These convenrions ma~' :lpply ~ :l maUl.:f 0 IOC:II 11\\ af rhe pia e of
bJding or di harge or i ue 1)( the bill r lading. " merim rhe~" ill appl
lIuough c_"prc,,' choice (sce (u) below)
.' mCTimes addirional rigin. and liabilirie.-. will be im: lud~-d or in fJXI~rcd b
rder n being made in the bill of ladin , to a onvention or r :lno[her
d umenr. for example. a bill of bding ma , cxprc,'sly refer I the Ilab'lJC
RlI le~, I h guc- ISby Rules Or Hamhurg RlIl s or. for exaffipl ,ma r re <,;r co il
I'hmcrpm y, If it does then [he parry holding the bill f I ~ding will Ix:
assulllcd tn have knowledge of the terms of that (;OIlV ' nl lOlI ur c:h:ul(crparty,
CV ' 11 if he Im nor (liken rhe rrouble in Ca r W obtuin a cop 01 it or [(J look a[
Ir.

Il I EIl/!,lish ~[~[Ute I"w !Ind 'ommon law. En)rJish modern );\1\ is u a~(;d on C~(; I~\I'
~i.<,;. un a<:cum ulari:nn of rhe decisions whirh have been rnndc in t~IS C: over {he
~c:.Ir:;. someti me, a l ~o known as common law), lOgt! ch<;:c ,~il h S[:.ItlHe law. .
Statut 'S re lcvllm [0 (he ubjec( t.:overed ill .hi:. !(lIidc .my it\cludc rh VllriDUS

lJ
S31e of Goods IS (de:JJin~ with rhl: rt:ialinnship bcrwl! 'n rh seller of dll:
ca~ and the buyerof thc cap '0) , Ml:rch;mr Shipping ;\ ' [~ (dc;Jling wit h [he
o\\ncn;hip anJ oper..trion uf , hifl-'i irlcluding limila[jon, rJ liaoilil1), rhe.: Carriage
of Good by &-J cr 1924 :md 197 1 (which arc rhe Engli'ih cnac[mI:OI~ of
rhc I Loguc dlld I-I,,!!,uc- "l>~ Rule"c ",xli,cly, ICr.,";;O UJ ;.1)(1,,<.:1 and [hc
..<Irriage of Goods by Sea Acr Iqq~ (which deal\ wirh rhe I....n.,fef of Ihc righr
to bring ::Inion under:1 hill (If 13din~ frollll rhe \hippcr of thc ~ood to
'ubscquenr holdcrs or rhe bill 0 lading).
(n In addirion, ancrnpr ha\'e been made fnnl time m rim by Cflmm rei.31
group :md org'dfUs:nionJ> ru sr:md:m:li.loC scn.,ibl . :md common prJ (ices wiLhin
imemaciOlllllll"Jde. PS()O :md the InC(,[em1.~ arc c>.Jmple, of these 1I1ld are
refcrrcd to later in rhi g;uide. ' 111c 'C ~rc l1olhm~ mOfe rhall odes which havc
Hnemptcd to give internationa lly rel;:ogni. d filc;mil]~, ro p:trri UI.I! IIOrdS .md
expressions used ill sale :md fina nce cOlllmcts. T he I aui(.:s may choosl.: m
opply [hen. They lire nOt mand~tory and ;hould ht,; disl inguishl,:tl from
convcntion whi h have been ml1de J:tw in Cilch CO Ulll ry w hi h h:l~ cre~red or
adopred mec:onvemion. UCPSOO and the InclHt:rms UII nm havc any bind ing
force of la, unless e;'(press\y chosen, !JU[ (h 'y do rcllt:et current pracli cs and
are good guidance as w what shoulLlllc.: dmlc ill rh' ails n('(' of :my orh :r
,guidance w rhe comrary.
59. All the 'ourccs, rights lm d ob li gut~ons will wurk toJ.;cr h(;r 10 T(;atc rh . I c~l
environmenf in which a bill of Jading rum:liom. Somctimc~ che.: righLs :lIld
blLgarion will be eO[l idered b rhe law [0 be of ~ i ~nific"'m and fundamcmal
~mpormnre. On mher ocea ions, mey wi ll bt: t.On~;dcrd to I . or minor
impormnce. The most imporrant right.'! and ob li ~t ion~ \\'ill be COil idered in th'
remai 11dcr of this guide.
The international sale of goods - bllCk rOlllUi
60. The agreemem berllccn a sellcr amJ !Ju ef Cl g(4)US i!. ontain'd in dlc sale
ronrr: Cl and [hi will comam \' halc\'Cr arrdngcmcnr or pm,; ion [hc . lIer and
bu~'Cr ma~ choose for [heir pceific pUI1l(n~ 3'ld need. \" 'CI ,he rmn 'lefion
imoh:c lhe tran:port:nion of goods by . ell, the bill f ladillA i ne of a number of
d(lcumcnt.~ " 'hich i ' (:w;tom:lfily u d to m... (hat ,.Ie ronl ["Je[ work. 0 :I\'oid
mi,undcrsr:mciings asm ""hi h pany i beario whi h n kill Ihe .ale IIr ~rn:lge of
rhc good . , maJIIY anemprs Ita\'\: been ll1:lde to :tchJc\c unifo rmity uf terms. Some
may be adopmd voluntarily. or hers may appl~ oompu lsoril : ' lC most imporram
3fC Ineorem1 1990, CP500, and tht; I h 'uc Jni.l I hguc \~ . b Rules.

/ucO'tenns 1990
61 . 'Ine seller and the buyer decide in [hcir ~Je COIltr:.tCt II'ho wi ll do wl1sr. For
example. in a simple Han action, (he bllyer nla ' agree to t:ollC<:l rh e good from
'['he sell r' flewry or warehouse and to umkm kc HII Ih . responsibil iry imd COSt

34
1(lr rr::tn~por[mion involved in ge[[ ing lhe 1';OOUS aiel [0 ch 'ir dcslin .. riull.
\lrcrn:Hively, [he ~eller may ;Agree dial he will do evcrytlunl-\ nc(;c~xlry It> gCI [he
L:ood~ [0 r'hc buyer's chosen de tinanon. The panic cm ncgmiuu.: thl: \\onh u
rhel: l'UIlIr" [Oil t::a h ocC".J5ion mal chcv work tOgether. I 1 \\c~cr. an ;jet 'lllPl
" IJIIJ-\\llk: [0 [il."dMdi -c lraJ:i~"c[iu'-L' like lhc~e. dllJ 111(,,( \.U i~'lilll" ill 1 ["cell.
In ')C found in [hc Incorcml 1990.
,2 The rncore rm~ (an abbrevinion for "lntem:1llonJI Comrncn:lnl:ml," tmd
\\hi h were del; d by [he Inremauonal hambc:r olT mmcrcc in lJJ6) an be
Idop[ed \()Iumaril> b)' [he seller and bu~er or. '0111 ' lIIll ' ,by ntcrn:uion:.rl u.\.mffi
"r rh.: rrader or b~ implicarion. 1llc:~\ :m: uuall) repre~ntcu h :lbbrcv;:ltIons in the
.L1e 'onrmn. The abbre\iation utilised indicates" hut obligamJll~ :.II'\: ul1ucrtaken
I}\ thl: ~d!1:f as pan or the all-inclu ive pril'C 0 the ~OOI.h. SH. ur cil.amplc. ill ~ CIF
IllllfUCl tht:: 'iCller arr.m&,-es insur.>nc(; am.! L.lrri!l~e Jl1d tilt: price paid h)' the buycr
\\i ll ll1c1udc Ihc cosr 0 rhe goods, the in-urdncc cosr and rhe (fl.i~H,
) . . ome of dle Incmerm pJace all obli~a[iQn on [ht: 'clk;r nut unl)' co deliver the
!.\()O s bur ;llso ro deliver sh ipping documcfl[ 10 (he buyer. 'n c bil.l of "l(J i n~ is rhe
1 11tl~ c common :Jnd vi'calllf [hese shipping documents. TliI.': IlIcmcrm$ when.; .. bill
Ill' lading (or si l11i1~r shipping docull1em) i~ vi t:i1 arc

erR (C & F) COS!. and frei/!;Iu


Cl (CO~(. insurance and freight )
CIYf (carriage paid 10...

CIP (carriage and in urmce paid)


FO B (i'n.:c On boa rd) .
4. I of the abbrevi:llions are IJSCC for convenience bet\\t:cn the ~cllcr and
11I1)er. The \\ill nor usually appear in [he bill ofladin". Th arc matte!:x:t\n:en
ti ll; ~lIcr and bu t,;J Qf thl,: good! and need not concern fhe ,hif'11')\\"IIcr or m:lj,tcr.
I I0\\ C\'cr. tx.'C1USC in <.:;:Jeh of these cascs (he bill ofladin r ion' of rh, k y
JocLmenl~ in (he ~aJe transaction. these are {he lIregoricl> " alt: nU':1 r wh re
pr bI m are moor likely lO :lfisc for rhe hip, r\ linle ,,"ore omm nul)' on rhe [\\'0
mo ( frequendy used rem) CIF and FOB, Ill:! lIlU~ be h ll'ful.
65. Il 'ndc:r lhe CIF contract [he 5Cller puts the goods 011 bo:Jn:I rh hip, p:l~ , rhe
fr -iglu and in ure (he cargo. The seller therefore ha:; right :ll+,in ( the in urancc
wmpnn ' ~lnd right against rhe hip. To rransfer [h\:se righl . t() the buyer he \\'ill
"kli\'c l ro dle buyer (in rerum for paymem uf the: 1F pritc) .he in 'u,c'w)ce pulic
Of et:nitic3(e. and rile hipping documenrs - one of which is lilt: bill ()f lading. 'Tht
II.:i!.al righ r alld obliga tion under the bill of l<lding nu be [f:1I1 ferred to thl.: blJ 'cr
11. comig:nlll '11 Clr endur. cmenc, T hC.$C cxprcs~ions rL: e:xplaint:d in r8,mgr'Jph IH~.

35
66. 11ndcr [he other 111ain fncore rm . rhe F B ontr~c[. the bu)er ~illd~ ~pace on:l
~hlp fo r hi c: 'rgo. He \\i ll do [hi ei rhe r b nndin ~ u ~lIi((lbh; liner crvict: or y
h:mcring a vessel in. The buyer wl lll (11 0 arrallge hi, oll'n i",u ;lnc:c 011 rhe l1lI'I-\0.
The se ll er ani.' h [0 Pll[ [he good 0111 board Ihe hip 1...1I11Cd by rhe: buyer. Tht:
~ lIer wi ll obr-ain a m~J.[e' receipt whIch he" III dc:l"cl I Ilhc bu r. Till: bu~",
\I illu'iC rhi mare' receipt to obtain, lhrou:m Ihe ,hll)' agelll. the bill uflauing.
There ma~ be ;) \':lriarion of [he FOB amrra I \\ here tht: "<.:lIer Ila' to ULlI;lHl :md
pro\ ide 10 Ihe buver me biJJ of lading, tJrner rhtln Ihe m;uc,' receipt. The ,:lit.:
t'OIlH3C[ decides rrus ~ .

'P-OO
67. An ' inremarional ale mm c[ion reqUlre~ pamen! co be nude by [he buyer
[Q Ihe seIJer. 1111 C31l be done b, ca h. or by \'ariou~ collcCllon armnJ?emcnt

under \\'hi h [he eller' bank hold. the kl;:y documcnt\ :lIld rdc' ,;cs chcrn onl
\\ hen il has recei~ ed payment from tht: buyer or, 1t1(JSl frcquclHll/. lhrough SOITI t:
kind of docurnelllary credit arrang.:ment. A UlK' UIllCJTnJry crcuit arra!lgclll clll
i!l\,(Jl ve~ the bu)'t:r of rhe goods rnaking all amlll 'cmcnr wirh i[~ b,mk TO Issue (l
prom ise. (a lem:r of lTedit) to t he sdlc r dl ~t rh.: h,rnk wi ll rKt :t~lIinsr n.:c -il l or
rh . ~h ipping doc urm:nt,. ( m: ~uch sl:1ipping G OClll11t,:1l is rht.: bill of bd in g. "Ib
e.nsure [he case (lf tl rra nging such do Llmenwry crcd:i [, . dl Iru 'rn:llilm~ 1 Chumocr

Cardboord cal1ol1~ can be easily damcged - any dQmag~ ~Oled SIIO,1Id be recordoo on the mate's
receipt and bill of/ading

36
I'Commerce devi ed in 1':133 a code for cb Unifoml Cusmm and Pracdce for
lI)("Jmenmry Credir$ (TCP Rules'), These rule. wirh [be (lInem edition bein"
nown a 'CPSOO, appl) by reason of bein~ adopled b. rbe banks or chambers of
tlmmerce ur ' imply by in<.:orporarion of [he UCPSOO (enus in [he documentary
red,r i r~e l r.

B. l'CP500 ide ZJ lists the information that 3111 'ocean' or 'porr m porr' biH of
,Idil\g must contain so rhu i[ can P:1SS .hrough [he bankjng sysre m in a smoorh
nd effieienr 'wa .
9. As berween the: buyer and thc sd It: r. the refore. [here arc a number of
c: quircmentS which the bill (If lading must sati-sfy because Ihe I m:o[(;rm . have
I(;CI\ adopted in the sale contract or heC3ll.'SC ICPSOO requires it. he 'c ::lre all
nancrs for the , eller and rhe buyer and rhe Jrc nO[ for thc mastef to worry
,bour ~ .
O. Thc master will r.m:ly fir probabl, !lever) see and should not expect to.see,
he ale conrraet hem'een rhe buyer and the 'ell er or the tenns of :my
locumcmary credit..
r:ollvelltio'l'l-s dealitlg with the care of cargo
I. The quest tor ce rrain t),. however, goes beyond the terms uf the sale COntract
md the Iinanci:!.I arr:mgemenr which have been made for paymenc The parries
., rhe; saiJc COntract will :1I~o need to know thar the: goods will be transported
-.1rduLiy and on a ~cawonhy ship and, if .hey arc nor. ~har they will havc some
Igh! of acrion again t the carrier. these rights may be rransferred tbrough the
lands of rhe vllriou pec on8 holding rhe bill of lading durio" .he mmSaCtlOn,
",Ich wil l need la have some idea of rhe ri ks and righrs which accompany che sea
\ uyag;e.
12. In 11II anempr 1O create uniformity ofriglHs and obligations ofshipowne~ and
L'argo owners, :l large number of ooumrie involved in (he cam:. e of goods by sea
(ei t~er a shipowners as merchants or:lS bmh) have agreed from rime [Q rime [Q
,cr ou( mere rights and obligarions in [he rOml of agreed convenrions. There are
man',' convcntions in the maritime world bur the principal ones rdc\-,mt to the
ISSUES in this guide arc now di cu.ssed below.
Hague and Flagi'H:- Vislry R ules
13. The [errru of [he Hague RuJe were drafted at rile Hague in 192 1 and
:Jdopred b ' a number of counu ie in a meering in Bmssel in 1924. Addi tional
cC)unrries men also agreed ro adopt rhe ru les as app lying compul5orily CO
carri~gc by sea in which their country was involved. \'lu-ious amendments \\'e re
m~d ovcr the yea ' and a rcvl ed com'encilln was drafccd in 196 , which led m
d.c adoption by [hc member cOlJmrie in 1968 of the revised nl Lc~ known as
rhe Hague-Visby Rules.

37
74, Th Engl i~h vc:rsioll of tl1 c original Hague HI I": ' IS ., cr our 111 a!>pc: ndix . The
English ver ' ton ofthe Ilagu "-Vi 'by nllb b set our in apP 'lIdi" . The: cOlJrmi s
which have agrcud (0 appl~ [he I-bgue and Il ag:ut:-\fJ, hv RuIn ;11 . li~[cd in
appendix
7 5. The intention of [he conventions is w provide :1 balanced regime of right and
oblig3rions so thar me cargo owncr can expecr u et:rtaill ~randard Ill' care fr<)nl the
shipowner in 11l3imai ning ir ~ ship ~nd ~n Cl rill tor the cargo: ami rhe shipowne r
can be prme [cd from claim wht:r,e. despiTe i( m3jmcnanoe and C3re, rhe cargo is
damaged,
76. The method of applicmioll or [he com'CmlOI15 i ba iOlLl~:J 10110\\ ~ ,
oumri wnich have cho ' en CO apply [he Haguc or HaEUe-Vi:.b>' Rules enact
legisJadon in rhd r own country for example in [he UK, [he Carri~ re of Gods b
Sea A rs of I 24 311d 1971) which s~ys dUll rhe ll.:ID1!I or rhe cOIwl.:l1lion are [0
3p~}1 ' as if rh y '..-cre p:m of rh, national law. Thl.: convenrion iro;clf 'C['S our rhe
"'O}'3ges [0 \1 hi h (he I [ague or I-tague-VlSb) Rule "ill appl, oomplil oril)~ In \'el')
brood term rhe e art: v age from t'OntrJCltn,EI mcs or II'here rhc bill oflading
has been issued in a contrClctil11-\ tare. Th<;; term contracting . ra[e~' is ~im.pl . a
way of dcsc r~bing countries which have agreed tu ~pp l r t he convemioll,s,
77. Quue often the seller and buyer of ood C)r l t'arrier of good" \\iJl decide
that c\'en where one or olhcr of the convenrion cl '.) flot apply compulsorily (tor
example be au e (he shipment I flOl frum a contn ling ~m)[e), rhe would -(ill
like [he wdl-undemood regime of the c; nvcnciom to apply r 'the VOyOlge in
quesdon, In rho e. circumstances. [he pan ic: ~tln in [ile bill of luding hoase to
appl, [he r(.;nn~ of [he c{)nvcmion b Lncorp()rJ, lin~ [hem by way of' conrracrual
clauses wrirren in [0 (he contracr. ' e.xamplc of a conrrac[u31 dau.><: which
provide rh I the Hague or J-Iaguc- I b~ Rul :11' 10 apply comra tuall~ ID :l.I1y
case where th re is no compul ory applicacion, I."Jr Ix: found on rhe bac of r'he
lands.Td printed ' ongenbill (e p~tragrdph I " .

78. The riglus and Ijabil i des of the shipowllt:r under (he convemions are in
es 'coce simple althou h in [heir applicarion o\cr rhe: yearrs. the e la\\ ha
become quire complex. The bligntion,; pi d on the ' hipO\\ll rare
(Cl ) [0 IDler ibc due diligence 10 llIake its hip in ,dl re pee[s caworrhy (see
c

p3r:lgn1p h J4S)
(h) to rc for the cargo while it is in the shipowner' cu:stody ( 'ct: paragraph 11)')).
79. In return for lhe 'hipown r accepring rhe obl'gatiolilS, ir i afforded some
defences. The convemion recogni " [har cargo c~n be lost or d.amn. 'cd even in
circumstance where the shipowner has (;Xcr i ed due diligence w make its hi
seaworth or where eventS 11l:yond che shipowner's concro! occur, slIch as sum'

38
il)hc:reOf problem with [he (-Jrgo, some I"'tcm prublem widl the \'c~sel \\ hith it
cuuld nm b~ [he: e. er i' t:" of due: diIigent'C idcnui), or due [() 'ri" (If [he ~C:l
()(,;)olld tI rn.t: \I hich the hipo\I ner could ha\e: t:"xpected on [he: 'll)agc
i.llldo:nakcn. There: arc many specifi :md general dc.:icnc . all 0 \\ hi 'h are li [cd
In tidl: 1 ruk: 2 in bo~h mt: Hague ond Hogue I ~ b) Rule.
BO. Th on\'emion a'I 0 rerogn.i:.e mar c\'Cn where Lhe hi;)()\\ ncr i liable. ie i.
m rhe m[ere~r or [he rf3din~ community:lS a \\ hole {haL Ih ' hipo\\ ner should,
unlc ~ ir is complerel) reckless be able to limit it ultimate: liabilir to an umour'll
reblcd [0 [hc quamiry :lnd value of rhc cargo being med. To leavc rhe
,hiplJ\\'IKr wi rh 01 en ended liabiliry multi makc shipnwnin<1 and 11craring
~nviablc.

81 . All of rhe abm'e principle llre embraced in lhe 11 ~~ut:" ,lIld I b gue- Ish
IlYe nri n . Their precise applicarion i llO I[ Hill hdorwanl <lIlU iL i~ fluC tlu;
re It' of rhi, guide co exam ine rhe: complexidcs which have' rb<;1'I I ll!( of the
dmfting and applicmioll of [he convenriolls. Ilowcvcr, om: VCI)' ~mport:1m point
~lbQU l ~ h c; r lagut: and Il ague-Visby Rll l c~ i~ rh~r [hey impo. on rh " s hi powner
un obligu llon a.~ [0 rh e tUl1u:m of the hill:; of lading which ~ re to be isslled
whcn good_.. have becl1 ~ hi pped Oil board hi \'c~ d . nd the , mre whar
r li~nc can be: pl.>ccd upon that in format ion by rh ho l'd cr of rh bi ll of h,dini!:.
Thi~ p:micul'ar aspeCl: of [he Hagu e and Hagl.le- I b ' Hul i pcrhap dlC most
imporr:mr for (he purpose of ,hi guide and it is dealt \l'ltll pccd;t~lI~ i l1
pm, ~mphs 11. - L.~ t
The HO'm bur Rules
82. Desplre [he \\~de pread adoption ;md undelanding Q lh Ilagu". nd
113"" e-\~ by Rules, [here has been a move prin ipall} amongcountric:. whi h
{fade merchants rather [rum hipou"llers. 10 u:npoM: a r.lIhCI more oncrous
r gilOe compuboril. upon hipowne . Thi ha:. led to rhe: 3doptlOn by a number
of C lIntrie of:! compering regime known as me Ilamburg Ic . . These "ere
dc\ i....:d in:l niled _ aoon comcncion in J97 and had g:Jin'd \uffi icm uppon
ro c me in to forcc in Ha.mburg in 1992. The fcnn~ 0 ch' -bmburg Itul are Cl
our in appendix and [he oum:rie which haY rotil.1ed or ' dopted rh 'm are set
our in appendix
8l. he J hmburg Rules attempt compulwrily tu cxt:lude rh' npp!icadon of rhe
I Iague ur 1.laguc-Visby Rules. The main rcgimt: of right and ob li ~'!lrion as cr ,our
i.n [he I-bmhurg I~u]es can essel1tially be described a follows.
I;~) The intended scope (If application of the l lamburg Rule is wide. The ba ' is of
their applia rion ri ll depends upon contracting stares i1 l'.'in,!; ag rcedro :Ipply
the co tlVc nrion ~ a matrcr of their n;uiot131 1,j\\', bur rhe.; . ope ofapplic!uion
i ncluuc~ voyage' nOt only from. but also ra, port ' ill I;:Onrffi [ingrare .

39
(bi ' 111e I lmnburg Rules provide 3 cargo claimant ,,-irh a greater number of
optiuns as to where he can COIllIll nee his Hction. even tu the ext('nc or
overri ding arbitration provlsiollS.
(t') T he pe riod of responsibility i~ fur grcltCr than under rh Hague/Hague- Jsby
rc ~ me and puts l h,e cmrier under a li abilit ' thro ughout rhe rime dla( it has the
cargo, as di,~rin c [ From [he 'w klc to tat-klt:' rClpoJ'lSibili ty which i. (be basic
prm'ision in [he I-h gue and Haguc-VJsb Hules.
(d I Mo t importand . the hasi~ of liabili r. j rhar (ile carrier is prcs\Jm 'd [0 be:: 3t
fau!r if (he goods arc dam:igcdor lost, or if there j ' delay in d -livery. 1'he
carrier. {O avoid liabili ty, must [ilen prove that i [, i r servams and its agents
took all me, ures whi h 'ould rC'a~onabl ' be laken ro avoid rhe occurrence in
quesTion. The only exceprion to the prcsumed fa ult principle is wher loss.
damage or delay has been ocC'asioned by 1lre and, in rhe.~e circum rances. the
burden \\;11 lie upon the claimam (0 show [hat the lirt: ()r tilt: loss. damag or
delay res uJ red frOln dl e a J"rie rs' fa 1I k
(l" Lim i(s of liabil ity arc :lholJ( 25% higher (han under [he Hague-Visby Ru Ics..
(I) Liabil ity for de lay i . t:xpn.:ssly im posed.. and t e c~ rgo is dct:mcd to be lost if il
i~ IJUl 0<.:livlO l"J will'l " 60 J a .~ of [h 'lppropdac rim fo r do: livc r),.

84. It is worth sraring [har rhe H~lmbllrg Rules haw not et had a \ ide imp:!ct
and t here i ~ little . ign of [heir displacing [he Hague and I-Iaguc- Jsb RuJes.
However, for the purposes of rhis guide, it is worrilwhile (0 nore the information
which unde r che Hambur" Hulcs [he hipper is elllitled to dem.ll1d in a bill of
lading - ce par graph 12:'1.
COGSA 1992
8S . FJIlally. mc ntiun shou ld be made of rhe Carriage ofGJOds b Sea Ct 1992.
Despi[e ic name, dlis is [lot a (; Ii ~~t: relat i e of [he Carri.3!,;e of Goods by Sea et:;
1924 and Iq71 refe rred to earlim tind wh ich gave effec [ to (he Hague. and l-I aguc-
Visb. Rule respecti"el~: ThC;! Carriage of Goods by ea Ct 1992 ( OGS. 92) is
nOt an 11('[ designed (Q give etTi ct to an intcmatiolllll convenrion ~ and it dCJe!'
nOt rdate mrhe allocarion of riglu and obhg;Jtions between Olerchanrs and
carners in c;m ying largo. It role i r idenrify who i:> dle party who can legally
bring sn action agai nst rhe shipowner under a bill of lading. Somewhat iro nically,
[he term of COG SA 1992 arc not of grea t re levance to thl;; i . 'uc;S tlwered in lhi
guide. The ques tion of who can bring a claim i a maner for la\ 'c rs to debate
once a claim for los or damage of cargo has arisen - it is nor n e semial matter
fo r rhe ma rer (Q chink "boLJ" C CSA 1992 is noc or relevance in dete rmin ing
who cm, dem and d livery of rh good ~. So r~u as the mas te r is concemed chac
person, in rhe absence of su piciolls circumsta nces, is [he holder of an oriuinal bill
of bding 3 't the discharge POrt.

40
86. l."Cordillgl~ ill ' not neee-sar,), [0 look imo (he m m l.<lcie ' of COG \ 9 2 here.
,' UlflCC W :.a; {har COG r\ J992 does nor r~ rn link tIC: p:1ssmg of tirle w)(h rhe
1lt;gt;:tiatiDn. mru;ignmem or endorsement of (he bill 1.1 I3ding. bur imply S3~ [har
rh . holde r of rhe bill of lading an u . If ir rran pin::~ thar lhe holder i nor rhe
I.Iwn r of dle cargn. dlcn rh holder musr ue and hold chI: p rlle.:cd~ for [he
benefit of {he [ruc owner.
87. Uo\l el er, as:J final compli riDIl COG)\ 1992 dO<." take (~opportunit) of
CQIrrcring 3n old :lllomaJ~ in English O'it: 1::1\\, CCX'. ' J992 n w upplemcnrs the
pro. 'iull!' 1.1 (he Carriage of Good by Sea elS 1924 :md 197 I in one [ pcct:
n:l!nd tha[ \1 he n a bi.ll of lading tares [h:l[ goexb, h:Jvc \)(:<.:n :eceiyed on board,
rhe hipowm::r i now prcl'enred ( ropped) fmm dcn)ing that l:uemem. el'en
[hough in facr rlu: '!OOdl> were nO! hipped on hoard. The l'aM: la\\ before 1\
9_ ~Iarcd (har a masrer had no aUlhorirv [0 ign a bill nf ladin for cargo \\ hieh had
nm been pur on board. The act now 3dopLS me policy (har if a pcrl>{)l1 bu)' a bill
of lading which. hy irs VCI) na ture. sa)!> that ood~ ha\-t; been hippcd, then he i
cmided [0 rely on ( !u [ statement :l.nd (0 ~Ue rht: hip<J\'\l1 r if rhc goodl , hipped'
do IID[ anil e ~.

The limber inside !hes@ packages canrwt be seen by rhe master it is rherefDrl! important that a
dear remark is mDde on the mote's receipt and bill of lading that the ourer pockaging is we!.
noined ond dolTlDged

41
The shipowne~-'s insurance
88. ff rhe shipowner accept;s ar~o on bo:ud irs. shi p. and does nor meer its basic
obIigadons ofc<lflying rh:1[ cargo to the desrinarjcln safel and rhere delive ring ie to
rhe righrful receiver. [hen dle shipowner can expecr lO face clai ms [mm (he cargo
owner for loss, damage or wrongf'U l d livery. Tb obrain some procec[ion in respe r
of these Ilabiliries, rhe shipowner will arrange P& l (prme rion and indem nity)
imunmce 0 rhar if i[ pay these liabi l i ri e~ [he P&l <lSsocia[iol1 (commonl known
ill; a ' P&l club') ,I'i l1 re i mbur~e k

89. However, [h.e P&f club win c}'lJeC(:1cerr~ i ll s nllld~rd of cOlld uc[ from rht;
shipowner no[ onJy in (he way char ir mainl:lins its ship, ond in the l1~tIJ re of [he
business ie undertake , bur also in rhe manner in which ie conducrs i{selfwirh
regard w [he i 'sue of bi ll of lading and if compliance wirh obligacion under ~ha (
bi 11 of Iadi ng.
90 . So far as che mascer ill concerned. [hi , standard of conduc:r is 18id down by (he
P'&I clu b in rhe P&l rules comained in [he P&l rule book whi\,:h wi ll uSllally he
issued annual ly and houLd be on board rhe v se!. TypiC".J1 f1J Jes woul d ~~ y <is
folloW! .
(u) T h3l. as m [he isslJ.e ofh ill.~ oflading. ll shirlOwner may nor l1!! emirJed !!
protection from its P&l club in circumstance where hill of lading :1I't i ~s u ed
by it; which
do nm; show [he <:Om:c[ dacl;
do not contain an accura te description of (he cac"'o or its quantity or condi tion.
(h) That, a~ [0 [he voyage, the hi pawner may nm be emj Lied [0 I'l'mccrioll from
i[s P&l cl ub if

there is a deviation from rhe comr:lcmal voyage


cargo i. carriet! on deck in circumstances where an express right [Q earlY rhe
cargo on deck has nut been agreed betwe.en [he .'hip{lwner and [Ile ClIrgo owner
carriage is on term le ' prottttive t(J the hipowner [\1an rhe [ l llgue Or
Hague-Vlsb Rule (unless the Hambu rg I~ul 's have app lied u.1l:lv{)idably by
opemcl0ns oC law).
complelioll of the voyage, the
le) 1'h3( , as to the ~hipmvller ma nO[ be e.'ltided
W prmeccion fro m its P&l dub if
the cargo i. delivered a[ che wrong discharge port
the Glrgq is c.lcl ivered to H person \vho has not been ~ble to produce one of (he
origi nal bill ' of lading
under a v,oaybill or non-[Icgo(iabk bi ll, delivery has bc;.en given to someone
other than [he person named in that document as rhe pt: r 'on w whom
delivery should be made.

42
In addition [() rhe rules, tht P& l club w ill also issue regular circuJars which
:Ire disrrihurcd to all mcrnbc ' and wh ich m3.Y eomain guid:.wce on dl is 'ue of
hills of lading,
91. F..<Ich of the poim, maoc by rh rules tire, nf cou rse, of du; utmost impf)rrancc
lin [ile master [0 understan l. Tile rules clearly renecr the leJ,,'1lJ and ('omm crci~.iI
..:x.pcetations ()f [he sellers <lod buyers of [h goo Is as des ribcd in tbe following
~ harrc rs in this guioe. The P&l dub rule do not impose on {he commercial
rnmsac[inn anything which is nor Jready {here. They do, hO'wever, clearly
i llu~rratc and reneer in t heir term the: Import:ll1ce and relevance of [he issues ro
wh ich [his guide is dedican.:d. They should therefore al\l, ys I in rhe fo refrom of
{he maste r'~ mind, from the momem th:Lt he makes prepararion [0 receive rgo a[
{he loading porr until he has dcl ivcnx,1 the cargo ano dle bill of lading ha fu lfilled
I[S purpo e.

SIGNING THE BILL OF LADING


92. In thi~ section [he legal principle underlying the pmcricu.l gu idance given in
ha:>rer.3 are explained.
93 . Th<: quc~[ i on examined in more derai l in {he following page. include the
lillloll'ing.
~Iu s t there be a bill of lading?
W1w prepares it?
'Iu l rhe masrer sign any form of bill of ladinD' pre emed to him?
Who dsc can ign.'
311 the ma~t(;;r!l r bill of lading holder correct mistakes?

Whn t informarilln musr the bill of bding comai.n?


"Vhar terminology hould Ix; used to describe [he cargo?
Does this teml inology make: the bi ll ofl ading 'unc lean' or 'claused'?
V\~la( if [he shipper refuses 'unclean' or c:bu~cd ' bill ' of lading?
Are leuers of indemniry a lmion?
\Vhar is the sign ificance 0 rhe date of i sue?
\o\'hat i~ the sign ificance of rhe pia e of i lie?
94. Loading cargo will i1lmo (inel'irabl lead w the iss ue of a bill of lad ing. Tlm
bill of ladi.ng will be drawn lip by [he h ippe~. I[ will cont:Jin facts which the
maste r, by his signature. mav be seen a rep resenting as correct. hat
rqm:scruation will bt: seen nO( on Iv by '[he shipper, wbo should be I.vCU aware of
{he :ruc nature anti quanriry of (he cargo shipped. bur al 0 by [he ultimate buyer
of the cargo who will r 'Iy vcry hc,wi ly 11 the {arcmenrs of fans comained in rh
bill and rhe master' apparent <looprion of rhem by plming his ign3wre . or that of

43
his authori ' cu ;]gem. ro rhe bin, The e rep~senr3 [ i() n s arc mHde: in parr jn l he
c.\pacir of the bill of lading as;l re ' ipr (rhe d s~ rip l i() n. qu:unir anu condition
of the goods) and in part in ifS capa i~,' us u contract of c;Hriagc (that thl: goods
will be: c:Jrricci co rllt: named di ~charge port).
95. In prac'[i(",11 [e rm~ it j, perhaps u~e.:ful
ti)r [he rnasccr m rJlis early stage (0
consider wh:1I infn rm~Jion he m~ , he ;,1bk: {f) co ll::ct and from what Ollfces (see
para.e;l'aphs I (, I 17::'). Thc mJ.'ler is nm cxpccu:u tu ha can cxpcrr t::ye or {O ca ll
for any scientific lUlalysis \ hen observing th . cOI,diriOI1 uf <.-MgO coming onbomd.
In panicul:Jr [he maste r is nor expected to m;ikc any observatiOll as to the ualiry
of cargu wming on bo~rd. o. for exam ple. he is nO[ i!lceresrcc.i in enquirinf( or
asccr<lining whether rhe cargo i , for example, numher 2 or number 3 corn, or 10\1
or high sul phur fuel oil. lie will be expe led. however, to appl ' common scn~c in
idemif. 'ng dtit:c[s in the co ndirion of rhe cmgo, fo r )Wmpi' rhe prc:cm:c of
for ign cOllwminan{s, W;J(CT, rnl)u ld, in ~cc(s, dismlonrmion or smell, and broken
packaging. I n ord 'r to put the informarion a , ilHble ((l him 10 comex{ it i, useful
first to co nsid r the issuc~ that may ,lfisc at [he lime of ir,'l1ing the bi ll ofJ;,Iding.
J)oes the maste'r have to isstte a bill y! /tuling P
96. \\fhcn goods are shipped .here will u ually b~ :1 bill of I<ld i ng. If nom; is
te nd reel to [he m~s[e[ for sign ~wr . ~nd no letter of autho rity has been gil'en b '
him , h . ~hollld enquire whar arrangemem . [lre bein!'; made fo r [he issue or bill s 0
lading.
91. The . hipper of the good. will, when [he goo;i, ha e be n shipped, require rhe
issue of 3 bill of hIding. u 'uaUy fo llowing (he i sue of ,1 m3[C' receipt. (cnml11un
I, w rherc is probabl nu Obligat ion on rhe master [() lssue a bill of lading comaining
an. parricuk\r irrfonn:uion. {lr indeed to issue any btll of lading:u all ~ .
98 . Howeve r, there :l.re usua ll very rrang pmc,ic31 reaSons wh y rh<: maSter will
wish {Qissue a bill of lad ing. Ir is useful for him [0 hav a dot:umcnr which \\~I I
indica.c co whom ddivery is co bc given ar [he &schaIge pon, and which rt;coru~
rile app~rem order ~nd condition of the goods when rhey were shipped on hoard.
[n some cOllrmies [he ship may nOt be pcrrnincd ro sailunriJ '1 bill of bdin cr has
been issued or. ar least au[hority has been giveri in \ 'riring ro rhe ship's agent to
:ign bills of lading on [he macrer's behalf. 1.11 adJirion tu those.: ! ra (ieal reasons for
signing and issuing a bill or lading. [he Hague, Hague-Vis!> I and J lambu rg Rule
require a maSter, if cal led upon [0 do so b)1 (he shipper, co issuc a bill flading
comaining spccifi e [ypes Ill' informmion. This i looked ill in a lirde 1111)rc derail in
pamgraphs I I '- I ) s.
rVhQ p1~epares the bi/! of la ding ."?
99. 'r h ' bill oj' IadinO' will u -ually be prepared (but nOI ~ign(:J) by dIe shipper, Ius
agen t or forwarding lIgcnr. fl r \ ill rarely be prepared b the ~h i plJwne[ (he

44
shirmmt:r's agcm or [he m:lsrer. V,11Oe\/er prcp:ues rhe bill. ie is imponam fo r the
master [(J chcck carefully (or [0 e"sur [h:1[ any agenr m; ri ng on his behal f is
inst ructed also [() ('heck carefully) [he rollowing- informJtion.
(a) The de c,iprion (rhar is quamit), and cond ition ut' the cargo (as w whi h see
paragnlp hs Ill' - U";). The importanrtep is co ensure [hJl the bill ofladill:?,
are in accord,mce wi,h [he mare's reocipl(S). Any description Or chmsi ng LI1
dlC marcs' receipr (see pamgmphs 17:!. - 17,) 'hould be indudeu in rhe bill
oflading.
(b) The dare and place of shipmen t ( 'Cc pangr.l.ph. I ~r. and 1:;7) hould be
conccr.
100. f\ failure b [he ma, [er propedy [() check {h is informarion can bind dlt:
I;'arrier rhe ;Jccur&cy of rhe bill of lading. and can lose;my righr of indemnity
[0

\\'!Jich rhe carrier may othc:rwise h:lve hat! agai rm rhe person \\'ho prepared
(ins~ uJUre[)') [he b~1I of lading ~ .

Must the master sign any form p"esel1ted to him ?


I 0 I. S :I matter of basic
prinr;:ip le [he mtl~Kr is
I'HJlmu]y U""k: , IIU uL 1il9'liulI
to issue ~ bill of lading.
Therefore if :I bi ll of lad ing is
is ued rhe l11as~er does have
some comro] over (be
info:1ll<lrion w hich ir
("On~Ji ns . However. dlis basic
princ ip le \\;1 1 r.:lrci . apply
be ausc, unde r the I:-hb'lle or
I-lague-Visby RU]CI;, [he
'hipper is :lIld ilB\ riably doe-~
demand a bill oflad iIl . The
Rule li r the inforrna rion
requil'cd (see paragraphs 11 ,
- I~~ ).

102. Frequently rhe


mas[er"s dmy ro ign or
aurho rise tile igna[Uce of [he
bill of lading; is al 0
prescribed b~' rhc [enn of a
Cha rtLrparty. E'or example, a Curdboo.fd C/JrI[Orr.i CIlIl be =i!y damaged if wet all}' such
damage must be doorly (@Corned at Ihe rime of lood'ing clnd
hatterpany wi ll often ,noted en !he mate:s receipts and biIs of Iociing

45
rrovidc Ih:H ~ he m:! rer i (0 ign bills of bdin.: 'a.~ pr 'sGmcu' ro him by [he
ch~rrcrcr or i [s agem .

103. Whar rhis mClIns is rhm [h mUSlt:r is bOlllnd (0 igl\ a 'bill of hiding ill the
ordin:lI), orm for rhar [:rade _ It i imponam (Q [lOle, hO\\I:I"f, [hal" maSter
dDC.~ !lOt have [0 obey a request by a charterer tU 'ign hill\ 0 lading 'a~ prcscmed'
\\ hich (:(mrain in;u;cumre Of unverified inforrll'J.rinn it' I() lhe d's riprion, quami~'
or l'Ondirion of rhe cargo, or ~ [0 (he dare or pbcc of . hil)men. The h:merer
annot require rhe master (0 jon bill of 1:J(Jing \\ hich :m: :.impl~ unrrue or
(::trele in respeCt ofrhese maners. :.o1:l[u:rs ~u h:l' Ihc,~, .111 ofwhl h :lre deaJ
\I;rh under paragraph. 11,' '-i, arc mancr.. offa [and rhe ~ ( :mnm be
varied i mpl , by [he harrerer rcquirin u rhe ma ler [0 ~i~ a bill of bdin~ '3.
pr~emed' if [he bill of bding '3l; prcscnrcd' i. f.:t wally iot rrc ( ~ .

104. In addirion to maners of facr. rhere arc abo pmbably ,,;hcr ,i IU3Tion:; in
whieh rhe ma [er does nm have m 'i"ll 3. bill ofbJinJ!, ';1, prcscm 'd' de pi[e a
cham:rparry saying [ha'[ he mu r do , rI, ' 1l1t:Se IYpt:.~ or sinrlti, n :lre li, [cd below
'i mply ro sound 'alarm bells' for Lhe master if :lily of [h 'S sirIJo rions ari , bu r it
is of ,he u ~ mo l impor!an e thm [he mutcr doc~ cv 'ryrhillg he can [ dis us~ tht
mmrcr widl rhe p& r club curmspondcnt or th e shipO\ ner r cher rl1311 simply
rcfusi llg Lt.! sign [ he bill ()f I~d ing. Th ' I;IW is compJx in1d th e OIlS ' qLlc nw~ of
refusing [0 sign a bi ll of lading ca n be serio u ,
I OS. ImportaJl[ 'nlann bell' siumriuns incilld(.! fcquesl, for Ihe issue of rhe
following under an 'as pre cmcd charterparry.
, bill ofladilrgfor u dtsti'Kltiofl Oll/Su:/u//trrferparn limits. Thc ma,~rcr h. che right
and probablv [he dmy [0 rel'u e [0 . ign:J bi ll of l:Jding whi h names porr of
di charge ou[ idt: [he charrer rrJdin" limit
A bill of /udiJrg p,'t'JhJitd IQ JJiI' 1l/il,r/ffIr}r ,fWUlfl/,''p "Jrit-h d~ . fJOf ullm1X"~II/' /l'T7/fi
"hiE/ak rklrurptJT1)' F:t.pr~J' requiff5 /(j!J, wJrJtll'tI. 'fhe m' (er \\ ill proIYJbl . Ix:
emided [0 refuse [0 sign ~ .
A bill if lud'mg mWfprfStI'J]fiJlg IIv calklilion. 'II""JII'/ Of' Iklf",.,. "j fJr, m/~f1 (:.cc
di us ion abo"e). The masler houJd nO! It. 'n.
A bill ofIodiltg beoring II~ InaJnM dol,. m:bocr is nm hound [0 ign a bill or
lading bearing an inrorreCl date and hould nor do 0
A bill of Iodill itidJ sJo/J' Ifro/flU' rorgfJ filLS IKI7I/fJlfr/Nlllfukr t/;!: 11171 III }Iut Ill. mrgo
hns benllOlideti on ded, The ma (Cr h s a dury not [0 i/{n
A 1JiI/ 01 Jodi"g ,,"hirh .r:tom (lrat /niglrl hll( IKrtI perpmr/. I lhe vc cl is under a.
voyage charterparty it is a r~able that the ma.ter doe.' not ha\l(; authority to
sign freight pre-paid bill of lading ~ . 'or mort: dis u, sion 'cc
paragraph 2.1-1. II me hip is operating u ll~c r a rime ch:Jrlcq Jrt . rhen see
parlgr3 ph I (J6,

46
106.' c follon-ing are il\'J3tioru; when: rh!: mastcr mar h.;1\ tlouhc, lIOoU(
\\ h [ er he hould, i". bill 0 lading 'ob pn...~'Hcd', I lowcvcr; ~II 0 rhe!
llu:lIi ns are more properl , dealt with by (he , hipO\\T1er ha\~ng rhe rigln 10 an
mdcnoiry from lhc chOlfil:rer ~ and, in [hc C\'I!nf of un 'rr3inry or rhe :.Ibsence
"f ~d.lnLe from the ;;hipu\' flC., LI.c II.,,-,Ic. " lruulJ i/!,ll il' tlrr;:,.;: :.ilulItiulI\,
Where :J bill of l:.Idin~ cOlUain a demise 01 ',denur, of (:arrer' cI':.IU:C
\ ~lcre ~ bill of lading i. marked 'frt:ighL prc-paid',lllc ma;ccr may nol u 'uall y
refu ro sign these. nor requ i.re :I licll c1au l:: in tilt: charrcrp;my to b
in orpor:ned in the bills of lading, simply co PW((; [ rhe 0\\'0 r '~ position 011
ch~rrt::rpa ry hirt:: ~ ,
"\lhere:l bill of !::iding comain ' foreign ju risdicrirm C b ll~C, ' I'he racr [ha r ~ bill
orlading cO l1m i n ~ a juri sdic tivn clause whidl is di fti;:renl from rbar in rhe
cl1<1rta pc,rry wi ll 'lot entitle t he maSte r to refust: CO sig,n bi lls 0 ' kld ing @ ,
107. For praedeal guidance in all Ihesc SiLU:Hiun' thl: masrl:r is rl: 'e rrc [(I

paragraphs 4.
108. T hen,; ar ' m~nY v:triation of charte rparty dau~e ' requirin(r ~ mU~C(;r to sign
'", presented', The mosr common variadon is that rhe master is required w , ign
bill- f I ding ':I presemed wirnou[ prejudice La chi ch:lJ"Cerp~rcy', Another
common \~Hi:l{ion i \I'here rhe master i required ro ign bi ll - of ladin "
pre.o;c,red, in conformi.:y wirh mare's or rally dt:rk" rcccilm,', Th se word
prob;d)l , l dd nothing m [he di cU~lOn and gUIdance given :,b!r:e ~

W "e or pre SlI>f'C 10 sign


109 . t\ COlltract will be unenfore1Jble if i[ has been made ull\\, llm~~ and in
rc. PO'l<;C lO dueats over a person or his "ood or in rc, pon~ [Q economic dur
\\ hi ~ .n in lude a Ihl'e',u ro break a contr.l t or to hring om orh r ill ~dmarc
Ir lire bear. " ' hewer or not a particular threat :JmOllnr fO durc 0 rh:u ,he
[0

COI)(I"JC[ , an be treated a.~ untn Tccahle, I~ 1I matter of law and fact and ma I
include the que '[ion 0 wherneT rhe parry Ul1Ider dueat h:ld ;lny 0 1her t!Oioe~
avail:iliJc [0 him, Durc.o;.~ is mentioned in {hi ~ide becau there may be
(' sions whcn rhc master feel compelled [0 -ign H bill nf bJin I in [Crms which
he is nor happy wi [h and where he may be jusli fi ed, onc.'C the lhrc:1t ha - passed, in
onllou ncing rhar he does not consider himsel f bound by rhe bil l f ladi n ~, T his
pOSSlblliry IS recogn ised in [he pracrical advice given Jt p:mJgruph I 1 ~ ,
F1'eight. hire, demurra.ge, lie ns. Hctmbur 1 Rules, et ,
110. A m:IS[Cr ma be worried (har a bill f ladi ng prc 'c.;n[cu to him do ' nor
give the sh ipowner ufficiem prOlection in n::rrns offrl.;ight, h rc, demu rrage, or
li 'ns for any of [hose, or he may be worried that i t provi des for C:lrri~l gc to be
unde! rhe J lamb urg Rules rat her chan [he 113guc-Visby Hul '" or he ma, be
c nccrncd about othe r condition, which it impo ' ,They arc al l m. m:r for [he

47
hipowner or i{s P&l club co C llSider and advise upo n. Th e general m le ~h() uld
be rila{ where dle maHer's worri s rel<lt ' co che rerms and c01l1d i [ ion ~ of c~rri ag(:
and paymenr of freighr [hen, desp i[c his concerns, and i r he (;3 n get no
insuucrion from rhe shi powne r, he shOLlld issue rh e bil l of lading 11:1 the form
prescll[t:;d (0 him and at [he same lime he should write (0 che chartere rs ~w.lng
thdt he h dS signbd lhe bill of lading wi[hollr bein~ able [0 bwin guid,moe from
the shipown r .and reserving all righr of indemn i fY which he may have. T his is
so, nocwithstandin g (he comment in paragrdph 97. It i likely .lhac LlL1der <l
voyage charterparty Or a tim(: charterparty, {ht: shi powll r \ oukl be enri rled [0
some kind of indcmnlcy from rill.: eha r[ n.: r if ie n;quirt:d che m.\.S{cr [0 iss ue bills
of lading which 1l rc tOO (mcr() ~I~ ~ . The opposite, refusing to sign such:1 bi ll
of l:lding, porentiall)' is wi tho ur justifi ~Iti()n an d could place [ h(: hipown(:r in
breach of comrac( wi[h porenrial liabi licy to [he charrerer for damages.
U7t:O :is to sigil the bills of ladiug?
I ll. T hc bi'lls of lading wi ll be presented [(jo [I:e master for ignarure.
Ahernsllveiy. ~hl;:y may be prcs(.;lHcd to h.is agplt or [Q the ch.arterer's a~em.
I ll. T he master should alway, proceed rrom the tarring poim [har be i.ll1d he
alone has au thority Lt> sign bilis of lading on bch:1lf of rhe shipowne.r. If 3ud10Iicy is
to be given ro a ship'. agent r [0 a cl1anercr, tl1en the masre r sl10ul I proceed on
rh e assumprirm rhat rhe aurh(uiry would be giwll by him in a clcar lene.: se[ring
OUt the scope of [hat ~HJ(hor:icy.. A k:t(l;r of au rhori ty i~ contained in appendix

I 13. s {) mntcr of law (he position is m uch more complex [han [hat. Aurhority
may be given tu th(: charterGr or it~ ageMs to . ign bills of lading b. vimle of dl
terms inscrlCd in the time ur voyagc chMterp'duics. Al '0 , [here are circums rance . in
which Ihe.se persons appcllf to hilvc >lurhuri ry w ~ign bills of 11Iding even {hough no

leucr of aurhoriry from the master *.


m][horiry has expres Iy been gi,'cn to them either un der th e: dumerpart. or by any
FOr more discussion ~t;:e p'Jragraph ~.11 .
Issue of unauthQ1-ised bills of /culing
114. There may be casi!)ns when a d larterer or an agent iss ues bi lls of ladi ng
wi[hour authoriry fmm the master or ,he shipowner. The reason ma . be
Fraudulenr, E r example, to sell [he ca rgo to ;;s many bu e TS a.~ there ate etS of bills
of lading. Ilore frequenrl~~ the reason is like ly to be (0 e n ll,e that the bi ll of
lading. complies widl the req ui rements 01 the letter of credi t, tOr example a.~ to
date (If shiprnellt r description of cargo where (he actual time of loading or
cond i,ion of [he carg(] make~ [he true bdl of lacing unaccepcabJe llnder m e ['erms
of t he redit. 0 tell the masCl:' wi ll not know that an ul1au[horised bill of lading is
in circul arion becJusc hc will kn ow only of rh . issue of the Hue bill of lading.
omerimes the maner will go lI ndccecwd. On thl:r I)cclIsion.<. rhe receivers or rhe
clIs[Qms aurhorilie (who often will demand a ("(JP,), f the original issued bill of
lading and .he cargo manifest fo r [he ir OWll ::tdmini tCllrive purposes) will identify

48
the rroh l crn~. T he only pracr ica l ;ldvice thal ciln b . /-liven to a m~~rc.: . oncc he
1K:U)mc~ awa re ~h'l[ dlcrc i~ or ma, be:11I un:lmhoril>C bill or lal.lin).!.ln ci r I.ll:lti n
I~ tlJ no ifv rhe ~hirx)\\Tler. Tne referen e to the bill of hiding bcin/l, 'ull"ulho!'ised'
m 'an thar rh ma~rcr or rhe hipowncr hru. nOl given aUlhoril~ l .1O)onc w i ue
bill, of 1.1din in rhese remlS. Ir does nor mean. hO"<:\I;:r. Ulln in Ih . hand. or an
innocenr huyer of [he aurnorised bill of lading it b worthl " . S !:.lIeU in
p nJ!;r:lph 1I \ :md :n p:u:lgrJph .!' I. mere are circum lam.:c III \\ hi h a bill 0
bding \\ hi h h:t been i I.lcd \'irhoUl actmd am:horil C'.Jh nc\'Crthdc~~, JPlx:l.Ir [0
Ila\' been i lII:d \\ith authoril) and bind dK:shifJOwn r.ltS only right of rcCOUfSC
I. a"ain (ch..: unaulhon5l;d issue ~ .

, (111 the master m"reel the bill oflading lit the tiJlJ of III si 1nafure?
11S, Th m:l (er hould proceed on [he basi ma[ a[ Lhe linlC of ~i~mlUFc he (':111
' "JI)' dIe rerm~ of any bill of lading pec ellted (Q him onl in rh circ.'ums[anc
"here h oollld refuse la ign an 'a< p~ enred' hillo!' Il"din I' h ' SI! :H ' cl , riocd
in (1 J"Jgrap hs 10 t - 101'\.
;m~r cting In istakes mu) tUlte1tding bills ui ladin i.~sue
after
1 16. ' n ,cr may on oc :1 ion be;ln opponun ir / to corrcCl bi II~ of iaui np; ufcr rhey
Ilav' bc{)o issued ifi r is found [ha, [hey cOlltain inaccur:.lte iniilrmacion, Ilowcver.
rh c~ hi Iwncrw ill on ly be dblc: [0 J" [hi if'lilc 'ILi!'I)CI 1<:("i", ,,11 UfUl<: lJI i~i llitl
bills of lading. 111 [hat siruarion the rnastcrcan either :J.~k for Ih . r ' [urn of the
(lriginltl bi lls so thar lICCUr:l t C bill~ t::.m be is ued, he ',111 rn:lrk [hc ori~illal b i ll~ wieh
an mnendment and signmure. agai n \\'irh t h ship pe 'cn-operation. or h ' I)
I~~IJ-= a notice [0 rhe ~hippers, corre ring [he information. he charrcrcr COIllnO[
forbid this ~ . Such a notice hould require [he hipper wwve ~inli l ar nori . 10
an. mhcr p'Jrry to whom he deliyers, consign or endorse lhe bill.
11 7. There is no powc:r in a charterer ro in-trucr rhe m:lscer 00 amend bill J
latli'lg after th . had been igned and reI sed \\here the ill fladiilg<:;\i'lno( be
rerl'i(..ycd. Where [hey can be retrieved, me hipper':; or hart~rcr' righl (0 require
aml-num 'Il( is a m.mer of debare and i "Cl) much a matrer ror!.he hipownt:r and
its 11" :er (0 d cide
Wl llt il1!onJzation must the bill of Ill.ding onto;u.
1 I B. TIle ma: {er ma . not be under an obligalion ((I i ue a bill 0 lading al 11 or
10 buc :1 bi 11 of lading containing precise de cri ption of the good. loaded.
I low I r, for pro tied considem[ion and bec:Ju.c dlC provi~ions tl the Il3gu ,
II3~uc- I by or Hamburg Rules will very n ten appl [() [he shipmcn , i I' is
a..,~umed Ihar rh ma reI' is under an oblig.:lI ion w :ig,n a bill of I ding and that it
w!1I co Iltai n some degree of dccnptiuII nf th ~ gOllds. ' I'he ma [er ha no Olurhori[)'
[0 cerci fy the qUality, a.~ di-rrinct frum the condition, of goods ,hippcd

Fimhcri rhe master has no 3mnoriry to sign a 'eco ntl bill of lading for gods lor
which ~i 'bill oflfld ing has . Iready been .~igned ~ .

49
I 19. Indcr [he iaguc ;lDcl I-"b guc- I\by Ht" .~ (Article J rule 3) [h , carrier must,
on demand of ch . shipper. i 'sue J bill of lading 'hnwing
'Th hdHI/! llIods IlffI'.JSlJI)'.{tJr it/mlijim(wl of tlu K(){)(/'- t . Ilu iln///' lIrt'
fumil'MI;1I ~ritillJ!.ll)' Im. shippn-lII'fim 1/11 1(J(1l1.,,~.... /mu!.. ...
... .1111' II/(J1M ofp{lri:ng6- ' If" pil'(f'S. "I' r/r,(11~1lI1ity. Ilr "r'iJ!.lrf .... (I.I/tmltr/tnl ill
iti,~ bJfir .0iPPff__ /(lfJd. .._
TIff opparl7ll ordtr mul fTJluliiirHl "1 11t1' f!"Jt/.<.... :
120. ,\cri le 3 rule 4 goes on 10 s:J~

~~il(h 0 bill/) /od;OJ; .rItolllJf' primo /lIrv ('('lIlmu' "rIn fm'tPIII'f lit rtlf"T7(T 0/
,;" ~(}Q(l..i ~ [hmill dl'9Tibrtl. .. .

And [he Ilague- !Sby Rules add the follo\\ ill" \\ortl~ to lha[ prm i~i()n
'Ho '~r, pmo 1011/ (01111"111)' ..11011 IIfif t (Ir/llfied"/' hm ,!II' 1,,1/ ofIt,rl;,//;
I'(JJ l)('ftl mmsfm"'i'rt T() Il !hinl P(l11)' (/rtit~f! ill .l'(xf'J/tlirh..
121 . V.~l~t [he provision mean. i., that under the I lab'Ue and 11 3glJ '. I~b)' HllleS
the information in l he hill t)f ' ~ding de~tribing Ihe qWII:rriry and nndirion 0 rhe
cargo amounts to u pmm lse choc whll[ rhe hill or ludi,np; ~ll y" CUll be re licu Up Ofl [lS
evidence of wh:)( was shipped on OOu rd . The I r~gLJC - I~h I 1I 1 l:~ mk [he nurre r
furthc r so chat where [he bLlJ of lad ing nus becn rran-ferrcd from rhe orip.in~l l
hipper (who hould knOIl- rhe condition and quamity of he goc d~) [0 tI bu~er. (he
nrrier cannot den. (he tru th of rhe rarcm m~ which the m lcr or a~cn[ h a.~
made in rhe bill of lad in .
122. The provision i a hea"y burden ro plac on rhe .Im r . hur (here re
[WO poim in Ankle 3 rule -l which help the m' ler.

(.1' ~irstly,
rhe informa ion as to markl.. qu.:lnr j :md w c i~[ r ' :Il furni hcd 'by
fhe shipper' and 50 [here is no reason why rhe bill of lading ~hould not rnake
fhi pl3in,
11 'c'Ondl:, there is 3 proviso at the cnd IJ ;\nicle ,; rule 3 3 . oll(m \
ilO corriu 1I1tJSlff or agml oil COfT'la' sItoIl bt WIIIIII,o SIll!. or,nw III Ib.
bill O/.Io,/;,lg till] ,norb, fUUflOrr; qlkInlilj (,I' n.."f7p/T1 rdlfl'"h hI' hiff m"flJIIlllllr gTrJlmd
for SIIJPl'rtinu l/of llIrYrOll'iy {() rrpf'l'SI711 lA f(orx/. OrflVI//I' r f'rrtt 1. (Jr I,~ If h ha.
hot/llo rf'D. Olt(lOl. 1lI _'Il11.i (If rkrriillg:
121. Because of t.his ir i irnporram for the l11a (er to cunider c"JrefuU I the
word used ill (he bill of lading to describe the qumllity and condidon of rhe
gootls. ro [he painrat paragrJph 1.!2( J ), tilt; US\;; ore)lprcssions ufthr.: type
dtscribcd at paragraph 12tJ below i~ I)()~~ibl c, A~ to rhe pnim ;1[ p"rrJgr~l ph 1]2

50
I Ill, [he ingtnuit of. hipowners and mastcl"S in [l si ngd e~c ripriv ' words in bills
(Jf ludiI1g 'hieh promise nO ;JctufK')', h:1o r' 'ulred in 3 number f1fphr:l$CS being
acc~p[cd ill prac ti ce \\"hich ~uccessfu ll: r limit H I t:ii~t ~(lIm: of du.: ' hipowm: r's
rc,~ pu n$ibi l iry For wh~t is de 'nibed in rh\': bill (lfl~di llg. The~\,: (I re.: discuss'd at
p.ICJ,e:Tilp hN I .!II 1.\1 .

114. ""11en done arefu llyand hone '[11' the use of 'uch de 'crip tiv ' worus wi ll nO(
Ix If) comf3 cnElon of [he ublig3tions of thc Il:!gue or II,Jgut- Ish Rules be 'au 'c
of [h' provi '0 [hat rhe carrier doe ' nor have w ~m[t: Ih . m:.lrkl., numhcr, quamity
(lr, eighl if il hlS reas nable ground' for su rx:ning [har .hey do not llccuratcly
rdb;t rhe goods acmally received or where it has no 1l:;L\On le me n of cnecking
the fact.! r'Or morc dctailed di"l:u " i n 'ee pamgr-Jph, 'I , I 'I.
125. The om: pond in "provi ion under [he IlambufIl Rulc~ "ppcar III i Ics
15 ~nd 16 nd can be !lCen in appendix . The: IIlformation \\ hich mU:'l be
III IUded in rhe bill 0 I.adlllg is more eX(CIlSIH: (han in (h' J 1.1 or I Iague-Vi b -
Ruh ( cc Article 15) _ buc. like the I bb'Ue :md I'bguc:- '1~I~ Hul 'S, it is
pcrni sible under the I lamburg Ru les for the ma [cr m /J ," dc riprll'C word
1\ hich promi"C 1111 accur-.l .' (Artide: In) and thc:refor ihe dl cu i n in p:lragraph
I " , is rciel'3nt. I-inally it should be noted rhJt rh Ilarnburg Rule pro, 'de
(at \ n:icle 16 rule _) Ih3 if [he master does nor /Ilote on rh ill of lading the
~pfXlrcllr condition of rh.e goods, he i deemed to ha'e noted 011 ch' bill of I:lding
rh, f the good \\'ere in apparem good condilion ~ .
'VllOt term inology should be used to desn'ib the car'1o?
116. T 'Pical "ennino logy used by masterS limit description uf qU:lliry and
to
quanriry ap pea ring in (he bills of lading are er out below. he (erminolob'Y
diHingu i hes between quantity and condilion ~ .
Words of d S 1'iptiotl - qu.antity
12'. ' hipper's figures ' Of 'shiPpcl"'s fO{l d allll COII,IIt' or 'said by shipper /Q
1'01110111'
Each of rh ~c expressions are a way of poiming out Chilt no v rifi {ion has
been made by rhe ship of me quantiry of cargo loaded nd rhat the ligures h:we
hcen provided by (he shipper:; ~ . Ho\\-e-.'er. [h' t<llemem', 'eighr, measure.
qLl. nriry, qll31iry :md condirion IInknown' (helnw) j" mOTe inr.lrm. ri f' :lOO i hrrlN
prot cri on [0 rhe carrier.
118. aid 10 be', or 'wid /0 weigh' or' aid forJCo"lai,,'
Engli h judge has S3id that [he word 'said [0 be' when u d alone probabl
afford 110 prole tion to tbe ru.po\\ller, bur It is U led {h31 in conjunction wirh
other e pres ion uch as those ae paragraphs I!.I - I ~h . (he and imilar
C !)re ions remain useful ~ .

51
129.. olwirh,~r'lIlding the view c,xp rcssed on the clT(;cliveness of t he W(lft].; 'saiu
to be', there" '!';illS to oc a gencml n:cognirion in English la w rhac expn;s,iolls such
as '5aid to cQntain' or '.;aid to \\(,:1)411' (and, by I gical in cn:nrc, rhe \mrds 'l'::Liu [0
be' all should genemUy ha\"C rh 'same elIecr as the rc'>Crvlllion 'comenT~ unknO\\1\'
or 'welght, number. qU31l1il)' unkm,\I n', All of rhese c. JlI"Cll~ions ,ue u'lCrul althuugh
wherever ptJ~ibJe [he wider rc~crvation ;n p:tnlgrnph I ,() should be used

130, "Vei(!h i, Ili CClSllre, f{lllmtity/unl.l1(J'1tm'


t\'Ithou~h SI:1remc nt.~ made in a bill of lading ne rcprcsem.mon s or wa.rmlllies
by rhe carrier, \IIh 're (he above: eXI rc~ ion i added the rcpresenmion ~s 10, for
example, neighl, meaSl.I1E or quarHit). i a repR::1i\:ncnion ~ [0 norhing:H all, h I a
ratemcnt thar the bill of ladi",!: i~ making no c\; enlml talemem (0 (in tlm
example) rhe welgln, measure or qll~ilUil) . Tb.\ exprc Ion is usuallr lJ.\Cd in
i (' exrendcd form. ~ec paragrJph 1,~II,

J,Vord._of.d 'Cripti0l1 - andition


IJ I. .:..fP/l(1/'i ,,/ (IQI/ (wd ,. mul fJlrdilit}ll'
In [hi de 'riprion 0 rhe goo(h hipped on board the \I' rd 'apparent' i imporrom.
I[ says nohar it rnem15. The millitcr h' looked;l[ [he el,,{crnal appearance 0 the
p. ckaging or IIF rh container of the.: g{lod~ :mu has nUl upened, and often will n [
b - able [I) opell or ~ee in idc [he p;lcknges nd wil l not look beyond {hc CX[ ' ma l
appearanoe of the goods ~ .

The wet staining orrllesc'bulk bag:>' wwJd suggest 'dim !he contents may also be damaged . It is
cruda1 mm !he mClSler drol'.:S attention to liJ~ sroinmg in rh~ remaoo I, Inserrs an rile mmeJ receipt
and bill of lading

52
132. Thefefor(,:, t he.: only promi-se made by rh carrie r is ~h;J( ~hccx[emal
,Ippea l 110C of the goods is [11 rhe condition dc, cribed,

133. Rl r example, in a box of 3pplcs describt:d in a bill of lading as b ing'in


apparerlt good I)rder and condition', che box may be in good cond irion bur t he
:Ipplcs may be tlarnaged. Thj doe nor mean, however, mat" l:argo laimam
cannOI bring a claim for damage (0 rhe appl s. What ir does mean is lh3 t the eargo
claimant must fIrst find evidence (0 sho\ [h:H rhe damage occurred while in rhe
'arrier's t'::lrc. The curgo claimal1r mu)' I abl to do this by showing rhe report of a
~lIrvey, ;111 inspeCtion certificate, or siml I an eve nt during the COl.lrst: of carriage
which muse, . cnsibl ' vicwcd, have call cd [he d,lmage complained of.
134. If the goods are discharged with extcrna l (i.e. apparent) dama e, of course,
rhe cargo ciaimam can [hen rely upon the.: bill of I:lding ro -ho\\l [har ,. hen rhe
goods wert: pUt on boord [hey were in exrcmal (i.e. app3rcm good condi rion. The
, arrier must then explJ.in how the good$ came [0 be dam:lged ~ .
135. The ood include their packaging ;lIld therefore if me pa Imging is damaged the
billofladin,e, hou ld say so. H owever the d:uJ,ing in rc,pecr of defective packages
~ho ll l d be a.~ precise as possible so d1~[ 'some hags tOm' or 'some bags uamaged' would
he !T\ore effective if qualified b ran estimare as to the amount tom, for e.xample ',lbout'
10%' tom or 'abom SIX) bags wm'. rurrhem1ore, .generJl dau,ing uch ~ 'packages
Insufficient' will prQbabl nvc be sufJiciem to override a general statelTICI)[ thar rite
goods ha\' been looded un wart! in apparent good order and condition ~ .
136. 'H'c'ight, measure. qUlllltit;}', conditioll, (;ontents and vlllue Imkllow/l"
This is ~ widely accep ted wording alld appears in t he Congcnbill printed form
which appears in this guide. Irs pllrpo e and effect i as discu' cd in paragraph
I ,0. Wherever a m~l~t[;;r is asked to _ign a bill of lading which doe not on[(lin
(hese words in (he printed foml , [hen he should er1deavour t() incJ ude rh i, phl11se
in the bill of ladjng.
J#nds of deSCf-iption ~ quality
137. The m, "ter's oblig'.ttion is limited to describing rhe argo in purel gene ri c
terms (e.g. ' ugar', , oar, 'grain'). The Hague and Hague-Vtsb), Ru le make no
rcqu iremem [or a description of quality ( "ec paragrap h It '-)). The Hambur!! Rules
requ ire rhe bills to ' how 'rh geneml nature of the goOds' (see paragraph 1~S ).
Where none of these rule applies. [he master" posicion is as set out in paragrnphs
1)7 and 9R, namely rlu!r he doe nor have [0 is ue hill of lading, and that if he tlocs

he is nO[ under any ()nligarirlll m incl ude an specific information save for the basic
generic d scri ption.
Hi7wt is the moment at which fhegoods a're to be deSC1"ibed?
138. shipped bil l of ~ddjn describe [he condition of [hI.: g. ods at the rime of
~h i pmcnr. This may be iJ.llIstrated by [he following example.,.;.

53
LI) If cargo has been loaded, bur before rhe bill oflading have; been ~lIed the
cargo h been damaged (e.g. by ore), then dle bill of Ia,ding would ha e '[0
rc!,.vro thal [he good.) h.ad been ree jved on IJQ:Jrd in npparcIH good orcier and
co nditi(m. T I1t;rc is nu leg-dl requil'emem;, therefore, .0 lIhow the.: dama<>c by
lircQn ~hc bi ll \)fI~ding.lf, however, it is decided [hat rhe bi ll of ladlng;;hClu ld
, ensibl ' record th~ t [hl: cargo has sin .e 1001di:lg been damaged b ,fire [md by
Water. (hen that notation wou ld nO( make tile bill ' unclean' bec:au~c it would
not ca r dOllbr 'on the co nd itio l' of che goods at the Lime of 'hipmcnr ~ .
(I,) The same general principle :lpplie co damage done to the cargo by stevedores
during IO;Jding.lll fanual rerms thi ' may be 11 m rt: di ffi cult situation beC'<Iuse
it ma be unclear ii' rhe revedores are handFng rhe cargo from qua co hold.
whell rhe damage acrually oc uned, and [hel may b . complt:x cOfm3crual
arguments aboU( who j , responsible for [he steveclor s.
(Ll Viftlh the blending of oil cargo . the ca rgo wh ich passes throllghrhe hip's
manifold may flOC be [he cargo which i ultimatcly in rhe mnks, becau e rhat
cargo has been mixed wirh car 0 air ady in t be tanks. Mort dcc<liled advice on
thi i ' given arpar..lgrap h l2.J . Hm-l'ever, as rhe ca rgo ar rlu; man ifuld \ as
receivt:d in good order and ('(lndicion i( houkl be described us suc h. It may be
prut.lelll Lu aJ J ~ cu nunell[
[hat [he cargo has been loaded in a tank
containing uther. perhaps diffcrcnr qual,i!:)" cargo and chac rhi has ix:cl'] done
'following instructions from [charterer H hipperI'.
Clean bills of lading
139. shippe r is reluc[ant to have any kind of CQmmeoc 01'] dlC bill of lading
which state rlllt the goods Or the packaging are defective because rhis \\~II
prevem rh bill of lading fmm being 'clean,'. A clean bill of ladLng is one which
does !l0[ casr doubt on rhe condi(ion of [he g(Xlds ar rhe rime of hipment. FO r
example, the Uniform ell [Om and Pmcrice for Docllmenmry Crecl i[ (UerSOO,
'cc earlier at paragraphs '17 [Q 70) describes and define a clean rr:tn POrt
document as one wh.ich bear no c1au e or notOltiol1 which cJc1-)res~ly de lare rhe
defective condition of the good and/or rhe packaging .~ .
140. I n order IQ issue a clean bill of lading a maSter doe nor have co ay chat rhe
good are in ood condition. h i ufficient: for him to $ay thar [hey are in apparent
good ord er and cond ition. clean bill of lading is ~i m p l y ~aying rllac the external
appearance uf the goods and/or packaging i good.
141. T he bi.!1 of lading describes rhe condition of the carg \ hen shipped. Lf,
rherefore, rhe cargo i damaged afrer loading bUt before rhe bill of lading is i ued,
rhe bill of lading will have [0 show that rhe cargo was recei cd on board in good
order and cond.ition altbough a comment may be added that it has since been
damaged ~ . See also paragraph I 'X(:.I) .,

54
142. I[ i, worth mentioning at thb rage [hm rJtca..,ional l ,1 m, ~[cr io, ask 'd [0
i ~uc bills of IndiA" comainm a the e~'Pre ' ion 'ck:an on hnanJ. This ~ccms [0 be a
pr: rice; \\ hi h h:1S gro\\Jt our uf the blurring mgcfhcr Orn\Cl Ji,lin 'r rec,uircmcnr
of OOcumcnml) rediLS, namely dim[ rhl.: bill of lading mu~r be 'd' n' and rhar [he
C'\IJ'f.'o must Ix 'on board'. The pmniw or dC<.<:ribing rgo I ;,In on bo.1rd '
,11 uld be discoura~d in f:l\'our of rhe morc meaningful and appro n, re use of
'apllarc;nt gl)OCl order and conditiQn' [Q de~ribe rhe Igo. <lnd Ih ~ra[ c me of
. n bo:.trd' 10 ~ho\\' that it has been hipped. e al 0 'shlppe n d' and
' rcC-l\'Cd for ~hipmcm ' bills oflading in (he gI : at appendj"
lausetl bill of lading
3. t\ lean bill of ladillg can be issued \I hen the; ma.~tcr ha.- no rea n [0 doubt
Ihc:lpp,rcnr good order and condition ofchc l':lrgO when ~hil pcd . Ifh doe have
doubt about it. rhen he hould issue a 'clauscd' hill ofbdil1!1; I. omcrim sailed
'j('lul' bill of! ding or a 'dirty' bin of lading) , ' uch 3 bill of lading m;l~ nOL be
ac ~'prablc ro rhe bu 'cr DJ may nor Ix: capabl'e of p(lssin~ rhnJ\.IAh (he finance or
Ir.:tltr uf rt:d it aml.ngcment!i whi.ch have been (11, de for tht: le COnfrJ(:[' hb j,
,cssc:nrilllly [he shipper" problem as discussed below.
~fl7lal ter'minology makes the bill ofladill~ 'un 'lean' 01" clau.~ed'?
144. If it i_, pparc nt t(l t he: ma>tc;r t hat t he goo{;b "n: in (.u;: r J'l lll.lg d ~u r har he
Iccl compellcd m writr.: on the bil l of lading words whi h d ribe rh!;: cargo- as in
~() rnC W~ damaged or defective or de fi cient then the bi ll of I~lding i , dt~c:ribcd :I~
:l \ :Iau 'ed' , 'fou l' or 'di rty' bill of ladin .

145, As sta ted ar paragraph 140 the word '3pparcm good ord rand c ndition'
(which ' re printed on the Congt:nbill (set: paragr,tph 11 ) r \\ Iti h re frequcnrly
I 'ptd or written on the bill of lading) do nor render rhe: bill of I ding un Ican,
dHT~ or foul. The ' would. however. if rhey were followed b ' or replaced by w rds
MI h rgo wer', 'cargo rorring'. 'some bag [om', ' me ba mould ", Cr .
would rhen casl doubt upon the condlition of Lhe goods. Il.owcvcr. where Ihc
"ord do nor expressh- ca5t doubt on the condirion on thcrood but ~impl ' say
[run rhe m rer after (he exercise of reasonable kill and c ue feci un ble to give
an unqualified descriprion, rhen bill oflading cont:lining word ' of general
re I.:rYation \\ill still usually be acreptable. ' , for example, word:. , U h .
'condition unknown', 'quali[}~ condirion unknown' or "ariari ns of rhe ,will nor
u~u 3 11 . offend the requirement of the leHer of credit or the: ><lIe OnlrJCl

146. a ' ng mat the weight. mcasUlc. etc. is unknown dOt;~ nor qu ri n rhe
:lpparem good order and condition of me: good~
What if the shippe1' is unwilli1lg to be issued w ith an 'ul1clean'
()1 ' 'c/aused' bill of ladi1zg?

147. omcrimes charrerers or shippers anempr W <lpply prc.;ssurc on [he ma rer IQ

5,5
'nego(j ~ tc 'ch.c wordb ng of his chlllsmg (0.0 ca:-;c le IS dOllh r 011 [[le cargo) \.I'r nut ro
clause, I l ll . Jong a~ dlC flllu l word ing ~cnll1lrd ' describe, lhe cargo, this is an
3ccepmbl ' pm lice. If, however. the m' rer i ' nOl happy with the wording lx:in~
pur forward b roc hipper or ch:merer becausc I: doe, not ucclIrJrel de.icrilJe [Ile
eargo, rh n rhe ma..rer is ju riti 'd ill in i:;lill ~ 1111 .he: clausing "hi h he rcquin; ~ or
words of simi lar eITee[.
148. he Illtl ter i, justified in rcfu ing 'tU sign rhl.: bi.tl of I ~dillg in, circums[~nc s
where the shipper/ch Itcrcr will nO[ accqll on a : ur3lC de 'cription of the c:ul!:u
en:n wh 're tilt: chancrpart)' n:quires (he m' 'Icr [0 sign bill or
I' ding 'as
presemcd' ~c pamgraph~ 101 lO In.. : ). Ikfu inl! (0 ign and U\' iding any dda .
which [hi~ may cause to rhc IIc.%el.ue discu,~ 'd in the prJc(i ",I Cfion "f lh!~
guide ar par:kgmph I I 1.
149. Therc are some hartcr).larti ' ~ which, 'quire (he m:l\tcr rn i.-sue clean
mace's n: 'iPI aJIldr bill~ of lading. It must hc <.:mphasised [h:1( in rh se circumsr;m s
me m:JSter mu~{ n:ject (In (,~o if he bdien: lhal its pmpcr d iptiun \\ hen
loaded \nluh.l require rile hill orlading [0 be clau . In fhm .,ilLL.1Ii n (he churocrparry
can require rh ' masrer ro i~~uc dean bill of Iadin~bU( [his is cJq 'ndem .tPOIl Ih .
shipper mplying wirh [he n1aMer's rejecTion of i.I.;fecrive cargo and, of coursc. hcinA
able to ub murt; It \l ill1 ' und cargo . ..,\lllar \\~Il rCljueml, h.1PPCII is lhu\ d,,; l",1
cargu a\ ilable i~ defeCtive aJIld Iluuld require . bill Ilfl:ldrng i ucd 111 rcspeci 0 il lO
be claused. In rhat case. if [h.'1.[ cmgo is hipped. rtk: chartererl hipper would nor he
en itkd tu re ly upon any dau ' requiring the mll~ er to issue onl 'dean' bill of
lading. Possible solulions to th ' probJ m might inWJlve (he ehHrtcr 'r/shippcr a' eein!.;
char rhe bill ~ must be cluusci.l. find ing sub tieUl cargo or agrecinj!, rhut [he ship am
sail wirh reduced arrgo, appropriate fmanc1,d protection arid indcmniri being
provided to the hipow'Iler b (he clunererl hipper. Ilow~r rhc.1.c are marccrs for
the pan:i [m:goriare, Th position me m ( 'r!lh uld adopt in thc iJbsenc . of
guidam.'l: i rh,1t set ollt at p,l';lgr.:rp . L-+ 7 and I.JS
Al-e lell 7'S fit inde'1Jztl ity a solution ?
150. J pmctical way of rcsolving the dim ulric!I' . ociarcd wilh a ~hipper beillg
uroened \ ith:1 claLJSed bill 0 biding, the hippcf\lill ouen rcqu ' t Ule master to
i ue clean bim oflading in respecr of ddeclive grods in rerum fI r:l Icner of
indemmr from the shipper promising to indemnify owners in ~. "P"j't of an li:lnilil)'
inwrrcu to (he consignee. \\~1 ils r this migll se m like rhe obviolls 'olut ion in
cLrcumsl,;Jllc ' wller<: rhe shiper knows [hat (h ' consignee wi ll ccept [he goocls in
mal condition, for ,example wilh ~lightly rusted 'leel cargot: , it i rJugh with dung t
This i bec:JU!IC ueh a lettcr will be m::ared b. . 19iish law unenfon:e3blc ~ _
l !i I. Although letters of ind mill remain in y~ a!; a pm .rical olurion (() rh .
difficulti ' a i ing from rhe issue of 3 dllu cd I ill of ladi.ng, chei r acceptance is nor
or
recommended. TIle e rni rc ri k (he k:trt:r \)f ul1dertaking i with rhe 'hipO\ ner.

56
It rands ro lose irs hip if me claim IS bi Denough and [he hipper does not
volunrec::r paymcm under me orherwise unenforceable leHer of indemni -: .
IS 2. i\ furrher consequence of rht: ma [er signing dl:an bill~ of lading for
defe:-ti\'e cargo i rhat me in \.llrance cover from the P&l dub ma ' be loS[, Thus
(here \\;11 be no indemniry from rhe club in respect of cargo claims made against :I
hi powner ari in from the i ue of clean bill of 100ding in eircum 'UnL~ where [he
biJls should h:1\'e been claused (see paragrnph" " _ll l),
Othe,' soiuti011S
153 . t\ procrice is del'eloping in some lCldcs of including in th::: bill of lading:l
definition of 'good order and condition' whieh makes it clear [hat the use of mose
Wof does Ilor imply (hat (he Clrgo i frec fmm dx: type of tlcfcct which
commonly a1Tec[S rhe ,cargo in qll tion, for e~mplc ru:ot nn mt:ta1 g(J()d.~ (lr
moisture damage ro timber. The hipowner or mn t~r can argue thar SI'I h n
approach i reali tic and complies with rhe m.lSter' Ho!!Ue Rules obli tiollS _ .
154, Th final and [he m "( appropri:lc af1l;wcr ro rhe i. ue of bills of ladling for
C"JI"gO hipped in I thnn good condirion is for hippcrs [Q make urc COil 'ign{:es
iSSlle a lener of credit wil:h amended conditions cnabling paylncm out ro be made
agai {biLls of lading which record [11:)[ damaged condliciolll. In many ca.->es when:
masters stand (heir ground and insist on idemif}lng dama~ cargo ill [he bill of
lading b, dausing, hippers will [requenrl) bur afler mllch pccles[aaOn, follow
thi ,the proper, course of acrion.
D eck cargo
I ss. AnOher conrracwaJ aspc:C[ which it i important to notc on the face of the
bill cl lading i whether cargo i oris no[ carned on deck, In ITJdes where the
Ih!!Ue or Ilague-VlSb. rules 3ppl}~ [he carrier' obligaoorlS (0 <are for [he cargp in
accordance with the Haghlc (lr I lague- I 'b latlda:cds of care wiU apply to deck
C'dl'glJ unl 's
:J) [here is an express agreemeru in [he bill of lading (or:l univelNllly recogni d
tustom) [0 C'any rhe C"atgo on deck
I bl me bill oflading clearly rates mar the cargo h been plaocd on dec',
Only ifooth requirements (a) and (b) are complied wi[h ca.Il rhe earrier La
down its own tandards of care for [he carriage of the catgo - usuall t hat 11 h
deck amiage "ill be 'enrirely at thc mercham's cl 'k', If either of me above
in rediems i mi in... rhell rhe camer cannot e c1ude itself from rhe Hague or
I Ia1rue-Vi b. Rul tandard of CMe and ir i high! likely rhH the imple acr of
placing uch Clrgo on deck in rnese circum Glnre "'ill be a breach of these
standards gi ing ri e [Q liability on [he carrier, andl po ibl) loo of i t5 right [0
limit liabili ty under fhe Hague or Hague- 1 by Rule, The irua[ion under [he
Hamb Ifg H.u le l S broadly l m liar. Ag(lln rhe carn e r lS cntl tlecl w comr'Jn our 01
ri,e F-I ~mburg Ru les standard of care bue to do s() rh e carrit: r must ho 3!'1
agreemem with the shipper thll~ rht: guods rnay he carried on deck and a dear
tatemenr in t he bi ll of bding to that t:ffect. T he 0011 't: yucrtct': of the: {;3.rrict
lai l in,~ [0 ~adsf)'
these req IJi rcmcnt5 31 ~et out in t lh e I la m bu rg Ruks and arc
broad ly simi lar [0 those described above with regafd to the brcm:h or the H aguc
or Hague-Visby Rules. Ir is nor Wit hin (he scor-e of th is guide to id nti fy what
cargo can Of C3rJ.nO ( safely be carried on deck. ]n rhe con rc "[ of rbe; i$~ u e I')f bill.

*.
of ladillg rhe fundamemal poim is [ ensure [har rhe [WO pOlms highl ighted at
(.1) and (hI above are complied wi rh

JtVhat is the <iigni/tcan ' (1 of the date .o f issue?


1.56. T he dare of LS llC i extre me ly imporcam as often tht: value of the Glrgn
or [he price w be paid Of [he effecdvenes of t he und <.:rtying sa l (;~ [fa n s~l' [ i on
will be governed by the dare of j sue of l he bi ll of l:id in.a ~ . It is es~cntin l
[hat a 'shipped' bill of ladi n.g shows [he dale on which complerion of load ing
occ urred in respect of [he par el of car~o identified in {he bill of lad ing @ .
A ny attempt by rhe ciu[rerer or hipper [0 per l tllde rhe n1a [er to i ue a bi ll
or lading ' howing a date olher than the da~e on which complerion of loading
occulred. m U5l be [ejsu;d . utn a hill of lad ing is misleadjl1!; and incor ren.

Very large daims can arise in respect of alleged damage to and rusting of steel c"rgo unless the
damage and exrent or or
rusting is accurately recorded on the mate's receifJt and bill lading at
!he tim e o( ioading

58
Any offer by the chartoer ur ~hippm of a letter of indemn ity [0 pwrec[ [he
shi powner from [he ol1.!:iequcnce.~ of amc-Oa tillO or po t-d:l[in' a bill of lading
should be refused. Any such krter of indemniC)' wil l bc UJlcnforeeable
hec::lUse it i~ de, igncd U1 persuade -rhe m:l.~ [er (lr , hipnwner [0 issue a faJ e bill
of ladinl!;. , y dcm~nd by the,: chan..:re,:[ dla[ [he m".,[t:r mu~t ,ign s uch an
tlllle-dated or po [-dated bil l of lading 'as pr' cnrcd' c:m properly be resisted
(see para rapn nU).
What i. the signifi.cance of the place of issue and place of
loading?
57 . Tht: , ignifieancc ofthc place ofi sue ofrhe b ill of lading i [hat j[ :ill [riMer
the comput ()ry application of the Hague. Bague- Isb . or J h mburg Rules. See
pa rllpnphs " -I'q ::md appendices . 1t hould be nOled that the pl:1ce of
i$suC does nor have [0 be we same as [he place 0 loading. The place of load ing
musI always be s hown. The significance of t he place of loading is that it is parr of
rhe escriprioll of rhe goods, which may be important to [heir bu 'er as it show
rheirarigin. hi also relevam to the ompuJsory 3pplication of the H ague, Haguc-
\fish ' or Ham burgRule (ee paragraplu; 7\ - IW). I[ may also be Televunt for
rl~dSOOS of uswms, trade rcsn:icrioru or embar"'Oe , or sam:riol15.

Jf.t7,w must tlt e bill of lading be pt~eseuted for siglwtltre?


158. \l\'h.en rhe cargo has been I03ded [he shi pper mwn present dn; bill of lading
(to [he ma5[cr or his agent) [or 'ignature '\l(hin a reasonable t me _ .

Can the master wait until the ship isfulry loaded hefore
signing any hills of lading.'?'
159. The mOl toer mu t ign a bill ofl ading in re peer of each pa.cd . hippcd
wirhin a .r easonable lime of presentation. He is nor allowed to delay signing until
aU the cargo for the vessel has been shipped unJes i[ is a ingie parcel _ . The
shipper can ask fo r a 'received for shipmenr' documenr when Ihe good come inro
rhe crmrrol of the shipowner (sce' hipped' and 'received for shipment' bill of
lading which are described in me glo SaJ)\ a[ appendix. ).
To whom are the bills of la.lling to be 1-eJeased?
160. Almost invariabl ' a mate' rcceipf will have been issued by the ship upon
receipt of the goods. As a t;neral rule [he person who holds (he marc' receipt j
the person who is entitled to receive the bills 0 lading when released b r rhe
mJ$ccr or his agem in ex hange fo r a reLUm to he mas~cr or hi agem of [he
mate's receipt. In (he unlikely event that the matc's receipt actually shnws the
name ofrhe cargo owner then (he bills of lading can be delivered w that person
~ . If no mare' receipt has been issued then the shippef of the good
endded ro rhe bill of lading w hen issued.
'SOURCES OF INFORMATION FORTHE BI LL OF LADING
. hipper
161 . If [he s/llpper re q ui~es a bill of lading !hCII he mu ' [ fumi~h rhe m:l~rer wirh
dcuils of [he lIumber of packages or pic<.'t:s or quamir')' m wcight of rhe good~, aod
he muS{ give Ihis informarion in wriring. FlHthcnlflrc. h . i~ r "pon~ibl for
ell urin~ [h;.I[ [ht: good~ rhemsdvc... ocar [he lIe<'\:~'.l1) leading m:lrk~ for
Iclenri I [ioll .. \1 1of {his i set our in thc I-la ue. l l:Jguc- I~by ;Jnu Ilamburg Rule
(.-.c;c plInlgr.Jphs , ; - and 11. - 12', :Jnd ifnon of ch ~c :Ipplic . Ihe ma (er i.
probabl . entitled [0 demand thi' informal ion (MX p:lrJgI'Jph 'Ii ;Ind ' I ').
161. If d\e m {er is nm satisfied mat me marks, number.. (IUami(\ or wcigh r
provided b (he shipper accu"J.(el , rcprcscm che good":J luall ' rccci\'cd, or if (he
m;I le has no reasonable means of checking th.c infonn:nion. or if he ha
re:liSollahle gro und for uspccting [hat the infmmalinn doe, nm a curm Iy
!'I;prcscn{ IVhi!t was shipped, (hen [h mast 'r dQC' nor ha" co inserr in rhe bill
rhe informatiun given to him by t he shippe r (see pa/':lgmph 1 2~ ).
163. In ocerms 1'190 (sec paragrnph. (ll hh) similar! pia c the du e nn rhe
shipper co mark rhe goods. If no ma rk.~ Jl/pc::Jr on the marc's re' 'ip or hil'ping
nO[e, rhell it would be ~ensiblc to shmv OTl rh >bills 0 bdinj!; 'no shi prting Imrks',
164. The Hagu e and Hague-Visby Rules sa (har if {he mmm :r ruli es UII tht:
i n~ rm:lrion gi ven by [he sh ipper, and it i ilil:Orru:: l UII<.l ht: shipowner suffe rs:1
los . because of rhis. men rhe shippe r must indemn if the shipm ne r fo r Ithm loss.
Whtthn mat right of int!emnity will bl: Il l' JIl . \".lIl1c wi ll depend upon rhe law and
jurisdic(i(m wht:r<:: t he right has tu be enforced. and (11:)[ in [Urn will depend (Q a
g rC3 l CxtClII upon rhe idcmit'l of [he -hipper an ' rh pl~ of ~hipmcnr.
UnJeyo1-
165. The ~hipo\ ocr or irs P&l club m:J'l decide 1[0 have:1 lilY!:) r :mend :1[
loading wh i amiliarwirh the cargo and with rh . torr [ t hni Ilaoguag co
Ix.: used. MlnfL1'Of may:1I Ix: more famili<lr ~ 'ith rh' hippcr'~ pF.l ri . The
J

sur. or \\;11 be able. dlerefore, to upply rhe mlb(Cr \I; ch gulcbn in (he e enr
(h:1( c1au ing of [he bill of ladin" i necessruy. An ' cJou ing prepared b~ the
urvc "Or for [he ma (er hould be in Ited on, or if lengthy appcm.it:d to, the
marc' receipt and bill of Jading. rypi aI eXllll'lp. ofwhcr tI~i~ pr cdurc i
followed b. hipolVncl'S and P I club is with regard U1 steel carg()C~. ,\ number (]If
P&l cllIb.encoumge shipowner:; to appuinr:l sUTVL}'or on all QC asions when
loading steel.
Certificate of 07-igin. / quality / quantity
166. There ar other source uf information ava:lilbl t: [0 the bu ' r of t he goods
orher than simply (he bill of lading. Por example, a buy 'r of ~ corgo mlly s ti,pul~, e
ill Lh e ~ 21c conrract for a ae rrilic<J[C [[J be iss ueu b ' rh . , cHer (or, marc probably,

60
,Ill in d' p 'mkm or~ani s'H i on with in rh sdll 'r's coumry) CQ nfir mi n ~ rh 'CllI nl ry
!If origin n the mrgo; and [he bu, r Ina . a l ,~() sdpulu(c in rhe ale co nr aer for the
prm; Ion by lhe se ller (or a recogni d indc 'ndcm mgani alion) of 3 ecnifi 'ale
," rn Ih' ~Iu ..dity. !,rf'adc atld quanrir) f)f r~ \\ Ilich is being shipped. Th ' :l1X:
nOl d URlem" which "re likeh [0 come into the mll.~ [cr's po ,;.,s. ion, bUI rhe .
<Ire m mioncd [) . [hey illusmllc Ihill Ih full hurden of describing [he . rgo In
Ic r m~ of ir qu:lliry :md origin., :J!i \\ ("11 a~ If more J\encm] d e wiplion of \\cij.\hl
:lnd con licion. i) nflt home solei} b the bill nf ladi ng. T here ma. be ( _ ' I~ ion~
when r.hi~ indepe nde nt o rganis~ do ll i.q u ~kcd b. rhe ell r [0 hring press ure co
b\;ur Oil he master to include ~ slighli y more deuliled {~nd perh .. p.~ mm
ItlVO Intble) de cl'ip[ion of ,he cargo lIT its q llllnl it:y or condirio n (han he would
wish rei do . .. 'uch pr slIre shou ld be r c~i Sl(;u (>n [h ' b~ is ( hm i( i ~ rhe role nf ch,
inu(;pcml 'nt organ i arion (0 is lIC ccrti fi cOlL(;S 10 ~ht: caF Ointeres . ;,m u n01 to
ad vi; . or oerc:e [he m' rer.
{li Sp e(O l'
167. me[i me. {here m:l~ he J pre-~hlpmc-nr in~peC(i()n by :he bu}cr 0 the
(;;Irg.j. . purpose of rhi in. pecticm i, for dl . bu er 10 check L ue. of'lualit)
and p'.d~al!in~ wul hould nO! be of oon em m dlt: master. If rhe in pe lor mbc
qllc\lion~ as to [he . a ndi [ion 01 rhe c. rl!.o, fir req uires certain s!a[cmcms :IS [()
quaflry m be inserted in rhe bill orlading. und if [he: l1l:lSter is uncen3i n as [() the
;ICC ur' cy. v r:leiLy or p llrpose of [hest r q ll C.~t.~ , rh c n he ~h o ul d consul r :t 10 '01 P , I
aorrc 'pondent or SUTvcyor fo r ld ice. In rhe abSt' nt . of sueh Hd i 'c dlC m~ , r '["s
(l b l i ~l.Ili u n is lilTIircd (0 deM.:ribi ng the cargo in pu re l ~' generic CCffi1S. fo r c x:unp lt,;
SUIo\Jr'. 'ooal', 'gr:tin' ~ .

Dnmghl . U1'Ve)'.~
168 Th drought SUf\'C , if carried our properl): i ' J U15CfuJ cb..c ck of die a urn
uf rile hipper's ligurc.~ for quantifY (0 be loaded on Ixxird. i<:: ;-';orrh of EnFJand
P& l . mIJon ha produced a 10 prc\'cOIion guide which deals in delail \\ ilh
the (';.1 ticll] m.pecr of draug/u sUf"cy~ .
169 , In ch' " 'c nr that a uf:l.ugfl t ~llIVCy~how; figures \vhich arc di ffere nt from che;:
~ hipp (" ligurel . [he m a~rcr u. referred [ [lilmgraph I I-+ for pracci Hl l-(uidJnc
\mu [(I p;lragntp h 101 - I ,,, fo r [he und -rlying legal and comme rci al princll lc,.
Utlges
170. 1'h North of England P&l s i:Jrion has producL:d a los prevcmiol1 guid .
dealinj,\ with -hipboord perrolcum ~u rve ; nd aJJ pm tical aspects . hereof. e
comment) in pM'3gr-aphs 1hi ' lnd 11,l) (dr:tu hr lIIvey. ) reiari:Jg ro [he uscfu ln
of u h Uf\ ' also apply here.
111 . \: 'h re ullages show a loaded figur ' which diffe~
from ("a[ provided b) ch
'hipper (\\ he the r from a 'hore renninal r fr m a Oooring romge). if is Import ne

61
[0 record the difference between the ,hippcr\ tigures nnd rh $hip's (ul htge)
figurCl (sce p'Jragmph ).
Mllle's receipt
172. , cn a shipper pu~ goods on booed he l't.x:ein;';I writtcn rcceipt for (he good
\\ hich have been recci\red on board. Thi receipt i~ i 'sued b or on bch:JI' of [he ~hip
to [he shippcL Wmen the hipper collect ' [he bill or I:Jdin" he \\ ill h:md (he marc'
ICttlpr [0 rhe hiJXl"lner (or. more accur.ucl). its ~gcfl[. ma~rcr or loading broker).
1n . "''hen a mate'
receipt i is:>l,led j( i prima fa it: \ Idcncc of 1t:~'Cip[ of the
good in (he order and condition marked on the mate', n:<':Clpl
174. metim .mreadoLamare' reccipt.a .'hip in~norcwillt13\cbecn
prcpared b. rhe shipper. Thil> Ilill comain :111 of rh > d'r ib (hat rhe In tc\ rcreil t
would contain; [he name of rhc shipper, rhe 11:1111 of the ,hIp, the pen of
deparrure, [he porr of desrinarion, rhe des ription of rhe ar~o (including sir,e,
weighr :md quamiry of pa kagcs). and Other rekv;HH dcmib id 'mifying the
shipmenr. The hipper p rcpan,;", the shipping note \I hich ; , checkvd Jntl lii!m(;d
when the goods arc received for sllipmen{ by (he freigh t forwarder. I)or[ authori ty
or shipping IIg<';nL of ,11 ve~sel. The receip(cJ cop i c. changeci for the shipped
0

bill of lading signed by or on behalf of che ship afre r IO;I(Jing; has b ' n, cOlnp l [ d.
115. Ir is impormnr to ensure dlat mJtc\ r c ipt, .ne 0 u curate :_s pussil)ie. Ne)[
0111 will rhe marc',,' receipt then be the best avai l~ blv CO l1 t(;I'npor~nttlu~ <.: idcncc
a& to rhe condi tion, quamicy and nature of rhe C3fJO shipped , and the d3tc and
place f ~h ipmem. bu! it wiJ.l also be [he 'benchmark' which cl 'fines (he
ondi tion on which [he dumerer. ~hipper or hi agent :.liC empowered :md
authorised [0 is ue bills oflading. Their failure UI bsut.: bill of lading in
accordance with che mate's receipts m:lY (lot m:lk<.: rh bill, of Iadinl!:
unenforceable b . third panic ~ . but ir m:l,' ~lIo" the hipo\\ ner III laim:tn
II1demni~ fmm the party drawing up .md i uinl\ rhe bill r ladll1g

MOVEMENT OF THE BIl.L OF LADING UNDER THE


SAUE COINTRACT
176. The goods arc on board and the bill (l ladi .It ha been igncd. \vh .. l haplJCn,
ne.X[ in rhe ale.~ tr.ms3criOln. arrd in pUIncul:u, W1(1t huppe lO Ihe bi 11 of bding?
J.fl hat happens to the bill 0/ 'adin .~
177. lllC answer is rhJ,[ now the goods are 011 the m\'. it i, rime for dlC
do umcnrs to move.
178. r he bill of lading wil l go with other do umcnts [0 f rm a complete et of
' hippin~ documem$. The shipping doc'umelits \" ii usunl iy co rnprisc

62
(he bill of bding issued by rhe ma:;tcr ur his agcm as dis 1I sed earlier
the marine insuHlncc pol ic . insu ri ng rhe good. a ain T I s or damage on (he
vOyclge
[he commercj~tI invoice.

These 3re rhe muin documents. Other may include


,' , a cerTificate [)f qU31ity I qu:.uuiry
, a celTiAc;lre of origin.
179. None n these documem , ~1Ve for rhe bill of lading, is is.o; ucd by (he master
and nonc : h() uld tmlcetn rh master ~ ,
180. On e rhe shipper has the shippi ng docll mems. he may do rhe following.
(, I ) Pass them to his buver. Thi wou ld u lJall v, be done where money, chan"es
,; .

hUld~ indepcnoclltly of the bi Ll of hiding arranO'ement , (u nde r an entirely


ep:uu(e credit or cash pa menr aIT'd.ngemem) or where cher' is no cash
uansacrion between shipper and buyer (e.g. where d'lc b~l yc r i~ a suhsidiary of
the shipper).
(h) ~'I ore
usually, the shipJX:r will deliver rhe documenr. to the bank identified in
rhe leneF of crcdiE. T his will trigger paymem under dle lener of crcdit
:Hmngemen. wh ich u~uaJ l y underlie an i.memari.ona l :t1es mmsaerion.

181 . Tb 'xplain [he Icrrer of redir yste m very bridl)'. where Ihe contract of sale
pro\~dcs for paymcm by le tter uf credit, rhe buyer \\;11 ~mJnge for it;; bank to .open
a credi t (a pmmi~e to pa ) in l':lvour of (he eller f.or (he price .of t he good . This
bank is called the issuing bank. The i uing bank will then C{lnrac:r its
cor rc~pondem bank in .hc coun er), where the seller is based and th is IYdnk will
either 'advi e' rhe seller thar th e I(!{tcr .of credit has been opened lnd t har the
i uing bank wi ll p3\f upon receipt of the shipping t!ocumems, or it will 'conftrm'
d'le bsu ing bank" lener or credi . This bank in the C()Urltry of the eller is, in the
j1r.~r h:;rancc, acting as an 'advising bank'. and ill thl.:. ccond inmmce as a
'cont'irmin v oaIik'. ill which C'dse it is confirming (0 the ~ell c r thar it, the
co nfirming bank, wi ll p~ I upon receipt by it of the shipping documen '. Each of
(hese banks will have received from rhe buyer instrtlc[ion which show th(;
do umem req uired by [he ~ale c()nrraCL Vi'hen [he sh ipping documentS are
delivered [0 rhe advisio" or cofltirming bank. [he, will be examined to make sure
char they compl with (he in rfilctions under thc . ale co nrf<lcr, and [he elJer will
be pai d either direerly by rhe confirming bank or in due course by the i uing bank
(via c~c.; advising bank).
182. (he bill of lading paS$e~ through the hands of these banks it represents
sLlcu my for ilfly money they nu)' have adwnccd on rhe good ~nd c m be held by
[hem until [he buyer ha' arisfied hi obligations to the is uing bank.

63
183 . Wh n h bill of lading i. in [he hands of rnc bll~er. he 'I~ I I Onl<lC( rhe
shipowner' r charterer' agcnt at [he di charge POfl and demand elivcry of chI.'
gQQch m him. retna[i el\, he m:l; " 'ish [0 sell d c cargo to another parry in whkh
case the bill f 13ding will :l~in be used in rni ne. r tr'olllSacrion ':l rcceip(
( howing \I h ( rhe m.:\\' bu~er i, huying). it> a d uncnl of lirle (giving t:OlHrul llJ
rhe nel buyer in relllffi for p3 mem) and as a Ont~dl:t of carriaf!l with the new
buyer who will Ilcq uire k gal righ (~ ~ n s r the ~ hip(Jv,:ne r (. o [H aN EI1glish bw is
oncemcd. rhi w uld 11 ' under ' OGSA 1992 as discu'sed at pa .graph.s H.=i 'i7).
184. The Ill:! fer musr deliver rhe cargo ro rhe pt.:N<m holdin" (he bill of lading ae
the named di. hargc POf'[. The carner can dclin:r [he = 0 [0 rh' holder of 3
'bt:;trer' bill of hrdin,ll {see para r:Jpl'! I 'i(d }. If ~ hi ll of lading . ho\\', ,I onsigncc
or ll:lmcu e ndorsee (sec pa r~lgr~ ph s 1:-;" I.l) . (d I) [k person deman uin g delivery
of the ca rgo mu pfl}Vidc some evidence [har i[ j~ rhe person id Ilr ifi ed in [he hill
of lading. 'lhe bill oflading would usuaJI be pr med through the shipowner
or lime charterer' agent:; \\ ho are 10011 ro :lOd fl miliar wi rh the di. harge porr, rhe
mas(er pmh;thly need only Ix; worried about idcnllfiClltion 0 rhe pcr:;on
demanding d 'Iivery if (he mastcr has acwal rca.~OIl for belicvi fig there has oct:n
Frdud, dl:ar [he bill of ladi[\!!: m~ h~vc Deen ~[o l cn tl l;l mer i ~ol1le reasonable
ground for s u~p r.:t'ng rhar rhe fIoorson is nO[ nlirl"i.l 10 c1~im rh, - IIl1r1~. or if rh .
masrer .ha en notified of J oompcuJlg claim for Ill(: good ' _ .
185. B. wa . of background infom13tion, it m:.l~ be useful brid') [0 explain lhe
legal and commercial mechanbm b) which [he bill of lad ing, and therefore the
righ[ [0 fCC 'i lrc (J OOJl[f ol rc ci pr of dle ooods. IXlS,,>\;s from p r~on to person.
(J I If the hill of lading huws
.hipper:
consign' ': to order
[hen the 'hil per has rhe power [0 t:ndorst: rh' bill of lading an ! give orders as [0
wh In th - C~lfgo hould I . delivered. f\ n en!.! r ' menr is sim ply tht:: signamre of
me shipper 01'1 (he ha k of the bill of lading , t\ n cndorscmen in blank i.
me i.e.narurc of dle hipper alone. Thi means thar an, pcr~m 10 1\ horn the bill
or lading i~ inremion:llI . p'Js. :d can claim [Q be the proper holder of the billuf
lading. A 'petial endors mcnr is whe rhe ~ hi p[>Cr wi h to dirt:cl (he
shipown r to lIcliver 0 l p~rric LJl:lr person. In ['h~[ case, rhe . hipper pues his
signatUr and rhe nam' afthe inrendod re ipi "r 011 [he bill of lading.
(hI If [he bill orlading hO\ .
h.ippcr:

64
then the bil l of lading can Le cOllsigned (char is phy:;i,.all ,,~~S cl) ro Y whll
rhen becomes [he proper holder ohhe bi 11 of bd ing. Ilow 'vcr, he ,Iuse [he
bill of lading gIVes no express power (() 'order' delivcl)\ TlCirher nOT Ycan
endorse [he bin of lading [(l an other party. ei her b . bl;mk ndm emem or
b~ speci,,] C:l1dU''>CIIICIIL "11,; ,,;,".1 urloill; ~lIlelillu; ~ lull d ~I ' ''Hai~II[' or
'non-ncgmiablc' bill ofladill" and in man re,! peer ' imilar 10 :I WII bill.

Id Iflbe bill oflading how

~hIPix:r
COil Ignee: or [0 order.
then the bill 0 lading can be am igned
Yas in (ill ablwe. lJo\\t.:ver ifY
la
wishes he can (hen endorse it, in blank or by peeial enoorlicmcm. W 3J1
orher parcy who will [hen. become [he proper holdcr. "Ill l p:1r cannor [hcn
endorse it further.
(d) If in, ;iwucion ;toove, a special endorsemem on lhe bill f lading ~hows 'Z
(L )
or order', then (h:u endorsee can further endor e [he bill f ludin '.
(I.: ) I f [he i)ill of ladill:g; shows
ship per:
,ecmsignet.:: bt.:arcr lor left blank l
[hen (he holder of [his bill of lading is rhe pt:fS(ln ro vhom argo L [0 be
deli vered. Th bill ofhding can move frum person to pe r'on b in pi
ccmsigllmenr (har is, by being ph , icall)' p' d rr mp , n pers n .
186. }\ll of [he above are general rules and art: derermined by wh:][ i wrirten in
Ih on ignee' box in me bill of lading. Tht.:.'IC gencml rul s may Y.lricd by
cxpre lerms on (he bill of lading ~rip!llaring how i{ i r be :r;m ii crcd.

THEVOYA:GE - DEVIATION, DELIVERY. LOSSAND


DAMAGE TO CARGO
187, The hip has been loaded and bills 0 lading i -:\1 d. The hippin~
document ' hOLl1ld now be working rheir way dlrollgh [he le 3J)d a mpanying
Iin~J1("'C rr.m a tiOl'. . The !TllI..'>tcr i nO\1l under a dury r CID/) the cargo safdy l/)
destination by (he usual aeographical roure, to care r the caJ:'Q en route, and [(I
ucliwr the cargo in me same condidon as when I03ded ro Lhc 1K:l"Son rightfu lly
t.:nml!.;d tu receive the C3f"O.
188. These obligafion an.: c:;sclltialJy contrac: ual in nature - the m'l wr by
r 'cei il1g [he shippe r's good - on board agrees to carry [hem safel w their

65
h!l1w.; I ro nme IS Lls u ~lll y I.'l1ll)(It/ I'(! In r ile hil i ul lai.llll/!. and m;l Y
tle~t1ntmon" ' I 'hl~
be modilictl by on~ or mor of che V"J riUlIS ~Ilurcc of ob liga ti on., dis ' us~"d in
plnagraphs ~h - 'i'I. ' lobe precise. 1he biI( of lad ing i.~ nO[ rhe COl1lrtlCI of c:Jrri:Jge.
The 3greemcnt to C:i~ Ihe p;ood h:J~ \II~ual(~ Ix:cn made befrm.: llle ood have
be n caken on 1)(l;lrd. Ilowc\'er; it i. usua!l~ III . d'JO.:UIIICIIL \\ hi 'h IJllJI iJc (he ~(
e\'idenoc of the [erm of lhe COmr.lCl of l.'lrrHl!!.I:. H.m.hermorc. ;1:. ~~in ( ~
con.!!i~ee or Cndllr'Ce, lhe bill of lading 1I~ drJ\\ IIlI'iII be w~l((:d a.. rhc complete
comran in an~' di. pute with rhe hipowncr.
The dut) to cany
189. clllc master is expected m procct:d r 111 Lhe loadporr [I) rhl: di 'charge pon
without deIa\' anu without deparrurc fmm [hI! usual gt;;ugT'Jphi " I route. If he fail~
to do so rhen rhi ma~ :lmount (0 3 dC\;Juon fro The conrr. UI' I IX)\oJj;C. The
word 'deviation' h ~ Icg-.d expres: .on which require further xplanaticm.
Deviation
190. f)cviniun in Irs lega l ~c n sc is an unjusriticd d(;p:mur . frnm lhe 'ontr::lcw:I1
\'~) .Igc. The gcnel".ll rl.ll!c is that the conrractual yT) ugl; will l\lllu\\' rhe u~lIa l
gcogmphicnl roure. T hi general rule mJY not appl '
If it <:an bt: ~hu\l'rl rhm rhere i :J uni\'er~:.tI eu wm ro full!)l\ unother rOUll:
that rhe Ifeu n1S13flCes su rround lng (he vovagc m~ldc Il Icar dUl( the
intcntion of [he lfY.rrrie.!> \\-~ rh;:tl 'ome mhcr route ~hou d Ix: (liken
If the bill of lading expres 'Iv des ribes what rome i.. [0 be laken or gi\'C~ rhl:
~hipowT1cr lihcrt) 10 sdcl:t altl:rnatin: (out<.:\ I:H: n i lhi me:1l h dc.:p:ming
mm Ihe uliual geographical rOUle
if it i ncu:s.o;:!1) for ,h..: hip (0 11;3\ 'C rht; conrr:1 fUl l m le fflr rea on. of the
""fe) of rhe vcnrllre
if onc of rhe source of obli~(ioll li 'l'ed in (laragroph ..,~ pcrmll diversion, for
ex.ample rhe Hague-Vi b, Rule permil devi:ltion [0 , J~ ": life or pr perry or
'an reasonable del;l :tcion'
ir. chang ill de rinanon has been llcrrccd (sec parJgraph 1'1\),
191. \Vh D t hc ~hip dep~rts from the (;ontr;l(;fU~1 vOy;lge.: \\;rht}Uf ju, rill rion,
dIe cons )uence ' ofrhi devi;l[ion inlegul term nre vcry dm-;li . In vcry bro:ld
[crm s, rhe sh lpownc r wi!1 bedcprivcd O/lfS conm tual nAI1( S (10 c 'l mple. r
recei\' freigbr and w e njoy defences exprt:s Iy give n 1'0 il b)' rl1..: comm r) and in
ad:lirion may prejLJdice irs ins urance cove r (set' paragnq hs ~)oj I) I).
192. I [ i~
th r fore im portam to realise t haf inscnlcciOI1 < [t) rai"t rh ' C'HgO [0 ~n
dc~rinJtion m her [han rhar named in rhe bill or I ~ding, c l cn when dlO~
in mll rions are gil'en by chanere r or hip r ers who mll) llPP ar t have vel)' goud
DC3S n for giving (hose instruC[ions , should 'be tre:lfcd with rhl: lIlmO~1 (;nuriOrl. III
cwry ir IJmsrance where sllch instruction i ' given, rhe 'hll 0\\ lIt:r or dll; P& I
NlCiaciol1 'huuld be consuln:d.
Clumge of destination
193. ' mcrimes:I change of desunarion n be agreed. The:: e :>ential in rcdicm of
u h 3grcemem i [har che parry gjvino rhe order for chan C 'If dC'\lInatinn mU'l he
ill a pao.ilion to rerum [he cUrllplccc >c[ uf origi nal bilb of lading il l rhe di"ch:ugc
jXlI1 . Thi IS essenrial because if om: or more of thcr.,c ori in:.l L~ i. now In rh hJnth
of anothcr hulder tben that person may LI opon rhe .,hipowllcr ro dL h~ rg [I[ rh .
de,rinanon named in (he original bill. If the hillOwner chang d [inarian. nd
dil-Ch:ng s [he c:ugO :1( 31 new d rin:niQTI without IIccring ill , H of the bill , then
:Ir me time in [he future any uncollected bdl ma ' form Ih bu is f a claim b\' Ih
ho'd r for mis-d liv,ery. This is why in rhe [:lJlGard recommended" rding for !ht:
Icn:cr of indemJliry [Q be given by :I chartefer or the bill uf lading holtlcr tor chalige
of de ril1:1rion, (here is an absolme undertaking to return all ~C[ ' u lhe ori Till:11 hill~
of lading ( ' cc appendix alld parJ~raph ' 2(1' .211). 21 '\ and 22.\).

67
194. Some bill ' of lading, for example, the CongenbilJ, provide t h ~t the ve~~d
sha ll proceed to a porr or ' 0 neal' thereto as sh ma)' safely get . T hi s ma
ultimate l give [he master (he right to carry [he cargo to anothe r discharge port if
the vessd i$ prevenred from reaching rhe named di3charge port. How ver, the
11I<JIjt.t:r b UuUllU LI) wail a leasonable ( im before he: is entitled (0 pro cd 0 all
alternative place of discharge and mllt reasonllble time will depe nd 1I1lon the
nature of rhe voyage. It i~ a matter to be dec ided between lhe shipowner and rhe
chanerer or shipper after careful consulrariol1 .
Delay
195. Delay in proceedlng to [he discharge porr may cause toss [0 [he buyer of [he
goods. Delay may also amount to a devia rion in l he legal sen e . However, simple:;
failu re to commence the loaded oyap,:e and proceed as q uickly as po sibJe is not a
deviation in rhe lega l sense. Tu amount to a deviarion in rh legal sense de lay
which makes {he voyage performed enti rely different from [hat which the part ies
envi aged wou ld be performed \Voultl have ro O(;CU I.
196. I [is nor rhe function of this guid e to sm our a de tailed :lIls l, 'is on the
complex law of deviation .. The purpose of rhi 110rt section is w em pha ise the
importance of proceeding d irectly from the Joadport to the discharge pOfr as
named in [he bill of lading, un lc$ . [hCrt~ i very good reason, by reason of eomra r,
cu corn, safety or agreemen~, t () do orherwise.

197. Onc final notc on dela . The 11amburg Ru!e if appl icab le. have c.:xprcss
provi ions dealing with delay (scc pardgraph li3 and appendix , Article 5).
Caring frw the cargo
198. At common la~ the shipowner is unde r an absolute obligalion to provide a
seaworthy hip. seaworthy hip is one in \ hie h her hull and machinery,
equipment and c rew are fit to take rhe cargo ro . ea and come afely through the
kind ofwealh I' lhal she should expect ro meer. lf t'le shipowner fails ill rhis
nbligacion and [be failure C:/ \J cs damage to rlne cargo,. then dle cargo owner has a
justified claim against [he hipowner in respect of thar cargo. nderrhe H af:,rue and
Haguc::-Vi 'by Rules this absolute obligalirm is reduced to an obligation ro exercise
due diligence to make rhe vessel seaworthy. Due diligence mean ' tak.ing care [ 0
ensure a proper, efficient and e ffecti ve system [0 maintain. equip and repai r the
ship, hull and equ ipmenr and to ensure tile proper training and compt:tencc of her
mas ter and rew. If a proper and carefu l check re eals a defect which a normal
careful shipowner wou ld repa ir, bu[ [he dcfect is nOI repaired, rhen [he re has been
a failure by that shipmvner la exercise due tliJjgence to make ie ship seaworrhy.
199. ] n addit ion to the seaworrhine obligations, the , hipowner must (;are for t he
cargo from rhe dme of itS receipt into che shipowner's care um il rhe rime of its
delivery ar [J1e discharge port. Essential! dli mean raking care [0 en u re (hat

68
\\Ihar has been pm on board (he yes eI at the loadporr CUll dclive.:re.:d tU che
di 'h:u~ jXlIT. Il i a duI)' IQ en lire that the C".ugo i nOLI ~r. damaged.
ollramin:ued or chang-ed in character in an n .
200. A, bct\\cen the; shipowne;rand [he cargo \lwnc.:r [he bill ofl:lding mu ~et om
:J pcriod for which [:he hipowner is re pon ible for C'.Jnng for rh carg<! and identify
who i, [11 he.: rc.:spon ible and pa for loading :Illd di 'harge op:tJrion\. ~r"c<;c are of
eOIJI'SC m::mer> of great concern co [he hipowner and cargo 0\\'11 'r alik . They are
fren deal[ with by phrases such as flO ('free in Ad ur f wed :lIld [rimmed')
FIO and' I (horren'elSions of Ft :md of dimiru hin., pe) nd by
expression u h as 'liner in liner OUt or 'free in free OUl' , I of rhe " xpre ions
arc of nsiderable i!!llificance. Ir is not within (he pe orlhl ~id to nsider
the derailed case Im \I hien has gone imo the apponionmcm of W p<lnsibiliries b
these (;xpre ions. le is imporranr, howe\-er. for the m' ler to be a""JR: of
<.:.,prc,,~ion~ Cl[ abbreviations such 3., (he.'SC. If :lOy :such ,l lm;\i3don b u. d \ hieh
dl:arl goes [0 {he allocation of looding tl/ld dischar !lng respollsil iliry (ur illde 'd [Ill
a br(;viation which 'i unknown to thL: ma.~rcr) [ hen rh' . . an; mu([cr.! which hc
shou ld r pon: and di . cuss wiTh [he shi lXlwnc r as soon 3.,~ Jlossihle.
.",,"go ,-/aims
201. TILe law , c L'Qgll i~e> [hat !',uulh, ",I ":; 'CVl." II II U hywe";;1 l hc ' _11 hUJlJlc d ,
smfcd or tr::IJl.8ported l';.ln come to harm . '\,\!here the ' ood~ h~v(; been ph sictlll
los r or dam g 'd during rhe voyage the; commct nf ,ama 1C, :'lI1d rh . laws :.tnd
ollvcmions within " 'hich it operate. aLlocmc risk (tnd li:tbilit b 'cw' 'n rh
, hipown rand rhe cargo owner. (The hipo' ner' ri k and liabili r. In yal have
been al located between ir and its charterer, but that i not a maUer r 'chls g-uide).
TI,e shipowner's defences
20L Wh r ch re i proof of loss or dama"e on rh hip. rhen at mmon law rhe
hipo" ner h. ,a limited number of defen . It will not be C~ u d rom liabili if
ir llled ro make [he hip seaworth . It will be 'cused from li, bili')' (If mmon law
if amage [0 rhe c:rrgo was direcd~ caused b t of ' . Cl f lIcen' enemies.
Inherent \~ t:: or rhe good ' dlt::mselv~, negli ence of the C".lJg O\ 'n r or bocneml
:I\'tJalrc sa rifiec. The modification 0 these.: l'Ommon law obli (Jons and de encc:
h rhe 1-la!!Uc, Haguc-Vtsby or Hamburg Rul . is con~idcn;d a[ l>JIagmph -, - ~ .
Evidence of damage or loss - the hill of ladin
203 . ne very uifficulr question when argo claim... an is \\ hClhcr the: loss or
damag' complained of by the ca rgo owner happent:d on rhe ship, if it happened
at mll. Rlr c mplc, shortage claim ean arise imply beeause of diffi' ren c.
belween recorded mcasurcmem at rhe load and dischar 'e florr~; d mag claim
:In uls where the cargo discharged is the sam as rilar looded, but rh
de ription of rhe ca r~o in the bill of lad ing filiJed [0 dmw the buyer' atcentlon
co cxi Ling defects in the cargo.

6,9
204. Both of these examples. shonage and damage claims, can b' dif(;ctiy
affectcd by the care which ha5 been Dlken wll n iss uing rhe bill of ladi ng. 'are in
measllri ng and observing the cargo. and care in dC5 ribing its qu~nt i ~' and
condition 011 the bill or I~dillg an avoid or redlJ e the ize of (hese laims,
205. The bill of lading comains imporran t evidence (If ( h c.~c HlLTS and figures, IT a
bill of lading i~ issued which onk1j rl.'5 inaccurate illfoml::Hion thefe illlirrie
opport unity for the carrier (0 say rhe inf0l111arion is nor (fUG, As 3 mancr or law all of
the dl:,';cnptions stared in rhe b~1 of lading will be e'.idence in rhe hands uf any cargo
OWllcr who sa 's hi goods have been damaged, In p rticular nore [he following.
(a) Under the Hague Rul ' .. and probably as a ma:(er of com mon law, rhe bill of
fadin" repre em - 'prim fa le evid nee' of [he fac ts Slated in [he bill or lad ing,
T he cargo owner can u e [his evidence tU prO\'c his claim agai n [ t he carrier.
(b) T he Hague-Visby Rules "dd more weight re [hi evidence b, adding thar in
[he hands of a uansfcn::c; or tntJo~(;e r [he biLl of lading (usually die buyer of
[he cargo) it i ' 'conclusive c;\~dtnte' of the fact (ha [ llipmenr has mken place,
[he rime and plae of [hat -hipmem, and rhe number, quami[ " weight, Illark.<i
and apparenr order artd condi !i n of [he:: gQod,;.
(L) The:: H~I "UU l !!. R.,.Ic), if Lllcyappl ~ rake a imilar position re (a) and (b) above.

(U) ecrion 4 COG \ 1t')<)2 has fu rdler iner'e a:ed ,he evidencial efYec[ of [he bill
of ladi ng, I r i~ n \V 'concllJsiv evidence' that lhe l.11rgo C)wner can IJ e agJinsr
rhe carrier to prove shipmem or receipt for hipmem of goods which have
been igned for il;1 th ' bill of ladin o ~ (a1 ' o see paragraph Hi ),
k) ' Pri ma fac ie evidence' i e idence which can be di~provtd by the arrier
producing; better proof [bar, for example, despite irs bGS C effort , rhe bi.ll of
lading is inaccurarc, 'Co nclusive ev idence', however, cannot I)C uvc[wmed,
The carrier i bound by and mu 'I li ve wi th ir.
206. A thlCd caregol)' of loss i where [he ClIrgo has been afel ' carried ro its
destinaciun bur rben delivered [Q rhe wrong per~on _ T his ques tion of' delivery is a
separme and inlpOftant i sue and i dealr wirh in the next section of this guidt:.

DELIVERY OF THE CARGO


207. The bill of lading i ofren referred [Q :IS a do umem Qf ridt:. In fact the
movemem of titk: (rht; righ t of ownership of rhe cargo) is decided b - (he saJe
conuacr. However, if the parries to the ale contract req uire a bill of lading t(J be
issued rbe)" are using it a:; a moveable (or negOl iable) and mngible , mblil of
tide lO rhe cargo or, more accuratel", rhe right m ~on[rol receipt of the cargo at
desrimuion,

70
208. The.: waster must deliver ,he c rgo [Q .he per on holding the.: bill 0 lading:n
lh:: n~mcd di~chargc port. The carrier can deliver th ,1~O to the.: ho lder of:l
'bearer' bill of lading (sec paragra ph IH5(~) ). I a bill orlading 'haws a ,-x)Ilsignce
Or n~mcd endorsee (see paragraphs I t1 .~ :1) - (d)), the per.;on dellumdln~ ddivcl)'
of'tht: cargo nlU~[ provide some cvi dence m d lC carrier rh<l( he i~ ~ h person
idenTified in [he bill of lading. As rhe bill of' lading wuuld llSU;l ll y he prc, cm ed
th rough rhe 'hipowner's or lime cllnrrerer' :lgems whu arc ocal co and familiar
widl tile discharoe parr, [he masrcr probabL 11r.:e.:U un ly be 11'( rried aboUt
idclHificariol"l of rhe person demanding ddi ay if he h:l~ a w;llrr.:u on or
believing there has been fraud, that [he bill of lading mll~ hnvc been rolen, rh:u
rhe person is nO[ enmled w claim the go()d~, or if he ha.~ Ix: n norifled of a
CQ'llpering claim for rhe good ~ .
209. he problem. which usualJyarise are where
(I no bill of lading i 3\'Bibblc ~n rhe di chllIge pon
Ihl delivery of c:ngo i reques~ed 3( a pon \\ hich is nO! rhe n:lmcd di~ harge port.
Deli el)' of cargo it/lOut proouctio" of tll bill of Iodin
210. Dcli\"e~ ohhe cargo [0 a person who doe no[ hold a bill of ladmg i ::I
bred h of [hc bill of I"ding conrract i(5Clf and lhe hulJcl uflllc hill uf lauill!!, '-"'11
brin"';I claim .gains( the hipowner. \I h deli\cl)' IS aJ o.m infrin.!Cm nr of (he
C:lrgo o\mcr' rights of o\\nership and dle C'M 0 U\\lta C31I bring an [l (jon ng;tin r
rhe ~l1ipO\mer for infringing those rights. (,nu: cargu owner. n I 0.0 ~urse,
bring claim 3.gairlSl tbe par . who h ' wrongfully d mondcd dellivery of (he
mgo). imilarl " delivery at rhe wrong; purr is not ani r a de ti f1 under rhe
onrract of arnage see paragmph 190) but i ' also nn infrin!!(:mcll t of [he true
c:uf,'O owner's rights if this i done in circum 'rance where [he agre.:emcm to
chll nge destination has not been accompan ied b)' rh rl!tl1T11 of :dl of rhe original
or
bills lading (see paragraph Il).; .
211. ome of the comment tbarfollow IIppe:lf in [he:: l' "I, I lld.111" cc[iol1
of thi. guide. hose comme nts are here augmented b. funrer explanation and
k:J.:~' I1Im:~.

112. In [he ab em:e of dC"JJ" guidance from the owner r th~ P& l dub
correspondent the master should [:Ikc nore of the foil willg inl.
(.11 The una\ ilabili, of a bill of ladin" ar du: di charge parr i. nor rh master's
problem_ I[ is [he problem of the buyers and sellers or rhc rgo
(h The master should not agree to discharge the cargo agal (a letter or
if1dcmni~ (unless rhe hipawner h expre I) agreed 10 chi). e master
does nor h:l\'C authority 011 behaH of lhe hipowllC:r to \'aI)' lhe bill of I ding
con rro (in iliis W3"\..

71
(Ll D -hi [0 rh vC~ " 1 while wai ring for [h ~ hi ll orlading will usua ll be paid for
under [he ('harreq arry in rht:: [oml of hin: or dC mllrrJ e (Of as J nrt of the
laytirne whi h has bc;:e11 paid or in rhe f ' iglu payment). E en if [he vc;:~sd is
(hrcarencd wirh rh co [of the delay, d13r [hren should nOl ju [ify delivery Q
(he C3lgQ nidllJUllJluUU -.ivl' of Ihe bill r 1 dUtg Of a[ r.he wrong port.
(JJ Deliverywlrhour prudu rion oflhe bill () I dill", or at me \\TOn pon, will be
a breach or rh terms of [he shipown r's 1\; I insuranoe and rh re.; m'l ' be no
protection for rhe , hipowm:r if in conscq uem:e :l daim is suh. 'qllt,;ndy
bruught by [\lC 'rru c' 'argo owner <sec paragraphs ~~ - \) I).
(l" In some jurisdiction:. rhe cargo can be d,. har)!,eo (at the nam 'd dbchar~ pon)
imo the cu md , of the pon ora pn\"Jte w:m:house where it \\ill remain under
[he legal cornrul of me masrer un[il [he bill orlading has been pmdut:ed. The
master should im 'srigau: lhis, if possible Ihrough the P&l lub com.;.\pondem_
pecific issues
213 . [,eflers of' jllliemm:ty
nlike leners or in Icmniry given in rerum for j 'suing clean bills ofbding
(which art:: unenfo cabl- the bi~l of ladinA will d:;ceive its hulder~) . rhe ~ving
oflcncrs of indemn iry in rerum for ddi\'cl) uf l.'<Irgu:u lhe \\ ,oni; di h.ugc port 01
,nrhou production of ~l1e original bill oflading i ' n [wrong _ nor j it
unu lLIal. le is. ho\\cvcr, a maner for rhe hipowner m decide upon. It is:.l
commercia! decision lor it 'la make. ~I 'he desl re to arisfy a charterer or receiver.
and to free rh vc~scJ, mu ~[ be balanced o!Ji n ,~[ rhe loss of P& l t;ovcr unci the risk
d lUl rhe cargo may hnve been old [Wice.

or
114. umdard letters indemnity for chest: 'iwations appear at UPI' ' ndic
and . These stand:ml fOI1l11 how counter-. i mature by a bank. Bank.~ art: rarel,
prepared [0 ign an indemnilY for unquanlificd amOILlfl{s. Frequentl . therefore,
Ihe lener i accepted wirhOllJ[ a bank' ouncer- i '"acure. rermmi ll I :l limir (e.g.
150% of [he valuc of the cargo) is placed on rh ballk\ liabilit und ' f Ih ' letter.
gain. these are om mercial decisions lor [he "hipowllc r to rakc.
21 S. Photocopy ol-j axed hi& o/Iading
SometUues rhe master i asked to ddiver (1 ' in~[ a cop or fa.xed bil l nf lad i ng,
[he original being una\'llIla!)lc. nless spe i:ll 31l"Jngemcnrs have been m<Jde ill
writing by the hipown-r to accept -u h a bill of l;Jding, delive hould be refused.
The usual. rol' . is rh r delivery hall be given again i presentation of [le tone
origillal bill of loding.
116. Multiple m'ig:itwL5
Hills of lading are often i ~~ ucd ill sers ofr hrcc or four origi nals. he bill of
r

lading will u ualJ provid 011 i ace [hal produ lion of any lml; of l ho > originals,

71
\\ ill be acceptable:. At the sanK: time. the other original :uc n.~idcrcd (I) be vOid
:.IIId c.mcdlc.:d.

2117. /?l'/l'tItiotl of 'he oNgil/o/ bill ofladhlg


ll1e masrer should retain [he original biU of lading aglu l \\ hjeh cargo h
ocen de li credo The receiver hould have nu need ro retain il; ' s a L'(ln U'a I (If
arriage it i~ merel evidence and a cop wilil uflicc,:u. u document of Qnlrol ils
flll1crion i no\ complete, a :I receipt for [he gwl.,b il makes se n ~e thal it should
be r turned ro rhe mas ter when rhe goods art: ddil'er,ed.
118. How vcr, originals are somelimes requir d by lac, 1offici!! \. Ir usml11 s and
in Ihose circumstances the master should ensure chat 1\1;; (or hi (]~cnr) i allO\ cd
to scc [he orig!na l bi!1of lading and [hat he is allowed to re r;un 11 phOl cop. of lhe
from and reverse of (he original. Thi ho uld, j rpos~i b j e. be ~en i licd b ,he
re ivcr or hi agc nr a fo llow : 'Th is i certified to be 3 trllc co of dlis mjginal
bill r ladin~ whi ch is now :J.ccomplished'.
219. lW-ore tlum (JIIC pe-no71 dfIlllfllldillg delivery uf the Ctlrg~
This ~ilU31liOI) may arise where
("I IJlO bill of lading:J.rc:1 ailable ar [he dischage port

(h) mnrt: wan onc: ser of bills of lading has been pl;lcedl in cir 1J13[ion. all or some
oh hich arc unaumorised

n
, ,) l he original ['m m a ~i n glc: scc h~1Ve lounu rhcir lVay in to (ile ha l ld~ of:1
!lumbcr of hold ers
,,J I the original shipl)Cr ( cllerl has parted \\'i[J, rhe bills of I ding nd i
asserring lhac rh' holder has nm complied \\ Im it obliJ<.mon~ under rhe
~aJt: conrfaC{ (e.g, it h~ !>omeho\\ quircd rhe bill5 of lading \\ i thou I
mak.i[}U p'J)'lTlcnc).

220. Each of the ~i[L!ati n~ pbc<.:s [ht: m;N r (;lI1d rhe shipowner) in ' I \ ' '1)'
difJicu lr po, ition. The ma5 fer is noli' IIn nllcice rhn one or more of rh , bills of
lading may nor IJC \l"J lid, and rh ~r onc or more of the holdl.:rs 1l1~ have ~ 'Qui red
ur
po ' essio!1 of ule bi ll of lading in circums[unct: where the Itransfer rhe bills of
ladlllg imo rheir po,'>!>C~ 'IUn \\115 nor imcl'ldeu lU traIl fer [hc righllU demand
ddiH:ry _ '
221 . The sicu:Ull)n, can ~i\'(: rise to compi'e" le I i~~u(.~ ~ and ffi:J} involve
mplex commer illl ~o l u(io n s ~ and legul oluriulls ~ ,
222, The bes[ ad vi e rhut call be give n ro rhe maS(er. if he can nor IIbtain
g\lidanee from ownerl>. il ~:> Set CJU[ in paragr::lp h
223 . ("/Ul.tfgl! of Jp, filw(iOlI dllr;lIg 1'0'U i!'
ornc(imc. (he m:! ler m:! . be asked to ch:lIll,e de (ina{:ion during rhe
\'O~':lge amd [ 0 pr ccd ro a di charg pon other th an char named in (he bill of
lading, The ma. rer has no uuthoriry on [he ownd. behalf to V31) tht:'
Olltr:JC[ of ca rriage ill (his way. The shipown er lly choose [0 ,1 ccep~ a le ner
of indemni ry in rerurn fo r such a aria rion. 'I'b e~e arc marrcrs ror rh e
shipowner [Q decide.

OTHER MATTERS
o-'mi ~tgli'lg of oil a,.goe
224 . There appea [ be an increasing md ' for oil [radet . co co-mingle
cargoes from di ffcn.:nt POrt shi pped On diffort lll dates Il nd ofrc.;1l ",irli different"
~pccifica(ton . ' l l1i,~ L':.1Il create diffi culties i ll the comext of i ~uin ' oill of lading.
Tb: e difficulric derive from three [1Qim)',
(.11 When good hi he ' ntiall. rue of rhe :.ame iJ1Ccific-drion arc \hippcd b~'
more than one hIpper, and [he goods arc co-n:ingled on board [he C3f1)ing
hip, then thc hipper hare OWl'lc~hip In lhe \\"hol'e of the mi;cu good~.
(Ill \>\/here [be good~ ~ire 0 diffcrem spcci fi carion t h~n 1'1 0[ only do qu srion.'>lIf
shared ownership arisl.:. bur also all [he .e,oods 'hi pped ma ' b ' reason of C!)-
mingling have ch' ngod in nature or spc ifica[iQn .

14
11'1 If Lhe gOllds h ~ve been shipped on different dll!c" from different pOlLS. then
ctlt:h hil l nf lading muM ;lcc:ur:ltely snow rh . port ~ ofshipmcfI[ and rhe dues of
~ hipmwlt ror the re:lsons give n a[ paragraphs I 'ill and l 'ii. single.: bill of
1:H.l ing jor the c()-mingled cargo could nor llccw'ulcly do,; ' ~i bo,; Ih .~C dClai b.
225 . -n, rhc oil Hader no nc (thc:;t pnint~ may h 'of wear ~i ~n i jiclI 11cc b 'ca use il
lI'i],1bt: his imcm illll (() contrOl OWnCf1>llip of rbc eargn ~t some , Ill/l;e. 311 I [hen w
~dl it il l, iJ,ini.:rcnt parccl~ anu with it.!> newly ;Jc(IIJired ~pcc; i rl~:J[iltn. un' of rhis is
wirl, in [ile shipowner' , knowledge. however. and so it mll~r rIll ~ ack on ba~ic
principlc~ sn thar ir can ensu re rom in respect of e;lCh pan:cl ~hipl '1.1 1I bill of
bding is i~ lIcd . hn,,;ng (ne time and phce or ror hipment.4In rhe number,
LIU"IH\~, weight, mark: and app;uem condicion of [he g!.llXl, . 11 le m~ls[cr mu. l
pro~ced on the basis rha[ c.lCh hipper \I-ill require an il diVlduill bdl of klding fnr
ca ",If cL ! a riClI guidance i given at peamgmph ,
226. \ \ 1,criu;r rhe ma'il:cr can pl{lperl~ be instructed 0 0 - IIlAIe onc rgo wirh
JIlO!hn i_ maner of cnrurnn herween rhe owner ;md. U~U 'IU~. the hJnerer
(oflen chI." oil tmderl- ( nen there i pro. ion in charterparti r o-minAling [0
t, kc pI:! c. I rhe bill of I ding record [he receipt onbourd in aplJ;.tre nt good order
Jnu condirion 0 3 parcel of cargo which i ubsequentl~ mixed 'I ilh :I c.~r/.!:o 0
diIT"rem ~ in, [ion. [hen (here i 10 b:L5i~ for clau 'ing lht: bill'. u hlding.llUL
[here is ~ pos'\ibiliry of a laim or eblms:l1 [he di.!>ch:ug purr rrom di~JPpninrt:d
l'omlgnces.
127. T he problems which will undou bted ly ari, e WiLh Ll1t: i 'SUI! uf IJi li s
1 1I d in~ in cir u mS[Jnces w ller,e cargo ~ llre co-miJlglcu, and I he prulll 'ms
~ri~i n !; from .he owner making a cOllu:lC'tu:t.1 c0l11mium: IH [0 'o-m in 'le <-'<l fgO 'S
rccc il'eci: on board. can alJ be rcsolvt:u by lJ.fop c r Il cgmi:u i(ln of tht: governing
(; h ~l rrt r p~ rt ~; rCUJI'Il of orig illllJ bi Us of lad irlg, ~ Ild I crrc r ~ oi inucmni ry, Th ese
3n; I n:lue r~ fo r rhe ~hi p o\\' n l'f [0 decide. It is imporranr wll 'n f~('c J wit h th ese
~iHI~I~ i ()ns for [he master ({ ad here carerl.l lly to he pri n i pl ~ ~ S I (Ju t in
paragra ph .!2-t
Mi iug uf thy t:a rgo.es
228. The fundamental i ue ' here are [he same a.~ id nrific in pamwnphs 2~~,
2~7. I lowcver. in pmcrical term [he mixing of 01) carhocs wilill.l u'lll~ inv live
g(loJ~ ot tine dc.~cnptlon loaded or one porr Wild many 01 Ih d,1li I.llnc. in
i~~uing an;, urate bill of lading \\ill nor .lri ,The poinl :It JXlr.l mph 22-1(, doe '
:In bur 'I ill nm be of pm rieal importance. The indh iuu:iI bu~er.. lliU drJw their
hare or rhe c:Jr 0 rrom me bulk.C'-dn!o.lf q >"J f'.m; bilt:. or each peJrcd ICYJdcd were
n [i sued dcli\'e~ may be gl"cn against pre 'm:uion of lilt: on ~n.al bill together
I\ ilh hip'~ delil't'l) orders or non-nc.,otiablc bill for {he ~ p me p'Jr cl ,
1OO1 Clime. kttOI n " splir' bill.~.

75
ChI.Z1tc'r pm-tics and charte1' 1" S "ills
229 . T he shi p will ofeen be operaring under a charrerparry. The quesr ion rben
arisc$ whether the bill of Ind ing is a orumcr be[wc.;cn [he chancrcr 3nd rhe
hipp!o:r or between the hipol ner and rhe shi pper. Althou ,11 (his is :l complex
b ue under nghsh I'aw, ie is proba J J correct ro;3 that in mosr In lun e~ :1 bill
o I dmg will rcprc cm a oonrracl rw en (he ~ ipowncr and [he shi per (and,
OrOOUi'!>c. :m other holder in due our'e ofehe bill oflading). The c. ccpcion 10
the rul'c.; i where rhe ship i . opcmling under (I demise or hareboal h rcerparr '
so [h:1[ llIe m. (er i the cmplo 'cc of lhe crumerer' nd nor of rhe ~hipo\, ner
and <lny bill of lading signed h che m '(er is dor.e so b him as the harterer'
agcnc. Mor complex and unLlsulIl cXilmples of a c harte rer'~ hill may be; where
the maSll:r has been given exp ress authori ( by the shi powner And chart 'fer to
sign on rl1e charrerer's behalf. or \ h re rhe charterer has igned rhe bi 11 of
c

laulng in, hi own name. The marr will nm fl(;cessari l be aware of :.ill of [he c
arrangements.
210. 111e igni1icance of dlc uiJ.rincuon 1.Jc1~.een an owner ' bill anti a h:.lfterer'
bill is. 0 course, rhar if che conrrae is bern-cen rhe chancrer and 'he shipper (and
. ub~qucll[ holder of [he bill of ladin (hen 3JIl promises made in rhur bill or
lading (I:. '. (0 carry 10 (he desrin tiol'l. :.rod (0 (".uc fOf [he ood_.) :md :In
rcpr' nt:uion made in [he bill of ludin (c. ' . :IS ru condirion or qll:Jntity of
C3T~ ), arc matters berween rhe charter ' r and rhe cargo owner. Th. raid. rhe
hipowner ma)\ of L'QLITSe, oncinllc to h'l c,: dUfi 's uf tire be(,lU~t [he (.~Irjl;o i ~ ill
ir ph. 'ieal possession.
lJ I. Th ' <lbili ry of a chanerer ro hinu . ~h ipown er m a bil l of bding wi1i(;h has
be n i 'sued witho'U( aurhoriry being given ro [he (harccrer or hi s agenr. is a
compl . legal ques.rion and a IQ[ will depend upon unu ual or Lll1iqu faenm l
iluallon . However, bccallSe tl1e pr bl m of charterers or their agen i uing bilJl
or I din~ without authority, or nor in . ccord.'lI'lCC nith mate's Tc:Ccipts. ha~ been
idencified a problem area for hipowner. a brief umm3f)' 0 the guiding
principle ma, be useful.
( I ) In any (ime chartcrpany where the master i obliged co follow rh 0 crs f
che cha[cerer as [Q the employmenc f the vessel then. unless there i n
prcs prohibition, ~h hancrcr or it agem wi ll h,wc acn,al :lyth ricy to
is ue ~nd sigr1 bills of ladlng()n [he wller 's behalf ~ .
(I If rhe charte rer or its agent i . ues bills ofl:lI:ling in breach of chorr rpar
Lerm tbey will Till have OSten illl authority;o is~ue and sign bi ll of luding
on the shipowner's behal ,unlc the hipowner h been able [ dvi cargo
imerest oflbe lack of aCtual t1ulMoricy be ore the bill: have been igned, or
unl the bill conrain eX'crJordimll)' tenms, or unless the cargo interc chad
reason [0 know of [he lack olauLhoriL, - -

76
(1.1 The master and hipon'llcr ma be emided 10 refuse lO is~u\: Ican bills of
lad ing ror unsolJnd cargo - and chi will Cl.l US.: probl em~ for the ~h;pper :.mu
harrerer. BU[. in practice. ir che chancrer or its ~I!;cm decid . [hot bt wi l,l,
wid10Ul notifying lhe master, mu e rhe :lU[horicy idemified m (:1) and (b)
.Ibovc so a.~ m issue: clean biJl. ror ull"ounu cargo i 'Ir, rh re i~ n~id r.lblc
likdihO(Kl chat the shipowner will Ix: found [0 be bound by [h chill. f
ladlllg. The . hipmmcr's remcdv is against the ehaltcrcror ill' :Igcnt
132. J lOt elafes s/lould be i11serted in II bill of leuJi" which re/el
to (1 ChOf1lwparl) ?
rr [he head-chan:erpany i a \10. :l"C charrcrparry cl en tile d:ue of Ihi\
h3I[erp;IIT~ hould be inserted. The position i less c1C".If i he hcad-cham;rparIY
i . ~ time charterparty but in the absence (}f guidance or in~rru don fTOm :my other
source [he master should irucrt the date llf che hcad ehaltcfTlmy. ' I hi is the
conrlOlct with which t he ~hipowne r i amilin SQ the rim' h. It rp:l wi ll
u~u3 11 ' conmin C,."fl'r .~ provi ions as [0 ce n:ain term \ hrch ~r' ro be in ludcd in
~n~ bill of I ~ding which is is ued. Reference co t hi~ h;m rpmy in rhe bill f
lading m~y incorpora[c rn~e dau e$ into the bi ll of lading. Tkrc.: muy be ;J
nU'Ilber of chun crparlies and therefore rhe miuer shoultl irpo ' ~i l k: chc(.:k wi th
rhe hipowner (Q sec- WhU l date .i to Ix; in e.:rtc.:t1 in Lht; Lill llf !;l\.Ii llg. he.:
~hipowner is in the best position ro advise 011 rhi ~ .

131. H-cight
Freigh[ te rms all 3. biJJ of lading:lee of great import.mce [ (h' 'hip rand
consignee 0 rhe C',ugo as [heywiJl show eicller dml lhe shipolVllcr has rced cd the
fre gilt (e.g. 'freight prepaid') and therefore dUll the hipown~r will nOt be
(;..Xtf ising H lien 0 er [he goods :U the di charge port. or that ~II or ~omc of [he
fre gilt fc;main..~ payabl - (e.g. p'J.yable at deslinarion').lrrh 're i no l1:mcrpany
in\'oh'cd, then :)I1Y frei~h[ renns recorded on [he face of ~ h t: hill of bdillg. for
c.XliI1lpl " char freigh t has been prepaid, or rhar a certain amount has been paid in
:lcl\':lncc, \\ '11 oper.ne as a receipt i ued b rhe master on behalf of (he hipowncr
nfirming rOOr rhe money ha been paid to the hipowner. If rh ' I is
ope ring under a chane~ me chanerer \\ill uuall) rccti\l~ the freight for the
. hipmcm (e.g. where he i a cime-chanercr receivin freight om a vo ge
\;h fi{\;rcr, or :J CrF .>ellet rccei,;ng frciglu from [he bu}:er \\ ithin the ' le price of
the goodJ ). In those circumstance. it would nor loCcm ID be n illl' for lhe
shlpu\\'m:r TO i~sue a reL'Cipt f()r something which it h~ n [re c.:i d.
23 4. spirt; [hi, it ('"an be dangeoll5 For it m [cr 10 rdu C 10 hign 1) bill of lading
whieh includes [emlS as ro paymem of freiglH. parcic:u larl , i rho. 1.:' tcrm~ arc
tandard wichin rhe chaf(crer 's trade. So, for example, when its ship i~ l'Ipe.:r:lting
under a rime-charterparty and [he ()blig,J[ic)n on rill.; m:lst or i; to sign hills 0 lading
'liS pre~l.:mcd '. rhe mascer should nOt gellt;mlly refuse [Q isslIe bii Is of lading simply

77
bcL"3u-.c rhtc~ are martod 'I[clghr prcp:lld ' and J shllXl\\ ner hould be 'C~ Clrctlll
to take cl 'railed le~ d~icc before ir in truer! [he ma~r r nor m ign uch:l bill
~ . oyal.'C charrc.panil:' U,U.III" main [om [hac ore more precise <Jbout rhe
isslJe:: ~nd release of bil l. ()f b dln,!!; nurked 'freight prc- p~id\, r lI"ill e.'prcssly ~wre
the rre i!\hr lerms th:lt 3rc tCl b . inc luded III any hi l l ~ of lo di n~ iss ueJ unde,. the
c:ha rterp:my, Or l:xample [ h ~[ freight i~ 'payable at de 'rimlriun. If nO provision hill
been m<l t: i ll thc voyage ch:lrrerp:Jr(~ for the issue of i'reighr prc-paid bills of
ladirl,ll (he ma.~II;r should k clear illSlfUCliofl.'l from III ,I\ipm\'ner. If he C'Mln r
obrain in [ructions [hen h houltl ad\;sc hi hipper:. illld h:mcrer rh:u he i
3.\\ '3jlin~ dc~r in, croeoon rom Ilhe shipowner rh:!! dlt: bill of I~ding can be
marked 'frciDhl prc-paid' and [h:lt he; \\'il~ nor sip1lll1til he: n;ce;ivt;s that Jurhorir:;,
or [h:u he will 8)"n and leave Lh ' bill s of ladi ng in [he li "lld~ of dle owner' agc/ll
[0 be rd';;IS 'd only with [h(; ~hipuw ll cr's COIl em ~ .

18
LEGAL NOTES
nus/! lega/notes re/er to paTllgraphs hI Ihe I I d I alld flu'''I)'

_ t' firm .. Th e)' are tlnloud ill Ihe l exl by 'h e ~ '\')'111"01. Thl' law i. Inled
as IlIIder~/o()d at J J wu 199 .

l"arngropl. Ugntllo/t!
I'l."" IAr n..pbvhnm I I'1ll'1 I I l .hAd, K..1' 'I. 1 \'1'}

'n", a011I'Io", "/lit ,he II;~", ~.RlIIJ;:.~\i,l" Rulc .d.h~I ...n I" ""Il:" h.1I "hieh
,he"" .hc.lpp.IIl,RI onltr3Jld mlll.!i ", "f.lle L t ~ . In d ' L . II>o:n,l",hl<: /:< Mh.
"PI'JH'n1 j:UOd "nk.,. ~nd L"Ofldi(ion indud<." he Jpp...elll .. hi I", 0 ' I he J;....f '"
\\ i, IhI""" IIl<lin.", mcthcKh tAf tmmport.. Ir lhe: " ..nI> ',1111'1 '" 11\ h~' I<.IIII"Lk, ."d
,'<lnLiil;Iln'du nlll JM"'.r~r ,Ill "11 'he hill of l"dlll' tlien [lie l,I>!!, ,u~,{ Ih.H IlIe hillllf
I"dinj;\ rhen L"::O"" m Ix: I' rirn. f;Jl'j . l""l itll'ut or ,Iu: I:OnUiliulI IIf I h~ ~.~'" OHl '~'I'nl<nr.
1'.\l1.PI " here the II:u:nb"".: Ru I"" .lPI1l1 ~'C .l'llI:ndh "r
1 "lIli'" .. n l ilt: l ,hr.I'" doe'"
11(11 il1f4.;r Ill.Ir rhl.! guods H ere ~hlppe,j in h'U1.J [Hmli rlm" C 'rull on _m ( ' h;l ru,; r~1R ies,
I '

lO 1l1 cd., [>. 11r}.

Ih I rhI~ wurrunp. i.!t ,Aivcn bcc:,lUsc rhcrt:. has b~CJl l1 C'~NC' ~"he r e . nhin~ I h ' ",hi p'~ .. romp InC':-: t
Ij~the shi pl K: r's tlgllrc,1( II.;l.... lX!cJl (! Itll ~ truc:u us an.k.,(; 'pt :II KIC jll' t h4"~ ~i ~urc..oj ~I oj (.o' rrCCI-
""'C 10"' 1'171"'" (l}ltt A.w,... 11 <J~(, I 2 LI"yd.; I'cp. 2H I IJllt I 'il" '" IIlllll '1Fl :'h,tll ' 11'.111 k , Will
ell" I'. I l '! rn. ~).

'Ilw Ir.,di,;,m ha, 11I::,'n [I, i"lJ~ I/Jrl;l; hill.< Ill' b(linj.i, 011\' ,,1111 'II! IU j.,~' \I ~[lI l h<,: , hil>, \HI" ITl
tint.! ir!!. \\':1) dmH..l~h the uocLJmcnn.J~ cnxli ( ="l"Srcm UI rhe ('llO.,.~.!,nl.'l . L~tlt.l qH,:' 10 'JrJ~ . .\~[h
rl", , hippvr tu I"""': t/ml the I(lW' "'cn: :/Cru""y shlf'11<'1. ,h"..oIlllh" c\ ' r I-.:com
dlSpmcd. "l1lcrc is. h,,,,h."OI" 'llCl1 n't\ 0 11 Ihl ' m ,' rU[lIlIl om I Jrlc'l"rtlC" !oth cd.. p. 1>7.
It I . "h" !clll:r of indemni" "urlCn Uft."t::tbIc 1x."t.-:..tU>C rhe I"""nf!, or u 1>i1l1"rbJing, tJllfll" inil~':
rcp"""OIariu"" "hieh rh.; OMS! MloI".,," ,If" beh..... lit" r """ fnt ooulcm. (1inJ
Jmftllf"" -c. 1'm"J Dd'lNI 11 '},;71 ! 1.1'110.1\ I(ll'. I) h I, .. 1Il"1;"""" I ",bit: [11 itknrrr. J
l:I'fIuine tloolK "buu[ ~ rollilirilOlI.1 rn., l, .lnd "gcouin.: ~'IJI."" 1 ' [11 cell tt.,
'hll~"\ no.:r d',.j Ilk; <hiJ>(lCf"" '" "h,lt '-htlllkl he'mm:n In [hi: 1>11 nr iot,. In Ih, ......
~im"",ullCf;>;a le! I 'roJ" iR<.icfnflll' wtlldl fI: il. lhe ...1 0 ~ IlI-mllllC" dO'P"I'; Jnd
IIknrific:s ...... the jplUinc di PIU" ...... .ui-en n\~ I . .:nli"l'whlt. t,,"<"er rhc I .matu..,
'" rme 3nd the :J<"1X1"Uncc (If sucIo .. Icrrcr of .ndcmmo " ~ null" or ,1-.: ,hll"lO\\ .>CI mm.:r
tl'rJn Ilk' III:I>[CI to decide. :c :11,,, for mon:: de .led d ..,al" ,,,.. J'l.lr.'I:t'<'I-h, I ~ , I.

'xc Umrr.JCO fur .he Cmngc ofCA)lxh l>Jr. lA I 'U.7.


I rilL'!'; j, a n01'1\ pall" In .odd,,,,, cnt ..1'Cd (~I the Iwll uf I.dill~ (JIHJ It \\111 h" 'h"
;hippa\lrn, ,ul'l>l;". !:hi, in~ mwion IIht:n dr~"il\j( III Ihe h~II,rIJdin!:llh':l1lhc
m,!>[tr mu., mkc'-"'lre w ron<oct ,hi , ",rt). u""!
Lt Ihmugh Ih~ ,h I)" ,I " 111 JI lit '
di"dlJJ ~ pon. "11 ~fT"'.1. ',c Clmll'/lJ HolY t .''''1(i1i'Ulkl.\'.nIi 1/(1/(1>' /mff'i'ml .\'. .v.('".
Lld . ( I~~} 12 T~ 4U3.

'111L implicMIOII rrmn ,\rude 3 rul e.3 "nol i\rtidc3 rule 7 Ill" the I bguc .\'1~hv !I.III(;\ i,
LI"" [he hill llf I.,d'n~ "hid , Ihe ,hip!,,,, GIn " c."m,d """" [he I.ill, ~ ' ,I\C hecn ',hiI'III:U'
~hc.HJ ld ~hmv rh e n <lnl C c~f[Jlt; 'wi hi r (,..'O r1ct rm.:.d .

79
Tbe rcl."lI\ing h L1,i Once Ihe chancrer Iu; required lhe hipwncr 10 iS9.le" boil or
I Icling naming" di'iCll.I'j,'c porr., ,hen the ,101"" ner is bound under Ihe bill or b dlll/\ 10
pro'l(.'ccd N) th" di",hl1rIl<' Il<JrI ,,,,d to do urllcl"i,'I;c ' 'cl
'"Illm",' In" d ';Otion. In th".
~ ilU"lion rile I.an"n::r, u." m;'neroJ !\"ccrJl l'rin i"I'c. Can",,' Ihen tirlter [tic sh ipt/wl1(;r
to) h" in bre"dCh of thll' bill Ilfbding oblll.:\oUIoII. Ily'm~lo~' sec IIIC prindples CnllllciJI.:ct
In 7"'" lI_h [I I Lt"".\'. Rc", 5-11 "krc 111'-'" hckl ,h~I .dl.mcn-..-oould 001
u"full, order J .hif'O"/lCr In dIscharge ,,;tl\(lUr prudocrion of !he h.1I ( bding "" 01 d"
would he. brc.K h 01 the hill or I:Jdin ' UJI"~"""I. mr ~ tYl'i<.>il . mplc see I 11... 1). 4
r 'hru~II" 1982, Lm\!l'l11 urhitr".Idon numl1c:r ZI821J,

S~e 7~d'lWllin 1itfml l ')K312 l,Ioyd'~ Rc f'. MO ~n(h h~ dis"'I ~si!JIl.lin Scnll[Qn Oli
"
l:h.lIt~rpartie ,20 th ell., p. 7b,
I .. c ~Ie of(~ ( ~Im.."d bY Sea p. 9, nou: I).

I", ~Id.nce 00 Ihc prt:CI tncUlerm:. l '(:I''iOO und lhe rumnKlflld" qulremrn .11' "
bill of Wing to he ac~p,,"ble ID die sellel ~:c, 1lI1{T,71i11, (;oooc. Ctlmmcrciall La", 2"d
~d., 19%, p. <){), .nd Ih\' inu'm"liMal CI,,_n11 r (\ CO)11mcrc I'uhli~,ltio". on If _.PSOO
and Incxllcrm
"r,. \J.ri.ltlons in I'rcci '" :~PI )licatiofl1:arc [0(, m.ln, to mc[uion mll .. u~f1Jr amliysi'\
Jppca~ III the Inlct1UtlOn:l1 Jourual of hlJl>Pln~ b". June 1'1: .
h.. Imply p'm of hnjl,h h 1;"" BowC\'Cr, i I ..:cm; thar scel il)'" _ J"d ] or rhe J (.IIC
InlCnded to apply ill UII)' f'f1JU:edirng> in the EfI);!i'h Court. <:n:1I i Ihe proper law or Ihe
hill of 1.lding i,'1 '~ul -; 11 ~ll:-,. ll . St:c 'l'Url4m an ;hOI1Crpurf fc~. J:n, h cd . p' ....}5 n ,r;f(j

-'
'" , . C;"mu Cl N&IU!'(II I K$I) unci Secl i"n ~ ;1)Gs,,, <Jl at Appendix Sec also the
,I/IDJ K "I legal 116 e 11 i,

ofGu.xb :..mcd bI Sea. pp, 116 11 7. 1IIKI I'iloRall'mdullm l.'I1IlrSlJip~


01, 11 CJ391 1\. .77.

If Ihe ITI:lSler knlJlI'inlll ,il:ll\ u hit! u W,ng wilkh il~Il'CUmtely R:cm"~. fur l!~pie, [he darc
uf shiplIlenr, Of the I,"CUre, qLl.lnlil} or oonrJ ium nr rh' Cl.lrgo. the shipowner ,,~lIlIor be
cmidcd [0 ~n inlp/ied "!!J't nfindcmnil}, ,uld "''''' if rheshilXl"ll"rlw (tn exp<CSS inoJel1lJlil'l(
I( nU.' be n:ndcrL-d lu"'nf~ The mosu:r", under ... obl~11o!1 It) mire I'C'~ SIC
III III the l"~ Ix:hc ~i~ thc bi 1. or ldil'ol: ond the ohipt:MfiC< "ill "'" he cnrilIW In
"" IndemnifY fi'ot" the o";,;er "ben: the .11\lC1eS In the bitl 0(1adI!\/!. orthe fuilun: 0(
the ma"Cf [0 ideml lflllC(ur.rcics in dIe bilJ lA ladiTl!'.oI1aI'e ansen lhtw!:h Lhc In"'>II;,,'
n gl1jl1:;ncc. (T/r NQfH ' M(f17n 11'iR71 I r.IoyJ~ ~r, ~~(, anc;lI19881' I Lkl)'d's R;.p, 41 Z,)R,r 11
cl miied discussio" ;co Sot\J lIun on O.mol)'l:llliC'l.lOlh cd., pp. ~ - N7 ",d roommcs..

c JQlVS u IlQII1" (I 7<)):rnd ,he gener" I dl 'u,-,I"" in \\'lfonJ. Tim.: Chmel>', -1111 <:<I ..
p. ZS.
, ' 1; 7'b_IInIflJ. 119 511 Lkl)'<l'. Rq>. 557 a UI>I: cooccmin~ )lJ1alllc-do ,ed bill ofladinl,\
\\ here Ille Judge ~id Ih:Jt ',,,, oWigt11l.'m IQ Slf,Nml/r of /odjng tL( Prt'fJ'f/I"" ttViuld fll)' obIig' lill
1J/(trJl'I' to srgrdm/J q//fldllll! -hll'" d allY/ (/ /ul''I''RfIIJII, Am I,errnurc, iUor SlIllIe =son rnrm' g~
to CUf'Wl I;ms nOl il<:C I1 nflu;d on rhe ma[c'~ I't:"cirll. , the rTW8t<:r C'Jnnm he reqUIred 10
~II1I' dc-dn bill, Dfl...Jong .irnf'iy heC-dlL"C rhe ,n",(,', rqcipl' u-,c'de;ln' (.'IU' \''''ford.
'n"oe CharrcB. ~lh cd. P. 330) ,
III Tb lJmJio;/f)I71l19 ~J 1 U~-d' Rcp, 3'1 the Judge Ileld (nal L1", requirement I) the
rn.1 (er 10 sign bill", orl tdUlg ~S prr:scn [("d ' doe.) not: Inc:an rh al Ih ~ nUl:s rcr is hound w

80
!'!tixn. ur th~lr the ch::Jn cn::r m:ty Issue, a bill" l:ld in,l!; III wh.u(.'"\cr Icml dlC Ch .lr(~ro l
chroo>cS. "flIere is U Mic and impliL'<I rc'luircmcnt lIull he h 11 , ", lire, 'nrcd \tull reLue
10 gooci< ,,,:wl~' shi pped:md [hat l hC\ ;h.dl 001 L~m l in u ml>.uc ,illlO" of th~ gooJ.
which " known to be inrorrc:c

IfnJr,-St,,,lNsIrrpIA n fArh""rkl/{:rmlr ( :n I I<1H I 7_ 1J I "~ ... )(/)


Thi. sMuld be rontr.llSted \I idt those dluscs \I I""" on~ 1I1"'~l 'n .heir cll'CCl- Iheyore ,r
InrnrporJl ed in the bill of ~Jding aOO "here !here I 11f) I'll:' pnn1<"lIl fBr rhem 10 be
111<....pOl"J!ed III the boil of ~.I(,hn):. In lOOse dle nu 1<.'1 U nllO{ ,n "'1 ..... 1 .he-, ~
ulCludcd. ( ,Iso ,he discussion 111 7W .\""frr 11'17')1 I I.!<M' kef>.!UI I.
T4- ,{t...tIll -I I llid's Rep. 5"1.
111'111" I Sce WilfonJ,1imc Ch:m=, 41h cd, .,. 3 1.
IIh ,I", Sce \ yage ChartCB pp. 399 . 400 and -'CC ~,-<, J"" (I 5) 7 11 and S. &.,

Ill. 1'1 I I"""for "' Ihe hill, of bdinJ: which hJ\'c hcell .,r=mcd tll thl: A""I 'r cx ' d Ihe
'"''J1Cf', ohliga tion,
[Q me chan crer under 'hc ch.ne.,...n .

III' oI.!'"'' Sce ,\"1 ford , ' lime Chancr: 4,h cd., p. ,U I.

1o" U"'I e W,irc)rd, Time Cktrle rs, 4[h ed .. p. 3.12.


11111 1 111 ' 1 Se " ,Iford . Time Ch"rler!!, 4th cd .. p, 332.

1nu Scc fUI t:.\..alllp lc d rJU:o.c B ur d le \"'I..IE d lll l Lt.:lfJ ill ll ~U I J '" c YI~lru l J l ' 1i wc :IIII I I\;I~ . .. th
~d .. p, :131
Im Scc 1;;"'lil'11O>'7V&TJliJN" I IYS.' I I AC. bt.llnd I ltrh'1llLJIfIII'J2Z I Z A,C, 1.52:1I1d l'Jr,.
IIltdl9!!9 11 Lluyd's RCI), 13~.

1111 Thi. right of indcmn i,y will be 1000t ifthlO IJ1<IStlOt cl l itx,r.cclv~ i~n,. hi ll nfl.din!:.",hi h
;, In3CCUrJ te. and ma" be lost if h IS rcek.! 1Ir negligenl [11 it ; :\:Uf'JCY. 'c the
coll'lmencm in ,' moo nn <-h:OltCrl f,i ... 20th ed., p~l. 115 -111.
11 \ . elite 30105 ",fc:rred IG at _ \ 11\),

11 I &" m,,,,,,= rd'crred 10 at ~ I ".I.


III 1.... "1ho.. TU1IOlIi1I I9931 Z 1 ~'tI'~ Rep. p. 41.

11; rumt: L'o fUrlhe C.ouriJge ofC;o(xh p:aru.IAI .l.1I and flit I.-,mt 11'1 IlUlJld'
Rep.: md T4r /'idJny li.rfJn'rs II99Z I Z UJ)-d' Rep. 79 And I/W,'lkJ 7il1fiT'loJ 11 '1 Z ,.t..
1,10\,:1', R{:f'. " . l-

II 11' I Chmerpan:ies, Zllm cd., 1'_ , I.


11 i~,t<I, rut too on Chanerp:utll:S, 1(11h cd., p. SZ.
I~.! Indeed, in TIv.-lrrtr Trod". 1199612 u~,'(rs
Hep. 419 Ut 45 Ihc COllrt of ,\ppca' ,rated
[ha , ,he obli~tiOll 'mder Anide 3 rulc I ,>uc on dcma.nd I bill of 1:ld in ",hid, smles
[he Uppafenl ord"" ~nd L'O nd il ion 0' ,he gooili " '(JJIII,'Vuuh!#fY1 ~r (J/"tJllI" (O""71lr""
UfJrfffff11mg owi I/(j( "lI'f!'iy OfV 1ti<1t 11" 51J~'frI'f' ~r IIY- 1I1t1s11'f' /1I11.~ rr;b rta.f'bIlf)/IIt Cflf7' m
pt7f{j'1II', T his ,s a pmcncal bollk, hl)wever, and 50 It alS!l w rdl nOlj n~ chac ch o,lIrr of
"\I'pealwcn l on to say '/rl"'-rotr; srn lIIuJing Olt (J(U/rtlt:f Sl{lJ(mml rM I~ 1/iJ> (Ippaml/ ~trlrr ont!
rotltliriftrllJ/f('JOtlS 1J/{i'jI 111fI()~ Sl) rJlI' d('f!,'''''' QfsJ,1I ({f/l1 ""/11'1'/1", (!tOil;:' i, rlt,,' r)(lt IlItrC<frnA,II" w,

81
rhw W .'fI(J"h 'rz..... ~1i rlur/;s1;IJltlrJ/J I-t'fill'ff'lr" t!ll~Y IrlJ I'l,7/i""I:J"(' Infmlli/t/t- \"ltll fI"'/ rm7" /If mui;fIIJ!, mrurrt/t'
,t;/(ll'lIIrlrI, 1111 rI,,' (IIIr I/mlll, (IIIrI fI f'<JflIl7R'I1I1l1 d,ilv ,. "'.~' rl.- ,>I,f/m""/I "" tiff f Y'f'r iO' 'd mt!,wIII/r
,r/oil! {(frll 1l'I>7. i( "{ flfJl)I (ffll(ltI !11Pf.~"v. filii, "'fr' .fIlii/IN 'NI, IJJ""I' /1If{,O"","lfi.' .<h.hl of 11r,' (fir! 1)1/11
jll'/' I /!J/)J i~ lIJ JJJlli'P Ill) rh allrJ f/tJ/f'lIN7J! /n till I utJlJJfS!f!m r of rh- (i.,m ,'.

1'4 , L rLl lf(ll 1"l I lfl( :l l:J ner'l~lIJTiL:O;_ ~n[h c d .. p . -L,2 -:rurJlF,\(!' rh:. , ~ l lc n:'(1u ircmc.: n l j~r J\rrid '..1
rule .1(11) th~[ rh~ h.1I mu" .,11I~\\ 'rilhn'lilr 'lI/mIKo>/ /<.i,,!t"" 'If'jJim'J, Iif' 111{'(llfr"'l/~r, lit
rJ'1J!./JI, rfJ',1lr ftl!j(' IfK,, IN"' 11u.:::1n:-. t ~lJ. , I_I..!! ~I tl i,g'~'1 it )11 ~:"1 ,llfef"ll.ll i\ t,.; ;tllL! rhi.'fl.!'ft11\: 1f If Il l.' urrlt,;.i'"

"r
"SUI:, :I hiIt ut' I~dln~ sitUlI'ill1! hmli ,h ... 11 .....,hc;r pic.'c, ~",tI Ih~ "cll(h' 11C rt1.;lY qll;ll iN
rlTJt: !'J(;J n.: mc m ;.LS [0 \... ci.~h( ;IS! , J'llr C);;J mrll!:, ll~ rh!\.: w, ~nJ . . LIJ!."f1;d1/ rwlrlrlM!'!/. S~ruHDn '"-; ry~
rI~a( .sue" :l hill 0 l.:JChnJ,t Wi ll rhcn be pmu!1 r~I{ic -l:\iidcill't..: ut I-liol." I llInlht.' f [iI" P lt.'ll~ I,ut
fKJi of the \\iclght. ' Illl"re h~ hC,:4.:ri some sIlAA..:->:;ti~lI1 ~ h : l l rhe 11"it:; I~f rhe cxpn ;sSlnn 'Cl.'r1KJrr
lIIJiI fjltJlJJMJ iNli'flf&'I/ IS <i(fITldH)W 11'1 cU U"'''''''CI'tIOn of \rride 1 ful'l:' 3 or (he:. I t LWJc o r
I '"f.,.'l lc-V;sh, H" lc'.'sL'C tltr ,Tl/o.Y 11'1% 1 1 Llo\'cl ~I I<"I" /)12;1[ (>4<, where rhl' iuugt'
agf,,*,IJ 11"" " bill of IulJi ng \\'11idl pw\'itku ':l."":.!/rI. ,nmlll'r:.qlwilrJI' ""/;rIf~'ri 'I"""~tl ""lhill~
:Ol;lll ahow th~ Hl11llbc,UI \\~ i~l l r Hrg, ....I ~ I(""led J JIIllh~ , hiIMII\'flCr multi ha,'e 1>')0011
""lIuircd I " ~hm' it uo(I,,"[ ,\r!i" lc ,l fi llc \ if [he -",iprcr or eh..nc,e, had "'-' tlcimmJ"d, \,\/"
"H]~ l !d S\ I~1(.'""i l 1I111[ [his tli..;rC"~rJ ... l ilt:.: I lrn\'i5(~ w . \rti.: k J ru le ,~ jncJ (h~l[ i ll t:i ri..Lnnlj.tlt lll'C~
Wllcrl" tl1C If l:..t.... tt:r 11:1.. . rCHM l1 I:.J I lie gr4JlJnd I~'r ~t l~ I ~t!( i llg
l l.c.; ... l li l ~pC'r\ li~llr~~ cl,~ 11e,.
uCt.u nl~c.; ly n.:prtJ(;lllllli,,; I!,l tfJ(b.. ~t;i"I-d . . {M ~\ l l~I'C I lch; l:-. no rt~l:m;~hl L.: mt..:;I Il:-i I~f
chr..:~k ing. if i'"i f'Lfmi..,.. ibk: I'm hi m rf'I liSt: rhc dcoRcri prijvc wnrd~ which W~ l't ,lve
remmm['nded, ' Ihere is .u PP"" or till' in V'l}",.g[' l h. rrcrs, I" cd .. p 721>, III I he ,I/u/" ,,:
1 ~ <)'j!! I (:I,C; I,lOO the c(l]mm"",,1,""u n J ~G"1 tllat Ih" '" dl\lll .. . unkll"" 11' PJm '~i, 11' in
t l ~c (: ~)fll2.e Il.LiII 'I,\ 'U".. 11f)( l'C'ntlcrc(~ \-,(lId 1'tY (\n;IC,; lo~ :1 ru le,) llnd X nr .he 1 1 ;j~~u~ RLJl o~:: :lIld

r11::H C\ Cri j r I he: .sh ippcrs lll~ldt: LI dcmunu within the ITI(;:1n iug, of' ,'\nidc ,~ rll l ' J ror d hi III

~Jf I:aJ in g [l1 be i:SSlIed wi t hOUI rhe 411~l li fle:.l tic III wc i;e.ht ... UT)krl~ lWII' rh :.J1 I)rfa [:siul\ ,vlllJltl
nOl be u lI IJU'~, ctlVCllU I1t Hr a,~rcel l1cm relic"ing Itl<; ";lIIi ~r (If rhl: ,l lip frpmljahi lil\
\~i1 hi ll 11,,' IIIClllllng ,,(,\rl id~ .l J'l d~, ','[11 1- I:;'s ,,,I"" {l..,cidcJ ,hat [11.., 'I"" ni. i,y or ""rg"
\\,hid1 1\;1> tl~,~rihcd ill tile hi ll'lr 1<i<li ng ("lrHl:.."idc rhe ".",1.1, wcij.ihr L1nk" ..w,,') IV;",
"lll <l rt..prcsc.ntJ r ~r)1l th~tl (hL.: l lLKJnc:iry W~ "Ini ppeu 11mkr ~l:tl ill ll -I- ( :( )( is,,\ ~t~t)_ ;111<1

Lhc::.rctilR:: dU I sttcl inll tJ id nlJl ~tl1-plv w c..-.:tCJI' the n\\"ltef fl1JUl rc.;I~'ing lJl 'toOtl I he:
'w.;;igilr .. ,u l .kl ll)Wl i ' [)rIJ\,"lsi~ln il rh .. b i ll.

0"" ,-n,.1I bLl t perh"p' ,igni fic'lll1l difl'c r<.:ritc IS th" tt l,c I lnn-olJurh Hu ic; requlI'(; (~" hill
LJf 1,.H.hn~ [u "t:J l ...: (I.I.! II UI'1'Illc. ~~r l'i.l(:k.3~c:s eir I,icct:::'o IJ.ll(i I'h l; qlJ~l lu: i tv :lnct ~vdgh[ of '-".~i
C<lIlI NI<f 111i, \lirh Iq;.<I ""le 11n r'lrJI:' Jp h 11,1.

l\rlidt' I (, of Ille I-"miliurg R~II ', f 'll uir~, r ~c c;II'ricI ro, ~i fy 'rll/l' illltmllr,,it.<'l:l7IlIIvf., 0/
,'1111);'111" ~NItI'/lI"nf<n1IJ1'''l~1II1'J1.d1' JJiI'lIil ,ifIfll'litlJtg', Ir secm, fhot ~enc r,, 1 I'ri mcd douse',
~11<;l1 as (~()"" which" rr""r on thc Congc nbill (s~" p;"'W"ph 111 ) meVl"" b~ ,uffieiel1l
;1110 dl~l[ if J nl3S[c: r \il,o"lshc:s [0 st,~~I:C:- (11;] [ [he qU;..IlIt l l".'. cOnu.iru Hl or oJ..:c.nrc.;nts; of ( lIt" goc1d:oo;
Of p3l'k.:,~l!:.cs I;S unknowlI to him, Ih~n be hn:s (0 SlIY if' rnore C:<fll'CSS. tCfms \vhy.
I~ ra mme dct"iltd d i""'u"iun Sale 'JfGvoJs C~rrie<l bv Se", pp. I'h-t.) I.

I.!I 1\ lficll: ,>I I ICI'~IX I e'press'" ' llllC, I h.. Ir...,ks ", 11 <.CCCI" " rmnsp"TI dL>L omcnt wh ich
ILIflJ'n {I drlll.W" (m 1111' {tKt' t/rf'17'()joflu7., (IS "shrpfJr:IT l(}{JrI mul (7}(m" IJr :\fu~II~' slt/PjJff f r/l7mlt,/i,,," fjr
':lIrrl,.Ilj,i/lnUtlr1!M', 'l 'hu~ although IC:P,i ()() doe. 1101 1,",'cs,"rih' "1 ply tu illI
Ju(:u rnCl1ll:l1)i 'I,'fCdi, n,:;'lU. 'mcnrs. rhere: i.., ~I SiHong 'l!fgunllem, ch;l[ thi;,; form of
q"" lifk,,, ;011 of qU;lnlip,' Imdco ,bould be OCL'cp,"bl,; to [hL' shi pper.

'cc TI!~ BMkJlI~l/m 11'l~91 I 1 ,I,,,'d" R(f '- .><1\ .111(1 'cc Vov,lgc Chcm c rs, I ~l "d .. p.7.10.

82
1":1) ~c in 1):~ II,,,, 'lJb l CUlltt'.1t. '0, H.r lilt.:' Cama.L:.c o f (;'II.I,J.. I Y.irlJ~ I ,L~ , ..! unf l 7'1tf kit.,.,
(;"17//(/ II'~)N I 1 1Juv<l' ~ Rcp. Lt'..
1 I) ';,:1: .\N {:tIUIIY . lvli"/fIllH Ihrl/ ,'it"l//M/IIIl '/1 i I ..1 "-11. hI I; l'/,rllm,.. IIt.I,M. 11 '1);61 ,
l.k ....r\ Ikp. 2 b 1!r.I1]'" 11')%11 LIo .. 1\ I{q >-1.; .111" 11 ,1/,,,,,;' II'~J 'I (,1,( I.~Kl.

I 11 !'IllS romplic, "uh ,he IIJ~lIC Jilt! 11....... ,,-\ "In kuk:. uhh):ilulln '" , "re .I 1.. 11 "h1<.tr

,1,,1>1, .he .. ppm"'", omc,:md oondlrl,>tl ,.r ,he c.. IA" In dle lL'" III rcn.J,,,hlc I:'-..h.
JI'I',,,c,1I 1'''00.1 lint..... dOld m...Jirion iocludc, ,he ~PI"'n:nl .1,,11, "r 11, p .h ...
\ ' il h.\l..l.1kI ur,lin;.,f\ I1lctlMIIl.... "f 1r-d1bl_nL I r the.: \\lI N'\ '.JJI{1/Xrllll f}#'~/ lJI drt IJI tmrtl"IfJ/r' de.
Ill'[ "1'1""".' all 00 ,he hill "r b,I",.. ,bCR ,he <". I lIl'.).:! C C~J' ,he hill "r I..JIIII: chcll
""'-<; ,,,b,, I'rim. f"",ieC\i<lC1l< "r'lk,."I.... i," .. 11..: I:<~ ' "I,h'l'ltlenl 1'.1.1' -I"
"h.;rc Ill<: I fJl1lh"lR Rub dl,,,h . Urc' mi'''K1n ,. Ihe "hr.,,,, ,,' nu l ... rcr 11"" ,he
~,,,ere hjl' lll.--J ill j!).... ".11<.1".111. 'it.-c . rul",n IHI ( :I"rn':'lYJnoe" .!Illh " " ., ',. Uti.
1 1 \ \Om;lJ. "1'1'".,,;11 h"" I",""" [-<kol wllh cumJm"". , .~ ,IN- I<-,""",llk, J 11'/tiIlll u",.r.
Ikl'. ?(~,.
11.

I \ tJ 1

\ ",de >2 I 'I :1'~(lO.

1 11 !>cc 1I1I'(,',,4111/) ,derred 'n in P:l I':.'A"11'1 1 I ,~(,.I a'KllcJ.::l I I1C1tc. '11 ,' hill Cl' ",,111110: " 'I'II I1U I
I IC u lldclt n iJS rr dt)c s: no r c:tS I t!'11 lhr m1 ~ h l~~IlU l tlHl l cd lhr.:. ~t\I )(I" ~.,. I~ KICh.:t..I .

I I' '111c>c dilll"'" " ill . 11,'WCV"L . III'JY' I.: .""'lnl<.!d le <l ri~1 il'.:1\ uf')ti nsl rh ... sir' i J1j"\n~1 ", rl1..I ,
r,,,.... " ullpk,lIl'1>lU": 'mtin ~ 'o::f'iglrJ. IW,M,l, "'hlwll ~"/II'II JII/)/IIt/llllitltlt>'II' .JJ.I fI, iI I lr.II~cr "
'hip! "I nCI I'll rill ~ bUr'" 1"1.1 i, relyinil. r)ll " ,!ill Crl l~1l1 1111 1111' I,i II.,HI lill),; ,,, !t!lllc '11I1mhc"
"r
(If b,~, .it:c ,hil'lI,,<I. (:ill. -uw (Or/I)") [l .'iI'IJt!1lI .\,,,"'1 .\i~ V:.tlJ.'mI Ph,! I ,\ .C:, NI).

I I', / " (:aklll/) 11'17 11. u ",-.j 's I{,,:I" 4.10 und le.. \ . , 11'1)1111 I 1.10.'<1\ It '" I'Il
14') . ' :c "r ">.::Jmplc d:IUS<: [(, of .he SlIj!'Jr Ch" , " 11''' '1\ 141,[/ ~I '\;'CO 1')771 .

'>cc Ilnf.zrdmiil1>llll Co P",., /lul""II'I'i7I l l.lll\d\ [{cp. I, 11 ... n:, 1IJ,: 'nl for IIIC'I\\ Ii~' of
Ih... /i'tDilil si::ncd dc-dn hill, "flldi, a ~k'~ I\\ "'tl~l~ hlpllK:nl In -rrYJlI:nI ):fwod nl,I~,
.1fId l1",dlU,m of ....dlgO "hieh \\., in r,u .hiprc" ,n p;J1.. ,,,I, dcrCl' 11 C b.mds. l11c
,,10;;," hilh nr Will:; "<on' ,"""cd ~1!l'rn" \cuel"l" in<lcmnm fIlM".h ,h'I'I"'L I b,-,ng
I ,d ,,1,mIU b! rh"- e.-,II:>iJ:l'l<-'I! nr ,he <'"1-.'0. the 0\\"''' >ou):hl lu rc.~''':r unde, I he !cULT>
() ImJenm,,.,. Th" (:o.m uf \ ppe.lf held I hJl !he 1"". . ,,
"r Inde",lI'" "crc
uncnroR'I"Jbl.: :u!;lins, ,he ;biJl""f ,incc the 11111011 111:1. (hIUll~h 1I Jlt\:nl . \\;1.' ~ I~Jfl}
"ilh Ihe 'h,~>p<." t<J J frJ'''!. The bills or ladinll- .",moinlO): fJI", 1<;1'1' ' nI"UUM , h:ld
hccn i""co:l lIi,., k'lO\,k-dl;c "~tt .ho,e ,mu "h""" ,,",,<I, ,he 1,,11, urt.Jd,nJ: 1111).\1
L-nmc. ( I'U.Irnd~ roC;C(:i\l::t ..... t.r h .lIflhA:N) \\o, tMt.J1J n: h hn .h,- n.:p,,",,",-nt.a.IIHn"ll. So br 11' ~I\\.

1II,"le r i~ l'U!1""m"d he Y1l1uld .I\\J' JlIT""~'lII,n Ill<! I 'I' dUI J ICII." IIr inlicmnil\
J!i\ ~n ill I'Cturn fur i>suing bil" (If IJdinl' which dll 001 ,ml'l<'1c1~ ij~,urJI..:l' ,,k.('rihe
,h" l~1I1d i lilltl nr Ille (,-dfgl}.' an im lrt\:U I'mcllce:md onc 1\ hid. I" ,!1mlhJ IIUI ' "lIo\\'.
h URl" icgal ""in, nf .i~", hI'" cl ~" I h~Il' le ,"brl",ic5 [(I Ihe /i_I, }"'/;I/I(/1// fI fnT1'
IJutlO" deci,ion. I,or example" I1l"Ybe po",;"lc ic,i\il """,d,' I') u'" Jnucmllllic. w~c
Iher IS;I bune fiut'" dispu [e moi [Q 'I.\hcl h 'If [he AOIJl'h;.lf d.l'ml~lU or nw, or \\hc rc lI~c
u",r. -r i,
Ir1\j,,1. ur Ihe d i l1il' u l t~ uLl>cc rluining tlie I'""d", .,.fl lfc tlf Ill" d fccl,'
di. pwpt.rricmn,,, ro ils pm mial iiJ ll>urmllcl!, 11 Is .Is" \\unh rtHir'g Ihlll I Ill< II ,n I !)U'~
Rerl", ~ 1 1\n.idc 17 s.y [h~ t un imknm i., "111 be !like l' :md "ilfirr cd "~ I in , I II ,<li il pcr

83
(bul not" 111i. o PHIlY) un less the ClJrr,er ';,i/lllltls !~difrufld u rlrinl/>fp''Y, ",dud;'}]!J]
mm'igllH.. '. rrthc HumhurJ! Hul'e:::s ~i r ] "",idcr use, then Lhis prul,<ision may sornc[imc:s he:
u.sw to argue iliat ~ master shoulu ,;ctep; " Ic[["r .,f indemrlity. l1.. t is fur tile
,Ihlpo\\lflcr 10 decide. In till , ~v~ l1 r this r>crnliss ive pA rI ur " ide 17 ur (he I ht, nlJu rg
Hu lc~ i ~ perhaps o f limircd lIse. "n,ere must su.e l y~hl"~YR l1e a strong possillLl,1Y rha!
In mc.n[ U1 dc frJ ud W!ml be impu led \tj,r t"lcrclI sll lppc:rha.o;,; gont: our or h~~ \: l:Iy 10 pc rs; u ~dC:-lI
ma:s tcr, by I'rG>idillf.:" icller of indemnity, nor tu indud" inform.riM. The olwiou
infertn i. , h~ l Ihe inform,u ioo wo~ ld be re levan ' ro rhe oosigllC1!. The imen r; nor
rhe omist<ion i. therefore [Q deceive,

15 1 Sec p'.\mg~lph I.it) :md lega l not.C.

I Sol Set [lie US case, of 1W.')'IJ Ilfth",vmv/ n,~ J,lSIIhmli Cl,. t:( Rrt/ri Sr",,,,.ifIip Co. 11970 I Z
1 . l oyd'~ Ik1l. 91 ",he.e rho II'md ing WlI.< 'T~t Il'l'ms ;1J!fJilmil /,,Il(J;i ~rd" OIM (~ntlilialt' fltlll'll
It"'" "" fm.r Bill r;f l1111illg ilk rejm'11f't! fO iron. III'1'J or 1111/01 !J/!JdIlGJ r/0i':J Imf II/WIII illIlI th, Gr;otls,
"'/"'" "..~~ r<m,/rtt of vi.liW,. rWI or ",0;";'1117'. If II,r Mnrlrtml .m ""1,""1$ {I .<I.t;."ltIJn Bi/l ii}'
Lrnlill8 .,,,,1'" ;s.. ./irtl ll'mllmg Ih, 1iI!01Jr' tlr{iJri'fo" (lml.w/"-'!Jfw1n /II( , r/()/(JliwJ' (Jj to r.:if ",. "'Ill'",,,,
vliidl 'IIPJ"PfYr'J' nil 11" lIJOt('!;' or lully rh'/:' ,11r"/)t.f ' ".,1GP (.'ompfII') " f'rlll (kM' ,'Ihippillg
Call1jXl1ry (1992) MIC 2298 (. d"",i,uon "flhc United S[J[C',S Cuun .) .

11.\ Rcc 77r,' //.lnm 119117 [ I 1.1,,),,(:1'. RcI'. 424: n" Su,." f) [1 98912 I ,I~l}d'. Hop. 277, Tbr
C/id,1LIio 119891 Z LI<Jj'd'" RcI'. 49 mul rlrtrollfi'1fJ' WJ9Z I I LJo)'d's Rep. 2.35,

Sec for " \~vid example 7Iv U/y;lIIwl1f II WO I 1 I JI))'d'~ Rcp. 4Z~ where .. dilfc.enoo of "
few d"y~ an .h~ d.te 0 ~ 1 ill of lad ing (brought about by Lb" v,,".e l berthing and
comple ting loooing ~rljcr ,h" n ("tiered by the dl~ne rt')- illvulved ilUl:ru:uiOll in Ille
1'001 modi [}' pric or ,he c:ugo or severol Ilundred rhouso nd doll:'f1;.
T ht: bi ll of Iilding .hould only be issued ami da ted whe~ aJ l of the cargo G(jlicred b)' Ihe
bi ll uf lad ing h3S bee. loaded. 7i!1' Wififllli 7{f!lfIWJ 11913] Z Uoyd's Rep. 41.

I ~H Thi, 'rul)' be c'",n bel",e . he layd"y" hill" c.><J.liTOO. See TullOn un Ch,rwrp.rt;cs. 20r h
cd .. p. 66.

SecSeTU[ tun DII C lrartc'PaTlic.s, 20 h cd .. p.66.

See&TU [ton on C han:c'Pmic." 20 11! cd .. ~n.idc 91.

he II"gue ...d H~gue-\r,~by Ilulcs m9ke IiCl r<:quiremcnt fb r " dtscriptio n of '1u"li[y,
(8ee paragmph I Ill). t he Ham burg R..J I~ requi re Lhe bills LO show 'Lhcgcncml na[UIe of
goilds' (pamgmph 12:; ) illld, wheTe non" of Ihe ru It:.., . pp l;"s, me m.slcr's posit,on is set
'lut in pardgrJph~ 'ii amJ \i~.

11.1 rnflVogorManIl1l9&8[1 l,.,Ioyd's Rep. 412.


.Bu~ rlClW ~ee J:h~ Hf{1{}~' IIQO}l; I Z 1 ,,1!)!,lf ~ Hc.p. 2R7. f'f.I T .. diI':L"w:~inn. rJl"l 1.:J.n.::Iut noriEeJ i.K:!': ~c
ofbil l~ nflad ing genc r.lIl), '<CC Tk {In'hhir, r l')74[ I U(Jyd's Itrp. ~85 :md TII,NI:I17j-hi
119152] UO),d', Rep.1>06:lJld the ",fcrenLcs 31 Icg:lI llO tc UI (c) .
cc 'n, 'ogor Monn 119881 1 I.IIJ1'd~ Rep. 4 1l and TIi",lrdir.Trolkr [1 99612 LloyJ<
Hep. -149.
17') l~r:1 furt ner and much moJiC dc[ai.lcd di scussion of rhc3C doc:::umerlil:S.sec Goodc.,
Commcrcillf UJ\\', 2nd cd ., p. ~')') ./5IYJ.

Ill-I 8cc Concracls for [he Ca,riage uf G,xxl. by SC-d pam 1.6. 15.2.7.

84
Th~ " "" of the "md 'endorsement ' In thiS guide is Ilm illld m Ieg'JI " ".'Vemen! Uflh~ bill
ul' I "dill~ and nnr LO rhe ood~ of ,Ol11menrs rm rhe bill of I~,fi ng (If ((llhe condiLi<)n or
rhe c(lrgo. ' llIis guide uses , he l\IOrd 'dousing' 10 describe Lha: function.

TI ,ere a reason tor litis. 1lndc.r English low Ihere is. very old case ... hich ,",id , har "
'$

m::I51Cf who S"i ~s sceidcnrulJy for. in l h;,u example.. fi,{c b:lic..'I ofsi lk.. \vhen only o nc b-illc:
of silk ""JS shipped. <>:Jult! no< hI." bwnd b)' the represcntatiun thm ffivc:: balt::l silk had or
be,"" hippcd. because h" \lid nm haw amh<}ril), [[) i$~ue u bi I Qfladinl; in rcsPCCI nf
good; IlIB! had /IQ! be n PUt on Qwrd r;r,ml " N.n1."O] t 1851). A.lso s:ee p"rngr"ph :-I;:
"e CUTltnlC! S or [h" umiag" 0 Goods O}' ,I j)'JIa 1.6, 1 .~.Z.7.

2 1~ 1.l 1 The failure of ,h" 'clter to gCt Ihe doculllent to the buyo!' will lJc a \:lJ'e<lch or the s~le
oontmcl. t\l lerruuivdy I~e buve' n13~ " Ot hllVC l",i,1 for rh" gmds. I, is fm [he ,d le r . nd
b ..ycr U) rc.~,lve [his pmblcm. Sce Uoodc. Commercial Law, p.923.

~ 11 l:.,ki~g of letter; nf illdt:m~ir)' i" ,r erum for delil ' 1}' of C'J rgo Si rhe wrong d ischarge porr
or "'i rhou, prod ucrion of the original bi ll of lad ing i, nol wrong. Thi, ""urnes. how"vc~
rh:" ,,11of t he original hills ",. lading for the cdnccllcd d.,.,;,i"".i"n arc ro llcolCld in b'l' tI,.,
shipowne r. Whil 'c it lli n<>! unkrwfu! fur 11...., ,h; (.>owllor IU.Hgreo [[, a dl"llgC of desti ,,,,, inn
wirholll collecling in the bills of lading, h i Cl(1cmc.i y d. nb'C ro"s ro do SI} "S .he
e){p0Sl,1rc [0 cla"lffi,.\1 is ~ nQrtlIl(J(j:;, and I he re: is LJn] ~kcly (0 be P& I jnsumna: In pl:ICe m
pro[CCI [he shipowne r in rcsJXX"[ of s:uch clamm.s.

l..!11 See dIe d~<\;1J~sin ( ' by lJi'mQlld J in 1I.or !;Utll>, R.\prm 11992 ~ l Lloyd's Rep. 7q.
~ 2 1 11" I u'
uch whelher (he shipper' has" rigl" or
stoppage in [..onsi r under ,he Sa le of Goods
Aces; "nd The in ' elll inn of the pan:ics OD mmsfcr t',le. (Hr Fill"". F.xprl'S.f 11 99Z J 2
Lloyd'. H"p. 79 ),

FOr eJClmple, the aL'CepwlIoo of Lals wi rh [he JC(.'Omp"n~~n,g oommere;.1 risk. and 10
of 1'&1 co"cr.
FOr e)(:lmple, ,he poss ibilioy ofinlcrple" der pTO<JCcdings in rl'iO local court or In tbe
COllrtS whose low governs the COntraCI (If curriage.

See rhe cases rcfcnW 10 ar leglll ~ ore _,11(c) ,

s.,., the case;, referrtd 10 Hr leg:d ,lUle 23 1( c)

Se<: Willord, T ime hum:rs, 4 111 cd " pp. JZ5 333 "nd B"" Ti//m"'I1IJ''' KIIllts/""fSS, Co,
Il 9081 2 K1L'I85 and [l90811AC 406; n~ Bm'Jh,I-r!I'J74 1 I ~Itryd's Rep. l85, Th? NttI
"[:rh; 11';182 1 I Lloyd's Rep. 61)6, ,1/UJIl/"Slff Tr71..tI '(J. ['ltnil'S.,11 95 12 Q.& 52'J; . 'ld more
recentl. Tftf Hff/Or 119981 1 .1o~-ds Re p. lR7. sec , 'Iso Scru rmn on Charrerp:m:k<, 20 th
ecL, pp. ~2 - 83.

See TIt~Str)()Jliu Tt"{lIfI 1198312 Unyd's Rep. r>4{l and rn e disc" " ,ol1 in Semtron an
Ch.flerpaflics. 2,Olh cd., p. ?f.

For f' lfrher dillCus.>io01lUld for 'the leading case se.: 7'f1t N(IIf!n' 1197<) 1 I I,Ioyd.~ Rep. 201
dnd WilfQrd, ' nme 'hnnerj. 4 111 ed., p. 332

The righ r of Ihe mttSIer re rehire to sign Ls 1101 clear a a ~lAIlCr of law. $cc Voyage
Cha rters. pr, 399- 400.

85
GLOSSARY OF TERMS

T('nll Rl:plall(ltiQII
( :I.:.an Itn hrurrl' hill. of l](lill~ . c I ml(r. 1.11 I I ~ . IIll "hippaJ' hill, "fltltlin!!.

1),,11, ." "'lie, <lr ,hip', 11lt:>C .re d ....u,;c:d u"Jet f~hl fun, lInJcr Jld~".!:h ......" ~IC
tlcll\,,,, ".tlct 001 limited ,,, J r'l,1.411 "", I,ler, III lIi1;, .10,1 \\ ill "flen he U "j
\\hen J 0011, L';If!!,I" III I <l11.le,1 .In l;.\,1 ,.:rJI ""'''1' ."" Tbc
<lel"".., onl". I' 3 durulIlen! 1<'(.' '):J1i",d hi (:t M . \ 1'I'I!. I r " ;t
do",ulllcnr I"~I \\ IIII:h 11.... ,hll,',\lK:f .JUllh.: ma'r~r h~, ,"mml In
rttJl{!1 mUl\r OlllllJin an c'\pn ~ I,Illd n l~k~If1 g.I~ d,t.' ,htj'M..mncr [0
ck: lin.~r Ih.: ~xxd_.,. m l t1 c (')Crlion idL:nnficd u' _hI.; de :mnciH.

~ .l nere:lfC na.ln\ \t..'I~iCI I'l"l nf d,... llli r..'I;IU....c.! Ul nh:l1I i., of l,.JWfL'(
l'htu:t:. 1I " IJlIrptht: L~ (11 ilicn. l/\' .he 1"I,ul\' "ho h rh (.HIl[I"J'lu:l1
~alfi~1 1I111k, 111 ... hill "n
.!i,,!.:. I ',,,.111 ' Ih~ dllll", ,\ ill, ilirt:cl In"
d "i m, tlllh~ ,hi IHII'n<.", ,.11 11<"1'\11.111111 .1 IlIH '11l.ln ...,,'r 1Ir<~I'... r.IIIl '
<Of rrcii<ht r'm" rd~f wh" m,'i bw 1J<:~11 II(',i,dl illllll't;,lm
a rr.m~if1l~ .he (."JmJ~c. /\ ... rhc ~lI]1m~ n ' r~ I h n ' u~,h ;, .. m .l \h.: r an ti
It: rt:"~\ . 1.a!i" p h SIIl'LII t.~..r t: Ill' l h~ l.':JIr,L~U. ~r'u.t ~IS r ile: ~hi l ~l~wn <.:r iJl hel..
j)bt~d 10 I.....","lir I'mlll IlmiwH'" " I' It" III lil ' n'~il11~' in Iflll,.
j urisdicfi [)n, (Jll h""gh mhe rs C""I b\:1I" lit). ,h i, :"n lllI-:C m~11I i,
'l"idc:;p","d, I'd "i"ub," 111 111 ' lil1 'r " u<.le ~\ h . Iille , "p.;ntf"" ,I:
r1l:.tv glH: al ll~u(1,":.HU U~~pC.Jf'J If1('C~ of hC Il1~ I he C'~lrrh.:: r. ~ ore:
\VllCII: , hI.: \-c ~ ' I l~ ~ ~pcnlliI1~ ull(icr .1h~l rC' I 'I(Xlll.. h .lfICrr:Hf\' (he n :J
demise or iden t i~ of CiJ rri-t:'f t:.I JlI W \\ ilullt l.I''iu,l ll " IM: '\\imJed If.
make Ihe bwc boal c l",rlcr"r 111: ""ri.:r '" JlI.,~" "r 'h" ,hiil" ""l~ r.,
HO. FIGS. FIUST \ U or IDcsc ill .. \'3 n.Jtlull" ,~t rn..... IU .md II\U (11.' ... an.llCK-m') ocm,t::
f= In.nd nUl "mlcd <or I",,, ,n ,lOd (1U1 ~tII"ed .lIld IlI1nnl<:d. m'lll
IlK... ....1.,10 to the (Osl 011",:10110): ~nJ dl tu i!J1lJ!. I1H: 'free:' m - n<
Ire.: ,,( t; PO:'l><: H'lhe If" J1d 11 nl<:" 'Ih,,' ,,11 c It......, rel:lIing
10 rhe Ioodinl! .od cli h:;1I~," "r rlo.: J!'" d, m: 1<. he 1.,n>C IJ\ Ihc
shipper and I Of Jl:CCi,cr. \.kIi,M",1 '\lIt<l "",h .., \,,1\.....1. uim'llt.-d
or >pOlU1 uimmcd.lI L"fTIPh." ,h.,
It.. '='I'n" .lfe 'free: ' " , r.,
;b Ih... ""ip" t ,".:t:"noaJ 11.<:. Ihe ,h'I' d<.c, nu' I' . rur Ih.om .

Oflen number or .hip!',...., ",il l . t..fl",~h' ,n reI)., 'cher I


Intt:nlll:l.li",,' In ,,,,),,, In I'UI I' ~'CIIK:'" uh>wnll;JI qlmlUlI\ ofc:lfJ'!'l
10 he ~h'l1fH.,.l. -lllC '"I"rrlll: ~' "''' kro<l\\ tl :... It"I):nl (",,,,,uder.

In:quclldv rhe freill'" r(l"'J .J~r ",II II',,"e( . 11 "r Ihe C"Ilt')C'
lI>gc-thef and lake rmm I ~c .hifllM me r" hill or l.ldin~ C'O\'l:flllJ: ~II IIr
,hem. 11,,, b,1I ur laulII); i> oflen culled J ~n , upal,'I: hi li (If sc rYicc hill.
I[ will name Ih" frd,!!;hl ft'I\\,II~cr ih 'Ile 'hll'l-.: r ;lmlll1l1 U'II"II)
31. nilme the fr" i):i11 r~ "l:lI'1k ' Ilr hi, ,Ij(cm u, rh, 'HlNj;l1e, , T he
bill uflading will [nu. t'il'i,,~ll ':1 ~l mi~lI IIf ""IH '''I:''li,lhl hill Hr
1~<.Iin/!.. -11...: il1di l'iIlU:JI . hIPllCr lI"il l M'<:il"c Irlll11 "I~ f "!:I"

86
ihm, of u hml\c hiU(.r
~t ll'\\'~ln.lc r ~l oli'nl ur n."t'Cl pt u'LI,111\ ill Ih:
l:tdi"l( tu:,,, blJl [)fl~ln~ '''u~d ill lile f'"'WI I 1''''''Jlller'' ""n
tmm), ur!J, ubl"in;,,),: hnfl1 the 1111' J ,hIp', ,Id""" ""tl", I" "llIth
(h, "I 1irPll ,\.\ rlcr ~Ir 1Ih.l"t(t:r Ulllk:.r[.i.lk.,:, l~' J .h;.t.....:... ~ I rtc. ~..t.td IIJ J
'pc<.;rl<" W~ i~Il<-'C ut ,,,111:1 hul" 'I nf.ht lk:l" ..... ",<I 'I, Ea h 1>1
lhc~ llo... mllcn(\ ull rhl-o Ik." pn.""-"flh'; 1t:11 h4.:1 Iljo I he.: fl 1('".lJ1kr Uf
\.\

hi,iI;.....1I1 I ,he di"lulJ:" l'On "1,,, '0 urn ",ll ",lk.. Ihe 1;"""
fn.m ,h.: ,hil" . .... In Ih" ,. III J -hll"okhlel\ ...okr .ti':"1 r"'nl
I~ -hip\ ~'" ., I~ Ih ...ilJl:.,.... I.,ft .Ok: "I 11": ,,, \h Unk:"" h
URU,wl. Ik .........u:] In Ihe 'IIU I.-n \\t1(]1J I rn , ,11.
<1>1II....,,,...J " nh Ikh''CnllI': ,hi: '''IJ\'' ul"'n prL...... IIIJI"on nr the hill ..I
,It
Willg "hieh '. " ucJ ,he Irc,~.. r."".l\lcr

Inigill pre,p"''''' hill, ..rbding The....:.re 1,,11, of Ldlnl! "I"dl rc..-,>I\J d. III'CI h, h~, I rn ",id
~tnst roc dcli\t:n CII h;II~ljn~ \ Cl "f h~' IlflAln.at Itill, "fl.KIinJ!,.
-n", "ncr, ornurking ,he ""l " I bdlllJ,; 'f, ' i~111 1'11': ' 1'.")' i, ItJ
prc\'t.:nl [lie ~h i Jlu\\fI1t.:r lronl dmlll1l~ 1",.::1j.:11f 1" 1111)..1 dtn\4."llul.:llf
Iwl'" 'r 0 Ihe 11ill Hr I. d,nj!.
'( ,r'lIl :I~' hl'll, "r bd ing Scc rn.:ip;hl lu n""nl"r.
'1IIIu",' b, I'~ urlaulII~

h Imli t)' uf t.1I ri ~r ~ lilUllC


1,1'1e1 H:rm s Tll~:~ ~Mw , I'm I llo;! "''''~h l 11Il'IIIllcs rh" ~111> r 01 " "mlhnf( I lw ""r~"
il [ The loodin~ :md ~li:<:L' h:lrJ:,l r.,~ ~ liIln"\, 'r hl.' 1"1,.: 'iN~ 11 1.."t1t 1ill J,.: 11 1~I V ~lr1'

rrurr1 pun tu pOri hv rc.:I.l'iOI1 if)" t'1 1 ~(()IH, hUl L'~Sl.. nt itl l l}' u ' linL'r rr.;: rllls
I)i lll~ u ' l~ \\ here the ,h' IX)wn " " glli ll~ ," r,~c , ,,,ne c[)" (If
m;.mJhng.

I.. uh,,~ b",kcf I .'tadi~l~ 1JJ1.No..'-r~ aft:' ~cnl' .~IJp'lIl1 tCiJ I,,- ,~" n oh (If" \-c . . '>C'I, I ru~ling
in:Ji 'L:~l.ldinc In ltiJrJin tilr~1 ''''i 1nl!' rh.;: \ 'c !' +~ Jntiltl rctd,~c
~m~nlllffreiJ!hL 11 " IhYJlh n..1I': lUII~ml)' ". ,iJ:n """I Mue
bill> "HJ"onll "ut the ",rem I r Ihell lIU'h!lru~ " .he ",me '" ,h,(
r, Lho: IlIlblcf in J!!JIIIn' ~nd i~,uing h,ll. "f IJd 1O!:.

'.: >lItthh: JIl<I .... If1.,,"!,uu:lblc ,\ !ill of lading is ""Jlmuhl.: if 11 <:;.I" I", IrJI"r~rr~"", . 11,., bill r
h,lI. "I IJd iog t.d[I1~ "ill ~- till It r",:c" herb", .h,.
<.n I '~IOC _ If Ill<: bill.
lading use, Ihe """" '," "nIc . 'bo:-Jr~r' or '",.wcr' (M' j, Idl tl!Jn~
in '''''''' "r",,". i, I~ ",n"!!;II" ', ,hen ,h" hilt IJrlodin!:~"n he
tr.ans1'cm:d I" del""" et"I"N.',,,,,",
<It 11",,, dc.. " ""h in dcl~iI
in pa<lIj!l"dpru 1-', - I ~. I r Ihe hill "r IJdiJlJ: " '" ,J I '''''IL'lIl",,,i~
~n.lllU l 'tu OIlIer' m.:n I,," bill t r 1.Il, h nllnncemLaIJIo: (1111 ...
",nll:limc.\ "1'10 called J " lrJi 'hi ' b,1I u{t..(hn~1. Ine im[lUfT:l1lCC "f
"bill nfhd inl1. ncingncgo,,"hl ' " I h ,I n cn Ilc' ", n"/!iIIl'.1 h"lder
[0 tr.ms cr. \\ i thuU l (he u-.c of un\' nfilc l <.K ~ Urn~I1[. dlt: ri~l lI I.,
,I,<,,,e,,....Ht! ",nlIOI ,.. >t.'" lun uf thl: A,.. "h, ,\ nU"' I1Q:'" i"ble hill of
IJuin~ "ouill t..: u.:ttll:d I1 ." '" "';!vbill,

Thi , i~ Ihl! add re" (ll lhe p"r",,, IIr r:J fl\ 'h II'holll lh ' , llil'flC'r
rc'l'lirc'1 ,h ,hip""'Il '1 [,) gi' ~ nu l ic-e \I lien rlle W)(Jtl~ J rriv,; J I
[hci, dc_"imllin n, ()1'r~ l l 1110 nO! If) "dill\;" nr r'u I ~ \l'i It h" I ho:

87
conslgTlee, a cGll..Slgnee's \:Ig,CI1I Wll0 h~ls 1)t:C11 :;J ppoimed w C()I I~cl
the goods "(the d isd'"~~P."I , '" ~ 1,1111< " ,1\1, 11lI~ I",id Ollr Oil Ihe
good. on 1oc1,.lf of ' he buyer, Sce p'Imgml'h ' for '''' c~arnl' l~ il~ or
U<e,

' I(e""ivcu t'or shi pment'


bills or bIding

Rerl. clll"sc -rh i., c l.use is ruimed aher " CO"" in which it ilppCMCd. It i, "
dOli"" "f(Co used imrhe .",el [,"de and it \\'i ~1 "pl"-'llr un 'he bill of
htding ~Iong,skl ~ [he. .......ords 4il' :.IpptJren r good mder :,md cond irioll'.
,rT'hc:: prcci:,;e \\!ordi rlK, or rhe chmse ~l l)pe~u'S: an rhe ICg:.l1 noeL! [0
p.r..gr'''p~ 1'i,I,
Sea wa), hili If I.here i. OD need {Dun, b"~cr of C'dIg<l1O . d l 'he goodJI while
1ne ' qrc: hei "I: Cl1rried nn I~"' rd [he sh i" he only needs" non-
[lI:gorinble du~ull1 ~,~e 1,)!1J!1~l'Ilflh I c;, It nllJ~ r IJe effoc dve!s "
rcccip' rnr good by ,1" carrier,"':l "tHl.r fur Ihe cam"ge of
good. by !<C"0l, .nd iden tify d.e: person 10 wham dc li,,, or Ih~
good, i, w be mode. Theonr.lctioll or , uch II c10cumcTII is I I ~iI rhe
per,~.c)I ' coUcc[inJ! rll~ glJOd.,= In [he dc..~ [in',] [ionl so long L
IS lu.: is Lhe:
person idc:n , ifiod lIS .Jhc pt:["'" CC> w~om d cli,~' "f , he goods is ID
"" lJIade. need n"t prudLJ(x fh~ tk>c",,\c~ , ;I&el/' ,H [be d.~ch",ge
""rt. h c;ln sti ll be u t'd LU t[igg~r p"ymcm under" teller of t'r x:i i.,
A ."rJiglu Or non-ncgmi.b lc bill oU,ding such "" described in m,"
1l.af,agriJpl, I :-a, II1J m~l}t lOt;: U'e-,JI~cJ tl:S i.I NL.::J ~""'dybill in ocm.Lin
ejoc'lI.l mS:I::.I I K::~S.

-Servic,,- lJil l~ Ilf I~d ing See fl'eighl forwarder.

, ihipped' Md ' rt:Cci~'C{1 fOT limier Ihe H!l~lle ~nd I bglle-\~s'hy Rulc~ {he slllJlperaln demand
.hi pmcm' bm. of lad inl\ bill ur I"ding im ll,...-di,"ely d,g . l~lC good. ,lie n.'Cei,C(1 into me
c,,",rgc of [he c"ITier, This i, " rccci,,,d too 'hipmcm bill of I"dill);,
I. mar be more usual fo, no bill of I"ding [0 be is.ucrl uMil t b"
J.,......)(J, It,,",, :r"",.lIy I"",,, shipped. '1'h., ,,'(mid [hen he" 'shipped'
bill ofh,ding ".nd it shou'ld I 'IsslIed on 'he d",e when.1I of [he
cargo cove[ed by the bill or Iud ing r,,,,, been Ic"delL \hurc ~
' rccci,cd fur 'hipmem' bil l of l:ruing (or a mate's !'t:eci,,!) \I"'.IS
~;;::-med : u [he diflle [har (.he ~s C"dm c. inro [he shipowner 's
I'I>5""=il,"" b", her", loadillg, .heo "' al1d when g s hipped bill of
lading i is~"od thal pICviou., do" o",<:n l sl","IJ bcslrtre[)oered,
Ahcml1 [i,'c l)I' 'received for shipment' bill olad ing C'Jn ix:
9[llCndod hy showing [he na!TIe of <he ship and me (" re of
,~ ipmcm , 0 Ih~L i ~ ~flrne~ ',~hipred' hill (If hiding,

88
RECO,H HENDE.D STANDARD LETTER OF AUTHORITY TO ISSUE
B,ILLS OF LAD.I NG

M, .:

I .o.ld i n~ m,
----------------- ---------

l. YLl" will , illl' icg ibly showing [~" n,un<: Df yourcom pllll)' and of the indivjdulll pe' <01l IVho is ~j ~ll ln!\.
lUld llflix :m y CUrH (l'J 1l :,;i!J ! along 'id~ l:Iny such sjMTIil rU ft:.

2. You "'ill , taW lil'J [ you arc ~!gn i ng'as JgCJ1[ for the ", .. rer".

3. You w; I1SlgJl bill' U ~d ing wh,ch

(a) "'~ ~ .. i"'ly in 'I~cord"nt't'wi [h mHl"', ,cccipr(s ), " lid

(b) d"....iy . nd <lc curmdy "H"" Ihe c-"'gu '1"allli!y "JlO.kolld itiufl OS '/IOWI1 on I'he mate's receip[(s}
or on all)' dnClI men ,; ,eferr-cd 10 in [hose rcccip' (')'

4. You \\~ II a ll ~u re rhm fOl Il~cb parcel of cargo for which ~ st:p:lrarc bill of lading is rcqui r{;d by lhe
shipper, ri,e twrCCl dHfC "r <'O mvle,ion of I""Ji ng (,f rhar p""",1 j, showl1 on rhe bill "fI~ding.

5. You ""11plOvidc, immro imd y upon sigrling. a copy of [he signed bil l elf Itlding 10 lile ship :md l1l rh"
m\'nc rs' m:inagc:rs hy fa". a. . .. . ,. _. _. , . __

IIJ IM r~ ~\ r4Jt'ffllm;: mlFvr (1 rrif#" (!:mm- /Jt'ffI1, (kid t~1f1f1{1r.~i1lf. (~1Ii!ir.


~. ":If) npn'fti"1" i n Ill,. lliltM 0/ ftnfil'fg lrl t J titan", pmt] .:JwIL iN ,,,,- fJ!IPfti"l' t.{Imlfl'Urr in.rJ:rlNtIO/IS. .iJwu.Im- dtdr 0/ ,Iv IM-itd ,lltfl1r'!
flU'" I _ , N ""..,rn''; fir,,,,,,,,,,,,,, IIJN 1~""Iw""yt~, 1/tj1J1f~1 .. . ... , ...... Il " Nfl'dry il!<rrlVli..., on p rM!Y"
fln'm k"t'1:",J..hn(, jftp:lj flit-' (Ir roNl(jJJ$t't'J btfOl7 ~"7a rli ffm'lll r/atf i N"tlv lJi/1&( hrlif~_J

Your '; .\11 horiry [0 sign [" i~ bill of b dill); is oomli riomil upon your complying willl ,,11 of the alxr.",
insu\Jcuon:s.

Yom. fai,hfu "r

89
RE,C OMMENDED STANDARD LETTER FOR DELIVERY OF CARGO'
WITHOUT PR,ODUCTI:ON OF BILL OF LADING

\I \_

, 'n,;

1lt.""'''1 11 .111:
\IM~'.

1ll4: ~hm ~ ,t;Hud"1] \u;n: .,hiPllCd on rhc t.lhrnl" \(''''~jd Il\ f\ 11:: "I'

f.mtJ lfllm i,gl1txi ro u:s) hU llhc n:lc\"anr bill"i (If liluiflfl.! IYJ\ol- nm \t:' l ~lni\t.:iJ .

'\e hl'rcuj R"qlJl'"S[ \00 ro dc!j'w.'C r .\uC'h Af}fl ld~ w


produc.iun or ,Ile hill. of "'d ill~
In L'1! HI:-' iLic-m linn of your CUIll plyi n,g \,. ilh <l"UI ul~(lVC rt.: l p le",' \\ I.: I I!:H:l~' .~grcil: ~ I'" tC ,IIf ....\. :"':

IlOld :11 1of \n,r hltlU11'l"\; hi Il ... ~K,~' 1 o( Imv li[[ l.il l. '
I , ' liJ IllIdC!01 li l fy \OU , yo ur ~'1;:rv~m:;;; :Ind ug(,:n l ~ J.llJ { I )
1(J:w.o; 41r \.:un~lgc: 01 wharsocver n:l.urc whirl. Yi)U nl:.l~ ~u'tml1 .)0\ IC"~ I ~( I I I cd <..! Ihctillg Ihl.,lotnfxl, (0
(U;) In "'<'(>fd.n' e w,th 00. [<qu."t,

~. In ,he l~ CIlI (~f ani' pTOClxd lnJ(~ bt:inl' commenced "J;.'


imB mll fir In\ III \ itu. , rvaJlr.< IIIlg<:m, m
t.'t lrmcr [ ion \, i[h me dcli"'cl1"~ of me good .;1.,\ iJfc ln:\:J.ldl 1(' p )' IJe '~JU 4'T them frl JIl'I Illllc (tl rlll lc .., ~I h
,ulliLicnr r\llld, ,,, J eft:od the '<:lme,
t r rill.: \ ~I 1.11 ~1 1I1~ nrtll.;:r '\ sse.1 or Inui)lt:t~ lx~m~JUg '0 \nu ~JII:MJld he "IrTC~If..d or d':l:tirn...'t! ~.r If (oc
..rrn.."") I UT ut:lcnuulI [hcr~.'or shuuJd be lhl"C".ncncd. m pnJ... 'uc :nflh ha,1 uf other ~'UfH'\ 1.1 ... In.1'\ be..:
"''IIllled 10 p""".'
rod. a=s. '" dc.eD",," Ilf"~ " ..<. '" elk: n:k:.l......,1 "",11 '" '1 flf I'~II :f" Jnd (0
indc mfi. \VU In re pcct or :.my ~. . d:lJl~DC or c'p:-n~ Clu\Cd 11\ "".k.h Jfn':'1 t r "lct4..-,'linn \\ hCIhc:r
or ...or .he ""me ....... be jLl<liflCd.
4. \., "H.n", ,11 0"1:1 ....1Mls nf bdn f.... ,he x.", .uh .... 11 h.n..: Jnl"':..J ,tWo, WIll,.. ,nrD DU'
1""" :SSIOll to produ.:c and ddm::, Ix: 5:lIDC ID \'QU " ""up"n ou. le.I.. I,,"! ....n:undc' dull cel<C.
i. 11I<,Ii-..bili" Cl<:lJ and "'l!f\ J'CIIDII under Ihi indel1lml'l ,lull be ,.m an.! ...." rJI.o< ,.lull flCd
be u.ooinon311I1pon )..... proceeding firs .Jg:lI",.,m PC""". " "."he,
'"~ nUl "K~ pc....... o" I"~'I"! 10
<lr li:Jhk: und~r dlJ~ .ndemnil\
h, 111" IlIclemnir, h~lIl", ,,"'.'ew
iT1 X'O,,!lJ!1<"<! ,,,,1>
Et 'I"h ll" '''tU ,o;h ,,,,(1 1",.,,,"li.h1c ""'1'1
UlUle, ,h .. ",demni!) ,h.lII", ,our rcqUC," 'ubmll '01 Ihe JUrisJK'lOfI" the 111/(11 ( ~lUrr, f JUUll'C 0
I .n~land , 11;+", duus.- nlOJ (KIlT1,mdnllo "'''=1/",,'''"
)I"7Ji<lirt~J" 'hn'"N>"",,;a/r I
\"UI'!l f.;,hfult.
Ii'~r Hod f 11 bellul f ur

90
RECOMMENDED ST ANDAR D LETTER FOR CHANGE OF
DEST INATI ON

M .V.:

1~~lr Si r,s

'1'11< . 1" IVC n:!lflc,1 ''';1' lIodc:r Chuncr d>llcd

1111~ I''''tbl (I ~" ""'. flf

for Lld ;",,!,) m

ll l1 ~1 fl il l0; ~~r I ';'l lin~ hl: l ~ e J)L.::c n ~s.."uL..:d U';;:l.'1 trdi l1~I~.

In r.(11l~,qHcnoec: I) ~~ t:hur l~1:' i ll om :1rr.Ul~ "n~~ lu.-; H i,; n:'I~ IO I Il~~ 1 ~Oll ~I,,:I1J I)fdc.r~ H"1

[he 1\I"81cr oi"hc SlIip '"

untfi there: dd i ~ t:r (he s;Jic.J c:argtJ III or IU hi .. ~~r fht;~r m Ll t!r . f.~leH I or
pnx'ccu in,g HJ and ddi vt:rin ~ rh{; .swTte <it the pon' r.~. mctJ in the: ni~b bf L.Itl i l l~.

In t'll l l-li d "r.H if11 \ ~, r ~' IJL J Cl 'll'j11ying ~\ i rh l)lIr rc quC':.[ :1.'\ ~I I){N~ ,... C lu..:.rdJ)' ~lJJr;Jm(;c .l.I1'i.I lJndr:.:rr:-Jk [(I
11I1Id Y,jU ,lIId/, ,, rl,,' \ !"'Ler w,tII"r 1\):~ l lIlIf Ih.-,h i,>r",,, fro"I,,\[1(ul r) , IO ( C\.(~" ,,,1<1'"denll,jne<.l
:JWlinsl .1nl' <l nd aI, d iJIITL'i 'or los.. . t.:rl"i LIo,. c:h~m;j~"1,;!I. ~U1 d/l>r L:-xp<.:n.~"l Itr wh:lIC\ er
t,1c.:'l niprinl. r t l.H Jrl"iC in
li)l l~qlJLI IC~ .~r ,ud~ L.:h..lI]gL .~F dC::~lin~l( ion i.lnd \\ hieh rT1i.I~. be made i l lld/flr CI1t'nrccd agiJi n". 'yuu .l m.v( ~r
I h~ :o,:ljtl 1'd lb~(! ( rlr "' geM I ~ rh( {)wnc./";) nf dl t: c:l rgtl Ilr b ' un) pc.:f1\/m~ in[(: rc5fct.l t~r c.Iaim i ng m be
inl"It'lcrJ in .h~ C"~IJ,

Wc "I>ifl gmr.(mcc "llIrJ undcrm kc to dcli\-t r IIp to )~'U_ duly di.d,,)r,ged, ~II nl' the L\j lls to l.mJ.illg f; If this
c:l['~n si~llcd h~ dlC ~Jrr":l~n or ~' 'us and/or yollr :HJcIlHriry,

l~lll.s HlJ.cnlllll~
. . h:.J 11 he (:on slrucd 111 :\ccor&mce \dd1 I::nglish Inw a -t:"dch ,:..mJ {:\.'e'I)' ftC~n luhlc
umkr lhi;s illdcmni ":t ~h~l~1 olt }'our r~llu(,"..'i.t :subn~it tu thL; j\Jri ~;t:t14~ii tl' lhlo: I-ligh (:'~ufl (lfJlls rL ee of
Eng"l!md~ ( 1'/li'idulllr rtlH'ltl( flfJIf?klrrl ro .dJ~({!I"'/{'f"- JlfriJIiirrwfI r....g.,.,"t'"(fPPH$'I",,'lt.1

Jl;UI kcr!l

91
HAGUE RULES
InlmUlli()'il.ol Conventiun/ur the nift alion of C 11aitl Rules of Law
relatill to Bills oflilditlg. signed at 817U.! els OIl ltgliSI 25. 1924

/\rcM:1e J.
In Ihi' l..""..:nt;"" <M fol1m\;og WOOll "'" empl~ed, ,'h 1110: n . ",Q' "" <JUI lick",
(0) 'C:micr~ includes [he ownCf or me ch:mCICI" ..t.o .. me~ '"'" ~ C<Hllr. , .... ~ wilh 1 >hipper.
(b) -'''''IIr. (Clr coni.g<:" applies O<Ily to ron"""'~ of earn>'C c ""n:d
I . h,lI .... bdingOf" ~11) ,imilar
d mem uhide. in "" Iior .ud! dQCI' mc:1I re[;!tcHU the .~ t I:< 'I~' 4."nl:ludinl:."~
hill (,fbd iBll ()("~. similar doUJmc:nt as ..rorC>:lid ucd umlct (H 1)U"UAIlI en" ehAner parr, from
lh mm....,", 3 1 whid! uob bill fladi'>gOl ,imil.rt.l.,<\lll. ' fll (,f l ,Ik! fef!UIU1c:l,lic n:IJlimh
be[ween ""mer ... d holder" the some:.
( , 'Ck,,,,h " includes good,. "''''';, rtlerci1und i>c . nd J.rlidc:s .,fCH::ry ,",d
"I ,J ..... "C' ''''CI' l li,'c
~Ili m,.h nd C<lrgtJ " h,d, br die ronm,c, f carriage is to ,ed lIS bei llA Ulni~lllm d~"k 'lIld " sa
Clirric.d.
(0.1) 'hip mea n~ run)' ""sscl used fOf che calf;'.." (I ",M S b " a ,
(e) U"ri~/1F of wW,' CQ"Cf> ". ~ pe';'.Id rrulT) I he tillle ,, 1'Iel1 the /-._>Od , :Ire I""d d (If, H) 'he I i m ~
Ill cy .,'C
diM!h"l)1.c(1from Ihe.h ip,
J\J1.iel.c 2,
SUhjecT ( f) [he: n (flvi~iol1.S uf Artid ll: 6, LlmJc:r C\''c:'I)" rn n l r.J('[ of C'Urri ..~c rJf f. !" ,od "" hy SCJ I tu; t:.uric r. in
rut" riUII I" 11.0, loadi ng, 'h"nd ling, srowJgC. ca"i o~~ , "m ~Il,Jy, C~f" oml ()i'churgt nr'lldl gnOO'. ,h"1I ho;
suhjcc[ [0 ,he fCspo nsibilici sand l i~lJil i l i es , :llId " mide d tu the "gillS m,d i m m~IIi [ ic, !lcrcill. r[cr sel
limll.
A rt,icle 3.
I. The , "mer >hall be txxmd before md ~, rh" bcgin ningor Il,,, ,.,~..~ [() C r(:i 'due dl ligcrn:c ID-
hd ~ 1 ~k<: the "hip , ..,..,,"I>filiy,
(b) Pi-opc rty IRHI , cquipWKI . uppl the.hip.
(I M liu he halll>, n:,frigc<:llin" and cool chambt. ~nd II)Chef par .. 01" ,'''' hi 1n "h id! ~
.1<0 C"~rricrl,1l1 and ",re for meir r<:q)['''" , <lfn. .nd pn: 1\~ [Hon.
2, '*"[ ro Lhe ~ of Mid" 'I, .hc arner ~II properly.md arerull) Iwd. h.,ndlc. UM.
I.;:ep, re for, rmd ~ ,Ite goods
1. ler .ea:i",m~ <he good> inro his dwgc <he cama or <he maslcr or l~IIC of Ihe wmcr ,h.lI, ....
dcl1Cll\d of die sbippc~ issue I.D clk! Shil'f'Cr ~ I~II of Win" IlU\I nl! Jmon" mh<:r 11111
(.) "The leading rn:uI<:ll ne<JeSSa1V for IdenliflOJl'{Jfl 0 the !OO<ls' d", ' me are urni bed in
"riling by the shIpper before lhe Io;"lirn; of uc:h j;OOd. uru. pn)\ ,Ilod ,uch nl:lrk:..re
st:unJ"'d or OIhelwise shQv.'I1 d c-ally upolllhe good Ir ul.....'O\'t'rc:d. Of' 011 1h~ C"..IS(; or rol'crin~
in " hich such good. AA! oonU.Iil'lc:d, 'D ~uch rna.",c. '"' , hould ordin.ri f\ rcm3,n Ic)!ihlc unlll
thcenu pfrh< ' 'II)''llc.
or
(b ) Ei rher the number pacbg,cs o. pict1CS. or rhe quam i,>', (J!" ij:,lll Ihe '" rn:l bc,:I.'
furnishod in wriling b)' l he .<h;ppe.r.
(c) ' l h c ' Pl"'rcmordcr md rnn <;liLi nQr lh~~J(jIj~ ,
Provided "Wno C'dmcr, ma."~r or . gem of r h~ rri e r , hall be bound lO'wc or si" "., in ,he bill " f
HAGU E RULES

lading :Joy mmks, numbe r. qwnril)', or \\'t:IW1[ w~i(;h he rrJ$ rr;,I~mtb1c ~ruurn.J for :'lll:spcc.;('ing nOt
accuf".ucty 10 represenT rh c.g~s 3ctu:lH1 receiv'Cd, or which he has h:td 1110 rcason~lblc me.ms or
ch<x:king.
4, Such a bil l (lr IlHjlllJ:: "haJl be 1".I''''1(7.fr'''''' cl;dcncc ur ',he r,lL"Ci pr by rile ",,",e, "r rhe ~.>d, ~,
the rein described in .ccord"Jloc wid. p"rJlw~ph J (:I), (ill " nd (d.
5, The , hipper slnll be dcemed to h.v<o guaramcc-d to rh" carrier tilt "t,"um~)' at t he time "f
Shipment (JfLh" mnrlo., nllrn.I..". qugnr:i<)' :rnd weigh[, a., furnis hed by him . and the shippet sha ll
indcml1jfy d'l-Co carnc-[ a~ i r1Rl al l lo~, . (j~1 r'n8itt;~ ill 11.1 (!; JX-.-n~'\ an ing or rc.. . LJI[ing, from inaccuracies
in ...c h pan:iruiar>. 1'ht: ri,glu of lht ""mer !O ,""'h 'ndcllmit), ,hull ill no 11'.,. 'imil "i ~
respfm.."ihiliry at'ld liabi liry under the conrf'dCt or carrlillgc [0 ::tHy parson Other (h:iln [tic hj~per_
(,. Un less no(i"" f 10,<:; ()f d:lmuge :md the generul "otme 11f such I '" or damage be given i" writi ng
m 'he ",micr or hi<ogcm ., I.h pfln of di.drJ,ge l:J<:f",,, or :It d,t: 1 irnc pft li~ """,'Y" I uf rh" gllOds
inm me msrod')' of 'thc pc...,n cnrilkd to cldi,'Cf)' th"r<Xlf UMe r the ",nmlc', u m rn.t:", or. ,f the
I , dnm:,ge he nolI. "ppar"nr, ";,10;,, three d"l". " ,ch l'emoYlll .,h,,1I 1 prima/oN evidence of[oc
deli,,,,,!' I,., rh~ muie, of the; ~s '" dcscrih<;d in rh ' hill of I.di,,!;-
The notice in writing llced not Ix: gil'CII if 11.. ''01 .... of the ,>Od. h~s t th . time of rh"ir reeeipt,
hcCr1 rhe suhjea 0 jOJlu Siu rvC)' elf inspccllon.
In anveven t the ""rrier and dl~ .hLp shall be dL""hll1gcd from "U liltbi lity in respec' uf I,,,s or
d:nnU$;e ~ J n l t:ss :suir i:ti hrou'rhr \~pi Lllirl c)Jle ~11 r" afle r deH'l/cl'}' Hr d:J grl(rlli Ol!' rhe dIJ{c u,"hen me
goods should Iiliy" been ddi""",d.
In ,he case pf 011)' acruaI or apprehended loss or damage: rhe carrie r .M 'he receive, .h,,1I give al l
rea.~)nulJlc f:'l~ilii[io to ~h o the r for .1I~~. i~~ll nd llc1 llyl r... ~ (mt.: gQ.lC)l,l"i.

7. !\f,., 'h" g""ds "nl Imded ,he hill of t.oirtg I.tI be is.ucd hi' the e"mer, m""o[. or "gem of [he
carrier, to rhe ,hippershlll . if rh" sh ip!",r >() demands. k a "shipped " bil l of lading. provided ,h~ t
if [he- ~hippc, sl1:ln have previous !. , take n up any document of ti rle ro such goods. he .h'" '
sllrrcnd"r the s::tm.c.s ap;J in.>, the issue of the "shi p.ped" bil l t)f1a{)lng. hu ' a, the op. ;oo or .l
carrier such cloeumcnt of ritk may be no[~" 'llhc parr 01' , hipmem by th" GaITicr. ma"[c~ or age",
"1tl1 lh~ Il<lru.~" 1 '~rnc<; "r Ih~ 5hi(l "r ~hips Llpt')n wl.kh rhe gnod~ hJ~e reeo ~hi pped ,nd ,he
da ce or dares ofship'm cm, a~d when so nOtOOl. i it. ~lw\"'"8 the pxnicub:rs nlcnlioned in paragr..'ph J
"f .... fcidc .\ .h~ II for [n' purpose of ,hi, "mide be deemed LO comri""e" "shipped" bili of t.ding,
R. Any cl9iu~cl covcm~ lul or ~e.mcn [ in ::I. oonl[l'".J'Ct of C"..uril1gc re ILCvi Ilg [he: carrier or dlC ship from
liability for loss ~r dmna&e lO, "r in t'Utmcxion ""rh. ,i.'OOds .rising from ne~;gence. r~u l ., 0' fai lu",
in [he duties <lnd t)hligJ[lons: prQvided in dlis article or Jessening .such liabiLi)' o[hcrwisc than :IS
,'f
provided ", Iht~ COl'lvcntol1 . sball be n,; 11 3nd I~ld "lid 110 effe.::t_ A benefit of IJIsuranre in f"vl)",
of the curle r or similar clause shall be deemed '0 be a l ' l lIU:Se' rel!e~n~ t~~ t,.arrier fro rn Ii;)bili~.
Article ~.
I. Nci[her [he C'olIT1er nor [he ,hi p slr.rJ I be liable fur 1= or d.m"gc .rising ur "... ul tmg from
UII~.twonh " mCSil LlOle~ u~ed by ~\ttm or dlle ditmg,cocc ()n dlC run o f [he. C'J rrtef [0 make me :rii!1 ip
.worthy. JTld <tO~~cune m.t t he ship is properly manned. e'l" ipped and 'upplied, a" d III m'l'-e
the hulds. ",frigenui ng ,nd cool ch~mher:< ...d all orhcrpm.., of ,he ship in whieh good. arc: carried
fi t and Silk fur Lheir ,receprion, rani3llc 1I11d prCSl: t\",atinll in 'll:cnTd~ru."e willl Ihe provi si on~ ,,r
pomgraph .1 of Arlid. 3. Whenever loss or damage, I"". resu ln,d fmm ume'tll'orrhinlOS. ,j burden
ur
of Jl rovin~ the c:xer isc due d iligeHcc ,h, 1I be (If! the Clonic, o. m her person claIming c.~orrpr:ion
undcr tbJs arricle.
l. Nei,her me c:Jrrie. no. rbe ship sholl be responsible {orlt"" ()r<hm:J~ atisin"Or rc.ulring from-

(H) [. neglect. Or def"ult of [he ""lSt"~ ""'rim:r. pilot. or the ""''''"lItS Df he ",er ill 1he
1~3\~g-JiQ()n (Jf in rile man:lgemeJl[ of dlC ~ ip.
(to) Fire, ufl lcs~ c:aul'Cd hy ,he .CIU," faul l' or priVity of ,he camcc

93
HAC;U E RIJLI;S

~ cl I' \!ri l:s. d~1 ngc..' ~ ~Llltl :K:dtl~nls ur tI~c setl ~'r [)( \ I r r1u\Cl,!.!;.d.flc \ \ 'HI Cf!\..

(cl) ;1<:1 of Ciocl.


(et Act ur \'\~r.
11) I\';' "r r " bl;\' ~Ilcm i"".
(, ' rroil or r't::o.Irt.im orl'{i1lCt;.:'l , n. dc:rs: ()f f1C:fJPIL.:, (II' .~ il.un:: 1111c.1L:r It:gul p r~)t't:~"i,s_
(hl QU~I Inll ti ne r'{;tl t ri",tl(t"~,

(i) \L" o r o m;, ion uf Ibl' shi I'l'c r ur nw.>c, nf rhe ~I . .d', I,j, :11'' :111 fir '''1'1\:.''' 11 rali'~.
(j) Suik.c.:. Hr IIJckours Ft I' StopJYdge llr rc..'HrJ im of b bour (ru rn wh:iJiU.,"\'C r (:au')C. wl,clhcr P'tn ill! or
gl'II""tI.
(k) I{ i o l~ ~In d cl\,jl t"Omm( ' Li LmS,
( I ) .l)fJ.\ril~g
. m :]'w...:m pt-ing to :N,WC lill:. or pf1}r~cny a( SCil.

(m ) \ \o"",agc in bulk or wc i ~ hr (l r :.11 IJl h L' [ I '~or dan1a.g< "JIi.i ng i'rom inhcr<:nt .kkc l. qu:t.li rv ur
vit:c td~ tlu; gooJ.~w

(nl In,uffici nC)' or p'Jckrng.


(0) I n!>. urlic..:il:m~' I.r LI1!1dcquolt:y (,rnl:Jrk.""
' (p~ I .:m..:m ,It:fl;":crs nO( d i_"'CtJ\~r.lh!(: h~< due diligence.
{ q) I\ n}' rdhcr'l:allSC IA ri.,i l'~ ,,\ , jt~~, Ir tl l\,: m. W; II I; I~l lt [.II' Wi ~li l,' nf the.! (!Urr1L;r.,)r \\l [h(Ju ( 1.1le' f~u l r o r
IIl!glcq flf rhe ~I~n(s IIf ~r\';lnJ.O;: "f the CJirricr. hu( [h e.: hurdcn of p roof !Oib. Ll I be on tit[: pc ~on
cuiming the b:rn.::fi r of tlli1! c..:xccptiOl1 tu Sl10W that ncitli-ct rhc octuill l~ul[ ut prwiry uf fine c..r mcr'
I,(lr dlO:: r:1 ' I ~l fir Ilcd~ t elf I he :~I:.'t n(:~ t If ~ rv~mt:!l. I .r dk.: L'":.lmcr ~Inrrih u [cd tl j .he In_-:~ 4,r &LrTlll~re.

~1. ~ rhc ~hi]lpc:r stmll nm ~ rt:SIJrll1'iihlc If'lf 10,)'" or d.lrlluJ!.,t! 1.iUM :ll flcd hy dlc.: l::lrrlc.:r or rht: ~hi ll u ri ~ i llg
m rc .~lIlr;ng ii'onl tll'~' <'~lI\<! \\'il llUII[ rh~ ;lct. fuult t r rl~l(I~c[ of [he ,h ipl'c r. hi, age nr~ Ilr his
' c rva n r~,

4. I\ n)' dt."\'i[J[ion in .s';,n1r~g or nt[cm pting. to .save life or pro,x.:rty ~l l :;S(.'~l ur iJlIV rtALSOllil b k: dc . .il.lti UlI
~h:!l 1 oOt he tlccmed co !Jot: 'In illfringc 'm'm 'Jr brr.;:,ch uflhis c<1O'cnu 111 " r I]I' Lhc OO'1Wl~ 1 r,r
L'llt'ri :1gt:. ~lnJ [lie c:m;cr ~Iull nm be ILlblc for an\' l o.~ or damJgc rr~uh: i llif: rhc-rcfrom.
S. 'ei fll,,' rlt" ,',Irl'iol Ollr 111 ' , hi l' , 11,,11 in 'lilY ~wm I]" or I1c<:nme Ii" hlc fr,r any I""" Ilrdomo!(c 0\' ur
in Clul nex;oll wi th gf)(xh, in un amoun [ m.:l"'Ct:d ifilg I(t() per p~K'Rag:G or Llni l, or rhe.:. cqIJ i..,...den r or
[hi'l[ "urn in t ~[ht,;r curre nt:) ~ I fl lc:."" tht.: 11i.ltllrC i.l nJ v;,l lIJC r ..ucll g4)1~I ~ II:w~ I,t::r::li '-.ICd8f'Cd by rhL;
,ilipper he ror" ,hi,IJl11< 11[ und i n. crced, in [he hill or bdi ng.
'nil, tled" mciul1 ifcrnl ..rliccl lll ,he bdl oi'bdi ngs l1811 hcfWillJ(I/'rml"":"ld cn~c, Ix" , hull nm be
hinding OT ooncilJsivc on [he C3rrk"r,
f\~ ,~~tlt::1,;'111 ~ [t)l,;:('I,- r.,..'i;n. h~ CHfl'it.:!r. mdsw r f)I' !:Ib.~[ qf rh~ c:J rricr :J. 11~ dlr: ,.;111 pp~ r Yn{Jf hc r
m:oo mum J.mou n ~ than dl:.JL mcm i .lled in [hi:;.. pi.lmgldPI;, nliJY be fi'l:c{l. pnJVicltd thdl itLld l
m 'L" mlinl sll:111IIur I)e 1,,511 Ih." the I'gmc "b )V\: ll'ilflCd,
J\ c:i [hl."r '(hl:. t~J rr icr nor till" shtp shall he ro.,.pu n:sib~c:: I n tiny CV(; 11r I!J f Il)~:s Uf l b lTl:.lJ:,f(.;. t(~, 4jf i l l
<(lIIIlCxi 11\ "',I h. gf.I(IS if Ihe n,1["''' [I f l'>I ILl<: rhereof h,,~ been know inglv m is.<r'lIcd by [he ship p'"
;1) [he bill or I"ding.
(). r:nocL." of 9 f1 Lnn:Jmlnahtl!:. CXpIOSl\'C I)f t.bnge:mus n::HU re [t1 [oc shipmcnn whe reof Ehc: C'.:I cricr.
mlS ter or agem of rh~ carrier ha. nOf coru;cnreu with knowledge 0 their " Sill re anti charJcwr. m~I\'
:I t :Jn~ t ml lle be l'ure disl:rr:lrgc I,L.! 1 ~l frdc.:.(i ne :mv rl.tC'C. f)r clc:~rro~'ed or rendered innOClll1 L1;1o; 111' [he
cHrri~r \\ ri d ),OIJ[ cmnpctL~tion ;and rhc .shipPL~ orsuch goods :s ha~ 1 be liable::. for i.111 diJma~cs i.Uld
""'pe n,"" dire<;I I:' ur .i"dilC<:tly "rjsing nilI Qi Or rcsu 11in); I"''''' su(h 5htplllel1l. If ,,~v ,~cb gl)()d~
.:;hippcd W1 (11 sut:h k n o\\'lcd~r:
and conscm shiJ11 become ... d::Jl1ibrcr (0 [he shi p m: cargo. tl:H.:y mil}' in
like manocr be I.nded .t Wly place, or de.rroyetl orremlored illlmcllous O;' lne, came .: "'lllln1Jf
liabmry 0 1) the p~l rr cl the <;:lrrkr c-xcep' to ~cncm l :lVCr:l gC, if :,my,

94
HAGU' RU ~S

' \ r1ide " .


1\ l"ilITIC r')11.111 he ut lihcrn" lO ~-urn:nrlcr ill ~\ Iml . nf" in ~ rr ul~ (If l~1J 4~r ~II !Jo nw ~'~ JlKi lmmuniu c or co
i nt:rL';J~ iJn~ Ilf hi' rC="p"m ",ill1Iit i\:"'J. ln u ohliJ+l lioth lJ rndcr rhi... c! ~l t\-c n [1H I1. I ml\ Id ,tJ 'ill!. ~I )L,lrrcndcr u r
01 "''''''' ,lul l h" cmhvdic"t! in Ih" biIl llf bdin!! i",,,,,d 10 If ',hil'llll:" I'h<: 1'1'''' i,illl1' I)f Ihi, ~n"'mi"n
,lull 11.. [ I" " I J'li... lhk: In "h,,,lc"I I l1:io,- Ill)[ if hill> .. t w.J1I 1): In: i~,u<:d 11. f h" ~J '"._ '~ '1' under.
L1wrcr I"Im rhe ,h:J1I t'Olllpl. \\i,h the H:rm, " Ill, l"m.:ntIIlR. N<IIllInlt in I,",. 'rn l " \1 III !le held
(11 (lfeu:n. [he .n~ruun mol: hill orb..li~f}f:ln\ U\\fu) pnJ\I~Kl n: t r(hn~,.,~nl.:r,11 J\Cfi.ij.,IC.

"ni ' ld).


' I." IIh'I..OOi"l1. rht: p<D\i<""" of <he pfl.",,-.. ho ' id.:, ~ '111\;;1, 11 ler Hq' '''"~. d l':IIri"r und J
. . h1fllf'Cr ..Jull in r '~nll() .01) partilubr ~1Ut.I') lx: ... r lil:x:n~ 10 Liltl., Irlte, n\ ~nH;m ICI ..lnl (CIT1\:S:i.15
IIJ the n"lillllrNhil;I\ JDJ..Ililhili" "rrh ""mer 1111" ""fl ~IUlb, .,1Il ..,
In the nj!/'1h JrnJ IInnI\IOI1 ....." "f
rh, .: .. mCr In rc....pt.:t;1 flf . . UtCh gDOd.~\. ()f hi~ (jbli~{nn '" liel \4..;.. ,m-..uhm.:, ~ \oil .ll:fi"" ,hi, \111,ubnon i fIG{
""'t~JI\' (.) publi< por ,urdko < ",,,,, uf diliJ!.<:ll<.l: "fhl> """,lIIU of .u:~nh In f.'):,JnJ ' "lh~ h"li oJ:,
h:Jndlll1J;:.. tu"\ J~, carri.1~ rus.tocn; t":lfC:lOd t.l i ~hd"",..1\.!' {If Ihe ~"')IIIII.I'\ (.:.tmcu I~ 1roC-J. pn",il.lcd .11"Jf in ch is
t';hC " " bill or Llilill~ tl.!s hL'cl1 H' , h".I1 be i"u~..J . rl<llh .. , the lcrm. JW"<-d ,lull he ~ ml. >d cctl iT! ,

r.-ccip' " hi< h "h.1I be ~ flOIl-flt-i\'l,oble d""""K""1 dnll , hal l I " " ker.! 'u~'h,
\n~ dl(Tt:Clru:m '"~ cmcr.:d in,,, ,11 ,,11 ~ .'" f,,"I"/'.'1I dTttl.
Prrnrid('d Ch..il .'hi" :1nu.:lc :-..h.tll n~~1 :)111 Iv td'llro ll WI"\ t,"nnu.:l\j,d ~ hipmcnrN m,Jd ill r h~ . 'f"lli n:u) ' l:"OUn;c;.
f~t' I nlJC, Ilm l)nlv (0 mhcr ~~h ip m('nrs \\ he re .ht' dMroqCf 4,r l..-~m( li lll,rl rll (he prnJX'rt) In he' I;.uricdi t tf
rhe- cir("m1hLIf\("c':'. (c rm~ .. nu C:'OIilii tions uru:k:r which rhe rri~~c is: ru Ill." pc.:rfOflllCU li f e ,,~C'h ~
rc~ I'\tm::ll)l \ In jlls.~i fv;,) !.pt.....d al dgf\!ot,: nl!.-"l11.

,1 ,de 7.
~o rll i ng here in t 'IJnftli l ie d s.1'al l pn.::vcnC a tIJrril: T OT U 'lhiW)I)I.:'r fll'tJrl'l crllc ll f\J.:. 1I ~141 I.JI>, ilp,rccm -' li t .
:..ripul:i lioo. conuirion , rc~crv~Hln n l)r t:'X!I; mpd i.~n "~tC I du;: n,,':spI"JlIsiIJil il" \.IIIU li dhi l~ . Ilrrh l.': curricr or ,I he
,, 11Il'l 't lf IIIL: I,o's'"' I)r tliJl1l:JgC w. or i n connc~ l on \\ i(h, I he CU ""lC 1C.f ~ lUId C'J rt,;' :.IIH.J hundlinlf,!; or hFf)tx l.s prior 10
Ihe I, .. din.!.: on, lInJ ," h",quen( "', Ile di"dllllJ..'" nom [be ship <>11 I" "~ h Ih~ 1:'111<1, ure ~ urri~d by .:'~,
Article ,
of thi:o. l ... ~m"c n rion shaJI nO[ aITt.:t.:t d lc n~h Uf" J uh h UOII:-. cIf lhl.! ;lrrit,,:r u nder dO!"
(n Imj\ 1'i:lOn :,
' rJrUfoC ro. ,he lime h.oi ng In rorce rclml '''( to the irmimtlon vi the 1',ll,lIm ul "IHI<':I> or 'CJ"~OI n~
,~~b.,

n ,c mOflCC~.U~. limm. mcntlOOt..-d In lhI.1t com""Cndom ~c (0 bt.- lukn ro h~.- L."uld \' lu'
,I"C 4".'nllll1 ring S U{L..... in \'\htch dlC poum.I ~h.:rllI~ I.... rk)( J fl"ltln.:l;.in uml ~nc lO IhcmiClvc. fhe:
,,:;.. 0'- " ..ml:uilll: ,...., 'UflI' iodi.... I.-d In Ihi, ~'"l\rlll.I<lIl in l~nn:.' f1<TUnd "rhnl: Ill! ,,,m,, lheir
HII\ n monctJr\ "Yl"II:m in round ii;!!llrD....

In.: rurllllUl ~J\'~ m.l\ rc-"'nc 10 the d.:hl<" Ill" n~l "f r.!l>Ch.n:rn): hI> r.Ic III 11.11 ... ,.11 wm:nt1
""-,-,,nlu 1\ III Ih<: .... 'e or CIDnn,l' p"".ilin~on ,he .... , or rill: <m"I, ,he ,hi!, al Ih<: pon or di""""l"J!C
, ,...., l-"ondJ. conc-eml:d
...\ 11i ,I Ill.
'"."''';OIlS or this cc"....lmillfl .hall.ppl~ ro.1I h it. ,,' 1a,IIIW," u.,rj III lUl' 0 lhe COI\I ,.,..:-tm~ , ( re.~,
r1idc 11.
,\iccr .ln ,me(l.ll I) On! ,oore llron tml "can; rum [he dJ" on 1\ hl<'h Ih" l~lI\\~ml.ln " >lgllCd lh"
13dlQ[l n c..owmmcm <h:lll plaoc ' u dr ,n co mmun , d"n " ,[I, , he (,g,'Cm n,cnt, n( Ihe hi~h ('(Jnrr.lC, i n~
!,:lfl i." 1\ ~l l ch Ila", " "d alL-ci [h~""" I",.
prepared m ''''i'' 1' the oom en ri" " , " 11 11 J 'le\\' (0 decid.;~ g
" he,h" r it , hull I.., pur inw force. Th~ ralilicali"n, .h.1I b<: dCll'l"l ted liL I ru b<."1 ~L ;I dUI 10 be " ""d
..... ,1,~r..'<:mClU ""lUng Ihe said t;m'cmnlCnt~. The lino, ,kp',." o{ n,ulil'JII' IIlS , h,, 1I be ",::cordcd in "
pmrt;, ['1inl 'igncd hI . h ~ "' 1 'I~Wlltml\"(;. u the l-i.Jwcrs whi<h toke I'l<ln ' !lIm';II .lnd 11)' rhe Bdgi"n
( ini ~((: r fur Fore ign AffaJrs.

95
HAGU!" RULES

'TI ~~ Ml hscqm~~n. dCpm.11 uf r:.1I1fiL"':!I~If)I1~ _,hIU he Ul ~ltlL h'." Jl1t:n n:-1 c~r:J ~\ r i l( ~H nO[i liC'J d~m . :.Jtldrc:S;.i;Cd [Q

lhc.: 1-k: 1~1:l1' ( ; O\1;rn llll~11I .mu dl'CO l ll f ~Hl I t::d h}' t~ c I lh nllTl n."'i[ Hr mt1i'4c.:uru".r1,
A J ul}' L-enificd (" It'" "r ri le /IIT..rH"rl"i/ rd . ting tu [h~ rn"t uc pol< i r " f r:t tilit " ti."". tlf' 11,,, ,,[1ti 1 ;""t;'"I'
n..:rl.:'rn.~tJ lU iu d l l,.~ prc"iHl I:O: p ;mJgt:lllll. ~~ml.d~( 1 urrhl:! in"i. mmr.!ur"l nffiuifil,..Lr i oE1l1tt' JO lft~lf1I~r l ng lhL.:.ffi,
. 11.,11 he imm<!di"' ' I'~, :<cm Il\ 'h" I\d ~i,", (:"vcmmL'fH [hr()ul:lI rht: d; I' !.I01,1[;(' h.n ne l I n ' he r\1w"",
who IrJI'c ';gn"d ,hi, C'''' en! i"n "r \I 11,. 1,aw ;lc~'Ct:k.! l" it. 111 1100 <',,<,,8 ~' "1 1 "mpl," "d i'l 'he ~)""1.:(H Jl~
PJr.J~lpll. lIu.: "'!J1J C ovcmr.'IL-m shall inftlnl l . llen . lIe Ih..: ~~lmc.: l ime .~f t be d~HC un which it rtt.'t:i\!..:;d
Ilhl' n I 1ljft{"J.ti~~n .

Artidc L .
1\\"l-",jl!,n;-J[l lty Sr tJ l D m;, I~! .jeccd~ [0 The prc::::C":nr lXHlv..:-nriuJ1J whether or not [be,., h~l v~ hc~.ll
reprl' ..t~JJt'CLl :lL rhe Imern:.ltinnaJ ( :lJnfc~ IIl.'{. l1t [tru!.<a..: I'L
_\ ~r:Hc whit:h desi res. In Llco_-dc jhil ll nolif' its i ril l c mio In 'wri6ng ro rh ' Hclginn C;o\,cnllnCnt ,
fl )r\\':lrL1 i rl~ HI i. t In.: d 41\'I~n~~nr (II' U'l.'C."C.'iS i4 1~1, ,~11 Lt'l, ;shall bl<.' dCf'(J~ i l cd j r1
rht:. archi~'CS o f thL.: sa~cI
( :( I\l.:rnlllcm.

n.l!: Ildl!~ ul1 { ; Il'i,-'cfiliftWt1r ~ h,1I 11 im tYH.x1 i:..l[cI~ fdr\\-..m:f 111 rhe
(Cl ... SI.~HCS which 1i:.I 'tIl' sig ned r lICt'CliL,: d ru
rhe CL>el'L'fl[iun " du I'" ee rtiti.d .~II '\' or rh" Ilprifi cnif)ll .nd 01' ,h., "~[ of lIcl"''iliiun, rn.-t1t'o"i n!, Il1e Jel tC
Or l whidl I1 1t:l."CI\lcd l!lC nmifi';.::llf im1.
Ar1 icl" I :;,
'111e. high t"Or"l l r.ltring pilrdc~ m;l~; -:.It t.he lime. uf sig.n:uun:. If:.I ( i"ti('~, tion or ~I~(.~" itu1 dc el~l rc LtUU Illcl r
i.u.."\:Cp~UII L"'C uf t'lll.: pr(..~t.:Hl L'(lf.. ~'cm im~ a,J ()cS: fUll In.c-IlJd ~ ,my or aU of rhc ~If.. t:!.n",em irtg d~~mlr'l inns , Of of
dlL! ,""nlorJ it..,':S. mcr,'\C;JS pO:'iS-C."Isicm."l. procccwr:Jll(.'..s. Hr rc rriwrlcs m~di..[ Lh8ir so\-c rcil:!m:v or ;jJ uthari ry. :.Il1d
d lCV nu" SUllsc(;juc n rl\' :1l1.J ..'dc :SCp~ lIdK IY Oll l )(;h~1 1 f ~ ~f a n~' 'id r. g.ovcntj 11;1:1, JOlni runn, cntllny, Cl\ ersc:Js
pW::-rL~"m,n. prHfL' ... [Ur,au: m Icrrimf\ I.."x,,:ludcd In Iheir dc=rI;Jr-.l[lon. ' 111CV 11lil.\' ~ll ~o dcnmmc"C [he
convcn ri Dn sc:par-J[cly HI ~rl,\:(1rd-:Jllt:c "1 [h its prm,;:siomll In rOi JoC:u tlf' :my );f;1 t'i !tm.:Tlling rJ nrm n;~m , PI
ill ry Cw;U!rlll Y, o V ' N I.,;OL'l' I~)""""'ir;,:."'loim l . I1fO h ,:t Inr,HC n( h..:rriTOot:> under rheir ~1vcmil""'o ry nr ;1IUrITu.lrif)~

Articl" H .
nK' prc~em c.:OIl\"t,.mJorl o,;11;tll (::1.k~ drcr r. rn l he: C::Ln: urd1l.:: S[;H-~S wlm:h h:.m.: CJ kc.:: 1l ~YJ.n tn d ie' fi~[
dc.: po:si, Hf Hr dlr;: PIU"I K..'ul (c::o:..:rlttilflli2, ~Ul.:h (k pt1!<dL A.~ rl,;:~~[";; rhe:
ruli ti'l.'u ~i Hl l;-;, 011"" Yr.:'.-r ~ln C'r rho!;: ,.,.Ill[ ~
~[J[C." . ~~ hic:h fJ[ it) suh.."\C"quc.n [Iy I l r which :lC'CL'ldC. and al:,.o in C"cl;<\C"S i n wh iell dlC: cunvcmlon 1,3
~ruhscqu~ntly put into I:: Acct in lLtl:OI\ li n cC" \,... i, h ,.\rt id e l3. i ~ sh:.d l t ~ikc I: n~(r 'ti. O'H1 I Uh~ af,.t.:.( Iht:
1101 i/ic:..u j0!1s ~ peci lit:d iu p:I ~lgwpll ~ hf Alfl iele ~ ! :IU..1 p:Jr:l~: l p1t 2 IJfArr iele 12 11~1 ~t: been n...'t'ci vcd h . . .
rhe &~J:!ii:Jn oLrc l\ocmmL nr.
A Mici" t:'i_
111 l h~ 'VII; I r I II' I Irk' f lf rh'!.: L.:Olll f:.ICI i n;lZ. ~[:I (C .. VI, i~.hj n~ rt~ dr.. : nrlunt:c. rhe prr...:.scm t:JJIl\-cn rion dll; I

dt.:nun{iHion .,.11;111 be no(mfia:i ill \~,;t i ng, (I") the Lk:]~~1n l i{)'o."t." nlmCllt , whi,r h ~hi.11I ; rn nh!:uiiJl t: l ~
t111nIfIl.mic:.m: ~l th J i~ ~"C'nitii,;d CI ,~"'~I ni'rlt 11olj fi~.'~H ir lu to Id l d Ie nrllt..: r' f-: 1.II:c!o..I I'!I fnrrn ing [henl (Jl"d'H':
d:lle C~I ~ wh.ch It" ' U ..~ rr...:L"t: i\r.:u.
ll.r.; dr.;rILJnci~lti ')r l 'i lltrl l on 1\! ~ I rc j (~ in rcfo "'('1 uf (Ile S~l( e 'Nhlc...il made rh-c nOl:i'~,-,;u io n . and on lht
expi r.' or OI~C \'elf a.-Ier Ihe no( ifiC'Jtlofl has rc~rt!h ed [he H.d~i:.t n ( ()vcml l'lc n c.
Artid e I (,.
1\ 111' Oil" of Ihe t"{JlHl':I~ lIl\J: SM~S ,11,, 11 huvc Ihe rig llL 10 ~,, 1I I,l''' ji'o"h .,,,,ferCll""" itl l 0 vi"w to
C1lns-fderiflg poss.tb~~ ;lmcndmL: n cs:,
\ Snll c whi ch \\(t~l ld c"~f"cisl!: rl1is l'i,r;hl ,.,hiluh..l ll(J ri f), ;IR inwn Lictll to rhe: ndu::r S l~ throug h [he
Bf.' lgilJn~m't: rn ml"n.[,,-hjth mmlcJ m:l~t: arT"d nt,'EnK'n(ft fllr cOIw-:ning (ht Confurc.m.'c.
I) cmC:l[ Brussc/;t;. in :.l sin.gle (OP'~ the ~Sdl Augu:.o[. 1 42~.

96
HAGU E 'VIS BY RU LES
I-laglle Rules as amended bJ' the B r-ussels Protocol of 23
Feh1-uu1,)11968 a11d b.v the tn'o/a ea/ ig11.ed at /Jrtmels 011 21
December 1979 *
r1 iclc .
10 tl..:" . Huk;, rll<: f,~"".j~ ""td ~J\! <om >I ......... "ul> <h" llll:an.nj..~ ""I '~H hc ...... '
fJJ -( rnCI- IRdUtlc lite!' ~!K\ OCr IN" thto lh... ncrcr \,hlll cnu...~ InUI ..I ''{Hilr: I of (: ~ ui.h .I oI,hlPllII..:l.
(h) "(~n tr,-tl l UfIlJ IIl.aJ,.'C" .J.;ppltcS'ml~ Ull."IINlIif.M.f ....fll-.mrr..tgt:CU\'cn:tJlJ\: Jhlllt,rladln~,)f;')fl'" "'1Il1d f
d"mm.:", of Iil k. in '" f:lt:l!S wdl dl",~m, n' rei""", IfI rht c-" rti.~ Ilf ,-'tOO, I", :1<:3. illdudin~ '""
hi ll url.lding l ll .II1 ' "illTl i l~t" dOCUn1cnl.l "l .~rUl't':"i~l it.l i~"'LJed und f or pUl'\l l,lrH [ IJ ~\ l:IHlftcr P;1rt}" from
the Inrlni"m ~I \~hl d1 >ud l hiIJof hili in)! Hr li In;I.,. .1'' ' '1)1<1'' <If litre r~~ubm" ' he reLllino,
h~ I \\ C I." 11 . 1 ~:prrh: r unu u I"lc.l[k.: r .If (he .... IIlIC.

(c) "l~.IIJllb~' indud~, ~~ ,~arcs" nu.;r..:h,lnd l'iC. anl..1 ilni.clc:"I Clr t::\"C1i'\ 1o.I11ll \, hJJ( OC"Tr GxtOCPI li\-"c
anim;," ~11 <", .. \l11I~h bv rn.: rnnlr. H( l~trriJ;:.'" I' ,,"cd
us being ..ri,<I .. " dell< ami ' ...
C'dm<:t1
Ill) "<;hir" "' ",.'" " ...><:1 u>t:t1 for IlK cdr.... ~' l:I...h'" \C:L

(c. -C:] l n :]~' ut "''1fllll1d~'" ('()\l:.fX die PCf"UN.J hHIIllhe umc Whl.'"fil Lhe j!('ucJ~ ,Ut,' In.uk d cm Ut lhc rime
rhe, "CC <.1""1.11)..'<:0.1 r."""
rhe sI"".
AMid" 2.
S llhjcc[ 11' lilt.' rm1\' I ", infl~ nf ~ \rridc fJ, IInc lcr c\ ~'1' l'On Ir.I{,( t1f c..~lrrh"tt-.rc or1f,(I(:.Js 1'tI., ..Ctl l~ IC "-~d rTit.~ i 11 rcbLl()ll
lO the 1000t..nirlJ,:, Il.lm ll i 11~ ~ro,\ ..t;...'C, l'.llrrltlL.,'C. tu wc.J\~ 4,:l,IrC lInt.l di:'lh.JrJ..,rt.~ ut ~lIch II II JoI"I"" ... h :.tll he.:. ""~id~Cl ~ 1((' till.!
rl:,;plull..,.!,illtl '~L I UU ItJhiljliL':"\ and ("'11 rilk d tt1 (I~ ",&:P IS JJW...J hrnmun i( ~ 1ll;f"CltLlj'ICf ~ t ron:h.
, o1ide 3.
I. Ik Cd,m:, ,lull he "'",00 bcfOR: dnd 01111", I j!liln,.I~ uht..... ""~ 10 M:rLl'" d, djli~ ,(U:

Id) \ I.'~L "le .1,,1' ""''''''''rn~


(hl 1'1'01 ' rl, mu". cq"'P :rnd SUI'I,I" I,c ,h,I':
(.) ~ I .lk ' ll.h"I" . ,cf,;ger:tl jog l,,,,J " .,l t hllml '", ... nd " II " lh f l ~l r""f '[h .hip i n\\luch ~ " I,
nn: t..l rric~, fi{ .IIllJ 'i~l rC i'{1r [heir rc;(' l"IHic ll l . t,l ITI tl ge : Ir~d prcscn Illi tlll ,

S" hlc..: r '\< ) d,... pm' ;.ions of \n ' I~ -I. 'Ihe C".mer ,h~1I pmperl) ~Il" c"re li",\ lood. manel',,- ,, 0\\ .
r::Jffi. 1.1:1' 111: I'n" ""ti
dJ.drMj:c .he JlllfllJ' "'It,ll.
_t. \fIE-or rec.:CI' In~ ,he ~ tmohio;;, dur.f.t1C Ihc ("'..mer (H" [OC nl.l.'\I.ct'1f .II.,.I'\;IU .,r
rhe C".uncr shall. 00
dc=nd ..r Ih" ""1'1"'" '''''''' III the hll'l'"'. b,1I "fI.tdillj\ ,h",..n. ....MII't: OIh", Ih",~
(a) -!lIe leadrn' marks r=""" fnt ;dcllllfr<:Jlion of rh<: good . 11..: 'Jlne are fumi>ht=d in
wmll1/1.l", I he ,h'rr.:r be 0'" rhe I wd in~ CIf ""dl ~C.. ,.), ,~.n .. pnll ,d<,.,J ".ch mark. re
1.1"'I' '1.1 o r omo", ise shown d c.lIl) llpron I he "oOOs if un wrcd, fII on ' he c = or oO\e ri'Ijl'
~n ' I 111(,1, ,, ~dl ~'x :.d o-: {Ire cOlll"Uincd. in , Itld, :1 Tn;J llIlCr as sh~.uld on,hl1;J1'"i Iv n;rnlljn k:giblc urllil
the clld nI' rhe VOl'''~" .

1)0..- ..11 JlifTIIux"".Ji h. ICJ~~ (the 5IJR Pmtoallt th: IIJ~ \ "i'..I"" H:uks \,cre ::Imc.ndtd VJ rhJ( II~ Jru1..uiOf1 uflirnibflPl"l
(lli:JLifIl'\" ".b t II 11) Ihc ~lCClJl dr..lultl rWu "defined tr. ,he lnranJl1PO..II loocc"'I\- r1l1rlid rathe, lhm ... rw:d
nuniJc-r Itr 1hI11~:..II'I. h..vlO.b l ..... m!ncd ... the fWlrJl ..... IIMlH I l'tUl, al -11x: \ .dulll III\jHIII:, "[ I I ~tion ~
....." "'" r ....."'''h "(,,,,, . DIII'rOloool",ak, t..,d,'" IN,. ...1 (Wo.. "I... ~ Iut" xceded [IL .... ,(,cd UIt
cn:ucd the II~ \ ', ., h;n" enxtro I'" ~l) l'r'~' <01 - ...""' .... ,~ \111 .

97
HAG UE VISB,. RU LES

(hi bll ., Ih~ 1I'"l,h.,r ,,( """"-';' " '" I~"""" 0" ,h.: 'I"JlllII'o.. hr \\Ci!!hl .,h Ill\. 1-": Illi/\' OC ..,
IlIml .. I,..:d 111 \Hiling It} dl( \-hipper,
(cl '"11 1 " lll 'P: Irern orut:r .I rl(~ ('111lC.1I I illll (]f I he p,ou,d..;.
Pr ~lt.I~d t l l.lr rlO ..., ltrict. I li.I'lh:.r Hr iJ;.!\,;fi[ I~f [h~ ci.lrm,'r ... 11.,111 I~ h~JI,md to ~t .. tt.: UI ,hr)'J,\ in .he bill ut
bd~n~ Jr., nl.lrk.~. numocr,. {~ll.ln ll [ \' 'lr \t,.CI~[ \\ 114(." 1 11' hJ"Io rC:I~n~lhlf,; ~~lUnJ lor "'I'I\pt..""'CI.IIl~ '.'It
Ulnlrcl\. 141 (cpn:~rH It..:" .. b. .Jt,;u,ulh. R:Ccf\l:d. IK" "hid) 11l." h-.fi had nf) n.: -"lluhk; rT1C"'..In\ ti
.t:ht..,lul'l!.-
01 ~l'" J h,lI "rbdln)\ ,lull I.., 1",11.1 IJLIC c uk'll" 111 tl.: 11.... "1" I" Ill<: <"'TK'-f IIf Ih" ~ .... , "-' th~n.:i"
dC\('nilLd m :rl~'nrdJn . 11; 111 l "'r"~I'.,, ~, 1,"/, (hi In.1 k). 11,,"cI>:' I",.,f I" .h~ _omr.H\ ' ,lull Ill,. I
;ulu'u:'I">lhJ" \\ hl..:n rh~ IHII nn~ttliuJ.: I I.~~ l)Cell rr,m:'[(:ITcd If): 1 Lhird Ixu rv uuin,l.t iUI.:,(1(1C.1 f:~l rh ,
5, r nn; '4uPIM.:1' ,h.illl k: ~k:cr1tl.,:LI to h,th': Jtu,lmntL"t."u [u tlu; (,,1Imt.T thL' ilL'CI.U:'K.') UI till..' rinlc of
rlalo. flt.uks~ IlumfM.r, 'Illlmfii~' JII\ I ~\a,!l"tn, :.1'\ rl~ml"ht."t.~ 11, him, JIilI (h.,.: . . hi'.1 'r .. ~U
~hi pIlkC'1I II~'
.oc.Jcmnif" ,tk; ,,:.,rrncr ~~ln"l ... 11 ~~" dllllJ"....."C-'\o ",od &.:\1 Il~":\ ~lrijing or rc~ulc illl-:. 'n)l'll! ill:lCCUr.x.1c
in 'lJtilll;jnl~ul.r.. ' Il,e ";.111 "r.he: ~ni.'f '" !l'h nl<k:m.,'1\ ,Iwllll nil "J\ hnllllll
R:'spon .hllll\ .all.lllJbil in umlu I he,: t,,:4HlIr.Jlr (If c. lI..1h"'" UI 'In~ pt:riwul\ CJl lu.': f lh.m Ihe \.hiptK:r.
h, l l nlc:!t~ 1 ~( 1t iL." 01' 10:"1:" or dl~m.lJ.,:c unJ Iht.:: f!L'ncrlI 111dl Ur ~I( >l11L.:' h lo:'lo~ ur d ..t.rl1J 'c 1'Iot.' ~\'Cf1 ill \\ rit i ~ lg
111 t11<'" arrie r"r hi, "gc1II ~t th' I"'" "rLl i",h3lJ(c bel"'rc. 1f n .ho time .. r,hc 'e n",,'.1 or llle g I,
in [j I tlK' L, II'U~I;' t lr rht: pCr'04111 (""Il{i l ied CIJ tldi~ I,.:~ I ~l cn.:f)f UI1c.JL; I' rhe ot:[Hl(tJtt t~r t..::lirnagc. or. it' .Iu:
J< ... , or ll.lIm,,' . I ' nUl "rf'JJ',n . ,nlulllhR."cd"l'. ,,',h r~mo\JI;;Iu1l h.: rml1,' t'... ,~ ~\'i<kl\Cc ,,\
,he lkll\~1\ III rhe CIrricl' <lr che <:' ILl,., 1.1<:",nl1.:d IQ ,h... I..1I <If I.Id,n::.
lnt:: I1nlu.."\. .n "nl'l1~ m..-ro noc I . I!I' en .f the ~L.lh,: 1'( tc J:I)lx.I'i has .Il lhl.' .11Ik,.' .lIf lheir rcocill
~n rh ..- ,uhjt.'"CI hrjU1f'H :\Ol'\\.""\ Uf _ll'J'l't.: [ i.tflL

S"ltjl'''~ UI ,I.III"JW,qlh Wm' rh L.' l':nricr Ilr~d I fie,.. :,hir ,,"h~dl ill .~I l) c-"'t: 1ll be d i "Chl.l~ ,cl rrom :dl li::lbi lll'
\I Il'J""~V~' in r"" pcct "r tll~ ji,'"",", IInl~" >u ir i, I m,"~llI "irhin Oil" )":11 UI' ,JI"" Jdil"c" flf .;1' . he
"",e: " llel1 the, , 1 ,,~.ld h:<lo hcclI J"' i,t:rcd, Il,i, pcriod. 1Ii ," hDWc\C . he c"",,,kd if [he p"fII~
SO ~1fL.'l.: . _fltf (hI.: l..... ust..'" I)f .u..f IHI1i It..., uri"i.L tl..
In till: I... .>1 .,1\, :"1\131,11' JI'I,II:II<: ....I."I \<"" ,('<iln! '" ,10.: lJ,""f lid [he re " . , ""'11 ~c .111
rc:J...... )fl.Jllk r...,lnIL"Sloc:)ch.wtlk:, o( ills:ptX[lnJ!.u~ I th(1l~lhct;olld\...
(l/1i.,.Afl ;JC'tj~tl' ,~r II1IJt:mnil~ Jg.till:-,I .f tt1irt.fi Jli.:Ntn I1HI ~ Ill.: hl"L~Ul!,hr "L!n f,er th ~ c~T'I ir"rjtt'l (If rhc ,",,~ Jf

p'f),"idcd r"l ,n tI ,e p",culi,,:,: p:rr:lIl/1'I'1t il' brouglll " ill"" 1 1~l' , irn~ ~II,,\\ ~tI IN rhe It", ofTh" r:""fI
5oC.1%CU ~~r {hL.': ~;J":;~. Ilo\\,c.;." r.:r. the I rill'" i.lkh~ L.:c.J 'li..Jl l lw: fthl Ic ~ .. ~ hiH1 th n.:L: mOnf /1)1,. ~:omm.cnci nA
fmm (he d,l' ..d ,cm lh.t: pcr...rJIlt h'JIIJ,;iuJ.: "I;l..Id1 :.lL"{iHrt for 1I1t.k:ml1.f~ ttl'" <''': " '\01,he cI..Iim ndm"- l"l\::C ll
:scr\"'~d ~"Hh pr IC"C"f', m .he .K:(iun J;,!;IlIh~ tllmsdf

], \t'rl."r Ill" \:1o.h.~ loodcd ,''''' IHIt " .. 1.JdI~ If} b.: b>l.k:d 11\ lhe r-.uricr. nI..I>."r, Uf.Ij!<:nr or the
C<"R:r. ru the ,hil~"" ,h.lI, i .11<: ,hll'''''' ". Llcmand, I . ~ ,h.t'I""' "dluf 1.KI,n~. p.m;dcd Ih," ,r
r'he ,llI pl'l" ,h,,11 h"'" p,el il)~l s" t,lkl'n ur ~11'! d. ",,,,,Iell' nf ride to 'llch ,(U(I(h. he ,h.1I ,un'cnJer
111(; " un o '" J)lol;"" [he 'lIe" 111e ',hil 'I"" !' bill on " I;II):, hut:lt the " I', irJl] ~'''rri"rs",;h "r,I,t'
u oclIm ' lit of l iLlc m:l~ he Ilrlll'1.I IH I lie.: rJion of .!ihiprnt: rn I~ li l t.: ~;Irri cr. rn~su,: r. (Jr u.L!c:m ,~jrh (he
fr.me or rum "of [h... hip or ,hi", "P"" 1\ III h Ih~ g' . 'lh h",e I.",,"" ,hip,"'" Jnu rhe dj,,, nr .lute
..r ,hi r"lClII .,B11 " hen ....iIlII.-cl. ,f" ,
hem, rhe p"rLiruiJ" mC'"Koocd In r:ll'.):r~l'h :1 ..L \mdc Ill.
sIuIl (0( ..... 1'1111'''...... ofrhi, .,,,,1(
he o...'Cmcd '" '"",11'010 J .Jlippe,r boil of t ..... ng.
\n~ ~bu '", \.'0 ' tl:mr. (J( ~:e.recntcm In J ("'OtUf'"..ICI e.r l 'artuS!C IC!IC\.111') lhe (: me: (Ir the' . . hlp (rtun
li:Jbjl~ ...~
fe u 11J'to'i orcbmagc 10, orUl "(.lIlIlCC[lOO \\llh, gou(h ~Iri . . in~ fmm 'lIC:pjigcnoc. Emir. or f;,i lurc
illlhe J " ,, ~~ ,rnd ,U,!'.',m,ns p",,,,,le I HI tl rr , 'mide "' 1 "",,i 'l~.uc h li.II,ili " ",lieI'd" ,h" 'l J,
pm' klL2t.i l~, .11(jS<:: Iwle:..,:! ~ h: 11I be nu ll llt1d \'rm1 ~lr.,d ormlcfft..'t!( , . \ benefrl tl in~'ln] I ~C'e in fl.l . . .fJur IJf
' he (~nicrur .im itJf clilU>C hJJ I he ,I~ 'I""d to I",,, dJU'. "","img the l':l"i~r InJlllliabilit\,
Article".
I. " O,hL1' ,Il< the ,h,!, ""011 he I..hle r..... " (.. d.,~ ~n 1Ilj! 0< ",,,,,IrU>!l. r....m
(Jm<.T ......
un~w"nhl~ , IInle" C'dus.....JI" \I .111\ " due dili,gc1K.., '~l 'he IWl of [he.- C;O'fI<:r Ill"""", me ,1\11'

98
HAGUE ' VISSY RUL ES

'.~;I,I\\or[h~ ~mu (0 ~"\:"Mrc tt'\;!, (l1\; ~hiRJ r>; ptI11lC.: rl.. m.l.ltnw,;A..I, C'qlJ q'lI )C~I .u li..1 "~P I .. li4.,.,\j, !mtJ In rn~Lkc the
hold., rcl;'~rJ.ifllJ;<i.d ",001 ch;J]1Joc" and . 11 m he r rart> torche .hi p '" "hid, I!',ld,"rc (w ried fi l .od
""re ur .hclf "'t'Cl'f.II1, ~",al-'" and p."",,,Jll"illfl ill-.."rWll<.'\: \ Ilh th~ I'~. ,,'011< ,,11'.trrlJ!l'ul'h I 0
\ rm k: ,1, \\'lK:rn....'Cf loss or di~"" has R."illl.ci.l [lOIn Url"'''I\\ r~dllllC>' ,he l>tIr,1 'n" pr'" "'A .h"
C:U:fl.'t:iC 41 (l ite dl1l;....~o\'C shal l be on dM.:' I.""dllncr.,r I~ht:r I':NlNI t.:krr"u'I,g,l"xcrnpiIiUn unlk;r tlus .lnidc..
! ' ciIOC' Ih" ,'aTTic. IIOf the strip sh.rJ1 t.., ~ ponsibk rOf~" <lr dJn~ Jrhin~ ut n:,ulring rmm:
1_) \l.. , "'-llk:Cl, or dcf:ru I of.he m:lSI<" mannc~ pilm . (lr ,he "'".In" ut ,he <"Jrrocr In , h"
n.n~l KHl Uf H1 (he nl -q.,....ll1C111 or
[~IC fup .

Ihl 1-;"" unk:'H;ru><.-.J III Ihe actuool , ull ..rl'fl'l' 1 th~ l Jll1<:t,
I ~ ) I'l:nl<, d~n~" :rnd xcidco t t/., ""J Of ",he. n:l\ lJ!;lhk: ".Ic"
Id I ....'1 "f( .od.
11:1 ., "I' ",:Jr,
,0 \<:1 "r I,.hl" cn.:",....","
C~I \rrL"'<' Ilf no>!,"," . of prin('C rukrs or p""l'k. 'If "'"1.IUII: undl:1 t.~ 1''' ':",
Ch) Qu;w..imin rc:~rricTjon
Ci) ' \cl III umi,-,illn "r Ih~ sh 'ppcr 0' ,m ner ,d , h~ g,h, ItI. Ji.;"'" '" "'I". '" t JIII "

01 St rikl.:'" t jJ 11,..:k.tllih " ~I'rll'jl~~ u. 1\::'1 1td.1l 1 uf hll.11.lltJ rnutl \,' 11.1I ~' 'r "iill"!li.!'. ,\h~ lh"-' r 1'~lrti:J l Hr
,.,,,neml,
(k) Itlo" and (:"1\ iI cumffi(Jorion~

(I) S:lVi l1l!, ur " L lCm pl i n~ 141 "''''~ li ~ Hr I'A'l1\:rC) " l "'".
1nl) "\~I \Ulgc il l blJ Ik uf WClgI l r ur Oim ut hl'r lo:s~ llf tb l ,\~C' :..I l'i ... fl l}.!, frl ln~ illhl\,:rcn L ...klcl! l . qUl lli t,,- or
I i, ' nf the w)nd ~.

(11) 1r1.uflioi" til.'" Ill" 11<I<'kin",


(u I I n.uflicicTll'}' or irude'I"'l'v "I' marks.
11>1 Ldlem ck feef> TlnI lii>C(llcrable ~ d,,~ Il " i~""l'e.
(q) .. \n~ mhcr CJ U~ Jriii;ing \0\ i rlll1L H rhl!,,: :JCutd f~ul t nr pm In h' rh.: {'Utll 'f. UI ""\ 11 h UIII. I hi.! ~~I UIt O(
ru:glcc. uf lhe Wm, "r:,,,r;~ .. ,-,,,f ,he C'1JITICr. hUl. ,hi: bul\k;h Itr pr, ..r,1l.l1I1 'Itn rhe J:'ICNil1
d"ilr,in~ rhe lx:n.:til aI',his c""'""PI IV .hlJ'\' IhJI n"tlho:r ,he tK:,~.~IIOlUh "r pm.ll\ ur ,h" I":!m"r
nor lne fJul1 o. ncgk.'C[ of ,ne:lf,"'''rs III sen;ID" ,~ rhe C'~"oc' ",", ,,U...,,,, I, '" ,hi: It", or (\:J,.nJ'c,
,I. ll1c ,hi"llCt ,lull 1'0<1' ~ f\:spolbiblc ji,,, k"" U" .1.11 ,,'<! ,u".JIlc<l I" t 11\' tamer nr rh.: ,hip Jruing
or '" ul[iog from"", caUS'-' "i.hou, me "t.<. fJulItIl ocj.tk"( t "r [hi: ,1>r1'I""L hi, UJ,:I:nr, "I Ill,
~n ..m"".
-I ,\ft, de,,,,rion ill ""inl!,Of an<mplinl!, 10 s'''''' lir~ or pmpcn\ ., or all' 1I:;L'01n.lbk: dL"Iodun
>lcllI tlllI Il<: d.:"rued , be::J]) lorri~"""nr or breoch of thc..... IWIc,." Clr Ihe l'llnrrJCI or CJm:J~
and .Ire camcr ""''' 00< be liable ror an~ ..... or ~ re ull"ll! Ih"r (rom.
(al l 'nb, doe Ilollun: and ,alo ' ,,( ""b /.."",,.J, Iq,,: I :en m'\.l.tn:tllll ,ho: .1,i"I>I;1 bd'ur.: ,1111'111<"111
OM inscncd in dhe bill tlf lading. IICit/ler the ,,"mcr nor t/le hll" ,hoJl III "fl~ C'\ cm re 0'
1><:<,,)/11<: IllIb'" rn,
Jm 1= (If UaJl\llh'C to u. in ''OlIlIIeet' 11 ,,"h 111 J:OOtl In JII In'IOOnt
e:<p;:cdil\~ (>llb.67 unk. f ccoum per I~ fir un;, Ilf l. UlU" IIr .....",um I ',koluWjmmc of
~'" ci~1 ofrbe good. I"", or d:.im:Igcd. ",hie""",,,r is the hi01et

Cb) "Ill m r:li . nllOUIII rC<:O\'crJblc , h.1I he c:,bll,ueJ ~, re or"nc~ '" rh" I .Iue of 'Udl "<>0,1- 'If ,he
iI'
pl"t.... Jnd rime ",hi,n the go>Ild' an: di,ch.If;cd fn on 11Ie il' 10 .K'c\)rdJnce \lllh rh"
.ClnI ~ I hI ,.houJd I"l\~ I>c"n "" di! d"'I'g~Il,

ll,e' llue 0 rill: ~~".Jds <bull Ix: CL\ d Hl.lCo"hllg L" Ill" ~''''lI l~ldl l>' ~" h;lnge pnt<:.I ". if ,hen: 10: ""
;\uch Ilritc. accordi ng 10 (he cu n-enr IH:J rl\cr price.:. o r, tr t l ~cr' he 110 C,'tlrt1I1wK.J iry c.:>..c IHlinl!4.! prltc tJI
l'Urll:m r11arkcL "rice. by reiCfcncc tu the n" " nul l"d lucol'j.;uOOs uf,ltc s~"I 1 i",,! ."d 'ILl JIi Il"

99
HAGUE VIS8Y RULES

Ct:) \,\lw rc ~l t,'( loul incr. p~ llc[ I If :;'Innm an Iclc- (,I' l r....nspun I \I~d tu ~nll..ul 14.l.~(c .h'4)4 K.I'ot, h<,: nllln l lC r of
J>''''k.J~c. ur I1ntb c[\u mctJlcd in [he hill ,,[ IJdJO!! '" 1~M;I."l ll1 , u<"ll "rlll'l.: "f ' ",HI;po" ' hJII r.:
,1~~IlkJ rh" numl r (lr I""'k:ij,,,-,, nr un", "r the I'u rp'''''' ul' [hi f';I lJ):rJph '" rJ'
ll' l l, . I'" ""
nr un i.", ;uc t'O no..::rncd.IE.,,\t::t.:pt
. it.., t:JftlfC\ itl Sl l 11 :..111'11(.1.: (I f rr~il1"!JI"'''t .. tull he l'tH~itle n. x.i [he
1"'''''.4''' r" m., I
(u t ~h~ Unll of ac.."L"Ulml mcntinncd iR [hi!. anit.k: i~ .ht: "',:I L: 'wl dm .... IIlg rl~hl ., ... \k:1i1K..-di lrll. [he
h"cTfwN)rull'l l.. ncr"" 1"nU. The .moonl> mcnllO".:d III 1>-1"" ;!Il11,h C"I Clr ,h" f",ral!r.II't. 'hJII
be t.'On\~nod lO(O rt.nional rum::1lC\ un d\C tu'lol' ul .he \~lh.M! .of Ih.1I l '\Iff\:IK.'\ 011 .i d.ue 10 he
dch:nYl1RCd I" Ih.: lau ,.f
rhe Court "".ZL-.I ..hhe .-""".
(c) ' ""h,,. lhe t.rrR:. nar d", shil' 'hill he emilk..! tt. lho.: h.:nclil ..r IhL hnlll.llolO,1 h..hilir\
1''''' idcd nr i.. rhi, 1....~"'llI, If .. ,~p.nc..! II~" ,hc d.un"J..'" '" uhc-.l Inom "" ... , III "nu ';'110 IIr
lire ,.IIT"" dm", "'rh
inrem 10 ClIbC d.J11liI,.."". ,,' IL,<-kIt: k nol ",,11 klM," k."tI;..'" Ih.rl d.r~ .hMlkl
pr,dl:lbl, r",uh,
III 11, ' ,kdr.'IMln IIIcnt'l[)ed on... I'""'I-'1".l'h (,) or oJus I'" '[;JI,h, ,f "ml~Kl :tI lll rhe ""l nf "'lhn)!,
.h:tll be prow/at". '" idcll<.1!, hllr <hall fl<tI I . ' hll1ulI1g 'u mudu 1\ 'un Ihe ~.uriCt
(~) 11\ "/:,.:cmcm '",,,, cell rhe o.:Jfncr. Ill"J,"" (Jr "!.,,, m tJ thc ,,".ufler ~ItJ Ihe , h Ippcr '>\ hcr olJximuno
. mou " r> rhun rhtbe memi""L'" in ,,,l>-l'a' agrdl h (J11I 'h" l'ar,'gr.llh III " I", n. c't!, ,,",,;d ell 11,",
liu n U xilf11n'l I .ltnullnf.;n fixc,;.u "hill be ~ than {Jile :J1)p rHpriJ u.! m X.IIOUII \ uM."miuni.:d ill Ihdl 'tllh -
p:tmgmph.
(hi 1\ ~I ' hc' I b~ r.icl ,." rl ,c sililJ s hJ II I~ ''''1:!C1I",hle in ,1\1\ ~\'j; nt fir 111>.1 '" ,lJrnugc li l, "r In
('{1nn cltmn with. ,HOI K1 S if (he tl J rurc (I t' 'l. Jlm: 1h L rce ~r h.t'" Ilc;:c.: tl kl llm I ngl~ 1.~.~"'llI H:J I,}' Ihe "hippe r
ill rh. I.i ll of ",(Ji ll~
I), (j'~ld , uf' un ini'"" mlllble, "xplu. ivI: or d,nll.erm" " " lUI C lu [Ill: .hll"n~ 1I 1 wh~rc', J' the ,~mlc r.
rn J~( c r or u.e;cn r rl rhc t.:~lr"l'ic' ha:s nur 1."U11 t: lIlcd ~,i~ I1 kllUw lcd gr.; of their U~l fU(\.:. Jilt.! Ch: l r.u';l ~rl fH ll ~
(I [ ~n ' Ill1'" before dis(.'lIa'gc be bndcJ '" :IIW pIu,'''' CIf dC"IIJ ~c. 1 III , '1IIlc ro..'l.l oumll'''IlIS hI Ihe
".:J rriocr Wl lhnl,l l (:Ct1llPClls:Jtiml ~1T1 t1 lhc Si1iP I"H.: f of such ~IJoJ!t \ hJ II b" li:l hl ~ r~r LlI I 4.I.~r l .~lgt.:,,,, ~u ,, 1
expe" se" diracrl" or indi rec,1;- ;>risln;,: oUt "f " r l\;,u llII')! [,,,"1 <\le " , h1pm ' nr. If Imy ' lld, !!;c.d,
Stl llllJt.~ \'\ '1'1: h .suc-b kno\Vlt.'dgc:ilnd cun ~ c:nl shalllx::C'olrrW: u d.m~c r 1(1 h~ .,11111 '1 1 t".lrAt I, Iht....,. m.Jv in
!ik rl l :mncr ~ l.Jndr:c.J ,It ~~n)' pi :t: , or d "ln f)"cd f)r femJc roo inll'ltl(.'uou'i bv .he: Ci.l rricr w l r h!flL.U
nn ! h*, p"IT or the ("..mic. "'Cepl!" b"nerJI ,,,er.!!.,,, r,IO},
~ i"hi I IlV
Article 4biJ.
I. ' 11Ie, fence> und li,.", r, of '""brit!; P"" ,ded fm in I ht.'>C H.b ,".ill "1'1'1\ in "n . ,,,,rum :Jp"l,! Ihe
'mer in ""pen of loss or Q;J"",,"" In go:..;I - cm~lc'" I.. " c, >1'1 M. I " (~rri:ij.'I:" hl:.hcr rhe ~ 1100 he
oul..clt:d in (Onnacl Of in tort.
2 I ,u h JD oclion i brou~hl oI~.lin5('" )C-nnn I :.Iccm uf Ih..: (al'ficr ( . . u4.h IoocnJnI ur j .:nr
helnl\ .11 independen! tOB(J;JCIIJrl. SUliJ
,.,,1 "'"":1nl
ur "!!.C[\! ,h.1I he emir l 'd III ~'Jil him
of rh" dden"", .nd limirs "f1i.hili" ... hld, ,h~ I ,U1'~' 1 cllllded I.. Im"kc under .OC>c
Rub.
1. Ine J~U: of (h" ,motIJU. rca,,,,,,.hl.: f" ..n ' he ..... 111\:1, NI ""ch ' I\J'''' ,lItd a~"'m'- stull m
r~I"""" "llhe hmi. I"'<nldl!d rur in these: Hu b ,
J. J c1.t:"rrthdcs ~ J of me c-.m1cr sh:dl nUl he C11IIItlcd TU J\ .ol h"11%-1 of .he pn)\ision\.
'SC[\m][ or JgCJl [
" {hi. amdc, if I' " 11",,,:0.11 1.,[ [he d::m1.lj\'C rcs~Ir:tl rum all .le! or ol11i"jon ' he ' 1\ 'lr." "r
"~cm dO n<: wirDim em '0 Cll""' d"m.~ ur f<.-ckJc '" 111)(1 "1111 krlO" k:d~'C ,ha, d JI11"~c ,1t",ld
I'," bahly re,u ir.
Arti I" :;,
CJrr}cr shl.l U he: [][ 1ibcm: m sUlTendcr In \\ hnle nr In ~~Lrl JU or !UlY IlJ h l il ri ~t,.s .mU IIllmun ~lie"S (Jf m
1IK:"r't.lsc lJlI ~l rh1:: fC'l,)() l"l..s-iblhta.:.'i' ilJ1d
obligacion:!li unde r these ~~ult.:,.. plH1rllk:d ~ tld, \ lm'cndc riUr
In~ rCU!i<: ~ h:lll be embndicd In rhl; bill or I,.din!!; bsu<:<J 111 ri, ' sllil)pc: r, "111' PM I HlfI' of rlrc<c H"I\.',
, h,,1I ' lOll lx: upplrc:'hk to lu"er p:trucs, bUl ir bi ll , of lu... in!("r ' is~,, ". 1 III III ' CII~C "f :l si,,!, ullder.

100
HlAGUi.vISBY RULES

dUlf[c r pum d,,,y ,h" " rumpl' "im [he 1"""'- "1' The:se I{ules. N",hin); III r ~"5c H"lo ,Ird ll be hdll It>
pf~\,I,;:'f1il rhl! in~n i~ln in :J hi!lllf 1:lding 1)( :I n)' hlWfll1 f'Jn wisinn rt;~,:.ud in;.:. J!Lnt:fO..I~ ;U. .CfJAt:,

Nllel" Ii.
Nmwil hsamding rile pro\'isi,4m~ cif rile pJc\.w illg tm l d~. :~ l"il rm::r. I1 t:1:stc r 01' (tgCl lr Hr .he l'i l rnc.:.r itllli.1 i.1
:-;hiprer sh:ll1ifl rcguni. ~ ~ny (tlrTl(.:ub r ,!.1ltc!d:s he ~I( lihcrry (It t":n n::r i rllw any :J,g:reL:nloL.:'l1l in. ;.In;, tcrm:.. ~
10 the rcsponsihili J} amJ fi ~l bJ l i l) of the c~lrrl r c~r such ~oocls. Jno ~L..'" III [he- rigbL"': :m tl ilT1 mu ll ili~:l. of
t I \~ (.1 Irrii:t ill 1~~">C:L;r 1;1' 'iuclt ,l,I<J(Kb, m his ~ll)lij.!:.II ~[Jn :U w S(':~li\\'ur[ 11inc"l,"l. !-i~ ~ ftlf j."l I hL~ !oItJJ1ulurion. ~ no [
l'lm[r~iT)' to pllblic polic\, .~r rJu.: can.: or J iligCfii....'C' of 11 i.:,. ~J'\dm:,. IIf :iJ:!,c m ~ i ['~ rcgurU [0 rhe Iw uill~,
hmullill,J:!;. :-:(c'\.\J.g(.~, L;;,Utn~lJ;c,. I.'o~,( ,d~, t;jlc;! ~Ind d l~. :h:ifhr.! CIf rl1t! ~,)tKb i,.':;lrri&!d hy ~ prtwidc:d I h :~r In I hi:--
l":lSC no hill of lmlin{;: has het..'n ,.r ~h:an he: i~ul.:d l1m.l lh.i.lllhL.: l l:'mlN ::J~:;!;rL'"L'A.I 'ih:illl h:.. cm hlJdi~d in ,I
rcC'c ipr ,\ hidl 'lhil111.x: n nttn-nq.;u.iahl dnClIIm:UI illl d :" IMII he l1\iJfJ::~u J'il ~Ut.:h .
An 'g=mcnt "",:r" cfcd io t" . IKl n l1~vc ru ll l"~J I ""fen.
Prmidt...":d lil;J [ [his l1uidc .'i:h~.1I1 nOLil.ppl ' [IJ o rdi llaf} t..:On1ITIl"rt.:t.1I . . . hipmc.nt"l mlu.k in rht." Il rtli lr]iilf) l'.JUr~t..:
Ilf I r;Klc. hl.Jr onll) tu nrllcr "hil'lI~\,,;'lI.lI wliC'u.: t h~ 1'i iillllclt..:r of cl"ll,dif1uf'I of 11ie pj'(,pcrt~' tu 1)1: c.li'ricJ n l
!he (.'jrr'ur1lSIj,nc~. [ CfIl1~ !.m d contli l i nnS"un~C"r \vh i.ch du: C':lrri;;]l-,tc j", W I~ perfnmH:U.Are such:.L~
r~a~m f"mbt" to j usLi~' II "!JC(iil~ ugrecmc.:: nl.
Article i.
K(,! hi n~ I,c.::n.: in r.,:fmmincd "ihull prI:'1;t:nr !.J l"'J.rr iL:f or!1 shipper fmm C[1 [ tril1~ iD [ ll any 19recmenl,
~l iplllat imi.. COIU.! lt ilm. rescl\.t' iun j ~r cxcl11l>ric.!101"1' the re~pul1~i bi Iif!-' i.m..l h~ll li li ty 1)1" ll!e 1... lrricr tJ r .he
-,"bip fo r' 'he I I~:-ts or dll rn.;I~1.! ro. I" it, t.:PI1r1e",:[EI)_l 'o,\-, rh, [Ilt,: LL."WCJ~ ~ruJ 4.. .'u r,-, :.md lu n tl~ j ng Hr Jl:,t )(Jd~ prihr
[U rh . . . . loauirtg on. :.md ;-m.tbctjocnr to the d isehaIRc rmm . he or,;hi., on ". .hicn rhe ~..ICJt..b; ilre e:Jrrietl lw

,"m.
Article K
T he pro,-isioll' uf rh~"", l~u IL-:; , hel ll nUl afkn the rights -dml ubli/('lt iml.' 1]1' rhe tlrric, umk, ' ny ,"IWI"
f(l r the Lil11e:! 11ol~;HJ..!; 11"'1 force reltlt iflg [n l ~a; li l1l1iuH iw"I or the IItll}!I" '" uf n' . . lll,;r:o: nf J.l ~: I-gHi~lg "\.~~I~ .
Article !.I .
. l"hc.sc HLdc..." sball rH11 arret ! the I:)f()vi:\irms: of l.l "Y in [c rm.llicmal ( ~(lI1i"'l:n[itln ur I1.att iLln;1J i:Jw gtwem inJ:.l
liabi!i Iy fu, audc"-f U:m"IW.
Article 10.
Th" prm i. i.,n.. nf rhcsc RIJ I"""ho ll apply 10 "vc ry bill of lading ,daring'" [he "rnagc of :,.'O<Jds
ocn'Lccn IXl rlS in (WO c.iiffere nr S[;J[cs: it"
(<I) rhl: Billuf I ";'IJ i ng is i;)i~ued in 11 ConlrJCLing St-J [ c . . or
(h) rhe t..""'Jn'ja(!t: i'i from a PO" in jJJ t;'onrt".JC'Iing; Srure 1 ~Jr
(c me "mll nllll' lnl'IIIltod in 0 ' 'vidcnced h~ 'h - Ail l (jrl","dill~l'[(widc, rh:JI ,h"s<: R" le, or
1t:;~i:iI~]Ein n of any Snuc ~,' ing cHeC"r [./1 rhc: rn. iJFC In govem rhc conrriJct";

II'h:ll'" er 11my be 11,,, m~[iulI" l il~' ..I' th" ~h ill , I h~ ""mi~r. 1I1~ .~hip""r. 'h . l'<ln~i~n~o_ or on~ mhcf
in[(::resH.:tJ per.M)n .
(' rh" lo~ ' [wO) l'af"J:~Jp h . or [his "",ete J'" fiO! reprodl,,,,,,d_ They r"<[tlire co nrrucTing St:a!C~ '" .ppl)
rhe IbJlc, 10 bills ofiadiog mcm;m",d i. rhe ,mide "nd au[horL,,, Them 10 apply rh" Rule [ 0 mhe, bi ll,
"f Iilding).
(i\rricl.,,; 11 !U 16 of rhe 1me manOJlJll Gan"enril n 10' rbe LlnilicmiulI or verwin Rir lc::o uf Lull ",Iu ling
w BiJI ~ of Ll.d rn,t: signcLl ut Brussd~ nn Z.Cj, J\ lI~US: 1 iY2-1 (Ihe I b~gl.Jc RLlI c,~) urc nor r-cpmduccd !l ert..'.
Tht....-y d~1 wirh rhe coming iOlo rorCG of [hG Con .... c nrion. procedure fDr rd riticarLon. aCGcss ion and
dem1Jlci:lllon<lnd rhe ri~l to ClIlI lo' " rr.,,;h c'(mw"-,'wc to C<)fls,dcrnn'~~clJ1le m< (f) Ihe l<l!l\:S
Lunwined in rhe Comt: nrion . Scc :J.ppc.rndix t

10 1
HAMBURG RULES
nited 'oliolls Cot/'ve1,l fiwl Oil tile Carriage a/Good b.)' 'ea. 197 '
rR r~\M 8L
1111'..T\~I~\I01. TOTIWiUI:>.\ XI In:>.
11 \\1' ; R T(I(81.7.~-11,hc de or.ilith" ..r t1e..,nnininl>I. ~f1""" '. . nJ.n ,,,.... ,d.....-.: ,.. ,... "",n..!:,,,. J!""'k
...
11"1'(; DH :lIlI:J I,D cr...:1urI.: >cornulI;"" en. "'I' .,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,.J h.o.c ...."',.. ",,-cd ~~.'"

I\ ru'le L 1.lcl'initMHu.
In rhi~(~lrwcnunn
...( :'Ultcf O~n~ .m,' II.ILT.lJI1 I~' ",hum or III \,JllI:lSe' flJmc .1 \"''1I1' ' r.J~1 I tl f"... Wi.I,i: I tl ~JlJtJ ... I"'1 ~Ui ILt~ heef'\ fp..llu~lI!d
~ I' h :.I ",higl~r,
Z "t\crul.Il t'Urr..:r" mc..~~ n, pefliOn !Q \,-hnm The pcrll.MT1\.ln('c 411 till.: l'lllJ1J.~ 01 l1u.: ~ oJ". j Ill' I~r 1).J(1 (j~ ,I'IIC' \.IIri~.

~ I)L:L'1' cr,uuslCd I~ ~ bc L';JrT1Cr. :lTnl Indude .Jm' 'm~r I 'r;l ln f(J H hLHlI ~ I"h I rl llJlltIlU,t.: 11l~ 'i l~cn I;!I ~l ru ... (c;d,
1. \ lill pe r " m~n:; u n, J'X:r.iC'J1'\ hy whom IIf 111 "hCt\:C 11.11111.: I~I on \.1 114 I-lL: lx.:h,.lr III W 'IU fi 11. I I1 (,;urilgL.' 1)1 ~ ,ol.l ~ I'll) '\(;lI

h(l 'l tJl't:'n u m ll. ll1L1l.'d wi th [J L.'llr~i ~ ,- or ~I)\' pcr~ 11'\' ~~ nrlnl lll III \ ~ I)u-.c I Jilt" f ll ( 1111\ 111110,1.: I.lr.: ll.df rh ".. '!K!lh ~I\'
ol.;:nI;JII~' dt;!I\'CfCd HI the C'iLl1' it:'1 j ..~ rt:; 1.il Lhll1 t it th..: c\" ,t ll'a~ 1 l tr'l":JI[1;I~1;.' Iw "'l'II.

4 "Cflll'\l!J,n~c" r~m~ the PCr-;{l fl em iTled l~) 1,lke- Jdl~ er, flf , h~ ~tX.H.ts,

~ ~(;[1!1(bN uk:hld ",')i ~IYC ~tnJll'I i~ls; \.\ h~~ l.h~ ~uod :!) ::Ire t."~I'~II CllItc.:d III IJ Clmrllll1t r, flolll ..t r~r ~l lanbt ~I rll (,:k.- Ilf rrafl.'.lo l1(lrr
rn ",-hen: IhC\1 !IIC pa.t:k:cd. AO':li.h locludQ: .\lIch ..u1....-1c ut' II:I I1 'tII(JrI llr ItLlL.ku,p:rrtg I1 ~ l .PI , llt'ti I~ .ht: ~hl~) 1 r,
I:t. ..c :urntJ~( of l ..... rnaf,'C l~ ~J r mc..~ns-tm.)' oComr.ILt ",be.n::ln.- rhe l;JU I r ~JuknJ, \: ..,W~IU~t 11iM\'mcn I tl f fh:ij...I'hr III
c-.tm' ~OCl(b "' ~... f'rorn one pilI( 1)1 ;QjJ()lh.~r. hm""t."Io'C.f.;J c:on rr..K: i ~ hl 'h Iln'III ..'I.;' L'\I ttl~ h\ ~I;.I !IlK! ~Iht.l t1JrTl~l!
11') ~1J11C ml1crmeans'l"i dc~rncd r be ~ co,mrJCr t')1' ~Jrl.i.ij:": l!n.' 'R:OI Ir.t rkc: rlr.llrJ'i~~~ tj~ rtll~ ( Jijl\-enti<'It'\ on'" II I W
r:Jr w.'o 11 n:Lto 00 the c:J.~ b)" 'iO].
7. ""BIU of bdlnJ!." I'TI:(';jJlS Cl dOCUIIIICIlt \A turn t.:1.1lk:ru:-~ r.r. rnntr.lCt of ClItlla.,\"T tn twe'.Ji lk.1 ~ht: '11c.1~~ ~Jo".CI ~w: lukfin,:.:,uf
[he If]OIi'lo tI'Jo .he C".l1T)CL "nd ~ \\ hrlllhe ~.er ~rt.k&...." In ddr\'cr l k ..b :I~:.ul\ ..( \Urn::n..kr uf 1~1t,;
dorumc:nt. oI\ pt1Jt.UIOfI In .he documc:m .iut [he ~ .re m I, Lk:m...:rcd 10 tht IJIdc, t (i rumc;d pcBOO " (0
4'.n.kl, 11 10 ~ L"IIn.'liurute.:s ~m Urw:lerrB.lng.

-'\imn ".ndudo.. 1nlCl' <&la.. 1dr;gr:Jm ~ le.....'"


" . le 2. ,...,., of applicution
The p.........,. of I"" ( _ _""'''''' m: aprIlCOblc , .011 LUlII,..'l> of <.1' __ '" ht'rwcc:n 1\.1 11

I.. , Ihe' IIIOf1 ot iuJdll1! no ~idcd rlI in IM COfIC.f:lCt I1f ~ I.. 'Col .'\ ,,"- In'ln (JIf\!r-.... IIf):J:, "1.::1 1(, ur

It,) 11.: pOll of d,~:JS P"""WIr:d b In ,h<: romr.tCl ..r~ III >CiI " ~ cd '" ( ..."' ....., .. ,e. 01
I") onc (,I rhc: OfllllOlUt POflSO dhdmf.,"'C pRJl~ fOr m t~ crIltCll"l. 01 (',:UII...;.. I"
",c :h pon IS """,aj
en ~ Cool''''''''''; 01 .,.,e.
~d~ .he IllU (lr udln~Of olhrI dnru ltlOlt ~ida1Cing I Ill:' ronrl",I(I u( ":M rl'lJ.gt' It\, :l1~ ........cd il' ,,( :j" ' r:J(. l ln~ ~ llIIC. or
(c) .I'IC bill of bdln,~ f}l Other document C\'1dCMfl~ rh l11fllJ'a.t uflll :~l$ b\ \c;a f'rt1\ ~ [J':.I 11\(: l)fu~ 1101'Ufl~ ut lhl:S
(~n"'CntM.H'l (]f- dr lc::grsbuOIl of :In'f ~ r :nc g,n"llgcffcc, 1ft ,hem ;u~. ILl ~J\'e'rn lIle a:JJH ~ ,
l" Th.e J'rfl\j... ~no. pf Ihi.. enf1' n[IOI] ".l..re ;apphwr.l.ill!. ..~'i.hm.n n.: ~II'I..1 W the tl.J 11tU1:i1hl\' (If I ht" ~hl l" rl,C' ,,,.rlaer, Ll,
m,:lw l tllr.m:.[, th t: !ih!(lper: Ihe c.:on5i~n cc Of:u1V I)lhCt mlcrc"'Icd r'J'T'Il.I!fl

,l l1lO nrm'j't.lt'JrlS nf I tu~ OJm'Ll'l l lDn mc mu .I.lpl1hCJLl1! I l~ dUI'tt!.'''I'lln I~. 11il\'l'\ I, ~I Il,,-'r~ 11 hllllu ' lwJin I l .. I IoIIl,..led
jlllll"'iUIUlC [g t"t\!l.ner-pi.t n ~', 11'1 ""iw~siun'f o t' l lH~ =Vm'\:lu~ JU tiPI I I~ t it "-ttl.:h .J 11111 ,tf' II.AJln~ d' I1 ~)\t r 11 '" rile"

101
HAHIIURG RU LES

r I:JI.on bc['\\ ("fa rhe CJmc!~n<l ~bc hohk"'.lr ,f'R: bl~1 " t' LHjl n~ 11,1 11 I "1It,lt the 4.. hJlh,,:ft:r.

I r!l t:vntra..1 rnJ\ idt:~ rtll,. rutUf'C' 0Itna,!..,"t: i If p:oJ~ ~ i1 r.I 1'It:~ I" ~hl l"rl k::'U'l LJurln~ ;,I, iJ:f'l~~1 r~ rtI KI rl'k.- rllt\-l.Jor!S
~II !ht"l ('..1f1\l'IliUorl iJll~ (of) e~h ~flllX'1l L l lll\\ C.. 1.:if. '"tH.:IC J flll1t1111.: .l l I'" m,l , ... .,dr iI \1l- I,rtT~rl). l't.e
IlTi.lI.l,/(IIfl\ of ~ ....~rth j ofthi....lfUf.. 1 ":.Ipvio...
\r1M.:I4.: 3. Il nL<CTp!f'l."lUlio.rt of IJMI: Can ... enbun
In the 1nl 1JIn::lioiIlUI1::md ~p[ac:nDl nf me
Jl'rm.~1OOI,\ .,a ,hlll,.( ")Ill' 0'11'11\ n."I:.ud ,twll t..... ~ ttl If' I ItB"-I11UI'LI1
dur.ll:It., .md lu dlt' nt:rd 10 1!I(IJJ(JlC uruli'NImI}.

I' \R II . I.HIl II m ClFll~f. G.-\RRIER


,\rticl.. +. l ",",xI '" ""l""><ibiliLy
l'he JW1R'II.h" Hr rhe CiIfritf f,.,.. ..1IC ~~ undct ,h., {"I!III'IoC'IIIf111 'l',,('.... rhe: I , .. ..J dUIII~ VIond IIL c.mJL'l
It"" III 4.. ... " Ilf (he ~xIs .n [hi! rw:-r Hflludlll;" du~ II1r ClI lid ,If Inr ,"lfl .{ 11. Jt.lq.,;
.!. h"., jl~IfJ."IO'ic; uf ru~"h I 0( ,ht.. iIfl..,;;1c.. the ,-.lf1"II.:1 l lkTnk.-d 1" I, in \ h..,.~ It' II~ Wild
(J. f"~n ! I'k: lime he h:b ~n 0\'e1 lhr: ~JOd~ from:
(I) ,ht.. ~ hi Is:.r. 1)(" 1~~d'I JC1ml! nr hJ~ hc"it'f~ Ilf

ril) un .llJlhunf~ UI I) l bet IhjJd ~' to , .. hr.n. pun.-u;ml In L\~ ur 1L'/-l,l ItiLIK 'n.o.; .J1~)lll~Jhh.: oi l tll1.: r"Vl ~.t loadJO,I!.. ,he
t:r.. .dll mu .. ,. , 'hil~d fl\f,f!hr 1l1 1"i1l1C'm:
(11) unlll the:: . irne he h:.b ddi\'etcu tht: ~~JtKlx:
I1I ~' h rlnc11n~ olrer r h e~!i In The r'fln~lgnce:~ nr
fill ~ t . t'tl"it.' .. \ ~ l1 cre I he (:m\SI~:.t:l! d n l , t.:tti\"t.!, LIIC J.,"4 IIK..!:'I f rHIll IIIC l'l~ r .M.'r, lJ\ 1 , I. Kln~ , ., 'm Lt l I t,..: di-'IIO"t.14Jr,l1c
NU1"'1MI1'.:t! 111 :1Ct:o:flJ..lnet: \\nh li) O}fJ[ roCt OJ \\ i l h the 111\\ lilt ~\ IIh ~ I H.' ~,>~"C Ifl' tile I ~Jt 1ll.:1. kJJ w lrk. :IPI"JIl!!IIJit;! ~u
I t)!.:" PI In tlf I,IJ:oit h ar~"C; fir
~Iri ti ro.' h:mdllll-!, 1",'Cr Ihe ~()nd~ [1 1an il u dlt~rH\ Iif' ~ lI l lCr (hlrt! jlUl I) IU Wh11l11. l ~lIl "i..Jiln l I1 1 rI'" fi r n.'l.'!.tJlitriCln'l uppli(.~blt.
III rl,l! POrt n r di~\,' t' .Jr~. Ihe ~1{h mttf ~~ I'll; ha.lu.kd ~ .\'~r.

mu ItuJ:.J,!!,r..l ph,. I ut1d 2 tlf [ili.HlIlick.: . nXclL:nu,: I1 I the L:WriCf or m 1l'K: Lfltl'~ i~n~C' meLtn"'. In .Jddlllrm In I he f;j~rri('r
nr rhe tnn 'liigBcl ', the ~t!f\'ilm5 r~(:n lS. I ~ ~ lICl.:ri ... d~ ill dk;; L"ll!rk, 1IH I h~ 1.1IP'l;~,!1H,; t,

Arti ." lc 5, H asl!'! of lirihllity


1_ 1'he l rricr i. . IJam le fl'lf IOI;"~ reslJrrln~ t'mm 11)'i..' of or tlmL..l~"" l tJ t11C ,.,lI'w""..,I'I. wcll 0.; ~'llll' tJ ,1..1\ In L.ldl\cf\. I (he
()\"""",l!rc:1lI;t ..... 1lK;.h c.:J u."""CtJ rhe: 1a5s. ~ nr del." t k rh~ ..... hd.; d'tc J:,.'''llh ",c; rl,.: III hi' ~hJ'J.."t: oL' ddincd III
.lflide -t unlt...""'i'i [he t:aJTia Jlm"'O th:n he. hl"i 'ianm or ~nr" (n .. 11 rTlCJ;lll , rh:u \'(1U1d :!'iufubl'!o be
ml'Ulrcd erlll...'UHl the IIl.'ll.l nt:rn:~..a:nd IU l'Ull."roI:{fUCOCO,

If' ..+.:n.he j!JJOd.<;Im.., "'" been dcl"""",I he pun "f d, I..,t<: r..., 'he ,,,,,,ok-d
(:,)fUr.l(.tNC'"~ b\ :sea. "'"lrhm the lime c:xr~to. ~ ~ tilt IQ rhe W""Cnt"C!.iIf liLt.. .!lft:C'J't'A'. \A. 11 tun rhe:
'''ll:Yohll'"t.lt ~uuldbc: n::~ tul\..""I(t:~ .. tfd;.'\.'Il' ~ ~. Id t , .. tk",mu~"'~fJd~~.

lbc per;nn en ruled ro maJu: ~ WInl tOf the b-s of,!'nlt 1113\ tf'r'.JIr lhe "'Jf~I ....... ~'" II Ih:\ Me" nne lan
dcll\'l!rL-xI ob n:qu'u.t:d I,,' 3J'T'ick -i ..ithin 6D ~'I\~ ~ fulw~ "he- ~, t.,f 11"c I,m.; ('I( ~Ii\~f\.
...,.",<1111/\ IJ) IJW~'" ~ of tIm ltlid<-.
~. I., "The urric;r ,\ ...,..
.d ,_ ...... "'''' ..........'''' to Ihe~of(kb) .. ddl\c~ cau>O.lll) /in; ,rll", di",...m 1""'0' ,rhe fiR: aim<
I""" r..h '" ""r,Ic., 00 ,r.. pon 0( rhe """". h" <,~ ,,-:
1nl flll ;uch~:o.. dDl\jl,..,ve Id" lid.., m ddili.O't, ~\ hic:h I) j1rmcd 11\0 ~ l:uim"nI III M'1: M~hcd fll1i111 rhe- f;wh 01

nt."Wl"C ! of.be- carric::tr, Ins SCI"\'l.flu. ()f ~'E"1'1b. lfl ~ll~ :dJ lnu;~WC" Lh.n UJuild. I '..IM~1 ~I'" h L I't 11.I1f(:d UJ (1\J 1 nul
lhe f,fe il'k1 ::n:nld fir mmj~l1e 15 OOIO~.

tb) ~ n (:..J~(' flf fi r'C On OO"u cilOC .shfP :dTt.;cun~ Ihe: ~lN.JLJ:.~. l .he LLumuru or I b~ (.;IUTKI ~l Lk~.lrt.~ U IItJl\'C'\ in.
{K.'('UIWJl{"(," \\jLll ~ tllpp .ng, PrJClitCS must be Ilc ld mtu l hc ~ U :)t.~ ,IWC ,"'1ft m uu~'I,'~ l.J1 I ~ lilT,: , u l ~d .J l'OI1\' (]f Iht"
"1J1"\'t:yo~ rc:pon "h::dl Cc ~K1c 1I\'JJlhblc {)O dclR'.tJ1d to the t .... rnd mJ ~hc l l.. I"II ... .,',

'5 . \\ll h f"C.!"IXCl tu hl,loC uldJl1.Jh;, Lhe- ~:l. nr!er ~,. nO! 1~ 1.11}J e fur In,,,!,. d.Jtl'Iil/-.Of.: (If t l.l~ I., LlI.:IWI!1\' I'e'ouhmv, rn lm In,
'penJI ri.. . k, ~n. hcrcm in t'har kmd 'lIrc!'ll~g If ~ h c {,""rn~::r IJM ~ tit.! I he h:&.~ ttJ rul,IH,':.J \\'itll Ull'Y '11H.."t'ul
I

10J
HAMUVRG RV 5

m"trut. LUJrl'J ~l\'t.Cl IU hun lA lbe :JlIp,ler ~I,a:[ln~ ~hc: :lIUlTu l, ~Inl' rt1 I ~ . 11'\ ri le ~'lr\\JIllst.Hl C'i or Ihl.." C~~, tbe
11 t'!.,., tJ:iUtlt,'C lit' ,dcLI~ In t.k1i:\"~J) cookl he LluribiJtli!d tr> ~lh.:n ri... k. .t I~ ~t'e,~LUtWfl rl'l:ll rttl' ~ Kit. d .. nuJ::c Ilf dr:b"
In delllef} "~, ~ll~lI",d. lIlth' (hr,,, j, ~uwf Ih:.II JII,. J port "hh" "'" dJrILIt(C I~ 11cLl) In Ildoler) 11:,1111('(1
rmrn l:ruh: ,..- neglect'" ,he ~n nf rne c:.wrlef. tu . . .-.c1\.ltl['Io "r ~"\.'Ill"t
" lk ,oamc-r h ,,'11 1I.i!,1c.. ~Pl m ~Ht:rdlll'..n-.J.,...,"'C. ubc::n: ~ WI'J'l.II:C or dcLry In lkillf;1\ R"itlhnl r'l)In
mct-'lUC"I m 'W\c life Ill' {mm l'tiL"4.IIlJbfc n~~.. to ~.. e pcqlern ut ~L
7 IIn Illlt:- pm uf lhe:- t:.lI11C:L h~ 'iCn.lnl, or aE-ro,,, t."llt'nt""~,,, ~II h W1I tCI CltllI'C Co iPfutkR:C
l\hI;rc Lrull ,. rk'J!;h,."(1
nr ~ m drJj:\'('"~ .be ~ ~ liJlk (~ to (he ~'III:IU I
I!'; d~ Ir-. ( ~ or dcb\ In clcl,\~
h trrihutubk 11 'WCh [nlll n(~' l'tl"-.kd rM El ... '-1.lIf'M:T .'un""",, It~ oIIhIl\ln( I.t I~ It.... ordcu.
In dr:lncf\ nul .nulbuLilik: tD:rl:lIL

\ ,..... fi. Ii n ' ofll:lbi1il)


. f.. , nil( l&.i.lil) cl the ama fClf ~ IIC~lldl~ r~ In~:5 uf (W"d.n.cc '"1!'~"'" \11(* lel till '.,.,. ...Je., .... d' ilIlKk
I I.mucd m.JJI ..dnnUnl Q.fUI,Jlem to li! Wlluof .K1.UUflt rcr IU.~"'C: f .. od~ Jur't)llne unlf tlf .t~ Unll'1\,.r
""". 1_ kiJaw..... ,,f""'" " ...1!!1 ,,," 10., d.o,~... ""h.'et i, LI,. h,~.
(11) " -.: 1l.it'l!1i~ nfthc ~ fOr LIt:b. in ddi'\'U\ .)cOIfdi-.. In the: jill"I""'f~n"" 4.r "'"'lk- I'" iUllltt'J 1" IIn ::UIItI.wU
~.I'-II'\ <llm. t4. 11,\ dJ'llJ il.lt.llf IJn~ rJ~ fmg;.1 ~""'JblC' ftif' IlK: ~. JtJ\ lkLi''C'l1lt\i1l ",It I:'\L't:Cllins: rhll; (o dlfC'1
JU' Ilk lInder d..... 1l'OIl1"'.JCf or c-..uruJ,"C or ~ood . . tr.. ~a.
(t") III n411:t . . .ul he arJ!1t"W-'tl! li.:tbiJiq ufiM ~rri~ IJntkr l-.Jth mho\ u'..Ij.1,nlph~ t~11 :lnct 11'10) uffllt'\ 1':~r"PI'''I'h..
C!.\l'C't!d rhe limjnc.iFln \\hicll \\ tulc.t t I,>. hlnllttl llmJI." ,ulJl 1~IJrlh tLa} III Ihioj 1 1JI ,I~.I I .h ror UH.J llrr..,\ fir Inr;
~II.k..I~\\lIh rt!!.pcn tu ~\hirh 'lK'h liuhilin \_.lo"innlll't:u,

.l. Hx rtK l"urp(l~ llf - ku l~l m~ n Itlth iJllHJUIlt r..~ Iht:' h.J~kt."r Irl IICl"l~Jnl."'i: ~\ 1111 I ,.U';~rLI J'lh I ~u) (\1' rhl~ . I RI{' I ~, rht
fnllfrwin,l!; nrlc."l.Ir~l~':
I t1' \\ here :I Cf1 f~! J ifll..:r, I-X.lllt.: l 01 s~mJ lur .alM?ic: ~ If lr,tl1j.I.liIlM 10.; u:-te(i I(] ("(m",nll Illl ~ ~ 111(1 I II, ~ I)C,KkllJ.'<': I" ~ 11 he( >!1'ltl~i I"~
'JnI'!! ~1l1r JTIt::J'..lft::~ m I llI;; bi ll n,f 1;1I;I,n~ ir I ~~uc::c.l, Iif' ird.t;n\!:< i I I WW lithe. Lii ll.'lllnl.: II I t.!\' 1l!\;;n":lrlj! du:' ~nIH '~ 1 of
r.:Llrrl.l~re Il} .Sl~ ll.."i rl::Jtkt::d in "~l.l!Ch ;]n iclc or .....In'irl(m Il r, ~;l(:X.rh.: ,d ~ll4I-,ki.J~r.::-. . JI sll 1 11 ~ln ,u: It I 11 1'11, 1,\4.:cp' 11'ii _lthrc'I:lltI
fh~ ~~ Jlh III ',UdL ur' iell:! (~I' Ir.lD.'~pmt we dmi:d nnc ~t1f llI'~i 11~ 1111 iI

tb. r., t:;['W('~ "fk:,e rne !Ul I[' Ic: (I1~ rmll.:'J,por[ ir:tClrh:1$ bCCG ~ 1St IJf ..L11l1.Jr-:,...'t1. ,t~IL unk lc jJr I fIIl\.~llIlIT. il' 11 (11 tl\\ fled I....
I tlht.'fl'I.LIWt' )'-upf1l~d by [h r:cun~r. IS l'01lSr-d,ererJ Qfle ~ I-': I rn~c:: .. h~ ~ ~p lfr.ll: LJfill
l :nir of .IC\ !)l InT mC-JI'i'i The:. unit of iK"COUru rncrrtlUr1LX1 In urtit:k: 2fl
th .r~fl:icrnt:m l'll!1\1t.t't!:n !~ olrTier und tile mipper.. Ilml[\. nrfl.lhlh,\ ("
"'" he r".:<l.
\ rtk.:k 1. J\.ppUL"Utinn (1) nclf1l-t."()fl!~nt:d ch:urru
I. The dc:rC'fk In\i limu;Iii Iwbthry prt>lit.k:d rur in lho (:'}'I\~U'ittn J,~'.II\ Ul"~ ,<nil """,n .he i. ,.nIct
""Ixrt 01' """ nf " ..1...'1:111" ro .tIC ,.,.,ds CQ\cmI '" ,he ""Ill'" t 0( .o.. l" .. ".11 ..' ,01' Lld... '" del.""
'" hctba tbe oK1lon IS founcled ID cumtx:t,. In mrr or IKhl:.N"~
!. If s..a-h om ...:rm is bmughT -r;tIJPf'olt '\C'f\o 'n nr agcm tI the: t'mlCa.........-h '\Ct\;.IHI IIf Ill r ~ PfD'Cio rh:tr he:
..... ,00 "ithut (he ~ ul'hbcmpb.TnI!OI. lS e2\IJded m 11\.... J hi" nr (he dtrrcnu..~ ~nd IJf1IIh u(IUbili" "hid!
rtk (:..ufk"f IClIlIlkd I.,. Jm.ukr wlIk:r this C.onlrn'DL
, t-U1:p1 :.L' prtJlldal in:nidr- ~ ,he ~c oI'(hc ;JnltC*"l" n:r..v.t:,..i.c f........ he~.u:ricr.nd irum JIIl\ pt~
n:"(rn~ W fJ\ ~ ! Ilfdw, .:n:ich: I1lK It:red the IllnIl\ IlI-IIoi.I"III~ Ilrln it.k\J fIll' m tin l~tf\\t'nltmJ
. le . r....,. or righl to I'm;. ""'flOOsihilil}
I. 11ic C".1ff'1tf t n()l cntll.lcd to tJr ~ndit or ~ mlwtil1n [, i lihlllf\ l"f'1'1L"Ird ror In .u'lll, k- 0 I( I1 ,'" Jm"ed ll~1 W
~ ~ or dc:1:n. lA dc:~ I'CStJllcd fl'tJfn.an iKlur 011 ~ 'aft t{d~ (W'fII:'r dOllC \\ 11'h ~hc: .nlc:m m 1I'C' ~
' - d",~,... ddn.,>r=kb>t. md ",," """'' OO!,'C du. >I.th le d.u'W{l.C'M <le,", "oold pm! h . rtOUl1-

2. '-'-1'10\ I1 h f.1 (ling 1h~ pm\ i~~ fIr Il:mlgmpk 2 r,r ,;trtidt: i . .. ~r-h .mt tt I~c:nl llf Ihr t~lfTlC't 1'10 nl" t'n1'lll~t.I
to the benefit ofrhc Irm ilannn ofrrurbilll' pnJ\idcd ~ r In ~r{i(;:lC' r, .rlll. pro\'C:u ,Ihl( Ihe l_l'i..'Il. tJ-Jrrr..r,;c or
\,Icluy in c.JeJl,t'ry ~su l t~d fmm::m 9..C1 o.-oml~..'.jnn of!! 11.: 11!(:("\UlL r)f' AC ln. ,h111C wilh bh Inl('11I IU cna:r=
:o.lrd~ lo~~. d[lf1J[1 ~t" rlJ d'tl:J~. Qr rf:ck lt.'S,'jlv ulld "'-lth tknmd~t..I~c: Ihllt ~u t. I Ij~ . d.ll nilA (,r dC":." \\uLJ1u
rro llii1b l~' rc:slll .

104
KAMIIURG RU LE

;\ rti ' le 'J. fkc~ corgo


L"Jrri~r i~ enti alrd u, IC".m., [he j:tKwh llil d i:l:k "'nl\'
if 'd) h l'loIrrlo l,.1:(' i tn .1L'\~lr\I II"t: ~I' h .111 ~lUct: n~nt w-il h
rhr:,hl~~J.IIC' f.ltI'",.rh Ih~ U~~ fJrlh~ p:u1lLl..IlM ~ or L~ r~'1l1i rrt.l 11\0 Iff.!. l l l! fI" nil .. 41( 1't~~ltln(.l'\.
l If I he lauicr uruf dtC wpp::r M "c Jg..n:Cd rh-.;lT ,he: J;DIld ~""I.)r m.I) tl\; \'IIlrJ",d Pll .Jc;... k. d..: L~.. mt:r 1Il1.L.'~
\ mscTl
u, dk bill urbdirflf mkT documc:.m c:\idaring'ln.: omar.a:1 uf ("..I"~ I.", "C"'" J "'1.IU:mc;nl[ m d\..ll d f nL In
11'1:-' - b-.cIM."C trio h Ji S1:d.~1 tbr ClJI[cr hn l~ hunkn ut pm"lln dWI ~ ~n"ml t; I( ~:lrfI ~ Pr. det.:~ ru,
heen cnlCR1f IRlt.~ Ik""ona. the: met I\, not mlrlk:d to Imoll: "ul.:h IIIl ;Jf.fft1;mr;n.. ~I t.I. [hu\1 )~n.
1n..Iut.linK-' L'Um.~. ",hlllus .:ICfIuired lhe hillnt bl 1j.!,ln I: .h It.'"
\. \\kn;.he guod h.;I.~ l~ IGM"ncd undc.,:k aJIIlr.iI'\ W t~ PI1"l\JIlll\.~" ~" .. h I 'If Itu" iIIOKk 1'If ",t.;rc ft'c"
arricrrRl'\ nm I.Jr,*q~! 01- du" ~ In", <l1li. 4f"'Ok'nt UII r..
..... ..b.he -.: .. mc....
r,o."t"iltl'lund~ the J1lD''1!.Hms ur I~h I nll.in *'
;'.1\ luhle .. ., """" nr f", .J.Ml tu lhe IIII..J.. , \!o dl ~"

t(if dcJ.r. In ddi'l:1'\.. Ibult~~ finm chr ~ 4... ~ ..ld dk." h.nlnl h... I&.lhh" ,"lflOC dcln....tnc:d
In xuwcbncc \lllh dte: p"" ~'"O( ~M:Ic b or .lJt1l.:k: n{ 1hL., ( ..,\\:tll."'. "Ihe 1,,1rC' In.." hc~

(.an J!r 4Jf ~ili t., thil; L"('I(I[[;If'\ 10 ~JlIt:S'ii ~1'IlC'fU ff1l '''f~ ~'l1lcr d ~ lit lJ...-c1I.".-d I,. he ,.tu ....t "-If
hmi . . 1 nt dtc: c;une uithin It.r ~'II~ of .:ll1K..~ tL
,\stick 10. Lmhilrtl "I' lite """';er nod 1l.!"mI ,,,.,,.
n 1'IICfC .he: pCn(irm:.tJK.'C of [he C".lIriJ~ or ,.ta rt LhL~of h~1I bee n c.l l lILl~lL-d 11).1n .JIcll , ~1 ~rnc r. \.10 h('1hcf ." rIOt In
rLlf' u.JnL'C: of 3 IlllI!m ur.dt:f , .,~ CQf11"'~. of (".II1Y~~ ~ tt) U'I 1'<lJ, I~~ -.:Hrl..:r ,fK"\tnJ'IC'1 ~lI. f r llt.Jlm, n=spnn ....h l!l!
('11 1nL! \:IIUI I: C"iUTlJ"h>t: JCCOflIin~ LO u,t:" l'mn'll{ln~ t)t' ,h ' s. f ~Il1'""(" l l (lt Ml, l'h" nm,,"" hi 110: I)UI)lIIlbk. II1 rc.!;J!IU1' to the

l";nrbt:;r= l:ICrfi Ifrl~.:d Ln the' .1(1wl ClJ.TTier, far I,be :JCI:\ llnd .1m ' ..... Jltl1!') flf' I he: .Jq 11,1I CJrJN.r lod ni' hili ~' I\ 1Jrlh :JnLl
il#'n.n U('"rin!p;" Ift'nll I he :fir..'\'" of lhto:,t cm r'll l\tn~1.
~. All ,he pr(J\'L"'l{H]~ fit' rh!.!!. U m,,'C:: nmm ~) ..t: rnJll~ .he fC!'Ipoon:Slhl il0' (.f the f,,~JJ rk r "1..0 lt111JoI) 10 rhe rc;p(ms:ihil1f\ Ill'

rile ~KnJ:l l l, lffl('"1 tOI Iht: t'Llir1bl~e lJl.:1hlrm..:.J m l~ him, ~n,e IHTt\'IHlftml nl' l"'Il'lIW~1pn~ ~ lm ~ .1 r~r larLl de ]lInd of
~'il I!I'!~ ruptl .! clF lln i cic H =1P'1 ~ l y If ol J:l oill'r j l ~ IS I m ~u ,!,\~11 i.!~lill :R LA 't4.:nj IJ11 LIf 1J ~"C'nl I)f I he blt'fII! ll CI)mC' r.

.. An\' ~ pc~:ul Jgt(."(:mc l1if unde r w hi<"] 1 tht! l,:mi~r l~~SUI1lL!~ ()h ll ~n tllll'lll I'llil l 1I11'''-1-:~( 1 1 1' l~"'" l :o."I~ c llr if ll) (Ir \\ lll\'t.::>.

ng,hn Nlf'I.rt'r'C(1f~ du . ; t ~'Hl\'(;n(f(ln lJlcc'tll. r h~ Ik-clkrl lllt tn.:r oot\. if oIl!n~l.:tJ bll ~ him ~\I' r" ....\I')' ilnd ." 'i.~ rl[In ~,
Wht:! ltu; r Ill'" om [he acru:l. C':.lrncr h~,) ::00 ;,J.grc~-d. ~hc filrnt.:l I~\ ~r[lle lt:~:! rcmJI tLIIj IXlurtlll r:. rhe:' n bllfrll i(l n~ fir
\1111\.11:."1" r ~ullinl-: rmlll :riw:h ~ I :.Ig.reernen r
1 Whet(: und m dtc c:\ [cn t mat boUl {he (aIrier :.rld the IctwJ urrier ~rr I'Jblc:. Ihe l r l i~lhdl n. ilii JOlnl aJld ')IC\!:r.a.1

.... T he .IAArr~l Hr l hl:' IJmuunb ra.Th'er..mk rmm t~ t::.I1'rl~r:. t he- .JJ..H.LlI L:JI't~r LI{'Id flw:u "'l1\ IOh . IIlll LA~l;.' lt h ",ba t1
nm ~et:d The Ilmi(.o, or lutJitll[\ ~l~"tl (of 111 lhu Lvl l\.c:: .. llfl rL.

h .' "Irun~ III ,hi. tlrUck: dull J1R:~ ;lIT} ~ ( of f1!O',tl11"\C' ... t'lcl"\lt.t:cn Ihc "".rrttf iJ'lC.l rhe ih.;u.... t c:urn~[.
Arti..--Ic 11 . "Ihm..'lfh ~
I ' 01" uh\n,uxliul.. tl~ I""""liion.s of ~.Jf'h 1 .,1 :Inidc 10, 1drr~ .. umlra. nt l.llll'~ h\ ..c-.1 1'lIl'II.kk"l !r''4. II'll.uk
d'tu li "I'fikd part' It( rhc ~ (I)ir.Crro b\ lk ~ loalr.-.t l" "be JlCrh"na:d ~ I"':'---.nn orhd litJl'I
dlC Ca:nlc:t: Ilk: ClllTlrua !1U\" .Jbo prmidc: rtul ihc- (".,,ana fY.it lJ.lbIc (011 lit\' dd..no "" dcln-crv 0UYd ".11'
hi ~ "hich LIkes pI.x. "hile.""~..., I~.hr m..p,ur.he "-Iwl "'"". dutin.l "",h I",n
C"'... ~ 1\~-cnfklt.;.m~ ~III-"'lIlrttc:.t bni.il~orc lod '-\Il:h IwI.hl'\ l'\ .... llhoot cfln If fln~i11
0"""
JWlIt.~1\ cm he: lmorolcd :;.tpIDSI me .iA.'1U::d l.:IIiltJ ID .. ruun l.'1lmJllC'lcn.t undc:t ~ I tw" ! .,f atl.clc ! I.
1"k bunkn .ar (l1U\"ing dUI ..,-.-10--.... (blmt ordc'l;,J\ In dd."ct'\ ~ I C('" III d f "I(k,h 01,: lTCn<.'C rp.u.
01"\ citE:' GoUrKt.
! The xrnal cunc:r ~ I"e'Jiponsilik: lO.JCeOfdJncc: \\ l'th (be J'fO!, ~11'1f u( p;d'''*''''''''Ith ! (If ;ml( le I ~' ~jl{ I ,." cbmJ:e: n("
d.:Uy m ddin:", cmsc:dby!mo~",h..i;;h lake" 1~A"'< \,tuk-.h\: , M~ UI ha" t.h.u ,

PART Ill. LlAB Il .rn OF TH E SHJ I'I'I'Jl~


Artld< IZ. r ...l1,.,.,tl rule
he: i. Ilill 1i00f'ile foo kJ61o.i 'fU~ flUn.ctJ b~ U1iC l~d.f1i t:r or the il:lwl ltief; fir rnr d .. mllp,~ "iU"'[,lIfleJ Il~ rhe .. hip,
"~lrJlc r
lInlt.~ 'tuch ILlSfi m damage:: \"''.:i:'i C ilscd I:;n..ne f~ uJ, or Jlc~k(l tl tht:' 'Oh1!Jilt,:.J. ~U'il ~mU1('i ur I.i.~cm:o. or i, iln~
~ ~n .ml IIr 1I~ 1l 1 [l r Lll~ shippe r li:J.ble for sud , 10 '1'" /)Ir dlJll :~ U rtle ~ ~ ~h C' 1(1,. 41r 1.111111111:1;' "1.1'" ~IA L1~cd 11, f~ IUII IIr
nq~ I ~'l" till Ilia I)ll ll.

105
HAMBUIIG RU ~~S

\ rfll,ltc 1:1.. S (1C 'i'IJl n..I li.! HfI lb:n~~n.MI~ Il.~S

111(; "ihiprlCr mU"i t m.Jrk IwlIbeI in 11 HJll.t:I,IC' m.mncr uan:f\:rl1u.~ ~M.J .. j. d ul~rUlh.
! \\hcn; 1h; ... IlI~~IX-""t huruj) f~~; 1i.. ..~m\l~~Ki l'1I rt~: ~rt(fllr ~I ~u;JI" Hrl1;', 'I fN: ~.J'>(' ~ file,.tlt' ,hJrllt.,
mLl'll Int(lfm him cl rhe (bn~" .. h;.rt';l-:ICrlll ,he ~c )(), idnd It uC'\'C" .... ln, ut" 'he Pf,':ilUIIUfl: IIIIIC ukcn 11 dk:
.... hipper ~ 'I~ tU do 'ill ,md .qn;h ~J" ..... ..JCt\.tJI ~r ~ oot !il1~", 1 tu~e- "'~l\oI-led~ t( Ihell l.I.Jn..ICfi J.L1
l.:h..ifllLler:

I ,n.: .h,wor" luIJIc '" ,he c;mcr.od om .><ntJI ..-"""" " ,he ",-,
....J
Ih. Iht 1PJ)Od,. n)::)\ ill ~ 110'1(:: be unhldcd. dcq~l:d Of rendered U1 .....lJI.~;i ,he 11;11\ Im.. l~ nU'- rct:IUIIt'.
""h",,, "",-.nem nfcrvRf"'1"'Ul'
1 "n.: ,1fl,.,,,,Ob ull:ur~ ~ of tJ.u .1fucIc ntl\o I'IDl be: HI''''''..... .,. :..I .... I Nll'ii If dun~ ,he 1.:oIJTLJ.l..' ht.: hin ukn
lhie ".d", In hh ~ "'1rh k.nn".Icd~ of thcwr ..bJlJ!:f..'fIJU'oo ~rxta.
~ If. in ( \It...... 'MIhc~ Ithe:: IMJ'tIDum" ~"'Ih ~. "IlIllIur~r Ihl. Hr Iln\ "HiLi,. ~iI tal J"" {rI PLI\ nuJ b:-
lll\ukcd. d:,mt-,'CO.u .. ~ lxcomc J.11..KOtal ~.n,l'C1 {rIM'c UI 1'11",-'"11'\, '00 0'\iI~ I . uu~ JtktJ. .k.-'1'I~ed I"
rendered jnnncDl1liJ~ tilt he C'lrcumllil:i1"lll..T'> m.J\ n::(IUI~ '" IIMJ1 1,..~mt"lu (.1 "'!ll"IIC'n.'Io~tt 11 N'C"III \\ here: ~h~ ~
..mobllNJlliII1 ID cx:rJllribu[~ in ~m:m.J :n~~ or \\ben: Jh&: C-'~ l.~ luhJc:: If1i.tc(:t'lI"\Limc "'~In [~pn1't.l... It""~ of
JI1M..leo Iiii

I',\In' I" TrL"...SpOlrf 1l0CU IENTS


,\ I'1"k, 14. 1.." . " f hlll , ,f" k,d,,, g
\\1,t:n the:. C",JrriC:: 1 m the: ochJl.Il UlrTier I.:Jkt:~ t he J,tt14l(b. ~n hi. . "'h .. ~~. I he: '" tri~r IltI.hl. ' Hi ~c tTIJfl~ r,r .hl;! .. hifllk.r.
i ..,ue [4.1 !hc :l-1Ii1ljX"r :l bill of l :id jJ~~
, The bil l nf bding 1T1.1\ be: ILigncd I~ J IJIi!Mn h.ni nto: iJmlwJnt., rnll1"l1h~ l.1Jrm:r. \ lull IlfhnllttJ.l, "\i~l1.Cd h" 111r:
111 1.,11,." 1 I~I' (he: 4il' r:illT)'in~ l ht" f:.,.'tlIXI:.-. ilri tleClllCtl lo nu't'c Ucl"n 'III,K.IlCd UII 'l.k::hllll' f I he ("Urr1t:r.
'1'111; "ignu ~lJ re nn _he pill 01' ht di nA ~Iy he In hmld\\ rl"J)~. prlnrc:'1 1III l'II\.;l rn~le. Il("r"flf"; lt('ti l II Tumllt.:(i, I" ~~ml x I 13,
nr mn.1It: I~ llll) cll~r IlIwclt..lDic'.Jl (I r dt:~lrnnll. ~:in.~, if II,.,L 11'I~'lmi'l l ~ r~1 \~ ill l Ill.: I ~\~ flf fl,~ r.:tMI nrr\' \\.h~~ rhl!
hillll(ld.J iliJ!; L'4 ~~l.1~L
,\ rrio le IS. Cnn"'"L' "f.iE! " flading
T he hilt j)f 1~ldJI1~ ffiU"'[ il1duda. imcr~1 11J. l.hC ro lll:J1,l.ln~ PcJ.1f1oc. tar":
hll~ the Jij~ n erJ I nJ,LUE't: rll the gt..~ ... . th~ It:l..ldln~ mJr}u nc::cn.w.J1 for I.Lh~nri tkilltll," {l1 rh( ~":'IIJd)i, JIl f'.\pr~"
... urClD.:nr tt" LlWhClhlc. "" m the d~gLioill ch (. [e, r Iht:" ~lUtb. the: rnnnl~r ,,( PJ.;.Lt~t:'\ Of Pu.x-c .mli rhi:
l'oC"i,gtuoi"lfhcgnod'(nrlhclrqu:lmi(\ orneru'I!o,CC:,"prc-;.-..cd ...n LKt~p;lrrlIIlJr\ L~h l pni h-l.Il)\ rtlc:\hIIJper .
I b) (he IlppaR:'l lm UJllditUI fifth: ~
I ,he """'" orul priocipal pb<e'" oo.;n..., nf ,be camer.
(d' ,hc """"' o(.he -.hiPI".:r;
(cl 'h: romil'l"'" of n:unc:d bj rb: ..bippa:
(f) rn.: ,".n oI"lrold'lI!! .ndor ,n.:
rb: pen ......... i"l'O
CIITICI" '"

I I rhe P'" 0( ~,<ma,!('< uoo., lhe roRUO<I U


(hI ,n.: numb<r or ori~n& of th< bill oflali"~ if mon: u..n ..... ;
(i, 'hcp ".(1' =~(,i>ct>lIoI'lodi
!j) 'h< ";:Rlllwe of d", ClII"ricT ... """'" acting on h .. ben.!f;
k~ the r~j~lu If) d\e O lem ~.mle fl') lilr- n..,jg1lee I1f"mherlndte.UJn11 Ihut rrrighll", 1?J,~hlc I" him;
tll ,he 'j l ~remcnr rcft"lTro 10 In JXilUIfr.Jph 3 of aruclc- 13~

(rnl the o,;L:lLl:'lnCnL.. il' apl:Hicille. dUI: t1~ ~ . hllU VI nlrl\ l~ OInied tVI d~k:

Ill) rho d....... ,"" pennd ~f <le Ih,,!)' nr Th' ~'" ' 'ho fl"I1 nfdlS".'rgt: ,I' .'1"" ,I) "W...I uIl'ln .)<;("'0..., 11",
p~ n lt.:"~ IllUj

10) "n) In< ..... ,.d110'" Ci/ limi tHf I..blliry whcre ;Tl'J"cd In 1l<'<:(\I"~"n c """ "JI1\fI1.1~, 1 "r"rLid"~.

106
HAMBURG RULES

1. o\fC"~r lne gOllcJs hllH' been 1cltKled rm Ix-.:ml ii rl H! :r.: hir~ pc:~r ... 0 dcm:.md~ . Lh~ c:.lrri er nm.... t ;:o;<;ue [ I) d 1t~ shif)flCl J

".,ILI~ )p.;.: d- bin Ilf 1.H:1 1I~:I!: \\I]icll. .11 IlLlJ1littl l l0 111(" lhJ.I [l r.::ubr!'l 1L' (luin.:u 11 11&r 1"',III';J..l\J'i:I]l ll I ~I" l lm ;'Inkte. m1.J:-.[
~mLC Iln~ the ~od!'o "!foe r~n h(l:mJ'1 n.JnleJ <:h~p nr ~h:pr;;. ;ind ftlC Jj.[(~ or d:l [c~ or rn:ld;og. If flit; COIrri'l;r hll ...
J'Irc\'~I~~I~ I Mle~ TI~ rh, 'ihiPJ1t:r 01 hill r~r hLill n~ rgr llB ~IIC Jrru:nl or ti l ll:! \\'i,h re~pC'L'r r l~ :1111\ nr:"uLh ,!:.[KxJ'I.
()n re~J ue.'1 1 Ilf t he L.::lrricr tne'" _hiI >~)I: r m u l!o.U rn:nd~r md, c]ol'umt:.1lI I n e.~h. Ul,l.."C ti 1..-.1 ""tJj ppccJ " bi I1 (~r bdlll~.
I lle (".lI1!'icr mi.N :.lrr'W!nd LJI.~I (1t'e:\ juu..'1)., i.:..sucd dn('urn ~l1t i ll IJfLlet 10 II'lCt:! L L11 ~ shIPiJ{!~:!Io IlL' II .:r.r111 f'(.It u ""I'UIJI~ed"
iJilllJr lCldi Il ~ if. ,J~ ;JllIC llllw , ~ ud ) ilo(uJl1t;n( if1(I\Jl! rO" .J11 [he in f(lfmlt( i "required [0 Ix; cQmulnr.:d 111 ~
-,hiPI>cd" blllllf bd,"""
,; nl~ ... IN::"l:L" in I lk I ~ill Hf1.JJll1.!!:.lJftir~ 11; Irl(,.t: IJltnllUI,tri'l t'cJ~In:lI ri l ul 1111:"1 IwridcdtAoi'l 111 1' ,111<::1.:' rl~ I~I
chLi:ru((CJ I~f [hoe t.! o[u mctU!J~ ~ blll tit' Lldmg P('~\ 1t1 cd rh;1I n rll::.\t:'fTtr I ~.. n\C{"I'i rl1C' rC:lIu~ rc:mcJ1~" ~C' ".IIIr in
p"Jr.lgf'.I ~11\ 7 or ';lfTi{'l~ I,
, \ r1.idl.:." 16, BiU" Ill' lH.uiJ~; n:~r'''flLiIII i1li UI ~tJ C\ i"'~1 Iliu."y I,;fT~L

1f lh~ bdl of lu.dLn~ ('Onlll rll" p:Jrt lculur5 CQm:cmi n~ I h~ ~erlCmJ mmrrl", It:''.Iu ill ~ lTUJr'ks. nu rn bt!r 1,I' I1.. K kllp"eS () t"
plt:t:t::!ii. "H:. i ,~lll ()I gUJ.nflt) of t he:' ~ K1~" In-dl . ~~ l"';:lmcr tu (.Jt""t:t pctS'JIl 1:"..'1;11IlIA Tb~' hili (Jrludll"l?, ~lIl hi~ hch.llf
k(}o\~ !o: l)f ~Il.'" rclJ.C) II ~ h l (' I-trCllI nu..; [0 tcl..l"'I.1C"tT d ll tl f ,r ;it'i.IHiLrck.' 1 ~ ~~J'C$Cn1 ! he .!!fM/!J'l ;.c'lI ' l lI~ I;~kll (r\ 1.: 1 fir,
"htn: ;1
-'It'rlpr''~\'I '' hili ' lfl..Jlng 1'1 io.::"ile-V, 11 1;.Hle~. (I t iffsc i:t.1d (1H' w.L..n,.mhl~ rnr:tlnJl il r t=lu.t::ldn~ "m:h p;:!n1L"uL.rro.;. rh~
currier or ~uc h mhr::r pcnnn mu~t lnSt: n ~n rhl:" b.U t.r I L1lJt n\~:1 n:scnulioo !fpecifvmr:. l ~se i llUU"trTUl.:' ics. r;mumJs ()f
!'I\Jspitir.11 or th~ :Jb.!.~ uf H!~l"OOu ble [lle'..lQS of ~ 11~l' ki[l~
/., 1f rh.: i.';.rm e:r ,lr mtu:.r PCr.>t:1I1 i.. "un1J.;. I lit: l"!Ii IJ [If lad log rill Iwo; Ikh:.rl r f~l il.. ltl f1ifJh: m~ du:: b ~ 11 fir bdit:'r~ lIu.: uppUI't:.Jll
l'tmdillHn n FIt...t' ~1OtI~. FM.! m.. t:I~rncd I~ I hll,~ r~t"l etll m lIH: bilhJfll.urtl~ t hLlf Lhc gtlJUd:i '\\tm~: ill ~Ippmcnl gllod
{'CJnt.lilruJL,

J. E:H'trn fo(l'C" p:!rtiC'Lli:Jr.o m rc:"i()ccr nf ~\ hil:h :llld m [he: (:"Xtcnr 10 , ... hich :3 rc,c;;:al.~.][ wm pc:rmLtrc d tmdr:'r fY.It:lIA"r.Ep h
(lr ,h]:\ :Jrrid~ h,:.I:\. hc~n e ntt!'l'fti:
t.l) ,he I)i 11.,rbdi n..!!: i~ Jl(in~l frCIC C"\ idcll'CC f ,he mkmJ.! o~<r fi r:; wncre'l S"hI~lP(:O lun ofludln,g; 1~ 1:)."'>11t::d, l (~clln~
I~ I he: c.rrrler ,)r I~ ,l!uo.:h; U ~ J I:! !scIl I ~d In the ,1Ln ~n l ~jc.lL r ~:1 nJ
(If) rtn'lI:t Tt _ [he {;( lnrrJt' b..' the (;Irr ie;: r is-l'IlH :ulrni:;:r;ihk: it' ltle: hMII f lfl;l.d ina!!: hL1.~ hecn rr.ll\..,fe"red tll i.I [Ili rd turf'\<:
ilH.:llJd.n~ ~1 cnn~I!lrIcc, \\ htJ I n ~fJr:r J f:::Jidl h::IS OCIc..-d in rcJi:u'll't: Cm I.h l:! dC.liCriptioll or:rnc: ~ood:s lh~[l:'i n,

~, ..\ 11lL1 (If JIlI(Jil:ll! ~~ 11idl YI


' '1 filII , it" IHra'io:.led in r~I"Jj!!,m Jl h I , ~Llh l 'lt1ri:l gr,fp' h (~~, nf un. i le I'=::, '1cr (l'i rril Th: f~I~l1 r or

orl"!tenlO~ .ndll,;!IL Ihu r rr"t"l~h[ I~ ['); 1 ~"lb l c 'lIY The c n'ii,!!ncc nr dllC.S nor So;..-t f'nn h t.h::murrJ.g.t: incum:J at the ptln
r:rfln:.,dinp. pavlibll! hy the!- mruiPlt!~, j~ pri rn:1 f:Jt. ie I!I i.cJ~ n ;:e lIhJr no r rt:"ip;ht tl!r ~lKh dCTlli utTU~c i~ P'' '' ':i blc IJY Ili n!.
HO\~"f;'t. c-r. pI'(H)f (I) [~ con!r.Jt\ l~ [lie C"..JInt:1 ~ W I[ ;)r:Jmi ssible \\~hcn th e bill r ~1 (l iog has OCCI1 (rons.terr'.';:d [(1:;1
lhl rd p!l.r~ 1n.('luamg .1 comjgnoc. \\ ha In wod (Jlt h h:lS J'c"Icd In rc lr.mcc on rh .;:: :lbsr:::ncc: in the: hil i or bdl n~ ot'
;lJ'I\"' rncl'! il',,,'lCllr],. ,. n

Art..d e t7. Gu afUl1t ~s h I hc.~hipper

I. Nrrr
"1 lle .. r i~ d l!t!rned w h.I\-e b"1..t<.lrun lel"Li [{J t h!! c:mler I hI! .I t:mr:.lr:\ llf 11:.11rn.:ul!.rr.s rdlltin~ t[l the _~~l~rttj rl!J.t1J I~
or Itrc- ~o:,'IUJ~. t he-iT 1IL:.rL'~ l~ullll}(;r. ,\-c:iWI'I: I1IHJ L.ju..ltI1l()' .1:"1 i"u rni :'l llcu ~ trim rl'tf' in:'lot"tliim in ,hi.- hi ll ~lrlwl.l i 11~. h
~ hl rr])cr m lJ.~1 lru.i<!"mnif" the ('V.l1'icr III!'~i n ;"O: r I h In!i!t rC~ ~ 1 1 r1nil!; rrom in:TC'C'tlrocic:'i in :\uC'h p;lFtiC"ulaf'i. The: !ih1rpr::f
Tr;n1;iln!i 11:II:I[e =\'C n If T ~c:' bil l fif h~di n.g hJ:i br:-en rr"m..~r.: rr.:!d I ' hi[n. The riltht ()f the cr.nli;:r tu st] h im!t::Jnnit)- in
ne) \'\o""::I'f limn' his ILl b il i~' um-1c.1cr tilt: CUl'l1r.1t:t ('If Q:Jm:.t~ b).' ,SC:') [Q :~ r'l~ pcr:';Ol'I. i) t:her' tll:1 1~ I he- s!-tlppet.
2.. ,\rJ ~ICllet IlrJWil r.lllt~ rlr ,Ij!;rt;r:=;mt:m li\' I' hlL:ll l ll ~ !lhlp r~ ' unu('rlukl!!-i ,n il){lemllif"\ (hI!' cllrri ~f !Jgsli ll:!>[ I() 'i~
1"C!,UII ing rmm rhe lsslum:c of rllt: bill cif Llotl i n~~" me:
C.I1 rric:~. or tJ... !J person octirl ~ 01' Iij5 b=h:a.1 il,\'illlout r
.e"nr:~ing lJ re.... ~f\:JlHJIl t't!'l ~if.in!:!; tu p'.If'l i cub r~ fLl"J'\j~hed b~ I ll(: ~hipJ't' f for u ~r r iOI' in (I'le bill or
WdJng. {If m roo
apf.)!)~n[ ('t"tfldJuon oi (he ~.s. is Ir'flla ill'ld () fno c:ll'c.;.r, iiS ..1g<llm [ ~I 'IIY lhltD P-.:l~ IncllJdll'lg J tln:::.i,gJ1~ ,IQ
"vJ,()m rhe bill t)T bdi;-.g 11:1:) been (ransfem::cL
J. Su..:::h u fett~ r ftf ,!{IJar.antc~ m :3fQ'~l.!menr is "tJlitl :as :1g.itrtsl I l L... -!Jllppr.;.t ull lrn rhe C'J~' ! r.: t ur [m- per,,(,lfl :J.('0f)~ ()f!
his tJ hair. b~' omini ll'!!; l.he '0 11' pa~uP~ ! or [h~ IHlIcl c, Illrc~d'l; to dcfr:m d:1 rhlm p;!1"l)~
rc:sen-.r [IOrr rcferrc
Inrlucbng :J cfinslgnee, '>1 ho !ICT~ In rC'lbrrcc on ~h.e ~esC'np(il)f1 of the g1)(IId~ In [ lie III I! flf I~din g, In rhe: bl'1.t!r C"Jst!' _
if the n:st:'Ir"Jlinn omLt~t:d rt" llI1 ~ tt:t l Witt'LJltlt1.furni, h~d by thi!' ~ hil}po2"r for kru-r.: rtiol1 irl the bill tlf l<itlLllg, 'Lh~
c~rriGr hLl.~ n il 1i~ l r of i.ndc:l nlll~ rttU}'l the shi rJ,Pa pur:..\Jr.mt m iJlI.r1:Iglllph I of [hio; il rlkC.
-l- . 111 dtt: ~ ut" in [ ~l1 ded !"mud refcrT~d m in p!<Imgr:rph J of r..his ~n[de. t'bd c:mle r IS Li;a blt!, wuhou t t111!. berlt:ii t n(
l..he: limluulo rr IbIf[j;:lbdil' ~ru'lil tlt:d .hI lfIl lti:s GOfl\,Fi::frtH1n. For tI:te lo~~ Inturl~d IT}' IoIlhrrd p'Jr~', lodUl.Jl f\I!~~
CQ lbl ~lt. tJcc-.Itl.to;r.:; ht: hil."( .u."'1c<1 1J1 rclblm..:c: t1n (he dc.~rr:ipl~l1n I') r rile goods. in (he biU nt" 1;1<i111g..

107
HAMBURG RU LE!>

A I1 M.!1i.!" I , I \UCll l nen'l.~ f)U1L"f' 111:10 hill... or l:adl' tt-


\\ h.",n.; U L,mier i\."\II01.1 i l~ll\Jnl ....m I)llltl' thml U hl ll llftu.t ll1~ In u i ~ Ic:. rt,-c , lit:: r 'H ji lt, tI rll . ~ u ..h tld!\; l.l.lrm:d. ~h ,.
(14I1lU II ~nt j:, ~lnrn.J f:Jt. le e\i~knl:1; nf r.h ~'fl :;ftr.-l\Ill ut {he llJlnr.."a:l I'!.:.Irr . I" ",,:J .H)! I I ht' r Ik"'~ U",-f 1'1\ rtioC LJ:Tri cr
1.1 Ilk: J1l1tttl, a."t I tliCR:TIl dl:..'iLribcd..

I Dk .." r"... kr.d It ...... 11'


1,.1..:wIb;,:(', '1"<\)h a- tI:M: ~tlCT. rulwn.. ..I 'tIIlh I..... 411 "b,~. I" .:1\\"''''''' "m~ I... d1C'

"Ul"t~C .Ix: CIfI'Ia I'W'H bier _ha(, idM:' 'II\~dJf """ Ic.':r It.: d.n ",h.;n It.:,.. .." ",,"ll"'lbf..it:d ~"'\.T U~ .be
(11

llllfh lJ1'Jlol'C \ULhhUlt..h~(1'''l!risr-1m:Ju...- c\kklJt~fllllht -.kln~"I"'Ih!; IlI,;.t,lr.hc., .. 1fj ... , ....."-nlI"


che &x ~nl f,rn..~III'" 'fir. if f1D 'ioUdJ "-:wncnr h.a.... llC01I ..,.,.,.,..; I 1II., ..d '-'Uf.J1 .. 111
! \\1 ...... 11.: 11 ..... 0' ~ IIJD(~lIIun:ru .. rh.: 1... 1I\.'lMlIIIt\ .... I~ph 14" 1.hr..an1M. ..it .. "" &.l~ ... ,illI~ ... II.M:C
In \\ un;t 1\ f\ltl f.1\l'" 1I\;lb.1ll I, L~'Ur~' tb\.....lIrl;l m.. dt'I Ik1i Ihe' " h'YIn: ~ tl\ 'f W ,~ "-'I'II.~
\. 1I t ilL ~1 ,.IIt: 1,( (he: eond":1I me nm::: ,~ "'CfC' tuoocd 1\t.:( ,., the ':~n\4~KX." tu, ~ ., Ik \ul~ r 1I!! .. JOtnl
"-l~nL" 1l1li 1Il\1'I(.'Ct.lIll1\ thr lunrs_IIl,niccm .....nTln' Ot\.~ 1)414 l~ l;11.\; 'Ir'II'I.'~M' d",'l\.1 "",cn ~1K"'III1r'fI 'ULh
... tlr. -q uf. 'IU""")

111 I 'le CJ'iC If : m , 1"IW. nr .:.t (lf'rehcndcd It....... .: Of ~bnl~'\:' ,JI'-= l'.UTlt:r ,u"-.! thi.: '1I'4l .. l j!.rM:~ I11U \t ~'t\'t' ' IU tcJ:.o.thl .IIAt:
f"~1 11 ( Iii;!oi rt I '-'K./) 'JElI".':f ~JI" Im-llt.1..tl~ !':It'ld L;lU'IDg tic gill I ,
1" 1\11 l'olMllpCmm i ~l n. :\h..lfl
he pa\~l hl c fiV kM I l~ l lln~ r"lITI Uc.: 1..4\ i ll dldl\t.:r'\ 1111k:\'1 ... 1"Ii,'nV l'lt'\ I M,:'("11 ~I \ t: ll ill \~ nl ilV:
IH tlloC C-lrrlL:1 'wil hin W c.'UQSt:~u r i'\-t! (1;1\, Jf~er Ihe d~ \, Ill... 111(;" J..~ .rJ-; \1r It.: " ..J H.k~1 u\~\r r~1 Ih ~ ~'II "'I ~JI.
", I r I hI.! ~I )lid,; h.i1\C Ixx:n lkll l t:mJ h'!t IJIl Ul.. t uu~ QJn c.r111\ nlll ll'~' W\ L'11 \link .. 1111 ~ ,1 "u,' I~' 4" Ilinl "ilmll IltHL.: t h~
... 111ICdfl'C"I \1 ... i ril h:Jd 1 ~l! n ~;ftt:n Jj) , tJ.: II.:;JfllL!r;lI1H.1 ,Ill"" 1'.lti(.c~i WI I I \1 tllo!. I,.<.n'fl("r 11.111 hlllC ~.rt,!"'t Il~ ir ~ ~11! ~
' Lld l .1Llu:d C'.t.rt it r.
'I '1~1t:~,- nnrl<-'t t) Ifls~ m L~Jfn;.t.Rel "'I,rof illf.\ IJ1":- 1,t.t1lL'r1l 1 nLllt Url' 'll" I h e t""", Ill( Irlll1 L. l~ , I'" ~hil,;lI III ~\ H~ 1I1~ I ~' r 11';"
urrlcJ ur jJE.'uLII curlier 11 . rh~ ..hiPfll.!:r n lH lluer ,hIJri l,lO \.~\ll'ft.,,-UI i~t,; tI r\i'I :A(I ~ r Ih,,-', 1. 1IIJCUU; Ill' ~V\ 11 llJ'o~ I II
J llIlt'h,l: ID Il rt<:t I h~ tlcli . .'C 1" Id' rite J;fnl). rn "1I(,'t,.,-mhim.--c H 11 11 I llal'lWJIJh Z n r ,~I IILk: .1, "hi, hot.l ~' l.:'r 1'1 Lll cr. rhi:
t r.hm: I~ I j.'!)"c ~Ur llll~ I(N.1: i~ pnmJ foot!. C\ 'iUClllC r:h.i l rf1(' c ~~mcr III tt\\: Ltt.llJ.J.t t,:ll rlk.r 11.. 1 i"U-.I,ll n.".'" Ill~ IC'I"I!\ III
,lIrn; due I II ~bc t:ndl tit' n ':V Cct of Ibt:' :o. hIPPCI. Ir i:\ "iC1'Y'..lIar"f I'll "'I-!.\rrll "'l,
.H ,;w Ih 1 ~1I'1 " 1o.'K (Irth" .I1lil:lc, l1f)lil.c ~j\'t! n 10.1 ~l""IOn ifq ll ~ till rile' urm.:" I'" ~I ""!J. t! cI,IIlICr- I IC~kdt,
lQoC llltlrn ~ rt'\r.! 1'TtlS'Cf 11( rtk: oi.,Rl~-cr U1 LiwJ{c r,r,~ "ih1r, 1).[ m ~ I IC'N lH 1~ .IIUl tlt l rh&.: . . IIII )~I'I,;"'" I ~ h.:dr I.. ~ (;m I I
111 h.nc: het n gJ\ 'n [n rhe amcr, [[]I Ihe !Il:[lL11 I.:ilrric:r or Illl dll: !dlJI'pt:I'. ft."' l lC'\ [1\ '" I\,
\ lK::k: 21 t Lin ~iUuli11f1 lli'tK'UIIII!

\m uon n.:bnne m l':Ifnl~ r."'.!):iOdl. under ttll3 ( .Il\ I..'TJUOIJ n un IU['fl:ti 11 ,L.III, .... 'If ltl'h",..1$rrrK.l'c:dar~
~u l' nUl het.'n ImUlII~d "lrilhm :J ~ or (~TI }'t"::If\.
~. Iltl.:.limlUlilln ltcri.... &:lI'1WnCn('\.'on tJ~ d.I\o UII "hM.h lht= l.MllKf h,J': tklt.. l:1 Ilhe~. h f_tarl 111II,;~ IX, iD
",ben;: IID~,\ h::n1t' bxn dclI'-ao:t on Ilk: l.b.I 01 ",hllt..h lilt: l , ....Id tu\" been dttJlot"ll..-d

.1 lbe ,., ta.. d .. hnubltiflfl IUIJd (;umnr.oa:o n nut u hldctl 111 I'''' .... r.xl
Ilk.' lJt.nlICI ~in)1 ub(.n .J cb.rn as fI1'Jdc m:J\ .n .am. IIIl'lC du.~ I~ IUIIDI", ell the hmll ......n ,Kill'" C h.:rkl
$..J '" s.:.:b","", m ""Iinj: 10 ,ho< a.",..~, Th, 1'<,.,.111\;1\ Ix: fun'''' , ....1.-.1 1 diU"",,
da.1.r... llun db"'liI ..~
~ \n .k:tklr'l f.. i~mnil"\' tJ\ :I ~ .. l}cId Ir..&llIc m.I\ be lI)\l/Ct,.IIeU t"l."" ler I C\llIfl fl .n N'h~ IImn"I"_
f'tl'1j,td IJ~l4kd 1ft. 111 It.be
1J.n.':(.'cdm; par.~ If in~ IlllU~d ""hl:Jl lhe lU1)e IItIMOO 1"7\ he: l!l\" ot .he 'iIJle
\\ here pn ocdlll!!'O J]c In2l11lLJled. Ilnwt-\'C!I, rhe lime ; 1 110\\ cd Sl'-,I I ~R ItC f dl..A'l IAhd,l\ ~ l'Hll1n'';:1 l"~ mm
I ~,y,hc:n Ihc ~~n 'Ml'tUh~:!ilM.111 ih.:llon rur .ndi:mDlh lu, ~lfbi fl)( 1 1.,4_111 1111 hoi.~ " cell 'o(..1'\~tJ ",,"uh
r'f'.K-"CSIi in d'1C' ;JCl irwl =-p Il1 51 11Imsdl.
IVri -le 21. -'''md' rioo
1. II 1 JulilC'ul tJJ1.1I...Ct:d in~ rdaring \ (1 rurrillgC jJf ~JJ'i unLlcr [lli ... (:011\ t: ll t 1(111 I he 1 ~l.l m 1 I n . IAI tm {1lllllfl. nlJ}'
in!i ll' Ut c .11' rJ( II (~n In 1.I ('uu n ~\ hi t:h ~&ttUJrllng I(~ Ii'll! I:m t ~r rll(' "t.lt ' "'''~I ..rc .hl. 'ftU 11 10.; 'fnulIIlC"LI, i ('nn1 I'H::ICft l
Cit'llLl wi l h in It! JumdlClloR If \\hi:cll is ~ t"tl1-'ce-d 1':N 1C' ur ~hc foll (~\, In~ ,..1~1 (C)i

108
HAMBURG RU ~E 5

\ ..)) l ne P')IlCI rl:1t pbcc (,I hu..'lll\CS'; I~I tJl ,he !J.I~-n ...'\: dr.cr. ."lIl
. dill.: IU.'U,l 1 n, .. 'm'.l 'I.: (If Ill l.h:h:n~Lu'lt.I'"
(1.) It'll- III.K' \.\ liCk rht: LUlllr.k.:1 \\ i.I.... m.rt.Il:~ prm it.kJ lh;..J t the: Jdt:nlLJII t tl.l'l Ih~~ ~ pl..fl.~ I~I hlhirw.-, III"JI'I~ h I IF
~l!t'fl rhrwL!!h u h icJI lh<; ('flflrt',K-( \i.~ rlWC: tIt

ft-. dJl..: P'III" Ilf Iwrlln~ .... dK pun cl dt!iC~~ [lr


h') ,JO\. :JddllW1l\.,lI ~)I' ;c ck5t:!n:]{cd 'i)( dUI I""j:1I1'1C." ." IIM! t .. III.r.kI ..- ':J'r~ t,.,.
! f .. 1 IrI\'Io Ilh.'I .. ,M.I'n~ .ha:: ."'n'l..,fl~ pfI~ l'I_lIIl\ tllhL, ....'1... le...... .llL1t1.1 n ..... I l'l.. III"I~ II'~ ItlC '\.-111In" .~ i.lJ1\ 11I'Jf1 ,.,-
pl... c In J t J1I1fr..JCt.n . Die Jt ..o.lI.'h lhe il.:IfT\I'~" 'Cl ... !ill" (III-.:"~ ...:1 ,,. 11...: '-.1nl{ I," IJCruul' ~ hJ\\..
h.:.1!1'I .lm."!il~ In ~ with ;q'f'lic;;ahk: ~ .llb.:. Lt... ,/ rh.u 1.11.: ;,ll1It1 ,,j tntnlloll to'4W 1;,\1. I t No "''1. I. m
\Ulh.l .1' .he l~LII'" ut l..I.: dcf~ ~ .he: .:..hiil'LlDt IfILL~l R.:1l1ln.1: thl: IIUI\..Ie lu'\ '-It' .... -. h' fine 'Ill 11k.-
JI.IO Ik 1"1fI~ rcfC1101 I In ~11h I ul dn' J,(Il:k: h'-Ilk: d.:(L'NlllliJIII'O 1f ,hi: t...m. htu l-..:f...t' .... h 1I::...... .d
Ih.,: .k:lcnd..inl manl flllnnh ~~ tII.'1C':f'" fllen..... 1 I I'........ 1111 llho ,od ....u. I1 Il.IIU't I qL.M.:mk I
..m.:m1cd In the. dam::ml m,he ~
(.tl \l~ 'j,idOllllO'\ n;:1::~"n=: (" I'h.:~.d 1C"t(in('\ '""'kT\.\ 1..... uhhi.:- """11' 1" ....1 III !ok,,,, tlllU ...d I" the (. 1n.1II rht"' pun
c. (.rlhell~

.~. "lt~ jUlIl(1..d I'fI')l"Ccdl~ reL.w'J!, IU c:-.mi.I~. "r rvooth IJl1l,kr I'U'" (4"'I\\1:Ul.Ut'II m.I\ I lft"'WU~cJ 1 J 1".il.1: n((I{
"palliciJ In I r-<r~r,Jl I nr;: of 11bdn:tdc:. l'he JIIU\I I<Jtl'\ '/lhl' I' 1tlJ.,."tol"t. ~'I~.I !,.'un '.IUIL:..:.III itl.,., I.lI.1c 10 I hi..:
f'Jn!OdtL wm n i' the ( ..:m~r.lL(Ifl~Sf;)(C'" li lr Ilrl)"t 1'\lOn:11 It{ Iml{C1. ( I'\l,. nlQ,."lHI,.;'\,

".(oil \ \'lc;r,. ,m .H .~,,~ h;i.... 1"1\';d1 1f\...r:ITU(~ 1 in .. u)lU, L~lrl' l ~h.til undcr 1); ' Jo.I,l:J'I I ~h I IPI ~ \,1 It,i, ,11111,:k: ,( \\ h :
IlJ ll,.,lCllk!n, h.I"i I ~c:n dc.li\-c..n:d m., \1 h ,I (,hLln, nf1 11C~\ "llttJI . I IL, I ~ It(' .. turrc.;d I l\\~:Clllhc.. I n~ 1Dll lI,:!I. 1.111 I~L
~11IlW!' ~mu l rd.." unk ..... tlb;! judj..lCm~nr rW rile ('tlllr1 bl;&~~ ""ill{ h lllL' li"" 1M, ll ml \\.1'" .1\":hlU,C I M" Illll CH.( I'f.. ' aHc li t
I I l1JlI l\lr) m ,,111t. h 11it: .le..,\ IJnX"et.:dlllJ,!"i :,11: 1 11 ~ l lhJlcd,

Ch1 I~tr lI\I,~ rllrl 'lu~e or" Illi.!l .lniL le. (h~ imut tl ll Cll 1 ~.r n)1."'''~lrl',.. \\ Hh :J \ I": \\ 11) I ~h l 'li l li I IJ! CUji "'~\'! II ~.'1 11t'.1 11.J~~cm(.: 11 1
i.l! Jlm LU l;.co cumidC:fL:c.l lL'i d lc .'i'UITtl l1jt {lr Ll IH."H . Illinn:

~,,,: ) rhr dlC' IlLlrP( I"1.: (,t' rh l" :In idc, rite '-cmm ;,1tit' ill1 lR't iCill I CI .I ~hf1t:rcnr Co.') 11I I 11'1 11 11 11 lilt,. 1~11i,. t.~II\'mr~. I1I CH li LTtllU
ill UIII" h~, ~ IUfIj' r\. i 11 J Il,'IJr{lJnL-t wi T., 1'r.Lr.I,I.!r.lllh , 1.1 ) 'J~ ~ hili' tt1 lde. 1"1 JlII! f 11 Il~~ , '~I" I~ 1..."1\"1 1~I o,; t lit.' ~111 1I1t1~ (If U
II C~\ 1IL'{ i ~jn.

,I;.. Nm"''''llh!>l~nd~l1~ rl"k: prYlr f'Sltlfl.'" 11' Illi:: 11[('-,.:t:JIlij.:. 1 'fa~r.. pll'" ~n d/.!,I~l.:t'hI.'IfII ",1 ....1.; I"" I hI.' I I\.H'I~". Idr~r ~ oL Lli !l1
ulli.:.krr~tl: (11I1 I r.t(.t r~r l,:JlniIgC l1'l. 'it".I h. . '1 ~1'"l'1C'n, \\ hi 'h lk;\ l iJ.ri:.!U'~ rh.... ,1. ... '-" ~\ 11 .. 1 tll .. ,1.lIIliilut IIt.1~ 1l 1.. I'I LLU.... ,1111
.jlll"ll .~. i" ell'l,::ul\,C.
;\ rt:i 'Ie 21. J\ m il l"'fltIDn
11,-':4..1 rlllt-.: pl'l.l'\oi...im~ ti th~ W'tIlIc. fUnic, m.t~ pnnMJc In LlI~1I1 ~~itl rtlr.'C:d In ~\"Tl .. n .. h..r m\ t~I'''lllC:
Ittll rn;J"r ~rVwC l'C'lJ.n.,~ w C"JJI'~ r) f 2\IIxh UfKkr 'h~ <.. t'!fWcut", In ~I Il~ n.:r!:~r 'd 'i~ rlM,r_ire. I-
Wht.:n:. ... ltuner-I'Uln OXILUm" II J1nJ\i~1Il rl:t.n d~ tc ~r"llllltw:r 1",1 ..'1 ...tull he U,"j m:.JIt) .UI""U:lhUfl .lIki.1
hlllnfbdltl,l{' 'OCtll'Ul~1 [I) the l:h:mc:r-JXft1- d,.::~ ...14: l:Ullt.l1l1o " ....."t.":w 1loi)'.J.ul'I''II'"t\.Nln~ rig. ,,)(h
(1'11'1......'"0 will..: b,ndl~ iJp .., ..hi: hnkk ~ the hiP III .......... Ita: iIi:aJfK:f "..". ..... ,1 tll'~ l .. h p"""i'\llial
rrnl .. 1.. Uicr h::n.~~ulfI:dd1C: btU urw 11,11' ~.. .., I<luh
;

,... ;J IKKr In ~ ~I.;:m:: 'Duhm ~ ,cmlOf;, ..... 'UfUllcd;

h~ th( , ...IIX :MI pi.a."C" "'(l:~.bll'k:" l Ilk dc.f(DLbllf t_. In Ih!.: "t1"'1: Ih..:n..... ,." I~ laJ .. h..u
ddcndml: ~ ...
111 Ih('" plLt.'"'C ",I~.:r~ t.be runlJXI ".J.... ~, t'lf'l1l\ud th.u the: tk-t<.:lttLnl h..t .hc~.1
,'It."" fl1t,.,~, \l.hKh 1I.c COOfr..... "'OCr ,,\.Ilk~ ..
(III~ tl '""Ht ihldln1!~lf"lheponofd~!or
(hI .,jn\ J1fJe'C 41~.~;uC(1 rr,,- fhoLt 1"-1'1 i.;c.,1 Ih .;Ubi tr.JIJ~lIl dll~ Llr .AAll:'t;:II1C:J1I
" li\C ;utJl'r..l~rrr 1111" .oil'h!Llilllcm mllu.ru.l .d ull :l['pl..- rn~ rulr;:o,; nr~hl~ {:nn\L'n l u~'1
5, '1 1'Iot rrm i'iji~lm. (.rl);HJ:Ilf3~hs ~ lIin,d ..j. nf ThiS rrrtICk-:'Itt: d .. m d tn 1 1,.lf. uf 'C\'~" .U b llhAC l l.IO t. l ~l u,,>(; If(
.J~1('t:JIlt'nL. .md [1110'" [cm, I'If J' lid.1 cbu~ ur :.I~t:meJl l \\"hUJl ,~ m~II'.... ~tcn l Ih('I"L."\\llh I Ilu ll u["uJ tUld

tl, t"
N,,! hin/.!. In tit't;:,\- >4rt;~ Ic- .. fft'li t h(' \~Hct I nl il:f1 tI_1C:~m.,;:tll .1:1.H in~ U~ urhn Li.1'l1 11 .J ... I ~ t hL 1'kJIl1l ~ l~frcJ!' I ll("
duim uncler Ihe C.'nlHr.lCt r~r t.:.:.:rriaJ.!C I~ 'il:~1 h tlS i.ri'i.C""lI .

109
HAMIIURG RU LES

1'\llT \ 'U' l '1''1.10 IEI r,\J{\ PHUV ISIO,"'S


\rti ,I+: 2,3, ( An Ilr..lL"lUru ~uliun~
\.m. "ri rLlLumn In;l ilJ(1U'.U o"-.::.un:'l-'c' 11\ '>t.~. 111 101 h,1I !In;H.! 1I1 ~ Uf In ,ltl" Ill h t.:. d, llll l ' 1\1 c"hlcn.ln I Ih
"1fnt~d "r CJ:rr~'1! IJ.," ~:.Il:5. null and \PtJ tlt.t1C I:.,,"(~' th..d It ",knl$.5llt.:''I-, .Ju ..,lh I r III Ilfl.'"",I\, lrunl (h~
IHl~\ ,,,,,,,11\.,. fir fhl.' (.lIfH'CntDllfl nM: nuDin of !Olk.n ;I Jli L[ lUll U~JL''I non .JnL'l t Id", 'ill ... lir\ lit .he nl hu 1~1"I .. nlll"l"
'1II1~"'tlfl'r.tr.1".lfot}c:1JrrlCOl,tf\\hJthiLlr'flll ill'Yrt. \ \ '~"l"un 1tk:li,utI1hltf'm(:I,;.II~ IIh",I"I)jlfCUf
.he ~r... .lJI)' SUllIW dw."iC. IS nun:illd \,.0-
.! "'\{ "~~lh"u0l.1'1 It.;: fWt",i.'JII4h.JI p.u-~I)h 1 .r.hl"lo ... IILk:.... c.arncr nLl'\ 1nt:R:.r'IC hn n; ... -. .. 4l11blM:'ilnd
uIPlieJ,n.lII1.... un"kr IhL'Io (:.m ..~r;oo.
\. \\1lCf1: ~ hdl ul bdlDi!l
rtthcr documcn. C\kk:~ rhe "IIU. ...~I Url:.am..u; b\ """. ,.........1... m I ".-unun
.m'\

d.:- ~"1fI"'1 n 4" 1I1111i (~IIIf'\I.. nl")fI ~,,"h 01.111\ ,,"' ",,,,'Ub .,",
::t "" Iemc'flI (hilllhe iI.~_ l'" "t4t11Jl~111J
c.kn~l~ .hcn::iillm (U rhcdeuimc:m ..f lhe ....... "I1Cf '. If (IO"IQk.-.:

... llhen:.he: btn".lnl 11'1 foL~1 4Jo1 lhe ;..;~tuth lua uM.:unt:d Ir~ .... rc .. uJs r: j .;l '1(11\\11.111 .... "hi h..", n1 I -jJtJ 'tied
lA unut: pt Ills: (1n::;o.cm ;,IQ...1\,':. Of it" .. ~..u1l "I IlK: omB-MUn Hf th1: ,\.t\,;1 on' f~ ~m;c.~ 1(' In PJr::I~ph 'ut
Ih. _midt:.. tlu: LlJ'T'U:r mu t 'JEf'" l.'tH11pcn~ril1fl 1ft d .... \u:m l\:t!,Utn.aJ m IMlda,;1 141 ~.\ Ihl,; diJlllunt
l.irmrJl'Il ..allu11 It I .tl1.1lf!.bncc ~\ Ith lhe: prm'Ciittn!li ot mill ( 01\ e n tu,," ,i.f ~r\\ I~h~' ,r 1'1 d..rllL.Ij.,'C" 10 Ihe 1:,,,.lh "I
,"cll i,h tor tJcl.A\ III Jch\C'r'\ llK": I.:.:ir.I'1CI mu:t. i ..UJJitl1K1. P'" c.omp:lh.l lr{'lf'll rOt I.lr~r~ In tlfrclll", tht:
Ll.Jim.lnl (or Ihe PlIrpCl-'C oJ C r(I~.n~ hl~ n"du, ,,'[oOqdctll.h.Jt i.U~.'I' 111~'Lm'Cd In the' fJCltlm ~~I\c re Ilu."
tr)I~:/oPlnr.=. rml\l!1'Um j~ Jtnukrd :l.rC' ID he dC(CllIunt."(j In olunn:llll l"c \' I~ll ll1(: IJ 'o\ III rhf' ~t,Jt .. "h;..-tl:
prOL'Ct'l';II~ .Ut: ill-"l1I UI ~.\.l

I J1..~' I t:' 2" , l ~nC'rnl o'\."'Cmte

I. Norhjn~ f1 [I,j .. (j:m~t."lLtjoll :JIII II P(~\Ln.I the.:: J.1 ~pl1L.:~[i\m nr l~nM!'ijtm," III tile rnntfiAt.1 tl~ oIITI. lgt:: If) "c:.;! r~1
mUlofml l.m rc~u ~lIn~~he IItJ,u~ m l(:m 1)f'J,tI.:n",r.d ,I\ t:r.~~,

\\~ I h 1111,,; C'\tIL: I ~1 111l1 I ~\, rt ld.: 1U. tin:: IJm\-l~IOIlJi l1'1 [J,I!'l l , nr H: III 1I " 1 fd.lll ll'l! '11lhc 11 .lt _tilt > t ll 1111: m 1ltl:f ti If IU\~ pr
rPl d w.J;Id... 11 ""'-1 Oc lt'Trnilll': wht..:tI,cr tJ I~ t..UI't'U,H.IU:c 111.1} n.:J'u loC L1 Jtll rll 'L1 I iml In gct'I~r.11 ~\ er. ~ rind The
Ifll:J1!!F If 1 ril e
ILtllilif1 ~l l tlk \,:.trri ( "1 tf1 tk:m tli~ rhe (tJt l-'iI~~ m r":)IIt.: .. llr l .llJl~ ",Ullh 1 .:1.HU rtIHJl I<Hl l11uik tll'u:n~ fIo ..iI't.IJ.I.t: I II ~,
J\"IL:k: 2.;', ()lJ.hc-r C()IW'C ll( H" l ~S
Ini", ;o ln CnlKII1 duc~ n~n mIl(Jif''' rho: rlgTI T. ,,' done., nf 'hrt' carril.:r. lh.: .h,;tUiIIl I.:Jrn,,' ,1J1t1 ,hj,;tr ...... ,...Ilnl'., un.LJ
~IIU JFrr)\idt:J for in inn::m:..uilJru.1 t.:nrrn:nutlmr:nr n...u HNu l b," n:1"fllI~ fIJ 'ht.' IUIIU .1rWI11,111.lhihr tll'~l" rK:r'dlf
...c;,U.:,IJ ln:! o(,hll~

! Ilte p"J\iw rl~ of.a-riclo II .uW 2..! fir rhi.. OJl1\t"fIh~ l~' IltJI pr"'CIlI rha: "1'111 1 U'1I1 ut the.; rn..uHLt.lry
"'1rr,,, r-.Wn., uf.iln.. other mu~u1ur:r.d rnf'!\ynrton ~ in frne.ll rhe {lue 01 rl1 .... (:lIr'l\cntmn n:bun$:, tu nuttr.:ro;
tk-.J.II \\ lEh .1\ (he . . id JTIK.:k prn'\-ld't1..I trot ,he di~tc oIrHO Q6.. lu~" "h l ~t~"'''Cft p.IIIK" tw"lJl},;, Ehclll"rlK:'I~IJ.
pb.:c or hu~f"iC:)., In ;;:,(0 mcm~ a::wd. OlOCr-t'Ul'Ul"fltlU"l I fU\\ 1:\ c;t, lh~, p.ir~'h (t. ~ nm .ItTC~:1 rhe
1"-".111011 nt fk~pIJ -I nf !ltllf;t.; Z! Ih~ (.nnlo"Cf)lleJO.

.\ " II~I,(\ WJIiU'bc; undct rJ.c 1H1i\~ urlhD.Comt:nl ..... ifJt~ ,,,,,~Il'\ J Il1. k.u In.:Kkm CM
('1"''*1.)1'",)1;1 nuc.b' InsuI 100 ~ la:j)k [or !.!All cbn~

.1 tnkkr CltlKT 1111: , .....ru Lc.m":n.... [j-!CI JkIh I'IN'I no ThinJ ......... I.uh.h" in .h(' ...... IrJ. 1'\1,k.k:4.Iocr.... .n
.2'm("ldcd b\ IIt:hc \ddlr.Jf'UI ~ tJl.'UI 01 ~ JDJIUf\ IIjf or 1.hI: \ icruu ( u"" I'OI_.n ut! I \ 1.1'\ IliII.. ;.Ift (:" 11
t .ut. 11('. nr XtJ\.lc..t ~ ....
(11. In \U1.11C." oIIULuull.J\\ ~crnmg th: lubrlin fi.. QJCfl, wnuo:. ~ukd d'tlt 'Ott. to) JJII~b .....
IJ\I.., ......hlc IH ~ ,,'hi_
ffi;I\ ~ ~ 'eltltet Ihr: I ~, (n....~fI..n Ill' the \ i.:ruu Cum C'nt ... 1J\,
I~
IlILW .
ILlhtlil' ..han ansc undc[ i.hJ: pm l,'OM'"Ifflo IJf th~ (:om"C:ntIQn lor ll' 1ft""
fOl \'\ llJch ~ c.:unt:!:r is ll5J1Ofl!iibte undcr :;!J1' mlrmoll Inf'li,al
l~ III tJd~ tu
~l1\'t'nnlli_ 01
t. dc:li,l\
(IIH"1,111.1" r't'LltiJl~ fu
In &h\ C'~ ur
IlK"
~-.tmJ~ of 1 ...xrt~""I"i liJ,tl tJxu- lu~ IJ\ x.~

;" :\'OIhin;l. 1l0illlro in [hi'. C..oo\1:JHion pr~,..t:n{.lI 111 (~>n(rn.;. IIJ1V" SI,;I.lC 110111 V'I,I, IJllt ..In" IlIk";f unc.m::lr.JIml
oon~ t"mion 'iI, filch Ut ;]Jrea<I~ in ffHl..'t.":at the date -ut LhlS r~mYC'ntlOl'l :md \o\'hlt I't ~1 .I)lit:''' rn2nJ:uofll,,' (.0 CQnfrn..... { !i .10[
rrh]~ of ~"lth prin\Jlll~ ~ .. mode: l lr 1t'.u\~piXI t'llhcr II 11 tr~U1 l:!Un Iry !'IC.L. Il us rrm' lwm ,11 "iO: rpll c~ 11) ~n)"
!luh'~(ll,11eru rt''i''I:'>l(1Po (lr :'lI1lC:rulmcm uf-.:U{'h Im~m:.ui~lII..d U III\{"nhltfl

11 0
HAMBUR,G RULES

An~ l 26. l lnil U l6,'"oulInl

rile unim of :nunt refc:rn::d riJ in ani It" of thl~ (~,"\ l:tllinrl ilIll lll: .!lp&.;I..I.d Jr"""lfl~ flJ!1H "-, d 'Ii ct,l ll\, rite
I nrl!m~mo"l;aJ Mur'lCtm. ~Un(.L ' rl1c ..lIT1Otml'l: merur~ ll terJ m t!Judt,; If) 1111'\: luh.; c.;rm\ n:~J ifl(l) (he:: (in aJrrcn'1
flf J ' ,;.ale lI('((Ih.lJAg (\~ dK: \ illu{: 1,('"U1.,h rum::nn- II[ I ~ diu; oj J~nk"t11~nl (I( (114.: d l tc.utft' U UI'lf;lf1 [he m
I run. The ,"iliJC n(;l "".I(l(Irull-ulIC!JL"). In Cl:rl'mo !lfdk: ,-pcca;d dr.l'lololn,l!: r~r. 01' .. (~.nIrtM,llll~. 'tare ~tIlCh. h a
,.k:mbt::r of I~ Im.em:nicn:JI Ml'lfICI;lI1o FurMJ 1'1 (11, .. l'ULIICd In oK{ nt..c \'ollh rhe mcthl~ 1 .. atWtlDn
~K."1J I ..... Clhc IntDn.llllru ,\I~maan rund IIJI ctTnl ~... Wh: I'HIIJC:'\L~ ti ... It""":r:)IIOR.' .md rr.:ln. IlOOiii
~nle' Iuc: <Ji::t nJTw"u.1 (.\.ItI'CI'}t\, d\ tcrm.. ci d~ ~ ~r... ~~ rll!fll .....1 (:'lfnNlli~ 'iur;~ ""hkh 1\ "..H.:t
mc:mbc:J' ".hi:
Inu:m:u.nnaJ \t ..... k!:,~ h .. nd 1).11. be ClkdL..lw In 11 dc:(ct,"II'k;.,j t", 'hit ~IC'

! "C\cnhclcu. dwr'tC ~C!. ",.htdtJ IiDi mcmI~ ufrllC InI("RU(IIIJI I \1.JtlCun 00 IInd ,,-t.o.;c IN. ~ f"IOI
pe'1nPl dlC' wet".. t"J( lhe PRI' r-III.JR'\ J~th I tfll "'R:1c RIZ\. I the line (Ii 1.,uIU~. ut .11 Ihie' urn.:
of r.r;rificllKn..a:~ .a.ppI'1"Jr.Illif xXC:"'~IIn .. .iI .&11\ llflll,; lit(; fu:t. da;Ln: 11'1:11 .he ItOllh nr h"Jllhl)
(lJ'.dcd f(J( in this Gon,,~nrioo mbe 2fJI"tcd Ml lhelr ~Cff1I.una. !IlLdl f .1:d t.:!. t,oo tMnC'1at) Unll!lo pet
I - n('{.wcrsh1~un.l0f'3/.5ntolK'ununiupalu~m .11: "~J:,hlu(,hcJPJd~

1. The mooc"" unit ",fcm:<l m in _ I ' " ~ of th, .,.,ode oom:'p"nd '" "'".oIi,."..nd J h.odr ",,11,11"'''\ ullIOid
tJim l~nuI (mcD~ nine t;UJ'\~d. l~ COII\'c~ion .he .1mmlf1 l .... .r'Cf(n,,~ llJ Li1, r. 1hZ tf\l41 .he rurtl"lf'tll
r:urTr""", I~ f {1ix made :te:cOrdiJll.t2 ro tht: ld\~ uf tht: ~ClIC COflLCnci
11tc r.dcul.;lllun rn~llUDJl~ in l~ 1I..., o;en r ~ t}1 JliIf,; iIV,h I wnd lhe: L."n\''Cf'\l~n l1lC'tUltl4,c-d In I . .NJ:r"rh ~ /
rh IS Jn li,.:.L: j:\ r() bI; moHJc Ul "'iUd1 J ffi.iJrJOCI .J!'I In t=tp~ in ; llC Il;li[ I' 1111'1. U1U;.11i!.: llf,~ C.otllr'dL-IInj:. SIlU C M fur
.J.}, \liIl~!j.iblt: rhe ~imc' n;al \'~IIIc. fOf [hC~lllO\lnlS il1 I:u'ti tlc
tJ :l~ i'\ c..'l:p l"C .. ~ed ,hc;:rc III nJli\ Qrlll,:J,: urn. (hncr.u:rlllg:
~t.:II C"l mmil rorTlmUniC:ll~ m rile: (iepo$llJJ''Y thl,; nlllJ lf.'lCI or l:.uJI;...... luli(m IKI' u n . Itl l'Iilrd~J.I~h I or tl''n)j mid~. tJr
r hoc Icmll uf' Lhe CLl'l\ emon JTK.:rulilfle(j in l't.;IOlgfflph ~ t ~I (his ~rlJ(':Ic...J:t th~ talC tnil\, Ic. IU ~ he: L,., le of ~JW':.11 ute
(,) r \\ ht: lt (Ic:PI'I!Il t lll,!! [h~ir ni~trumL:n t ~ ~r r:lli fic:',JifI[l. :l~r.:\I)('C. ~rp('lJhlllH !K\'t:~~)H'I , LW wlH;'1l l1\ 'ilillf',g
rh rn"le\\-'C"I ilf IJ,.: llf1 r lIWlljllM~~ fut in IJltru~" I"1 1 2 "f 11" ... ~nrt l(' k unl.l ~'rI I Cl1~'\-'c'r 11, ..... 11: i'4 , "llCtPi'J j::C in The m(fl'lncr
f ir !IIl..IIlh c.ilClJlarion ( )f' in tlie rC!IIuh u{ 'IoLld1 l'- I, ~~'\!,...ilill

I'AllTVlI . FINAL C'I.AU Sr:.')


lvti.1,,; 27. I lcJl0.it 'r}
"nlC ScC'C(;lI)'( ICm:ruJ of lhe , 1nllL:d ;N,UMI(l:i t!i hc::r~h~ I.k:_1IgrJi,ltcll ~~ the dL: I'U'li l~J"\ t~r rh i... (~"''lfC ru.'' lft

I. TI", r'..,..,mll)n ,; tljlt;n fur >WJ;t'"'" L", " 11 ~Ll t"" IInhl I() \ rnl 1~7'1 .f (he I lL-.... ~I.I."'c" 01 ,/)C II.IIeu
N.UlOO~ ~C:~ , ...k..

.!. Tb Con"L'nlltm i5 :subjecl tu rtlliff(;!llion. :It.\.qJ'ilrl~ rlf" "f'JlfU"o ill' ~ ch&;. ~lll1;1'\J~t~ ';'ilIIC

I
I ,,,,,,,In,Ift)Cnl''' ufr.. nfr("..hun. 3Cttpt..ma:. ~-aI ~ .a:~ :.In; I be: dcpt.OllCd "nh Ihc ~'''''''.(~) 01
.he l 'nm:d '\::1IIflfL\..
\nide 29. n........ dtJOn<

\niclc 30. r",." ,,,ID f.....,.,


l),ft (am:nOOn == 'OIn furcc t... he fo,,, d.> ..hhe month /DI~"'II1f!,h. "'f" """ of Of'" '<:or from ,he
d..a,c tf dCp(J~ill ut ~ Nrn~th imtlUf11Cfll of f".IllrllC!lll"JlIl, iIl"q.~J :c~ ...."1"'" .. or mn..
, Mt """" me ,..I"oh bcromcs GulU< "lit SLit< ill tlm C;",,,,:nh,,,, .netlhe d.., t 'Ih tkl""" of ,he
l "c.mC:-lh Jniiirrumen r of m'ifiC:fO<ln,. J ;pU1lI.--"':"'lII!-'p'U\'J1 tJI lIU.l::",.,w!tL. ltal"! (~,ftn\"t:nrtrJ(1\ nl ~ nU:, (urn: fm I~
Ji ~I ~;;I\I trf t:Dc mOlllh - Ifl"L'IrInl! lbe Olliral1f111 tl( flOC ~J:.l1 ilJh:-r tIt!,; I.kllUl.i1 Ihe .tr1I"nlflrurt' UlhUiJfrK:OI un
hc~,J( 01 (11.. ~[;J't:.

li.a['~. Cun'r-.ll-lI n~ r.:m: ...m ll ~pply Tl1l;. Jlm\,'HKlfl'S of ltu~ 'NO\ 11 U , to C(llilrJC:U nf .m! uc '~oond utJed un
1)(' Ilfltf rl'k: d[llc or
Lll~ I:.n~ mtll fUrD: of Ihi} l(M1n::nl lon ill fC~Ita.t [~ r d\.l1 St.JI C:.

rtide 3'1. ()cnl,.lnciarion of o ther con~:'eHtiOrtS


I, ! l()(Ul b~:ctjm~n~ iI G{it'l I FJttl n,; Sl ute 10 I lm; n m\'t::nrl l,n, :.fl) "J~at c 1~l r')I 1., f hI.: Illl cnlutm.1DI , :on~llriOIl r.-x rhe

III
HAI1.BURG RUI..ES

l ln.li,:UIKII. uf tl:Ttuin foWk:!l [cLjj[.i.,~ [0 Hilt", fir LuJln~ oI;:iWluJ.1 t Hru~ .~l\j 011 1. \Uf.\U ... l 192'~ t 11,14 (:tln1,.crlili~m~
rJjlLd nIHil'" fhe ( im..-ern I'T'1 I''U oftl:t:lj:!tllirp ~l~ rh ~tcpt~lr;li'" f~1' ~I'N; I~JZ"" (Stn"~f"ItlrHl f)~ 11'1 ,lc,'Un(1arI41n fl~ the "4.Iid
<Ax.'l-CI'II'UO \\o'iLIl :J dt:,LLrJtlnn mill
the dcmmciiainn L10 ttl lll cnCL"i.L fmm ~ I tc WI~ \\t~n ,hL~ (~tIl\ t.:.nnl.lf\
'nu:l'~ IIJIIU rtKtt!' In I\.':!ipt:c-t (If mal -w t.

!. I ~pnn d1C en"", llim fntrC of thjij; C.on\t:nLm un:Jc::r p~I".I&:ntph ~ uf ,uullc .'0. mhc ,kflll'riil.lt'\ 4)( .hl' r:r.n\-'::fljllOf~
mLbI nolif\ the (jo'..nllll::~n! of~Wum ~ ~hl! dcpmiUJ"\' {If mb:: 19lol (;.00., "nCK-O trl.hC' d;uc ( td1 cmA' inm
run:."(:" wnd IIf I~ I'I:MT1O gf~ Coo'r4t1I1~St...Lb III n..-"J-IIf.,":U u("hl!l.h flk tol 1\ mlt'" (In':fni Int~1 fOKI!'
me .".,.mmmor~ 1.lIld ~~lhi~ ;ana ;If'Jl": L'~lllf1lhn,.h in fl:~1 i,l I tii P,"-~"ll die
Pt,;iUlul ~~ 011" ~ I to idDcnd the InlCl11i.l (ill" 'Il ...... '0( "".Ii
I~ 01' ~..... tf u.'ft..lin ."
tdII,n~ [0 B,b,,(I,ad,ng >WDl .. ~ on z:; I'IZ4
' .:M Iml.mWIlJ:;:ntic:Ie-l. ~this c.m'~ImII.. fUrthi::! ~ nl JDI3&r..."" I 01 IJ\a.'f.1I1
e. J C :nn llKliOA""~
..... ,f" _ " obrablc. defer.he dcnun< ._.,(.Ik l"lH ;'''''''''.0 ..,.. ,ord", 11I2~ C"""'Jllion
nnJlr.cd h\ lhe I'WJS Prouxoll'or ;JI ml..'Qmum 1>C'f1I'MI of rne, r hum the cnl" tn.o (cue 41' ,hI'" (:'JfI\cnrRl 11
\\illlhcn notif\' rhe ('Im~rnmeli[ aflkJr1um of il.'i mtc:nuan. n\lri~ th Irm..'if~ (tcnad. I1 mu .., rrh 10 rhe
{ ::nnt.mclllll;, ~tJl~ tbiioi (m\'t:lIIlun
tlJ dx oclwiun of ~ .Jthcr 1004.':.

(\r1.:M;.k: 3? I 'ii'!olOin iUld WllClldnlCfll


I. \J .he rcql.JO)( ur 001 less I"-.n Oflll- u\ud of the UxUr-.AL..1 U'~ SL..tIt.:30 LO th., f .(i1 ttCI"Ulltl. d'tC' dC11UllitLar. sluJl
l.,trWcnt :.I LX.lIIference of ~ ( :""",,--, 1': !anA S....Ct1l fOI rC\ll.,Uljl, 01 ~m":t\dtnF4"

..! \JI, intlol runlt:IU of mtiftGiltioft, atu:~JtarK~ JPIII'U\'W (n ~CSSIOO 1k'.1C1!itt ~tJ fr(; r the elm.,. 111 to frtll.~ Itf 110
.UTlIl,dmcrt l w ,hi'" {;,om cnuon (~ decnlCd [0 il lJply 10 Ill !: (~n\Clllk\1 1 .1.., ~1ll4.IH.k:d,
An.li1,'lc ,;\.1" 1{c" isiull uh h e umilatio n wmK' Ulll 'i- und u n it nf UCl'OUl l t ut mu.u.:t rJry u ni1
I, N(l'~ i r'hs.mfld'nl. (OC provisions (If ;;lIl'd 11.: ,1 l. ;1. confcrcrtl.'C rl(ll~' ku 11\4.: ~ ll~I J)(l''': I ,I ,III ~' I 11"1 111(, . rint)Ll I II ,,\lCt"llict..l
111 [lrr I,I~ fllllld r:1mw.lft" ~ rl ;1 nir"1.c 2(1, m I~r ~"'II"'lrl rl lrll1p, Clrher 1111' I ~ t h .:'l f ft'lL' 111'111 "" (kr;.lttl 'I, I ~ ~lpl1" I Ind
111f ~iJlit:l c Z6 bv l)lhC'f Un iL., b. m lx:: u:mYC[1~ Ilv rh~ LI~l1o.''i, i lury in IInnrtlnfU.~ wi l lt I IraJ,tl'lJph 2 Ill' L I ~i ~ ,In'i Ii:;~
\n II llCC';Jlll1fi lit' LI lt' .n IIUU ncs: :!I. h:lU be m..ldc unl\' !.K:c o.IWh: nil tj.l\;iAI I ili~,;.. m 1."11.1I IJ!F ill ,l lclr Il.,;,d \"1I1'J~
l, /\ El,:\'i:ilnn ~.'f1Dfc:.rc:n cc. i:j to be::. crm\'l.:m:d 11) Lh.c tk:prl'ltitnry ~'hcn nllll~!ot:ot lhun Ilnl:' /'l ,utt h 41( I'i~ ( ..~ntr~(in~
St.JlO: 'itl r'C'4Ut:!iL

\, AA' do", '1111 tli' rhe ronf<..enoo mu., b<: ,,'""" "" ,,,,,-rh 'nl< m.'J,onl; ,,' ,he p.", '11lC '1'."rIJ( :;t.,.,.
!Jmc::ndmcm i:") colllmunlC".m::d b).' [tu: dcpos-Itary to :.:r ll the: { :Cmrr.ICtlnp; !-'r~tc:~ j'll4' ~ K'tc,n-,(I(:c :1nLI m 1111 rhc ~n.u.:c:\
.'liI Wl;;llt..In~~ Clrl ~w.: OJll\'01tio1l fur mfnU11:1ftun.

rl. \I i1Il'nc:ndmcm adoptrd em.cr-. inlO force on (he: flr-.t d..r" of 111e: IllIHlI~1 rl.llliA'lo lll~ unCi r ~ let ~r.'S J(U;'PlIIIllUC
(-:OO[(~un.g SL3t ~" /\cC'CpL.lIlCc I 10 be ciJal~d tn. Ihe:: U&=1'i:Ktl Ilr :It f'i:1II'JI'Ia1 In~l rumcfl t (0
bv (""'t:1 dllrd:o.. Df [he
Ih.,,fl dTC'(:1. 'nth tJx dqxtsJL:u).
~. \fler cmn' rnm f..-cc of.JJl 3maw:1mem ;] f:flnnxllng I,a.tr;:" hie" Il:t.., "ttpletlll"M; l.I~mcnr '" cnUI kJd lu
IflPk me Cnn'''fnlDl Il'i ..ImC'rKkd in i15 rt:'J2rion..,. ....;th CnrUnt1Ul~ Lt."t 'l\J\""h tm.T"")I "" lthtl1 "IX JlV'Ifl.th
.e.er ,he odropIom or "'" dm<Ildmcm n(.,,6cd Elx <Iq_..,.. .",. an: "'~ I""'"' "" .1...mo: ........m-
inurumem of ~.lIifa.rion.. !Ill..~pl3DEJ!'. ~..t I .&:.1r" m dc:prNtcd Ilet the cnr" In..:.. Ift'C 01 IIn
8IlCIIlImc:nt m th6Comt:JIUon iz.t4:analIo~ to hi:: ( .mCfllll ntcndCd.
\nic\: :WoDcnunc:iation
I. \ Umtr.K1Jn:: ~lC m:r, drrnoulJlt Um. (:uml:.fltioo ..oil Ml'\ tunc t
.0 he dqlo<'ur,
2. IllC dmunci:nion cU.> df<'<1 on 1h<.1i~, cU,' of rn., montb 1Dl"'" '''I' the Cl ,,.,,,,,, " , " " " , ,~, ,...,
I'IDtIIt IKWI i.s ~~'Cd~' Lhedcposi~ Wbere II~'T pc:004J D "'l)UJ(Kl.Il 11'l1e ool ili non. u"te' deDunci::.no,
, kes c,ToCl U the ""1"""I0Il or . cl! \"''11'" poood .r, . . ,",ulk,,,;,,,, i ,.."""d "'" " .. dq""i,-""
none: Jt II:JmhlJl"J!.i ,hi.. thr~-fin' &~ uf \ tan::h.. ()Ile Ihuu'Mlnd nmr: 11Uf1d~ ii.tltl ~""\c;:.fI'" ".~11. In,il <ll:in~c onglnaI1 ..f
\\')uC'h lite o\r.sb.ic. Chi lIDC. Enp,l~h. FI\."'JLCh. Ri3SidJl SlIld 'p.a.ni:t11 1lC:X1' lUe c~u.ul)' IIUlhcmlf,.',
In w:ltn y, 'hcrt'ar .hi!' ul'1lricmgned pli:nip01l:nr1;]ric:.~ heing dUN luth OOI.c:d I", t 1lC'lr rC'l~tl"'t" (if" r:mmcnl"', h:wc
'IWtcd Ihe J10C'!;f:nL t!u11Vt::nt iOll.

CAmnVin lInderSlttlldin.,g, " dopl (;(J t,.y l }1 e nilcd p..tion.s o,l1 r~1 . 1~'; Oil lh ' .u ..,..h:u!c H .(MI,d " h Se;:.
(AI< F.ll'JI 13. on n e, 11 ),

112
HAMBURG RULES

I1 L't Ilk: ~ Jmmnn unctcr; t ;;Ul~~ lnf: rhirr the lillli.Jil i~ or [~ ~;irric:r l.lfldc;:t 11w~ { ~tfI\'~n~ l (ln l~ I t l~LI (Jil rh(; ~Jr J I~p l e; l1f
IJrc.\UmLrd f.lull UII' nq:,k:c,_ "Tllio; mc::1n." (hal.:a~.1 n.de. rhe bun.! ti l totllof rL:.\~i'I. (m (he c.:1ln'k:r l'JU~ ~lfn R:'qlCC'[
<'Cl n =.
lhe INLI'i>iOOS uf tJae Com':11lioo modify rh' rule.
11 .11

Iksi~~tit .........c"tl ~~ th. UnilJ Nntioos COl1f<rUI"" 'JO 11", <::..rriJ;1j/<: .. ( ...;od. b C<l (NCO .l!9113,
" ~,,,,\. 1111 )

n.c tinned .,'" GooIcta1tt on ,he (~ 01: Good> tr, Sr...


"'!I)IIJlg .. nh \lI.tpa: . llbe killd rM1.L1liun CJi l1E mler.JI RqllUhlN.: n'(~man .. Co 'hor..att tht- (",.onrt'rmct: tn I UmoolJ;,.

I\o:or'l: ..."'" tl t.he EriIi,II:S pba:d,. ,he d...,....J ci.hc c....rtrOll"C JIld .he jtCnctW> '" 01", f1c-,..,...-cd COl .he
""''''I''nh I" .he ( ....n .. IX'" 0/'."" mIa:Jt Rqtuhlr of{"""""" ""'" .... ,he """ IIIJn...,.,... ., 0/' lI:uuburg..
in IV> mc&.~ tflll'llml1Q(allU the :.ucttn er dx: c.:...rcn:lk"C..
h.....,.,.,.. ", R"1I1ud< .,. ob: {;u.,:mn"'nl :mol po:q>I<Q( ,he t<-dcr: ...1>1.,( ( m ..... lIIId
11 'n~~c<d ch< C""'''',, .... on, C cll:w.h Ill' Se. .... tI.. d
I!RUm '..i..IUb liImmrum on Inn:l1ut-ilnJl TCIidr IJII"" t {he rcqUClI of the: \ nlled
..r. ".",,1:1\'.'" 1'Rf""'Cd llV.he
1 IJIOOI :onrcrcncc 00 TII"3dc
.od [)""Iormcm.
I:.:lf~" ill! ~uludc:: fD iliI::: ~ lrulqi liIKw1'i- (.DfIl1tlI.');'tlW' Ufl I nl~f1'W.I.M1I\,d n"/tuk l...,;i~~' and '11 ,hl:-l 'nllcd " 10:\
(s.llrcrcncc 00 Ihide .md De\'r:loprncnr (or rht:ir o4,Jt'it~n(hn l"'OllrnOOUllP HJ the lmpllil Utlll1 uAd l'ufTlll,.,i. lion ni
.," I.... or rhe ..trio of ~ "', ""'. md
I1),,':lIk. co J"u~1C.e th. ec..,=noo :Wol',aj hI' 'he C.m~' 'lC"'" Ul": "I IN !" " I) .... ,~ I IONS (ll)N\~NTlO
N ' lli F.(;\RK[ CEOFGOOu BY SEA, 197K-,nnn
~k'O)tnmend~ rl131 II-w: rutc~ embodlcd (h:-rc:m lx: knol.,.n thc' " I tA'" l li~ fHt j R ll l.ES",
ft'unJlcr im(nnntltlon abo uL (he Corl\'cntlun 'm ay be ub trunl!d fmm:
'J t :rr'Hl\L Secn: tuC"i.:u
1'0, I lu~ \()ll
,\- l olOr} Vh.:nn:.
,\LI'IIt.rI:I

I~b U561?
I~ +-1.\ , 21 .\-10 5S13
I"L + 4J I lt345 oIOIiO

I 13
LIST OF COUNTRI ES APPLYING THE CONVENTIONS
(.~M'Oli(JJI ~i)lIIu'n ( ,fJlR'(Jdlt)1I
11 \G\ ~ L ",'vJlhu II\~IMI ~r.
I LIl.II' 1.... lu It 11.1 I '\ ""1\
.nAI .... kh Il\G\!E. .~ ...... .." it ",.1 , u ....,,
....... Il\I;\
\,........
' ~"It illl.11
Il\(;U,-\l'
11\\11111.
H..\[~E
Illl'\ E-
" ....
\1.....11.
,
~ q
11 "\1111 RI,
I1 ,I I
111<.11
II\C,II \NIl'
IL\'\I8t""RL: 11 \{I' j
I LILt M lSIlr' , I~I.A 1111.1 I \1 f!I'
1Rcrr!......
IlVii\
Il\I;\ :-\Nf..'
'" I, 11 \., ... , IU,
11 Il.( I
Rr~l'I.u
IQ..A .........
11 \Cot [
I \'\IBI1\I, ""i'-Dt..::rttMh
... 1,,( I
11\(" 1...\' f\'
Il\m.oJI. \t}(dtltta ldr".hJl\,- Il\Ll E-\lSRl" 1\C"\4 IJILM'kJ 110\(.( L\.~,n
nfltull'~ ~ 11In..I" Il \la l;-\ lSIW' "I~I" I 1\\1111 ~I,
II I~ .. I L\l.l (It... ~ 11\(.1 1. \"""
l \g~.nol~ I L\.\181 'RI: Olll;1I1 11,\[.1 I. \ 1"" -
( .lrnl"mt 11\.\18_ ~R( ~ ' ~;I;pU.1 "'-.I~ f .l!I"C ~ lI.\r.1 I
t -'lfULiJ 11,\1 ,IIAl,m = 1 "'II1~ij.n I1\1.1 I
( .Jp'-" t:;:rlk I",bhds. I-lU,l E In., 1.... ( 11
t .. ~mu!l 1"l:mth I L\L115-\lSIll" Pflllq'I'ltK:1t 11 \{., t
Ch ~Jt' l l..\M8l lN.O 1\11.&lid 11 \(,' 11' \. 1..,1t\"
nit! I L\C11I;-VI SIlY= l "mu~lI[ 11(.111'11"" " li \l 11\ -
( ;/'1"'1 1,. 11.\( J( II!. Iflun.l" 1\ ~ l m Rc.
011111 li /\[;Uf ~J I hlll~ ~ f~l (Kl l l\.. l,\'l,& 11.
: ~I'ru'l IIM,UF. ~'nt',l!JtI I \II I1 IL RC.
( .<i!I;'C.'I. l oIJ::: lI ~Jl tll L II,IMBI .'HC; !l,.:"Lt~' l b I \~ r ~ 11\
~J..:~lm. ll k 11. \ (,~ IFi-Vlsm '*-:n-..a I ~IJI K I \\ I IU fw
l.Htlnlnll:,t[l I-t..l" I L\t;t ll:, SiI IL:J.I1 li t.: 1\(, ( I,I,.'nl' -
.,X1..,ldnr I Ll liUb-lls m ~"'~ Iil" I,\! " "-
.:..011 1 1I. ~\l I IL ~ (; ~ lulllll lll l .JJIIl Ll I II ,L I,
.')'lllItI,\ II,I(.I 'E= "irJI1Il1l IJ I 11" I"
.. IhMl d1 h,JUIILI , 'H1url1 \b... 1,1' ,\
IANI1 -
&; 1){'''PC rtC/c l'lt.:1C'o H . \{~l fF...\rJ5H'''' ")I.utl krl~ 111,1 1,.11'111
r~, f L\GllE St:1~lIIl 1\( JI I',
Iolf1Lnd fLIUI 'E-Vlsm" ..". I.....IILU Ill " I \hlll '
I L\t,11E-VI ..,gp "'m(~~1:!1 lVI I I'
"
'.....
t~mh.A

roem~lIIl
,.h,gu
IL~\I~U~G
II-\.\I~"~(.
1111.1 F\'lSIII=
n \<., F'
'il l..AA:.t.I
~ \'i(1IL.cmc ~ (.rD\,Kl,1t
,",~n
",,,,",,,nd
ll<,l
lll,[
IVll
F.
r
I \.'
111,[ LI I In'
mt
r~"".dI.AI flll.lr, \'1SI11 H 11 ,I 1.lhfn
I- fL\(.I ' E I_M !lV,' L-
r.rm c IlII,\ E-\lSII\' I........... It \'\1 Kt I
1......tJ ILW,t E n ......J ItV.lll1'>1<1 -

,.... -
I .....,.
f.u1nC':l p.;

' .... '.'11


Il~[1Il
11'1.\ F.
11 \LIT
IUGL E-\l.~'
MI.o TIfWRt.
I"""
I.-
I"",...
11 V.,
IW,. I
1,11"11\
1I1t.11
It M RI.

.-
"- H\.\ffil"Jlr, T~ IIV,II
I.,.tood IHaT\lS1l\ 11 ~( . . ",h&a." II\I~I I \l~'"
,nil.. ILIIXE - TlIl ....... 1l\(,1 I
"\j.l 1>-\1,.11'\ ~ \' 1I\\lR Mr,
I.... Il\Cil l~ I .....11 \l\o!1\'
If II~\I""R'.~ flI'~ \fJt1 1~JtlMn I{ \(.1 I ,\1"11\
Ildd .LlCt'FjK-\l;\ T.n 11\ = ~, Il\f.1 I
I ,HI.,. IUGt' E VISlfl \"'IC"Irwm I LIl.IIA1"ll\-
11;"1 fL.\LTE'I L\Gt E-IlSI!l \ If", ,;j 11 \( ,I I
11,.t-, H.\(J. 'E-\ l S6Y 7~1;' 111(,\ I
h ..... Co.bf. ILll.Ot'E l-lld Ihd 111\111\ ~C.
~ , I ....... . I1 \l ,( ... l.,4 .. LL" ~llflh.c 1 !H 1 1~ ,. Io,;l ll' ~ \nr(I{"fl1
1~I\,In I LIC" ~\lS/lI ' (~IIoII~1 I ~ '1\ hi jM hu,'C Iflll l.)fjl",'t\Il,hJII'r IlL JL~;r..bw..

"'.
IN-nlllll
H ,\M~ ,Rr;
fHI .IIE
kll"l]:; the JIJK'" II[ I lK 1I.lII,\K, _, httl~ Vj~ rot
1. 111 1I11l!. MI.l[t,,:'Io hlll '" hh,lI Ilrr '111' 1'.IFIK'r rll the
~\,:J.I! H.\C. IE r;1,HW1' m ll(lfl

I.JI"\'II.I IIAGUL-HSSI - h1.1 ~Il up (IJ "J' l t~ t l ~l , lt IlU,,\ t: 1n: ~I .) s.,',.!'l lon. l' ri.I"'~~ h ' n:i~ n
~b; l llfln 11.\1I. I'U "RC i t..: (~II1~mI Il"lWc-.l.lLh )(lie\! I'd : i 140 {I I). ? I .. I nl.'-U.'t

114
UK CA.RRIAGE OF GO'O DS BY SEA ACT 1992
!ELIZABETH n c.

Carrjage of Goods by Sea et


1992
l!l92 CllAM'ER so

n ACI IQ replace me Bills or Lading ACI ISS5 wilh ne.... pr VI Ion


with respect to b!lis of lading and 'c ertain Olher b,ppillS
documents. [l61h Jllly 19921

E rr f}<Acrm by llu: Queen'. mosl ~...llet!t hJOSI by and III

B the adYil:e andooMeIU o{the Lords piElluallrod Tempo ..


Common .. iD this presenl PMiIiamoBl assem led, allid by
."lhon,y of ch.. same, as rollo :-
~
Ih~

1.-(1) 'T'Im A<I "ppli<'S 10 ( c foll""inl doc\llllC'Jl ,IMIIIIO y- ~


doL"\an~" c\C.. 10
(a) PO} bill or ladmg;
"""" ...... pp\loI.
tbl any sea waybill; and
c) any ship' , delivery order.
(2) References in this ActIo. bill o(ladinS -
(a) do not indudc references to document which i. In<apabl. or
Iran.rer cilber b~ imlorscmcnt 0., os bearer 'bill, by d. I'.e
wilbou I indorsc.mcn I; but
(b) ubj.ClIO Ihat, do mclude ref.renl'ecl '1 0 ~ recei~cd for shlpmonl
bill of la ling,
(~) R~er."~ In Ihi~ Act 10 ~ sell waybil l u< rClerenct'l 10 any
documen! which b nol a bill of I.dl"g bUI-
(.1 iBue. a receipt f()r good~ ~Qnl lll$ Qr~vid~nc<:SB conlfn~1 or
Ihe earriBb'" of good, by =; and
(b) id"" ijfje;; thcpcrson 10 whom deli.ery or lh. goods I, t be made
by the carrier in accord.nce with thal conlmcl
(4) Referenc,"" m till. ACI 10 . tup's delivery ordu are reF.rences 10
aJI~ document which j$ neithe. I bill gf Illdlllg nor a .l\ .... rbil l bUi
conlain lID IIOdon Uing IIIweh-

115
z

(a) is ~VCD under or f.... lhe pU'l"""'" of oontrad Ifor !he c:arriaPl
by sea of IIle goods 10 lIicl1lJ!c do.:wn=l relate., or of 1l00cU
... bid> inclllde lh_IOllds; aM
(b) is aD IIndcrtaiJn~ by lIIc came: 10 a porwn id""li~ed in t.be
documemlo d.lil'll' Ih. St><>ds 10 which lhe documcn'l Rlata IQ
that persoll.
(S) Th. Sctrcuny of Stale m )I by regulations make provision for the
Rpp~catiOD ohhis Aet to'elIlI:t where. lelea>IlUIIWlkatioo sys tc:o 0. Iny
aIMf information teelloolo., b used for effecting 1llI1l&aCUOI]J
cOr:respDnding lQ-
<al the i..... or docwn"" I 10 ... hich !hi. Act .ppties;
(0) lIIe illdonaDeJlI. ddtvay or otlJer Ifli1ldcr of sudJ a doewJlC'lJl.;
or
(c) lh~ doing of anYLiWla e.lsr ill relanoD I<> web a doeumenL
f6) R~,gu!a1iQI\S Wldff luHeclioD Cs) abo.'C _y-
(a) make ouch ltIlldiflC.llJOD of me folLoWlOg provisicmt of !hr. Act
is !he s..:RIafY ot SI.&I. conlid.m ; appropriate in connection
with tb~ ~Pl'lit:atjon of !his AA:I 10 MY case m~lioJled in thal
s:u b5Cction; .and
(b) con"in lIpplcmcolll. incidentll. consequc:ntia1and lnlD."t!onaJ
provisioo;
and Lb. po .... r io make r.sulatio", under that <ubseolion 'hall be
aercis.a.ble by statutory inslrument SUbject to annulment in PUTllUllDce 01
",""l"tion of either Ho""" of I'.rliomcnL

2..-(l) SuhjOCIIO tliIt foil wlllU'rovi.ioru ofllUs seaioll. a ~non wb.o


~-

(a) the lawful bQ~ oh bin of~g;


(b) tire pcf100 who (Wlthoul bciQg IUl oril!inal panY ID tire COlllftCl
ofCl!~&e) IMpcJlOO to bomdwveryoftlu:good.lowhich
..... WlI Y ill n:l.atOS 11 to be made by the ca!irler la uqu,1~
with Ihlll conlracl; or
(c) the person to whom ""livery or tbe !oods 10 which. Ilip's
delivery ord". ""la le, i, 10 be made in ~rdanc< with Ihe
UDdctl ..lUfi~ COnlll.i~ed in the order.
shall (byvin ofbomin, lllc hold~.of lhe bill Of,U Ill. CMema)' be,
lhe person 10 wllom delivery is to be made) ha", Irnnilfernd 10 and vesled
in him :ill rigJu. of uil under lbe conLnUlI ofcaniage as,ifh. ha~ been 3
party 10 th~1 ""DU""t.
(2) Where, when a ptrson bec:om., 'l be lawfulltolderof a biD ofladiJlg,
possessio o of the bill DO loo~r Ri-cs, a riglll Ca. agairult the carrier) 10
posses';"D "rIM goodJ 10 wbich the bill.dues.lhal person shall 0,,1. have
aay rig!>1$ fermi 10 Ilim by v\nu;: or ub5cction(J) .. bow WlIcu bc
btcomos the hol<kr of the bi -
(al b)' vir1uo: o f II'IInsaWon effected iD J'U"'UUlQC of ,l iD}
DonItllCl ...1 or olher a.rnngerm:nt! IOJIde bcfon: the lim. . hen
sucb righl 10 pas >CD otu<d 10 attach lO l""'V'SSioo or lb.
bill: or

116
c.. 50

(b) ... a "",ol! of Ibe rejection 10 Iblll JXnOD by aoOlber ptt>oD of


good. or docUIllCllI.S ddi.ued (0 the 01her pcnon in """,llllnO::
of any ruclt arrangmoenLs,

(~) The n&h't ve'led in ""Y por"'. b~ vlnu. of lb. ope'l'Otiom of


s ubJoctio n (I) .bo,", in r~lation 10. sbip'~ delj.ef)' order-
(~) Ih~J1 be ID " e$leo:! 5ybjr::l:tlQ Ihe temu of the order; Ilnel
(b) \\Ihere tbe goods to wlticlllht ~ rdCl rtllllt form a pl\r1 ooLy of
Ibe good:! 10 wbidt lb. contrlli:l of ClImBS" ""I ..t ... mall be
continod to righ ts in RSjlOCl of lhe lGOds 10 whicb lbe order
rolal ...

(4) "re, in w <:&se of any dOWlllCllllO 'wllich lIIis ACI applics-


(I) p<n<m with any inte=1 or ript ill or on reboon 10 ,ODds to
Itic:h, llIe dlX:Wllcnl rda... IlLiainj I".. or dilllIllLge iD
cc"""q""""" oh breach oflbe COOII'ti:! of camiage: bul
(b) .ubs<ctiaD (I) o.be optra! in I'dalion 10 lhal document w
ihal ri!!ht, of .oil im respect 0 tbat br. cl> IfC v""tcd in.l!1lother
l"'rsoD.
Ih. o lber l"'",on .hill be entitled to eoercise Inose ri&h U for the benefit of
lhe pG,. on who .""t.med the 10.. Or domage La the '!lmo exlent .s ihell
could I,~vc boe.n exarcised iflhey h.d bee cued in the per!lOO for whose
belIctit they .re exc~,

(S) Where ripls are IUDsfencd b~ ' virtue of W operation of


u~lion (I) aoove in ,"datiolllo uy dOCllllltllt,tbc uaosfer for whidJ
!.bat ub=lion provid.. shall euingw!h ollr ~nlillcm"'IIO tho .. rig,lm
'1IidI <kri_-
(a) h~", lbat dorumeo I i biU of IadiDl. from. p<n<m hlviol!
been an originad part)' to the )0 tnte:t of Clm..~ or
(b) in thr case of any documctll 10 wbkll IhiJ Act .pplle$. from lb.
~Yious ol'<:nnio" of thal wbllion in relation '0 that
dOClDItCll t;
bUI the operation of tha t subsection .hall be wilhoUI I!rejudIDe to ;u)y
ri&h'l~ which d"rive from a person', baving been an orlginal pany 10 lb.
con t ract contained in, or ."idcnced ~y, :<Ctl wayblll and, in relatio n 10
a ship', dellvery ,o rder. shall be: wilhout prejudice 10 il.n~ rlgnt. derivills
mhelWi e ,han from the previoUS ,Op"rolion of , hJllI ; uh,,,,,l ion in relation
10 IhJlI order.

l. -( I) W\terMub5ectiOtl (I) of.\tCIioll 2 ofth' ACI opu".tcs in roatio. llobllitla uadn


10 lilY dncwnent 10 " 'bil:b IIm et iPl!licI.nd Ih. pcr5<III ID ... hom ri&h"
In: vesled by MUC of Ibal .ubsec:uon- ~
(a) lak.. or dm!wldsddill'Ol')' from the camcrofanyofihe&oods
_ the doc:wnen t relatco;
'0
(b) "'* cs. claim mllkr the cont.racl of a.rrla pinn the carrier
ID '"'peel or an.y of rh.,.. goods; 01'

117
C. SO

(c) is a ptrson wbo, a,


lime Ixfore those righl$ were >-eslcd ill him,
look or demanded delivery from the cam ... of l.Dy of !hose
goods,
Ihat person, >hall (bplnllc or la.kimllordemailding delivery or Illlll<iII~ Ibe
claim Of, in a case faIling within paragrn ph (c) .ba"", of h.avin 8 'w e ni/lu
V~51ed in Ilim) ~comc su bjCCl1 the .. me liabUicies under that conlrlct
os if be bad been . parLY Lo t~mL C(lnlmCl .
(2) Wbe .. Lh. gooos to wwen n ship'. dclivery ,order relates form _ ~I
oDly "r r
the goOO. 1<1 wbieh lb. COlllnwl carnage ",lales, tIJ. Iia bill tit:!
to wbicb .... y perwn i Jubjl:cl b~ vi"." of lh. operation orllus _uon ill
",1.l;On 10 thal ,,,der sb:tll uclude liabililies in rcspcc1. of ll1l~ @ood. le!>
which Ibe order d0C3 DoL rcl~lc
(3) TIlls section, so for os 11 IDlpos<S tiabtl,m. tlDdu .... )' oonl1iaCl Olil
OD)I pcnon. sha.U Ix WllhoUI prcJudJce 10 \he 'iabiliLio UIK!cr the conCfiICI
of any pcr50n aun oripn.' p"" 10 the oontracL

P.~llItJonl III 4, A bill ofladill~ whl<:h-


blJI~ u! Ild,n&
(a) N'p=nl goods 10 nlve Ix.o 5bipI""i '''' board a vessel e r to
h.ave been received ror Shi pment on b"..rd a vesset and
(b) has bcelI 'igncd by Lhe masler of 11'1 0 'e El o r by a penol> who
w.. no\ !h. malIC,' but had Ihe . op ress, implied '" apparen t
.mhorlly of the en.r:ie r IQ sign bills of lading,
~h~U , in fll vou r o( ~ penon wbo Iw; ~ome th.lawl\ll older or th. bill,
be rxmclll.'l.;ve .vid"""" .gal~st the ca rrier "fllo. shipmon l of Lne goo<l$or,
as [he caS<: may bc, of their reec-ipr for lbil'menL

S.-(I) In this A~I -


"bill olladiQg", "sea wayb,ll"' Md Hip's ddilleJY order" JlJa.I.I be
conslru<:d III lICICOrdan.a: wilh >CCt..iOI> I .. bo.-.,;
~tlJc CODuact of ~&e" -
(a) LD rclal.o,,, 10 bill of' d:iDg or:sea """ybdl, m<aJ:I. the
conlracl eontllned III or~ d."ced b thaLbillorwtyb,lI: Ind
(b) in RI hall to I bip'$ delivery 011101', means the
contracl Wider Or for the p urposes of which the Wld.numB
cont;lin<d in Ihe ordc:r is loven;
"'holder", in relat,on 10 bJII of I. dmg, .hall be construed In
8c.:ord.nce ""ilh ~d = 1;0. (2) below:
'"info,rnlaliol1 lech rl ologY-' include IIDy compUl.er or -o ther
technoloBY by means or which lnfo nnati on or oiher mallcr may
be ,""OId.d or commum"" ted without being reduced \0
(IocumeDlary ronn; and
" ,elocommurucaLi"n ,'alcm" has the same mMlllng IU ,n the
I~. 12 Tel. :ommunlaluo ct I9&4.
(1) Rr: .......as In lhB ltO Lbt bold... of. btl'l or I3ding art N'r~
10 any or Ihe roll winl p<:noas. \h01 IS 10 "'~-
, .. ) pcH<In Ih n or !he bt1.I ,.'bo. by Wftue of bt.Jnllbe
person idelltified III the blU. .. I~ ~p.ig~C<' or tlJe goods 10
which Lbe billl'elale"

11 8
CmrUlg. "I Goods by :;C.. ACt Ipg2 c. 50

(bJ a penon witb po$Sessio of the b.J1 u r-esull of the c:mmpietio!)'


by delillt'ry of tm hill, of ally indorfoClllcnl or tile bill. or , in the
use of. bea.-eT bill, or any olhu In1l (er of lhe bill:
(c) per on " 'ilh po=~ion oflhe bill U I mull of lllly\rnn~OD
b~ vin.u. ofwhlch he would, hove become holder fallioi within
para graph (a) or (h) aboye bad nollilc lransaction been effected
0.1 "- time when po.",,,io" of Ih. bill no longer i""o a right (ItS
~~ai~~l lhc CIIm er) lo posses O~ of the gOOO5 \0 which tbe bill
relales;
ond person shall be regarded for tll. 'purpo'lU of ~his A.I ItS havlDg
bec4m. lIIe 1~w("1 boickr of a ill or
IlIdllli wheRVet he blI$ ileoome lliIe
hQld~r of the llill in good faith .

C31 Refeffi>re! in this Aa 10 a pcrwn' brillK identiJild ima documenl


Il!ICluck: ..rcrtllClCS 10 his being ide.oti1ied by .a descnp1l0D which allows for
!be IdentilY of the penon ioqUlSlion 10 be vaned,l.D I.a:orda.ooe with tIl"
le=1 of !he dOC1llDClD\, after its issue; and the rd'otrctlOO illleCtiwt I (3)(b)
of \hi Act 10 a dOCUJDellI'. ,donIlI),,!!1 .. penon shall be oo!lSlimed
aa:ordlngly.
(4) W,th aut preJudi,.l'Io section. 2(2) and 4 above, 1I0lh.inS in this Act
bllll pre.:lude'l!I operation in relation loua5C where lite goc>ds 10 ..bioh
It dOt;Uml!!nl relales-
(~) 'Cl'JIS" to .::dSlafter th. "'s." cflll. d(X;~m~q l ; or
(b) cannol b. id.ntmed (whether becausc they Hr. mix.cl with o ther
Goods or (or any olher reason);
a.nII rerere~ces in this Act to Ihe goDds 10 wbJcb a documen l relo, .. s.ball
be cO'!lrued accordingly
\5) Tb. prea:dtmg proVISIon. of tin Act .bllll ha"" errect withOUI
p,ejudlce 10 the .pplicalion. in relation, to uy taJC. or tht ruIes (the
H lue ..by Rules) hie!> ror the time' bfin ha., !he force or I.... by
....rl~e flCClion I oftheC.. maat ofGocds by Se A.t1971. 1971< .,

6.-(1) 1ih6 Act llliI.ybecited"uhcCam. ofOoodJbySca Act L992. SlJantnle,...,w.


(2) ~ Bills of Ladimg Act IMS is hereby repealed.
.....
(3) Tb. Aot .1u1I come lDW foro< ., the cnd of the period of two
mOnthS beginning wilh the day On wrucl\ I1 is pa sed: but nothing ill tIIis
ACI shall ha .. tffectLn realionlo any d""um,n1 Ul'lued before the c:oming
inlo fo rce of Ibis Act.
(4) Thl!t Act eX lend. to Nonh.rn Ireland.

I'll Q,"1EI) I mE U>ItTED JU"GDOl!Iav PAI.:L n.t:Wr.It


Cono_ MO! CIIocf EIuo ... tI Ekrw.prr.
Sw-, omc.'
"Oucn.~l!ClI"af~af~1

119
BIBLIOGRAPHY

(~/DfZ' Clnd edilion}. Goock. "'nJ!Uin!looks, 199


(1!urlJllJfi Ik r~J6..jr__Js6y !JINl,.'wun.l.lv. Y I ,TtKkl. (; ,ell. :1.1Ik.:. (;1", lIugtM: Cl aI..
1bd, of I-ttnd<m Prcs., 19'93.
OrilllJ:!n .\m.,. - , /(;triN To GM Pmha'. Olbhk:\lil","",1I ~nd H'lb" En .IJnd I'~ I \'1:1'10,,-
MiJ-C n.'",Ult311.-') ' 19'.1-1.
(,'rrJ,. Tu IlYufi'm,,. /99(1. Itlmberg. Ice: Pubb>h,nl; \.
1(.i.ClNitof& lJoninJmtory Crtrfi! OjImuioIHj(i/' 11rt {'CPSOo". del 81m(l. Intcm.""n,1I (J'J 'n~f(,f
())mm n::'t!.

Sob of Goods (:u,.nm br St:II, Dl;baI iislu. Bu" er\\'/lfl h . IY'XI.

.'1",,"" on r.hllrlrrpilrM and BIJls .; URfing (lOlh edi[ion) , IW'i J, nUn'ro"'N.lIld "oM"",,<;,, .-., :!nu
1\1II,-wd l, 1991>.

\h;/)/J(J(nrf f}mJl",m ,','!fTT}ryJ A GiAdr 70 (;ood P"fl('Iirr, S vern :md NUlIII of 1~nW" 11,1 1'&1"\,"",,.. i.,illll.
I\ n 'hm"ge I......
.." 1'1')7.

.'111'11 " rtS~ifJJlhIII. \i'IYK'" A (;1Ii1,1,o 1. (iow/ Pmllil'r, Sl.. rk~ "nd Nurth "r EI1~!.lllll r'& I ,ss",,,iatillh.
1\11 '!1uragc !'res. 1943,
'11v JllimlOri.tmnl!oumnl,! Slipping IJ~, Un)'d'~ "f Inlhm l 'r<:s~.

Trtw (Jon.,."h (4 1h ,e d i,ion) , \~'ilford, Cq;h lin ond Kiol bnll, 1.I"y'!', (or 1,011(111111>;-" .., 1'19.1.

rO'l(lgrClJtrrrm, Coc)kc. Young, Toylor, KimbaJ l, Manowski and I.... rn! rr. LltI,d', (If I""don l're"", 1'1J.1.

120
INDEX
All references are to paragraph mmwers ill the practical guidatlce and theury
sectiQ1/S. Par(l{!,'raph. numbers i,J IJj 11II1.i1't1l'ff i'n the I!l lit /1. III 'tlll'/",", S(fctiQr! and
numhers i11 grl'{'"I1an! in the fh l!m ~t section. denotes that ~hc term, :is expvlilWli ill
the glossOty (appendix ) and followed' by a mmlhermeatlS there is a copy in the
appendix uf that IIIl1l1her.

Pamgl-aph(s)
Agc:nt, authmicy of 11 ..
Amending bills of ladi ng 116
AJUe-dating b ill. ofl2ding
Apparem Older and omdicion 11 'I, lJ I. 1-10
I\s presented, master lO sign bi lls of lading I ', II) II ()/l
A,u tbori.ry of agem I J-l
Au thoriry of charte rer 11+

Backdating - see anre.dating


Bearer 184. I I'I,~ (c)
Before i,~suc of h ilis of lad ing. cargo datnage Ut'(
Blank endOlSemem 18:; (a)
Blcnd ingor L'O. tninglingof oil cargoes t, 224-227
Both-ta-blame collision clause 1_ 0

Cargo claims
C.anicr - sec: imrodu"tion
Cenificate of origin, qual ity. quamiry
Change of de.stination I'" ~ 19." .z09. 2111, ZU . ZZ3 ,
Chatlt rer. authority of I 1-1
Charterer 's bi lts orlading
Chancrparry -l U<J-1.H
CIF 6.1-1 ,~
Cbuscd bil ls of lading I 11 [.t.;, 144- 1-I/.
Clausing, typical 41"11111 145. I(,,'i
Clay ing, distinct from endolsi ng - ~ee inuoduclion
Clean bilJ of lading 159- H l. H.J- I.Jf,

III
INDEX

!"u rag rtI ph(.t)


Clean on boord I-U
, GS!\92
('..... mingling or blending of oil c:ru:goes
Code and oom c1'lIions I~l -X-I
Common law ~ Id
Conclusil e e\ -deooe .!U \ .!U"
Condlll n. tlc!lcriplion of \\1-\,(,
.ondirion. dispme as ro I I' 147 \ 'I

Con ignec ..
Con ignmem of a bill of lading IH,
Con/!,cnbill
Contenrs 0 the bill of lading \ 1I . 15
Con'lr.! T Qf carriage 'i~

C.() [1\,(,[1do[1s and codes WH~

;orrcc ting IJi lls of lading 11 5


'lISlO nl S documenr _I H

Dtlllltl,gC a fte r loading but beforc i~,ue orhill of la ling I IX


1):)le of loading IW
D-JtC of issue l 'il)
l.kck rgfJ I~~

Del in j \ling bill of lading 1 ~.- l 'ij

Dda ' 10 the ,=1 III 19,; ] <l7


[)elil"e~~ al "ron,!!. port - = chan!!e uf desunallon
Dcli\"t:~. to whom it should be made I ?I'l
Deli,c of cargo \\iLhout presentalion of a bill of ladm LIO
Dcli\"C~' order.!
DemIse clause
Dcmurra c 11()
Dc:. oplion, "ords of I D-L>
DCl'ia'rion 1')(1 1'It
lJis h~rgc: port
,
'-
Dis U(C 3~ !O condition of C"JIgO 11 147 ' 4'1
[ ispme as to quantity loaded 1I 147 1-19

122
INDEX

Paragraph(s)
Documcnt of tide :;2. 207
Dru.~lgh t ~ LI rvey 1fIt' W I
Due d iligence I 'i1~
Durt: o;~ 11 HI'l

End,)rsernen t I H.'i

Endo[l;(;mcnr in blank 1051 .11


Endors~ng, distin t from clausi ng - sec imrodu ri.on
Evidence

fuxcd bllls of bding ~Il . ZI S


lirOST/FIO 11"10 .WO.
rOB
l:Oul b ~J of lad ing - sec cbused bill ofiading
Free in. frce om .!()(),

Freight ' . \/ . ,7 11, W'; , lII' ,. 11 0


Freight prc-paid i l OS , IOh, I Ill,

Fre ight fOl'\\"arder

GenernJ end orsement I ~'i(ul

Groupagc: bill of lad i ng

Hague Ru lcs -12 2 7 ,--/,: I . 11 1)-1 ~-+ .


1-lague.-VlSb. Rules I': .':. n/H, 11 '1- 12-1,
Hamburg Rlilcs I'~-K-l. 1 LO, J ~5 .

r landling the bill of lad i n~ 177- IIi r.


Hire 110
H.olde r of rhe bill of lading h . ~5. ~b, 1!54, IIti. 2 1()
Hause bi 11 of lading

Ice
rdent; ty of Can;e, Clause
[n COIClms 1990 6 1-66
InfoITrnld!)Jl contained in I he bill (If hiding -+ I l o-I~5 , 1(,[-1 75

III
INDEX

f'a ragmpJ.(s)
I'n.spccturs 1107
rn5(rucrions wlli hare ar V"ariance with tile ill of lud ing III~

Insumncc ."!.'l- I
I lllC, place of 1;;7
I."oe. Co whum Ir,o
,c. when

Law
Letters of udlOri 231 .
LcI~Crs of credil 1KI
Leuefll (.f]ndemnity II 1 I 'ill-I",!, ' I \-21-1,
LicllS IHJ
Liner rerms
tAl!1ding port
Loading hroker

Incc' , c"ip [
lixing of dry cargo
1 re dlllfl onc copy of bill of lading ISI;'Ucd
More (han onc bill oflading, presemed for delivcry ,Ii, 207.212. 21 l J
lultiple ~l~ nf bills nf biding 2 110,21'/

n bill of lading pr=mcd for ddi\'C I)" 210,207-212,21'1


'on-negmiattle or negotiable I -Ibl
'o(i udd I"CS:i
"orif.,. parry

P I CO\'C I '11
1'\ kaging and marking I I'}, I H -U7.lhl . H.,!
p bills of lading 215
Piu c: of i 'ue
F\)sr-daling - sce ootc.daling
Prc-d<iri ng - sce amc-daring
Preparation of bill of latling. by whom 9?

124
INDEX

PamgmpJl(s)
Pres~ure - see dure"
Pri ma facie evidence 20.110"
Pu rpo..,e of bil l of hld ing

Quality 1 1.>7
Quan ri ty, dcscripdoll of I Z7 1.;0
Qua nei t )', d ispu re as to I 17- 1-1')

RecciPI -I')
Received for shipmcnr bi ll ofla ding 1~'),
Re tla clam e l i3,
Refusal [0 ign

Said by shi pper (0 contain ID


Said [0 be I~H

Said [0 conrai n I!)(


Sai d to wc igh 1.!1<i
Sale contract
SDR Protocol
ca \V3yb ~Js
Seaworthiness 1lJi'~ . 211.!
Service bill of h di ng
Set of three -I-I ZI !J
Sbip's name
Ship's delivery Il rde rs - see delivery orders
Sbip's stamp ~I J

bipped bill of lading 15'1,


Shipper
,-
_. . [ 61
Shipper's [lgu res 1~ 7, 161
Shipper's load and coum 117, j fJj

Shipp ino- dllCumefl[S 1 7~

hipping marks Il"!. 161. 161


Shipping nme J 7~
'. igning rh., bill ufladin g. who may sign 41 -I, I l l. 22<J~ 1I

Signaw re, position. of I , t1 t.

125
INDEX

f'a vag' "Uph(.l)


pcciaJ cnoorsemem 1 '" (;I)
IlI[UlC La\! ,R(c)
[CC I ( rgoes. dallsLng for I I" 11 \ I~-l

Srmi!\ht bills of ladi ng 1,'\5Ih)


'ur.'C"j'n 16~

1:'111)' ~ I

Teml" of cllrriage I.! 1 _I, :;4, 5(;>-5'J


ThrceinaS<:1 11 H Zlh
11 me charrerpany , !CIh, ~11J- !. \ I
TImber rpes, c u in~ for (11) '" I 1'>-1
Transferring bills of 'ad inll IS;
Tllln~fcrri ng tide 2, 17(1 to lllll

er' 500 (i7-10


{ lI,1(c 171)

Vessel~ . munc of ~u

Wirhout presenrncion of a bill of lading. delivery I r 21(1


" bnJ~ of descriprion 127- J.) 7
,~ 'bill - sce: >Cl w:lybill
\\i:i~l, measure, quanlif). rondirion, comen[S and ,'llIuc I.Inkno\l n ' . ~ U 130. 13{,

126
OTI-IER NORT J-lOf C 'GI.A ND LOSS PH EVENTION CU IDE..'>

I rm"/, o~\ er M.aintl;."t"HIlCC un~ ()pt;!r,l rilm

" ' I,JJ!I ~ t ILe n,md~ll1i..'JLtuJ I l n l ~'nU'lN.: I ~r WC:11h'J..:r, t~I'f h;I(I,.'I) 4,.1', t,.'er"'> Ir. rllr: 1!,;l1it; .. Id prn li l.;Jb!.t" ltfn;r:lr~11) I ~t'{-"uJ!t~ !lhi;p!'l.. lL
..h.:~rilxs d'k: \ '<1 rtOU;' t)'ItC... . 4..11' h:ltch c.."t~'C1 IJ'I LtSC '~Id~ ,lI1d C~I'I~Ul:) Jh~ they !ihI.M.JlJ Ix: InsJH:,(t~. 11H~IIU:1I.ncd ;lJ1d
'~J,er:l,ed [(J cn~l,.lr<: Ql:JXJmUITI dh:c: [ ~ . . c,)~ '.IJld ~~~IC!;\ . It I ~ m~cJ1dc{1 14'Ir ~hlp ll\' flier"!. ~hl(l OWI,.~~el~, ~~HP '~ oi"ticer:5.
" ~Ir;I",')';t~ ~mJ ~ II rHh~~rs I rW~ II ".'CaJ III fi; h lp nt,untCIl.lflI;.'C ;Ult~ Il pCr:.1t11Wl

0""" .. ,., D, IJ~",,,, Cl':",~, ~S", MSc. li KI A, t\lC~I~


1l.tJIi.J.mi 19'1l ISBA, ~ ~'.~17~S 0 I M rr. 2.'

l~\:1 P-~N I,ifln l n1 S~ l f"'II'~.~Y'"


11L!..lV's SUl'\eyors :und nt..1 :i.tltr.;.,~ b/lJ-wiUc e.n"iurc tl1:Jif. .lihippil~ ,hx.1.J:tI1~m,j, :It:l'urJu:lv dl:::il..:rilx: Llit!' .IPI I~ll:l' l Ill lli..;-J W.IIJ
L'tluLl i L i~m ()f.:!Jtt:~ 1 Cl.:II~':S ~ ",hrrt klJl.ktL It 1t.:I,:un~fl l l:l ld..'loLJ ">I.: t 1)1 I~ 'UJIItL::lrll ;-';lJ lf;1Ct.: , 'II.",hllll" d.t'-l"C3 JIIlII6 mc!.:"ill1H.;;11
11u11Jgr;: elliu!tC!l. C"'.H:ll a \~ hidl h It"otlru lJ'C1J ;rtUI I 1'Illler b~~lJJg..:.." f )1.: (iI~l cJ ~lJitLll1l'\~ i'i ~r 'fI1 pflJ'I.'ldrd '~II Ih,=
iUSpcl'd'(m (If \1 cilLl\Cr Lk:l.:k o~f1rn~:!I

(, n (1u,II'J/:' A, Spillk!i. l\ IN I
IirjlJ1itl,,' "~Ii /,\'fi:\ ; 11 '1.1I1,c..!7 \ 2

I.)nu.Y!1 Ll Suni""YN
I idp...,; WI'l"t1'Ur.i .)Od m~rt!r!:'-t'I1SI I J"t llml. cJr.lu~hl =fur"'........,; arc: L.:arlllt'Li i Jut .J..~ lJl:LUr.ltd} ./)': p05~il~l(' [I I [he ~H'm'.ai l jl' ~
m m'illll1f1~ ' Jil~ ~,m~ rt!(GIIl1TrerK~ procecJur~ lmd fi.mnu;bx !-Or I!:"''C~ crpCnl.'I CC likd~ ~] 1~ CllUIUf.l tL re.d , II'he:
L l\/l:l ;E DTJ1Je;ll1 Sun'e)' lurnl..'i It:Lvt:; IICCD il ldudcJ in t1rtk:r m ~11.11.""'"(;; ull.n~u ~Jl~tJttll tJl14JI,JghuuI .tn,: 11IUUS: 1I)"

(" "/IU~\'i"' \\U . nibble, liS<. ~1I1~ I S. ~ I i'fl, !.I IHN "nJ I! ~lltchdl, ll!).., .\IIIM.s. .\1[\1

Sllirb(l"aru Pcunlcum Suney!<t


1',lq d;til~' 11O~~ gI)Od 'lJ1'rlhn:-rri :.' l'....t~ rlr.u':l~ 1,..10 ~Jj!I,,~fjL:lnll~' redua: r h.: n ... ~ f lf ~'I m~~r (~l L~ I/TIlllllLi n:u jlm Lbimli !lri ... ing
fmm Ic""Jlng r Ji'i('hargiT1~ I. rude nil J.nfl rCI mieum rmuuci '\,. 1\ run:l.,'t: Ilf t.1UJ.ulI iti:lll'1.'C ,mtt Cjw1ir.II.i\'C mnni tl.~ring:3:m1
re~!lflr(lhl ~ l ~hnkIUI!!i n:xnmlll:of!ndcu n'h,idl should cm;ur~ rh:.:iL po [~nti:d 1J.liJ or c.onmmin:Hi'm prublerm .Ht!' ide' ()r ili~ UI
un 4::trh' .'j~O:: .Ind Gm be: n:' lf lt'di t:u L.:OSI-efr t'L:1 i.,,'t."h., "' In.! ~llitlL: i~ ai Il tGU I.ll ~hi .l~ uITicL':Th.. L.IJ ~U ~lrV~\O I~ (llld ull ollu:;n;
m'O'oiYcd in sil il) nl!) I ~ tt(l ril1p: np1!:r.uiul l.
(}Iif1IJb,r; . \. Sc,rt:m, i\lIn:loF;PCI
l'uNiJit,/. lW, 1,\'Jj,,", 11 '15 1,,;,27 n 7 I"'" .>.l~J

PCJr:IoiCJrlHl 1nju.T)' P n: n .:.n lMllll


f\s..~IO;:'S In [he r~ rC\'Cnllnl' Ill' pcrsmullD!un,' onboanl _~hlp In hnt: wIth If,~ rt:~IUlrt:" 1 11rt:lln ,.1' hit' ~n u::m.I [I() I1!!J ~:Jft[},
'\I;J~~T (me. D L!....igncd harn. m rprll:He cnd pc!l5l1n!11 use, rtlH~ ~jd~ is Il lu5(r,ued t b~ughmn: with L'"3I'tlJIln
Ilr

dtlmCU::'I:-' III diflhcnmm:: I bl! rights ::JJid \Tmn~ u r w~lrJci~ p r.'Il,tiu:o~ od t ~CtL -\ iutW {Jf Illl:hapl.c::r.!i L'(Wcr tli ffrt:fll
~f1ip l:>l,lJ.l"d '1!).ft!t\ :asr(!(! I~, r::m ~in r;l, l'rultl wmk plJlllnil1f.'1 Jllcl pruL~l i \ ~ ICq l.lipm ~nE to emf} ill tLJ l'" IK 1 ~L.l SJJ~tt:S ~I[][]
nilJlou in;:, upl!rJ t ilnti.. A St: n d of t:..e:.t; ::!(url ic:.s om:: u.l ~ illdutlcd.
O/~m'fmr; 1t UlDl kc!n. IEn g, r\1. lr\ lllrE. ~"'lln :' L Pcf
S"'''kfl-../lli,m I\IIJ~ I.\'{'~', I) ' ~ 1 J 7J'l, 1 )( I,..,., U.I

ORDERI:>;G J I '() R{I,~,I'IIJ:-J

,'\11 Ulk" :tn: :J"':Jiltlble- fm l'n .'\GdlrOClge Pri!S'5.. 175 I 1 ::nJ:lI'~lS J<ood:'\Ti(."kcnh..lI11 'nVi, III ,l 'K
r l t- I ~ I ~ l ~ J :ONZ t):")(15 [::~ ... ...:..l- ((';1 SG l 14.(12 r..m:l ~ l~ unch(Jr.1~~@ "': OIT1rW;C: l'\o.! o ~nm

rlric..:c:I\inr.:looc\J 1'(lcJ.qng :1ml dollivery h' -n irm:l il (ou cO'l Il ~re-,;n",l . Ib~"111e-ll r !'i;.l'C' ~llIjn:d " 'ilh orc:l a:'~
1.1;t, 11'I .::"tll 1I1 C.1hULIs:
:~lr L
!llnJ . i\m e~ \"iI'iS. &' 1 ~1e'rt::.!I[U . h urotartJ - prmic.k- C";.II-U IllPJd~r n:une- .md lIlWres:-., ('Un! lIuml.J.er lmd dpl~ t.b.lt:',

<~'equ~ dr~wn o n. :J ~riri ... h ~nk.


1i.:)J'lk w~n.st.c.r 10 t~t( ltOfla l \\t:'llmtm"l~J B:mk. 'T,uck nhoun,. S{lrI code. 0(112 l1:!. :Jcootlnr 5';920,(}1