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ALTHOUGH probably every one of the myriad writers on Japan

has a tilt with its religions, no treatise on Shinto, its ethnic faith,
has thus far appeared. Yet the material now at hand well
deserves a treatise. Since Professor C. P. Tiele in 1877 (His
tory of Religions) and Professor Max Mller in 1878 (Origin
and Growth of Religion) forbore to treat Shinto from lack of
data, research has been conducted on the field with every advan
tage that New Japan could offer, mainly by three distinguished
Englishmen, Mr. E. Satow and Mr. W. G. Aston of the British
Embassy, and Professor B. H. Chamberlain of the Imperial Uni
versity, Tokyo. The contributions of these scholars, found mostly
in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, will be
constantly used in this article; they quite supersede even the
modern contributions by such writers as Rosny, Pfizmaier, and
Hoffmann, who never saw Japan and possessed a very inadequate
knowledge of archaic Japanese. They equally supersede the
writings of men like Kaempfer (16511716) and Siebald (1796
1866), who, though they lived in the Dutch settlement near Naga
saki, saw exceedingly little of Japan; and even this was under such
strict surveillance from a jealous government that all they heard on
politics or religion was garbled. Hence the erroneous reports on
Shinto presented down to a decade ago even by standard works
on religion such as Dr. Tylor's Primitive Culture. The aim
of the present article will be to present a careful summary of the
reliable modern monographs on at least the pantheon of Shinto,
together with some new material the nature of which will duly
appear. The very interesting and equally accessible cult must
remain for treatment on some future occasion.
Shinto, the name by which the ethnic faith of the Japanese is
commonly known, was adopted as the Chinese equivalent of the
vernacular Kami no michi, commonly translated God-way, but
properly meaning Way of the Superiors, and denoting not
only nature-gods and ancestral spirits, but certain living men,
and even extraordinary animals and things a truly remarkable
case of primitive undifferentiation. The relations of Shinto to
'75 f 5
2 ... . The Shinto Pantheon.

its imported rivals, iddhism and Confucianism, will best appear

from istoric sketch... Here three periods must be distinguished.
During the first of th&se, from an unknown early time until
550 A. D., those primitive ideas prevailed of which the Kojiki,
Records of Ancient Matters, and the Yengishiki, Ceremonial
Laws, form the most reliable extant literature. These works
indicate a union of political and religious elements which were
differentiated only later. Chinese culture with Confucianism
slowly filtered in during the early centuries of the Christian

The advent of Buddhism in the sixth century A. D. inaugurated

the second period of Shinto, one of complete arrest of develop
ment, and of almost complete absorption by Buddhism, whose
priests diplomatically identified Shinto deities as avatars of ancient
Buddhas a doctrine of hben or pious fraud. Shinto was thus
for the first time differentiated from the State, which, however,
supported both Buddhism and Shinto. Only in the provinces of
Izumo and Ise was Shinto maintained in approximate purity.
Most of the Shinto shrines came to be served by Buddhist priests,
and their cult to be modified in accordance with Buddhist ideas, and
thus arose the important Rybu Shinto, a mixed religion respon
sible for the general tolerance on religious subjects prevalent since
its rise in Japan. -

The third period began about 1700 A. D., and owed its begin
ning to the revival of Confucianism in the preceding century.
In conformity therewith, Japanese literati turned their gaze to
their own past, and consequently inaugurated a politico-religious
movement which led at the same time to the disestablishment
of Buddhism, the overthrow of the Shogunate that had usurped
the Mikado's throne, and the opening of Japan to foreign inter
course. The literary leaders in this movement were the great
Japanese scholars Mabuchi (16971769) Motoori (17301801)
and Hirata (17761843) whose work was an indispensable pre
liminary to that of the English scholars named above. Since the
revival of pure Shinto in 1868, Buddhism has in part slowly
reasserted itself, while Shinto, in spite of state and imperial patron
age, has shrunk to ever smaller proportions, and Confucianism,
with its associated Chinese culture, has vanished at the sight of
Western science.
While other faiths of the Japanese are thus missionary reli
gions, Shinto is native to the Japanese people, and we must therefore
look for its origin, with their own, somewhere on the Asiatic main
The Shinto Pantheon. 3

land. The latest view, that of Professor Chamberlain, is that geo

graphy, legend, history, and the present distribution of population
in Japan almost force the assumption that the bulk of the Jap
anese race entered southwestern Japan from Korea via Tsushima.
These invaders drove the aboriginal Ainus partly southward,
whence arose a striking relationship of the modern Luchuan lan
guage with archaic Japanese; but especially northward, subjuga
ting or exterminating them, until now their feeble and moribund
remnant is found only in the northern Yezo and Kuriles. Yet
there is no Ainu blood in the Japanese strain, as has often been
stated, for hybrids between the two become barren in the third
or fourth generation. The marked difference between the two
Japanese typesthe pudding face of the lower classes and the
oval face of the samurai, arises, according to Dr. Baelz, from two
streams of invaders, one landing in Izumo, the other in Kyushu ;
linguistic and mythologic evidence points the same way. But one
must not, therefore, forthwith identify Japanese and Chinese.
The similarities in culture between the two are readily accounted
for, partly by Japanese borrowing from their more civilized neigh
bors, partly by fundamental human tendencies. The differences
demand a distinction as wide as can be found within the limits of
the Mongolian race that spreads from Finland to Japan. Profound
differences in physiognomy, temperament, artistic endowment,
language, social structure, and religion indicate that the Japanese
descend, not from the hundred families that entered China
some thirty centuries B. C. from the far West, but from the abo
rigines that those invaders everywhere found and fought, though
later they derived from this source the elements of music and
The two chief sources of information upon primitive Shinto are,
by common consent, the Kojiki and Yengishiki, and no extant
works hold the mirror up to nature at the barbarian stage more
faithfully than do these same two. Their antique flavor is dis
cernible in every line, and any fair comprehension of them is impos
sible without the aid of the learned notes of Mr. Chamberlain *
or Mr. Satow. Another book of annals, the Nihongi or Chron
icles of Japan, is of secondary importance; though written only
eight years after the Kojiki, it was composed in a Chinese ration
* Trans. Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xxi., for 1893.
* Kojiki, being the Supplement to vol. x. of Trans. A. S. J.
* Ancient Japanese Rituals, being vol. vii. parts 2 and 4, and vol. ix. part 2,
of the same Transactions.
4 The Shinto Pantheon.

alistic spirit. Per contra, the Kojiki was composed wholly in the
native spirit, and where Chinese influence is discernible, this is
because it has affected the folk-faith, which the Kojiki records.
Among other traits its unblushing coarseness stands in antipodal
contrast with that prudery of the Chinese Classics which distin
guishes them indeed from all other ancient literature. But the
hierologist will prefer the Kojiki, as giving him the priceless
truth about barbarian nations, to the expurgated and didactic Shu
King. It is quite an error to suppose with several writers that
the Kojiki trangresses the proprieties as no other literature in the
world. Not to mention the generally inaccessible Tantras one
may compare with the Kojiki the Proben der Volksliteratur
Sud-Siberiens passim, especially vol. v., pp. 183 ff., or to come
nearer home, an unexpurgated edition of Chaucer's poems.
Some space must be devoted to an outline of the legendary first
volume of this remarkable work, beginning with a quotation from
it" which is indispensable to an estimate of the subsequent inter
pretation, and is, at the same time, a typical barbarian cosmogony
and theogony.
I. The names of the Deities that were born in the Plain of
High Heaven when the Heaven and Earth began were the Deity
Master-of-the-August-Centre-of-Heaven, next the High-August
Producing-Wondrous Deity, next the Divine-Producing-Won
drous Deity. These three Deities were all Deities born alone,
and hid their persons. The names of the Deities that were born
next from a thing that sprouted up like unto a reed shoot when
the earth, young and like unto floating oil, drifted about medusa
like, were the Pleasant-Reed-Shoot-Prince-Elder Deity, next the
Heavenly-Eternally-Standing Deity. These two Deities were like
wise born alone, and hid their persons.
The five Deities in the above list are separate Heavenly
II. The names of the Deities that were born next were the
Earthly-Eternally-Standing-Deity, next the Luxuriant-Integrating
Master-Deity. These two Deities were likewise Deities born
alone, and hid their persons. The names of the Deities that were
born next were the Deity Mud-Earth-Lord, next his younger
sister the Deity Mud-Earth-Lady; next the Germ-Integrating
Deity, next his younger sister the Life-Integrating-Deity; next
the Deity Elder-of-the-Great-Place, next his younger sister the
Deity Elder-Lady-of-the-Great-Place; next the Deity Perfect
* As translated by Mr. Chamberlain in his Kojiki, 1520.
The Shinto Pantheon. 5

Exterior, next his younger sister the Deity Oh-Awful-Lady (or

Oh-Venerable-Lady); next the Diety the Male-who-Invites, next
his younger sister the Deity the Female-Who-Invites.
III. Hereupon all the Heavenly Deities commanded the two
Deities, His Augustness the Male-Who-Invites and Her August
ness the Female-Who-Invites, ordering them to make, consoli
date, and give birth to this drifting land. Granting to them an
heavenly jeweled spear, they thus deigned to charge them. So
the two Deities, standing upon the Floating Bridge of Heaven,
pushed down the jeweled spear and stirred with it, whereupon,
when they had stirred the brine till it went curdle-curdle, and drew
(the spear) up, the brine that dripped down from the end of the
spear was piled up and became an island. This is the island of
IV. Having descended from Heaven on to this island, they
saw to the erection of an heavenly august pillar, they saw to the
erection of a ball of eight fathoms. . . . Their first child they
placed in a boat of reeds, and let it float away. Next they gave
birth to the Island of Aha. This likewise is not reckoned among
their children.
Resort to divination showed that failure had arisen from the
woman speaking first. On improvement in this respect, the Jap
anese primitive pair gave birth to the various islands constituting
Japan, which, the native commentators explain, have grown enor
mously since birth. Izanami (to use the familiar Japanese name
instead of F-Q-I) then similarly bears to Izanagi certain deities
presiding over various spheres of nature, the last of whom, the
Fire-Deity, occasions her death in parturition. Izanagi slays the
offender, and visits his wife in Hades. While Izanagi washes
himself from the pollution thus incurred, numerous deities arise
from the articles of clothing he throws down and from the parts
of the river he visits, but especially three from certain bodily
members, namely, Amaterasu-O-Mi-Kami, Heaven-Shining
Great-August-Deity, from his left eye (the left is the more honor
able throughout the Far-Orient); Tsuki-Yomi-no-Kami, His
Augustness Moon-Night-Possessor, from his right eye, and Taka
Haya-Susano-no-Mikoto from his nose. The third deity whose
long name is usually abbreviated to Susano, Impetuous Male,
was expelled by his father, whereupon he rushed up to Heaven
and quarreled violently with his sister Amaterasu, who then re
tired, as every Japanese child knows, into the Heavenly-Rock
Dwelling and thus threw the Central-Land-of-Reed-Plains
6 The Shinto Pantheon.
into darkness. The eight hundred myriad kami combine to
induce her to reappear, and then oust Susano, who descends again
to Japan at the province of Izumo where he has various adven
tures. His rule over Izumo descends through six generations to
the famous O-Kuni-Nushi, Great-Land-Master. This person,
after various adventures, which are reserved for analysis later,
is visited by several deputations from Amaterasu to demand his
abdication in favor of her scion Ni-Nigi-No-Mikoto, known in
the rituals as the Sovereign Grandchild, who finally descends
from Heaven, not as one expects, to Izumo, but to Kyushu, a large
island some two hundred miles south of Okuninushi's home. He
brings with him from Heaven the jewels, mirror and sword that
have since then constituted the Japanese regalia, and is accompa
nied by the leading actors in the enticement of Amaterasu from
the Rock-Dwelling. Now, what the leading actors did to draw
forth the Sun-goddess was just to perform certain religious cere
monies; and at this important juncture of the descent from Hea
ven they are individually identified as ancestors of the several
priestly families of Japan, notably the Nakatomi and Imibe, while
the imperial line is traced to Amaterasu herself. The estab
lishment of this ancestry in nature-deities and their ceremonial
attendants of the imperial and sacerdotal families, obviously fur
nished the principle for the selection and rectification of myths
and legends, which, as the Japanese preface (of equal date with
the body of the work) explains, formed the Kojiki. Hereby the
Kyushu oval faced tribe showed its descent from the supreme and
worthy Amaterasu and her companions, while the Izumo pudding
faces were traced to the inferior and rebellious Susano, though
ultimately both could therefore trace ascent to the primitive pair,
Izanagi and Izanami. Here, then, as so often elsewhere, the con
quered race asserts itself in the resultant composite. In fact, a
majority of the legends deal with deities of the conquered, while
down to the present day, though Amaterasu occupies the first
place, the second and third are filled by Susano and Okuninushi,
both deities of the Izumo tribe.
From this point, Yamato Province, whither the conquerors had
advanced from Kyushu, under the lead of the famous Jimmu
Tenno, accounted by Japanese their first human sovereign, forms
the scene of the drama, though the Izumo Deity, Okuninushi, now
called the Great-Deity-of-Miwa, figures largely in the cult, and
even becomes supposititious father of the maiden whom Jimmu
1 Kojiki, 9.
The Shinto Pantheon. 7

makes his chief empress. The mythical element now decreases,

and legend gradually passes into annals which can be confirmed
from Chinese sources until the Kojiki ends with the fifth cen
tury, A. D.
It is worth while to notice how, in contrast with the coalescence,
both in blood and culture, of these two kindred Mongolian tribes,
the Izumo and Kyushu, the Ainus, belonging to quite another
race, whose ethnology is yet unsettled, have left as little influence
upon Shinto faith as they have upon Japanese blood.
The Rituals, though recorded in print no earlier than 927 A.D.,
must have their composition referred to the same times as the
Kojiki, say within the first five centuries A. D. Such, then, is
the thread on which are strung the various myths and legends of
the deities we have now to interpret.
None of the deities mentioned in I. and II. (cf. pp. 4, 5),
except the last couple, are known to Japanese folk-lore, but the
first, the Lord-in-the-Very-Centre-of-Heaven, has recently become
interesting to the specialist because Professor K. T. Kume, of the
Imperial University, Tokyo, has attempted to show his identity
with Tien, Heaven, of the Chinese." An examination of Pro
fessor Kume's article, which probably embodies all ascertainable
data in favor of his view, shows that his thesis is not proved.
This negative conclusion is, however, by no means useless, for it
proves an important difference between Shinto and the ancient
religion of China, which, added to the many others that are forth
coming, is decisive against the attempt to assimilate Shinto as a
whole with it, and therefore favors its inclusion in the Turko
Tartar group.
Another Japanese student of Shinto, Professor T. Matsu
yama, would construe the second and third deities as simply the
Master-of-Heaven under the aspect of producer or creator, and
translates the second sentence of I., These three deities were one
and invisible. He then argues that this grand truth gradually
grew fainter, while at the same time ancestral and nature gods
were introduced. Thus the title Amaterasu was first bestowed
on a princess as a laudatory epithet, and only later mistaken for
the sun. This mixture of the traditional theory of the rise of
ethnic religions from a primitive single revelation with Spencer
ian animism, which I gather from his lectures in Japanese, is
equally discernible in Mr. Matsuyama's contribution to the Par
* Shikai for January, 1892, Tokyo, suppressed soon after publication from
Politico-religious reasons.
8 The Shinto Pantheon.

liament of Religions (pp. 13703), where almost every sentence

embodies an error. In strong contrast with it stands the correct
account of Shinto by one of its priests on pp. 1374-5 of the same
A similar account of Shinto, though here allowed to be re
formed, was presented at the Parliament by the Rt. Rev. R.
Shibata, whose lady admirers went so far as to kiss him, from
respect for his truly exalted views. As Saint Xavier was preach
ing far and wide in Japan ten years before the founding of the
sect to which Mr. Shibata belongs, it is not unlikely that its inno
vations were suggested by Christian monotheism rather than by
the Spirit of Mount Fuji.
Mr. Satow's more scientific method gives the following results:
The central place in Japanese mythology is taken by the sun.
Legend makes this goddess the daughter of Izanagi, but this
genealogy reverses the order of the generation of the myth. In
the Kojiki the three original deities who existed before all things
are called Lord-in-the-very-Centre-of-Heaven, the Lofty-Pro
ducer, and the Divine-Producer, besides whom we find men
tioned in the ritual of the Praying for Harvest three other
creator-deities named, Vivifying-Producer, Fulfilling-Pro
ducer, and Soul-Lodging-Producer; and even then this list
of producers is not exhausted. The most natural explanation
of these numerous names is that they were originally synonymous
epithets of the sun, denoting the various aspects under which it
was contemplated as working benefits for the human race, and
this supposition is confirmed by the mention in several places of a
deity entitled From-Heaven-Shining-Producer, who is mani
festly the sun. Lord-in-the-very-Centre-of-Heaven is an ex
tremely apt epithet for the great luminary, probably chosen after
it had been recognized as an object of adoration. Sometimes the
Divine Producer and the Lofty Producer are spoken of
together as the progenitor and the progenitrix of the Mikado,
while on other occasions the From-Heaven-Shining-Great-Deity
is substituted for the Divine Producer, and in one place the
Sun-Goddess is called both progenitor and progenitrix. There
were a few temples sacred to the Lofty Producer, and a great
many dedicated to the Sun; and while there is nothing surprising
in the fact of several temples being dedicated to the Sun-God
under different titles, from the non-existence of temples of the
1 Parliament of Religions, pp. 4515.
* Westminster Review, July, 1878.
The Shinto Pantheon. 9

Lord-in-the-Very-Centre-of-Heaven, the Divine-Producer.

and others, it would be perfectly reasonable to infer that these
were not originally separate deities.
This theory of the origin of the remarkable triad that heads
the Shinto pantheon is probably the best that the very scanty data
afford, but something may well be added both on the triad and on
its successors. Though the titles of the two Producers in our
triad are ambiguous as to sex, an ancient identification of them as
Progenitor and Progenitrix of the Mikado" plainly implies their
nature as a sexual pair. This fact easily suggests a derivation of
the triad from the well-known Chinese one, the taiki, yang, and
yin ; but while the preface to the Kojiki, made by Yasumaro,
the selecter of its contents, shows that he was informed at least
on the yang-yin, he identifies it, not with the two Producers of
our triad, but with the last couple of this deity-series, Izanagi and
Izanami, while he speaks of our triad simply as the Three Dei
Another negative conclusion results from a promising com
parison of the Heavenly - Eternally-Standing-Deity and the
Earthly-Eternally-Standing-Deity with the Chinese Tien and
Heutheu; for while Heutheu (Earth) is feminine in China
and universally in myth, the Earthly-Deity is masculine in
Japan. It was probably as Earth-god that he was worshiped at
Gekusan in Ise, where the Food Goddess has since displaced
The four pairs preceding Izanagi and Izanami are so transpar
ently fictions that even the orthodox native commentator, Hirata,"
considers them merely names descriptive of the various stages
through which Izanagi and Izanami passed before arriving at
perfection. In the parallel passage of the Nihongi, the Earthly
Deity" makes the beginning and is followed by others wholly dif
ferent, with one exception, from those introduced in the Kojiki,
while other ancient authorities give yet other variations.
The occurrence of a triad is curious and, in the absence of more
specific ground, it is worth while to note that it belongs with the
odd five mentioned at the end of I., and with the odd seven at
the end of II. As the favorite Shinto numbers are certainly
* Trans. A. S. J., v. 7, part 2, p. 114.
* Sacred Books of the East, xvi. 375.
* Kojiki, 11.
* Handbook for Japan, Third Ed. p. 248.
* Trans. A. S. J., v. 3; Appendix, p. 58.
10 The Shinto Pantheon.

the even ones, four, six, and especially eight, the myth-maker
may herein have sought to further distinguish his philosophically
grounded deities from their home-made successors. In any case
no pregnant notion should be sought in this triad. -

The ideal scheme of the series is apparent. The native cos

mologist had, not the Heaven-Shining-Deity only, as Mr.
Satow supposes, but Izanagi and Izanami, who are obviously cases
of genuine folk-lore and current to-day everywhere in Japan, as
the primitive pair, for a starting point, and worked backward with
increasing abstractness. Thus Izanagi and his sister-wife (after
the fashion of the Incas and Pharaohs), procreate children, while
the four preceding pairs simply succeed each other, and the seven
deities preceding them are single only. The statement made of
these seven deities that they were born alone and hid their
bodies means were single (not married) and invisible. In
spite of Mr. Chamberlain's excellent judgment he seems to have
tripped in his interpretation (note 7 in loco) came into existence
without procreation . . . and died. Hirata translates as given
by us above. Notice that became alone is predicated of all
those unaccompanied by a sister-wife, but of no others. When
Izanami, likewise a heavenly deity, dies, she is said to retire,
not to hide her body.
But, if I. and II. show plain marks of invention and compo
sition at the hands of the nobleman Yasumaro, and have, with
their deities, since that time remained unknown to the com
monalty, on the other hand, III. and IV. introduce veritable
folk-lore. The complete absence of any attempt by students of
Shinto to interpret these two curious sections has probably arisen
from failure to connect them with a certain stone cult widely
spread in Japan, but resembling these two sections in that their
common lot heretofore has been relegation to the category of the
obscene. As the stone cult belongs to the phallic type, well
recognized by all students of primitive culture as a widespread
cult, it will be best to let archeology here plain and unambigu
ous illustrate our obscure text. We write archeology, but,
indeed, the symbols, though green with lichens, still enjoy the cult
of the folk." -

The next great deity met with in the Kojiki after Izanagi and
Izanami is Amaterasu-O-Mi-Kami, Heaven-Shining-Great-Au
gust-Deity, the supreme deity of the Shinto pantheon, whose
* The import of these symbols may be understood by reference to Phallicism
in Japan, by E. Buckley, University of Chicago Press.
The Shinto Pantheon. 11

name, function in mythic story, and cult combine to demonstrate

her origin in sun-myth. Thus, she sprang from the eye of her
nature-father, Izanagi; eternal night prevails when she retires
into her rock dwelling; the cock that crows in the morn is her
attending animal; the mirror with eight (semi-cardinal) points is
her symbol; she is induced to restore light by a ceremony per
formed by other gods according to the counsel of the eight hun
dred myriad deities: she held the sovereign right to transfer the
rule over Japan from the Izumo to the Kyushu chieftain, and is
still worshiped from the summit of Mount Fuji by thousands of
pilgrims who make the toilsome ascent to greet Amaterasu-O-Mi
Kami as she begins day for the world upon the Land-of-the
This obvious mythical nature is quite confirmed by the relation
of Amaterasu to her brother Susano, the Rain-Storm God, as will
be seen presently, yet the Japanese euhemerist is not wanting.
Thus, early in the last century Hakuseki made great use of the
ambiguity in the word kami to show that the gods were originally
but men. In the present century Moribe, though an orthodox
Shintoist, decided that some of the (so to speak) uselessly
miraculous incidents need not be believed in as revealed truth,
but were childlike words. Similarly Mr. Takahashi Goro, a con
temporary writer, supposes the existence of a queen called Sun,
and so forth. This is a useful hypothesis for those who believe
man incapable of personifying nature, except by the aid of a
Mr. Satow, while allowing the independent nature of Shinto
sun-cult, would account for the connection of the imperial line
with it by means of a verbal error. Hiko and hime, ancient
titles usually translated Prince and Princess, mean literally sun
(or fire) male and sun (or fire) female. The use of these lauda
tory epithets led in time to the belief that the monarch was really
of the sun-race, especially as kami meant both chief and deity.
The sex of the sun was fixed by the fact that the first remembered
ancestor of the Mikado was a distinguished woman. Against
this view, however, the following considerations hold good. Ama
terasu belongs to myth, and must, therefore, have had sex from
the very outset, for myth involves personification, and that in
turn sex. Hiko and Hime may just as well have been effect as
cause of the identification of chieftain with chief deity, and this
Kojiki, pp. 4258, 93-113.
* Kojiki, Introduction, p. 11.
12 The Shinto Pantheon.

process of identification is so natural that its ground may be

better sought in logic than in verbal error. It is doubtful whether
even the barbarians' fancy identified simply and absolutely a
flesh and blood ancestor with the sun. Amaterasu secures issue
only so far as it is her jewel that Susano transforms into a man.
In Shinto myth the drama of the sun is worked out in connection,
not with the moon Tsuki-Yomi, who is mentioned only to be
dropped but with the Rain-Storm God, Susaho, whose charac
ter will be considered next. As the noisy and violent rain-storm
is undoubtedly male, the quiet and calm sun would in contrast be
female, somewhat as in the nursery tale current with us where
the wind and sun compete in making a traveler take off his coat,
and the sun wins by the female trait of gentleness. Indeed a
woman is compared to the sun by the Tartars of South Siberia,
who moreover actually describe the sun as silvern and female,
while the moon is golden and male, precisely as in Shinto."
These comparisons seem quite inappropriate to us who speak
of the silver queen of night, but the fact is that sun and moon
play a rle in myth varied with the zone where the myth-makers
live, as may be abundantly seen in Mr. Tylor's very interesting
account where it appears that many peoples besides our Tartars
regard the sun as feminine and the moon as masculine. The
parallel with the Tartars is the more important for us because
the Tartars belong to the same Mongolian race, and probably even
to the same Ural-Altaic branch of it as do the Japanese, while
the classic Chinese, who make the sun and moon respectively mas
culine and feminine, though nearer geographically are remoter
ethnically. It is possible that where, as among the Japanese, the
sun is not only female but chief, the reason lies in an original
matriarchate, an indication of which may be found in the Japan
ese ancient custom allowing children of the same father, but not
of the same mother, to intermarry. It is only much later in the
stream of Japanese legend that we meet with a Chinese importa
tion, the sun-bird with three legs (with difficulty identified only
recently by Mr. Aston), while yet later the legend of Yamato
Take, which bears some resemblance to sun-myth, is again genu
inely Japanese."
* Proben der Volksliteratur der Trkischen Stmme Sd-Siberiens, ii., pp.
203, 480, 484.
* Primitive Culture, ii., pp. 286, 287, 291, 299, where the rationale is given.
* Trans. A. S. J., v. xxii., part I., 3133.
* Kojiki, pp. lxvii. and 205220.
The Shinto Pantheon. 13

If Amaterasu occupies the first place in the Shinto pantheon,

the second and third belong to her brother Susano and his de
scendant of the sixth generation, Okuninushi. No student of
Shinto known to the writer has attempted an interpretation of
these deities, though their general mythical nature has been occa
sionally noticed. Yet, if Amaterasu be plainly interpretable in
sun-myth, Susano, who stands in immediate connection with her,
should be equally interpretable. The following traits indeed
indicate that he represents the rain-storm. His name means
Impetuous Male. He was born as Izanagi washed his august
nose, that nose wherein is the breath. The Chinese version of
the myth indeed states that the breath of Pan-ku was transmuted
into the wind." He abandons his appointment to rule over the
sea-plain, i. e., the rain-storm blows up in the southwest mon
soon from over the sea. His weeping dries up all the rivers
and seas, an apparent contradiction and a standing puzzle to the
Japanese commentators, but plain enough, when the rains flood
the country and hide the boundaries of rivers and lakesa thing
of annual occurrence in Japan. He mounts with great noise
heavenwards to the great terror of his sister, Amaterasu, and
devastates the country, whereupon Amaterasu retires into a cave
and thus plunges the land into eternal night. In nature-fact,
the rain-storm rises from the horizon with thunder, obscures the
sun, and spoils the carefully terraced and irrigated rice-fields of
Japan. Another episode of the same struggle describes certain
Torrent Princesses born from Susano's sword, while Gods of
Luck, of Heaven, and of Life arise from Amaterasu's jewels;
i. e., waterfalls notably increase after rain, and nature smiles when
the sun reappears. For his misconduct Susano is expelled, where
upon he kills the Food-Goddess, from whom then spring the
various cereals, and then in Izumo he kills the serpent with red
eyes, bloody belly, and eight heads and tails, by first making him
drink wine from eight vats arranged upon a platform; i. e., rain
destroys the planted seed from which can then grow the new
crops, and extinguishes fire, for which purpose it is to this day
stored in tubs placed along the house ridge (the platform of the
myth). From the tail of this serpent Susano extracts the mar
velous Herb-Quelling-Great-Sword, famed in subsequent story;
* Meyer's Chinese Reader's Manual, p. 174. This myth was not classic
Chinese, and therefore probably folk-lore of the aborigines that the Chinese
found in Eastern Asia, whence its similarity to the Shinto may be cognate and
not derivative either way. .
14 The Shinto Pantheon.

i.e., the steel sword is forged in the fire. When he began to

build the palace of Suga, Pure, clouds rose up thence; i.e.,
clouds encompass the elevations where tarns form, and here the
Impetuous-Male at last rests in peace, for in the usage of the
Kojiki the erection of a palace closes the career of a hero.
Those familiar with the frequent obscurities, fragmentariness,
and even contradictions of many undoubted myths, will grant
that so clear and continuous a parallelism can have arisen only in
mythopoeic fancy, and not in any incidental correspondences with
heroic history. Moreover, the facts have not been selected, but
are all that are recorded of Susano. A comparison with the
Vedic meteorologic myth will both confirm this mythic interpre
tation of Susano, and also show how the hue and form of myths
vary with climatic conditions. Japan suffers from floods, never
from drought, and sees lightning usually not more than once in a
year. Per contra, India suffers from drought, rarely, I believe,
from floods, while thunderstorms are frequent and terrific. Hence
the Japanese myth makes Susano devastate, while the Indian
myth makes Indra bless the land, and that by striking with his
bolt the Vritra that withholds the desired rain.
The following specifications from the Kojiki account of Okuni
nushi will plainly show that his origin lay in moon-myth." He
has eighty brethren (stars) with whom he competes for the hand
of a princess, and wins her by the help of a hare (a world-wide
mythologic companion of the moon) that he had benefited. The
eighty deities, enraged at this, roll a red hot stone upon him and
thus kill him. (Sunrise conceals the moon.) Hereupon Prin
cess Cockle-Shell and Princess Clam restore him to life. (The
Chinese also connect shellfish with the moon, probably through
the tides, which were very early associated with the moon, though
the correct reason was of course not known.") Okuni thus be
comes a beautiful young man, and wanders off, only to be again
caught and tortured by insertion into the cleft of a tree which on
withdrawal of the wedge crushes him to death. (Phases of the
moon.) Again restored to life, he visits the Nether-Distant
Land, whence he is pursued by a deity so far as the Even
Pass-of-Hades. (New moon appears once more on the horizon.)
He then slays his eighty brethren. (Stars fade when the moon
Kojiki, pp. 68105.
* Meyer's Chinese Readers' Manual, p. 288. Huish, Japan and its Art,
p. 131.
* Les Ftes annuelles Emoui. De Groot, p. 128.
The Shinto Pantheon. 15

appears.) Throughout his course he carries on amours, marrying

in all eight women. (So ever with the inconstant moon. )
Finally Amaterasu requires him to abdicate in favor of her scion.
(Sunrise conceals the moon.)
It is this last trait that fitted the Moon-God of the Izumo tribe
to represent it, probably through identification with its historic
chief Okuninushi, who abdicated in favor of a historic Ninigi,
in the mythical scheme of the Kojiki, which, of course, had to
express the views of the conquering Kyushu tribe that traced its
chief's ancestry to Amaterasu. The first to state the general truth
of some reflection of legendary fact in the Kojiki at this point
was P. Kempermann, and all serious students have since his
time one way or other concurred. But while mythical consistency
would require that the Kyushu heaven-born chief descend upon
Izumo, the legend is faithful enough to fact to represent him as
descending upon Kyushu, whence indeed the legend goes on to
relate his scions advanced eastwards, ever conquering. The legend
navely adds that Kyushu is opposite to the land of Kara,
which so far, therefore, corresponded to the heaven of the myth.
Besides all the other evidence (cf. p. 3) pointing to Korea as
the continental point of departure for the Japanese emigrants,
and therefore as identical with the heaven of the myth, there is
an odd bit of direct evidence for the synonomy of Korea and
Heaven in the shape of the two animals, identical in appearance
and function, in that they guard, one on either side, the entrance
gates of Shinto shrines, but which bear the names Koma-inu,
Korean-dog, and Ama-inu, Heaven-dog. These are obvi
ously congeners of the tigers found at the gates of Chinese tem
ples and yamen, whose function is to scare away evil spirits.
As tigers were never known in Japan, the sculptor degenerated
his form until the folk could recognize in it only their familiar
As sole condition of his abdication Okuninushi had specified
that he must be provided with a great temple, and this is still
represented by the famous shrine called Izumo O Yashiro, Great
Temple of Izumo, the second holiest shrine in Japan. Hither
some quarter of a million pilgrims annually wend their way from
all quarters of Japan; the sound of their hands clapped to call
the attention of the deity is often strong and unbroken as that of
* Tylor's Primitive Culture, i. 355.
* Mittheilungen der deutschen Gesellschaft Ostasiens, Jan., 1874.
* Les Fetes annuelles Emoui. De Groot, p. 608.
16 The Shinto Pantheon.
a cataract. This is because, though the scion of Amaterasu as
sumed the outward sovereignty of Japan, the realm of the In
visible was granted to Okuninushi. This Invisible connotes,
not the underworld or future world (which in the primitive Shinto
world-view are not places of judgment), but means properly the
present day world of thought and secret action, in other words,
just what escapes the observation of the earthly ruler and his civil
servants." The tutelary gods of every province in Japan must
resort to the O Yashiro every October hence called everywhere,
except in Izumo, the godless month there to report upon
the condition of each individual's soul. Okuninushi rewards and
punishes by means of the natural good and evil that happen to
men. Thus, e.g., the birth of a child should be thankfully rec
ognized in the temple of his agent the tutelary god. On the other
hand, the sending of a pestilence and the dumbness of a royal
prince were both attributed to him, and the ground for their in
flictions turned out to be ceremonial offense. The occasional
association of Okuninushi with the underworld and future world
must be regarded as a later invention under the influence of Bud
The son of this Okuninushi, by name Koto-shiro-nushi, Events
Symbol-Lord, a title given in reference to his abdication with his
father, though of much less importance than any of the deities
already described, is yet accounted a great god, and as such is
figured on the kakemono, or scroll-picture of the twelve chief
deities, sold in the vicinity of the Izumo O Yashiro. If we now
add the name of Sukuna-hiko (probably an ancestral deity, for
whom cf. p. 22), we shall have named all the deities figured there
in the following order:
Ama no mi naka nushi,
Lord in the very centre of heaven.
Kami musubi, Taka mi musubi,
Divine producer. Lofty august producer.
Izanami, Female who invites. Izanagi, Male who invites.
Heaven shiner.
Susano, Impetuous male. Tsuki Yomi, Moon night possessor.
Great country ruler.
1 The Great Temple of Izumo, a Japanese work by Baron Sengi, high priest
of the Izumo Temple.
* Trans. A. S. J. vol. iii., Appendix, p. 77.
* Kojiki, pp. 175, 193. -
The Shinto Pantheon. 17

Koto shiro nushi, Events symbol Lord. Sukuna hiko, Small Prince.
Saruta hiko,
Monkey field Prince.
All these twelve except the first triad and Tsuki-Yomi are hon
ored by temples more or less numerous. In contrast with this
Izumo scroll, we find the largest one obtainable in the vicinity of
the Ise Shrine to Amaterasu contains figures of the following
Izanami. Izanagi.
Kasuga. Hachiman.

Notice here the absence of Susano and Okuninushi with his

son, the great rivals of Amaterasu and her scion Ninigi; and at
the same time the introduction of three new deities, all of whom
are closely associated with Amaterasu and the imperial line.
The chief of these three is Toyo-uke-bime, Abundant-Food
Lady, the goddess of food, usually represented with a sheaf
of rice in her arms, since rice is the staple food of the Japan
ese. Her other names, Ukemochi and Ogetsu, have the same
meaning as Toyouke. Such a deity would in any case be of
great importance, but she became yet greater by the removal
of her temple 478 A.D. to the neighborhood of the great Ama
terasu's Shrine in Ise Province. She is a thorough nature-deity,
since, besides her name and sphere, she is represented in the
Kojiki as slain by Susano, the rain god, after which she can pro
duce the various cereals from her bodily members. A ritual for
Luck Wishing of the Palace invokes Yabune-Toyouke, House
Abundant-Food, without obvious significance, unless an alterna
tive meaning of Toyouke, viz., Abundant Support, be taken, in
which case she could, as Earth Deity, support the palace founda
tion." If so, we should have a ready explanation for what is other
wise quite unaccountable, namely, the association with Toyouke
of the fox, which burrows in the earth, as also for the square
ness of Toyouke's temple fence, square being female in Chinese
symbolism. Perhaps in Japan, as in China, the very various
functions of earth were later divided among more special deities;
for besides Yabune Toyouke we find other deities derived from
Toyouke, such as Kukunochi, the producer of all trees, and Kay
* So Mr. Satow in Trans. A. S. J., vol. ix. Part II. p. 210.
* Les Ftes, etc., De Groot, p. 153.
18 The Shinto Pantheon.

anu Hime, the parent of all grasses. The silkworm and even cattle
were likewise produced from her slain body, all of which deriva
tives point to an original earth wounded by agriculture. There is
no doubt about the notion of division of functions of a deity, for
Shinto writers recognize all such derivatives as Waki-no-tama,
Parted Spirits. It should be noticed that the choice by
Amaterasu (as revealed by her in vision) of Toyouke as neighbor
at the Ise Shrines harmonizes with the unerotic relations of Ama
terasu with Susano and Tsukiyomi. Another lack in data about
this deity consists of the ignorance as to the nature of her symbol
or seat in her temple at Ise, though that of Amaterasu, her neigh
bor, is well known to be a mirror.
The great shrine to this goddess at Inari, near Kyoto, has im
parted its name to the deity it honors in accord with a common
practice in Japan of naming persons or gods after the place where
they reside. In consequence the deity to whom are devoted the
thousands of tiny wayside shrines in Japan is called Inari Sama
after their model at Inari. Furthermore, since the attendant
animal of Toyouke, the fox, invariably flanks the entrance to her
shrine, though ever so small, the farmer has exaggerated associa
tion into identity, and considers that Inari is the fox. Thus we
find transformation from Earth through Food and Inari to Fox
Deity, truly a remarkable series.
Thus much, then, for the great nature deities of Shinto as re
corded in the Kojiki, its most reliable archive of theogony. But a
millennium of ordinary wear and tear, the manipulations of Bud
dhist priestly ingenuity (shown in the sect of Ryobu), and espe
cially the graftings of hero and ancestor cult have hidden from
the Japanese folk the original nature of all except Amaterasu,
whose sun-clear character could hardly be mistaken. This process
is exemplified, as we have just seen, in the Earth-Deity. The
Moon-Deity becomes, on the subjugation of his tribe, a Nemesis
or Providence, and this notion would doubtless have become a
dominant moral force had not imported religion arrested natural
development. Still later the same deity becomes a Ruler of the
Dead, though Buddhism overshadows this notion also. Again,
Susano, though demonstrably a Rain-Storm god in origin, is no
longer recognized as such even by the learned among the rest that
throng his temples scattered throughout the land. For all these
Susano is a wholly historic person, hero of a hundred exploits,
and ancestor of Okuninushi believed to have been simply ruler
* Trans. A. S. J., vol. iii. Appendix, p. 75.
The Shinto Pantheon. 19

of Izumi. Thus Shinto well illustrates that law of increasing

anthropomorphism which ends by nearly concealing the nature
origin of great deities. There is, however, no case in Japan of
a historic person supplanting a nature-deity (unless Okuninushi
furnish such a case), as has so often happened in the neighboring
China." No doubt even Amaterasu has gained added lustre as
ancestress of the line imperial unbroken for a hundred and twenty
generations. Kompira San has come into the Shinto (but only
the Ryobu sect) pantheon from no one knows where. His great
shrine in Shikoku is a place of immense resort especially for
sailors, whose votive ships, in thanksgiving for deliverance from
the storm, crowd an extensive hall called ema do, such as is often
provided for votives in picture or model.
It must by no means be supposed that the above series has
exhausted the tale of Shinto nature-deities, which is, indeed, of
indefinite limits, as the number usually assigned, eighty myri
ads, sufficiently shows. Though many of these are not known to
have been actors in mythic drama, their names sufficiently indi
cate their mythic nature. Thus in the Harvest Ritual we read
of Blessing-Well, Powerful-Rock-Gate, Country Vivifier, Takechi
Farm, and Asuka Mountain. In other rituals and records we
read of Gods of the Wind, of Pestilence, of Rivers, and of Fire.
The cult of this last is still represented by a festival in November
when slight fires of straw probably only a remnant of the ori
ginal blaze are lit in the temple courts. At the same date
Hettsui-no-Kami, Goddess of the Kitchen Range, is celebrated
in the households. A drill is still used for kindling fire to cook
the offerings at the shrines of Ise and Izumo. The Taoist cult of
the Fire, wherein at the Spring Festival priests and people walk
the fire with bared feet, has in Japan developed into a test of
purity, its original significance as a solar symbol being quite for
gotten. At the great shrine of Susano, in Kyoto, numerous
braziers burn through the New Year's Eve, at which thousands of
people kindle a bit of rope with which to convey the new fire to
the household shrines and hearths.
A remarkable case of personification is involved in the ritual
for Yabune-no-Mikoto, Abode Augustness, which is simply the
royal palace. Indeed, all other things whatsoever which possess
powers of an extraordinary and eminent character are called
* Les Ftes etc., De Groot, pp. 360, 680, and many other places.
* Les Fates, etc., De Groot, p. 134.
* Occult Japan, P. Lowell, pp. 4762.
20 The Shinto Pantheon.

kami, superiors, or, as the word is usually translated into Eng

lish, deities. Lastly, we should notice that kami may be evil.
Let us hear Hirata again. Eminent does not mean solely
worthy of honor, good, or distinguished by great deeds, but is
applied also to the kami who are to be dreaded on account of
their evil character or miraculous nature. Thus, the dragon,
goblins, fox, tiger, and wolf are all kami. Motoori tells us, fur
ther, that whenever anything goes wrong in the world it is to
be attributed to the action of the evil gods, whose power is so
great that the sun goddess and the creator god are sometimes
unable to restrain them. The people prayed to the good gods
in order to obtain blessings, and performed rites in honor of the
bad gods in order to avert their displeasure. Both Hirata and
Motoori, however, are modern expositors and apologists for Shinto
in competition with Buddhism and Confucianism. As for the
Kojiki (p. 41), it recognizes only evil deities in general who are
offset by certain rectifying deities, but neither class is heard of
more than once. No one individual bad deity is ever mentioned,
and misfortunes are traced to one or other of the great gods, e.g.,
the Great Deity of Miwa, or the Wind Gods. Least of all is
there any organization of evil deities or any arch-demon. Nor is
there any ritual for evil deities in the Yengishiki; and very few
charms are issued in the names of evil gods, such as those from
the Pestilence God, and from the Small Pox God.
Ancestral deities cannot be better introduced than in the words
of Motoori. Amongst human beings who are at the same time
kami are to be classed the successive Mikados, who in the Man
yefu-shifu and other ancient poetry are called distant gods on
account of their being far removed from ordinary men, as well as
many other men, some who are revered as kami by the whole
empire, and those whose sphere is limited to a single province,
department, village or family. These various classes may be
most conveniently noticed in reverse order.
Ancestor cult has passed through as many changes and is as
obscure in history as the nature-cult we have just considered.
Thus the household ancestor cult has passed into the hands of
Buddhism, the tablets, averaging 8x3 inches in size and following
the Chinese pattern, being found always in the Butsudan Buddha
shelf, and not upon the kami-dana kami-shelf. The revivers
of pure Shinto would purge Japanese homes of these Buddhist
* Trans. A. S. J., vol. iii., Appendix, p. 42, quoted from Hirata.
* Trans. A. S. J., vol. iii., Appendix, p. 43.
The Shinto Pantheon. 21

corruptions, but meanwhile they mostly continue to carry the

day, for the masses are comprehensively Shinto, Buddhist, and
Confucian. Every morning some member or even servant
of the family must present a first small portion of the freshly
cooked rice, and on anniversaries of the death-day a full variety
of foods, including those known to be favorites of the deceased.
This household cult of an ancestor is discontinued after a hundred
years, because, as some say, the deceased is then born again, or,
as others, he then becomes a kami, but both these notions are of
Buddhist origin, and the real ground is no doubt the inevitable
weakening of regard as distance increases, combined with the
practical inconvenience of accumulated tablets and services.
Each district honors an uji-gami, family-god, the nature and
origin of which are variously explained. This local or tutelary
deity is the agent of Okuninushi, and to him, therefore, the new
born is presented for adoption as an uji-ko, family child, while
the traveler from home will secure a paper charm from the same
source. Festivals for the dead, tamamatsuri, soul festivals,
used to be held at fixed times, when all the people laid offerings
of flowers, edibles, and wine upon the graves. This developed
into an annual observance at the rice harvest, when the first
fruits were offered to the ancestral manes, and this practice con
tinues in a modified form until the present." Like the household
ancestor cult, the annual festival of the dead, known to foreigners
as the Feast of Lanterns, but properly to be called All Souls
Day, has fallen into the hands of Buddhism. The spirits of
dead ancestors are believed at this time, July 1316, to visit the
household altar, and special offerings of food are made to them,
while the living eat sparsely. In the rural districts the festival
is celebrated by a dance. Note in contrast herewith how, in
China, ancestor cult has maintained itself quite independently of
Buddhism, and at the same time in stronger force than in Japan.
Indeed, so far as I know, no literary remains or cult-survival
affords evidence for the existence of household ancestor cult pre
vious to the introduction of Buddhism. The presumption, how
ever, is strongly in favor of its existence.
All cases of the deification of eminent men, that is, of hero
worship, which have happened since the advent of Buddhism
have likewise fallen into its hands, mostly under the sect known
as Ryobu. Thus with the great minister and scholar Michizane,
whose death, A. D. 903, during an unjust banishment, was fol
* Trans. A. S. J., vol. xix., part 3.
22 The Shinto Pantheon.

lowed by many portents. Apotheosized as Tenjin Sama, Heaven

Spirit-Lord, he is now adored as God of Calligraphy, a very
important art in the Far-Orient, and equivalent to letters, for
which accordingly there is no god in Japan as there is in China.
His temple at Kitano, a suburb of Kyoto, has the largest income
but one of the three thousand shrines in that city sacred to
Buddhism. Hachiman San, the apotheosis of the Emperor Ojin
300 A. D. as God of War, in which character he is figured
on the Ise kakemono, and Toshogu, the apotheosis of the great
Shogun Iyeyasu 17th century A. D. are likewise adored in
temples belonging to Ryobu Shinto, Two-faced Shinto, one
looking towards Shinto, the other towards Buddhism. Kompira
San, noticed above, was also in charge of this sect, which at
the revolution in 1868 was deprived of its spoils in favor of
the revived pure Shinto. The present reign has witnessed the
apotheosis, now of course a la pure Shinto, of several eminent
persons, among whom is notable the scholar Motoori, a shrine to
whom stands at his birthplace near Tsu. Sukuna-hiko, The
Little Prince, of sufficient importance to be figured among the
chief twelve deities on the Izumo scroll, and to be honored by
several temples, is yet relatively small in significance and of very
obscure origin. The account of him given in the Kojiki is best
interpretedso among others by Professor Kume euhemeris
tically, and it is probable that he brought with him the elements
of Chinese medicine, for he passes as God of Medicine, and is
figured as an old man bearing a pot in his hand. If so, he must
be counted among the earliest cases of hero-worship, and of course
previous to the introduction of Buddhism.
The ancestral gods of a single family may, under favorable
conditions, become objects of a national cult. Thus Kasuga San,
figured on the Ise scroll as an old man riding a deer, really rep
resents four deities one a goddess, the ancestral gods of a
certain priest who in 767 A. D. built them a shrine, and whose
descendants, on becoming powerful, raised their family god with
them. Kasuga is simply the name of the place where the shrine
stands, become a name for the god (cf. p. 18) about whose indi
viduality the folk entertain no doubt.
But the highest effect is produced where the cult of powerful
ancestors and that of great nature-deities combine forces. This
has happened notably in two cases, just those connected with the
great shrines, Naiku San in Ise and O Yashiro in Izumo, which
* Trans. A. S. J. vol. vii. part 4, p. 394.
The Shinto Pantheon. 23

stand respectively first and second in point of sacredness and pop

ularity in Shinto, even as Mecca and Jerusalem do in Islam, the
latter shrine in both cases being that of the conquered but related
people. At Naiku San, Inner Temple, is carried on in great
state the cult of Amaterasu O Kami, considered ancestress of the
Sovereign Grandchild's Augustness, Ninigi no Mikoto, that
descended from Heaven (i.e., Korea) to Japan and founded the
imperial line that rules Japan to-day. Small wonder then that
the Mikado previous to the revolution in 1868 was considered too
holy to leave the palace and set foot upon common ground, that
his title still in common parlance is Tenshi Sama, Heaven-Son
Lord, and that at death he is supposed to become a kami. Second,
but like unto this, is the union of the Moon-God with the Ruler of
the Izumo tribe. The name Okuninushi, Great-Country-Ruler,
fits moon or chieftain equally well, and his descendant of the
seventy-sixth generation, the present high priest of the Izumo
OYashiro, used until recently to be styled Ikigami, Living God.
The very courteous reception and the kind exhibition of the numer
ous and valuable temple treasures afforded me by this nobleman
for his present style is Baron Sengi confirmed my opinion,
otherwise easily demonstrable, that Shinto deities have never
been of the jealous and bloodthirsty kind sometimes met else
While the ancestral tablet, brought by Buddhism from China,
is in exclusive use in the household ancestral cult which has been
appropriated by Buddhism, the means used in the temple ances
tor cult of Shinto to represent the ancestor is, not a tablet (as it
is in Buddhist temples in Japan and in all temples in China), but
some personal belonging of the deceased, especially a sword, if a
male, and a mirror, if a female. These and similar articles are
called tamashiro, spirit-substitute, or kanzane, god-seed."
Such an article is the proper representative of the deity wor
shiped at any particular temple, and is kept carefully secluded
from view in the remotest chamber of the temple, while overt pur
poses are answered by a gohei or wand with pendent paper strips.
There can be no doubt that this concept is animistic, in that the
spirit of the deceased is held to be really present in the shrine, as
appears perhaps still more plainly from the practice of often pla
cing a pillow in the shrine with the express purpose of signify
ing the deity's presence, while the purpose also of the recently
revived Shinto funeral is to retain the spirit of the deceased in
- * Trans. A. S. J., vol. ii. p. 119.
24 The Shinto Pantheon.

the tamaya, spirit-house, which is to be kept in the home for

ancestral worship. Evidently the spirit was considered to be
attached one way or other to the object it had once used. Thus
the Kojiki (109) represents Amaterasu as saying to Ninigi be
fore his descent from Heaven, Regard this mirror exactly as
if it were our august spirit, and worship it as in our presence.
Yet only confusion is made by calling this notion fetishism which
has a very different connotation, distinguished in particular from
this before us by not involving ancestor cult. The deity is com
monly supposed to reside in an idol also, but idolatry must not
therefore be classed as a variety of fetishism. The ground of the
Shinto notion is plainly the belief in the continued existence of
the soul after death somewhere or other, to which the association
of ideas adds the notion, here by his personal belonging. To the
same order of ideas belongs the popular practice of depositing
a doll or toy of a child in the Tai-shi-do of the great Buddhist
Temple, Tennoji at Osaka, after which, on the ringing of the
Indo-no-kane, Bell of Leading, the prince-saint Shotoku-Taishi
leads the soul of the child into Paradise. The same ideas sur
vive in degree in the Buddhist or Roman or Greek Christian
who reveres relics of the saints, and in the mother who treasures
up toys and clothing of the dear departed, while fetishism finds
its modern descendant in the lucky-stone of the boy or boor.
On the other hand Kempermann quite mistakes the sources of
this relic-worship when he regards it as an evidence for die
Tiefe ihres Gefhls und ihrer wrdigen Auffassung des Wesens
der Gottheit." The Shinto notion of the nature of deity was
quite conformed to the barbarian type, and the absence of idola
try probably dependent on the fact that naturism borrowed its
temple properties from ancestor cult, or, in other words, that
ancestor cult was grafted on to nature cult before art had enabled
the latter to fashion its deities in conformity with their nature
Ancestor cult appears very plainly, of course, in the funeral
rites of Shinto. Here we can give only fragmentary items about
the archaic usage, for during the last twelve centuries the priests
of eschatologic Buddhism have conducted all funerals, even those
of Shinto priests, just as they have also controlled those other two
services for the dead, the household ancestor cult and the annual
All Souls Festival, Shinto being prevailingly cosmologic and
earthly. The following data are gathered from the article on
* Mittheilungen., etc. Jan., 1874, p. 32.
The Shinto Pantheon. 25

Japanese Funeral Rites, by Mr. A. H. Fay of the British Lega

tion." Burial was, so far as is known, the most ancient mode of
disposing of the dead. Various ceremonies were observed on
the occasion of a death. The body was deposited in a moya, or
mourning-house, and left there until the preparations for perma
nent interment were completed. Obsequies were performed for
seven or eight days and nights, for which period also food and
drink, fruit and favorite dainties were placed as oblations in the
moya, and a fire, niwabi, was kept lighted in front of the same
Music was played, slow measures danced, the praises of the dead:
chanted and much weeping and wailing done. The purpose of
the music was to induce the spirit to return to the body. The
funeral procession consisted of a bearer of the food - offerings,
broom-bearers, cooks, rice-pounders, hired mourners, lantern
bearers, a survival from times when the burial was effected by
night, assistants and the bereaved relatives. In the rear came
men bearing flags blue, red and white in color, and lastly musi
cians. The primitive grave was a shallow hole filled up to the
extent of a small mound which developed into the tumulus. The
head was placed towards the north (whence the living in Japan
will not sleep in that position). Earthenware articles alone have
been found in mounds of the earliest period; stone ornaments,
metal rings, coins, etc., in the later mounds. The custom of mak
ing a hitogaki, man-fence, round the mound was abandoned
about 1 B. C. in favor of the humaner use of clay images of

Since the revolution in 1868, the Shinto funeral rite has been
restablished, and Mr. Fay gives an interesting account of its
various parts as resuscitated or constructed anew by Shinto schol
ars. Of burials in a recent year 526,000 were in accordance with
the Buddhist rite, 225,000 with the Shinto, and 3,000 with the
1 Trans. A. S. J. vol. xix. part 3.

Dedication - - - -

Preface - - - -

Bibliography on Phallicism in Japan -
Bibliography on Shinto - -

Bibliography on Phallicism -
Museums of Shinto Cultus Implements
Museums of Phallic Cultus Implements
I. Phallicism in Japan
I. Temples - - -


II. Symbols - - - -
III. Festivals - - -

IV. Rituals - - - -


V. Phallicism in the Kojiki -


II. Creed of Phallicism - - -


III. Place of Phallicism in the Evolution of Religion 30

IV. Does Phallicism belong to Shinto? - 32

V. Suggestions for Further Research 33

Respectfully dedicated as an expression of highest esteem to

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., Professor of Rabbinical Literature and
Philosophy in the University of Chicago and Rabbi in the Sinai
Congregation, Chicago, that profound scholar and ever ready
patron of liberal learning, without whose generous aid in the
Emil G. Hirsch fellowship, this thesis could not have been


This thesis is meant for a study in Shinto, while a work com

plete at least in outline will be published so soon as oppor
tunity offers.
The circumscription in the circulation of an academic mono
graph renders admissible a detail and frankness in the treatment
of phallicism which would be inadmissible in work destined for
the general public. Should any general reader happen upon
this article and find it unduly stimulating his lower sensibility,
he may thereby judge his distance from the scientific purpose of
the writer, and will do better in passing the article to fitter
hands. Finally let me say that in breaking such new ground as
is here done, errors both of commission and omission must occur,
and these should meet with prompt correction at the hands of
the many scholars in Japan who are best fitted to the task.


On this topic no book of course is to be expected, but there

is moreover no monograph, article, or chapter, and but four
stray references to the topic as such in any of the very numerous
works treating of Japan, or of Shinto, its native faith, which I
have been able, after visiting libraries in many capitals, to con
sult. These four references are a description of a phallic festival
by Dresser, a single sentence by Dr. J. J. Rein, a footnote by
Rev. W. E. Griffis, D.D., and a brief paragraph in the Hand
book to Japan. Each will be quoted in its proper place.
Neither in accounts of Shinto is any mention made of phal
licism, nor in the accounts of phallicism given in special works
to be described lateris any reference made to Japan. The
encyclopaedias of course reflect this omission of the special works.
Thus Meyer's Conversations Lexicon sub Phallos states that
phallicism extended from India to the shores of the Nile and
Ionian Sea, no doubt ignorant of the cult of Inyoseki in Japan,
as of Fricco among the Teutons.

The authorities referred to in this work are Transactions of

*he Asiatic Society of /apan, Vols. I.-XXI. ; /apan, Kaempfer in
Pinkerton's Voyages, Vol. 7; /apan, Caron in the same; /apan,
S. S. Rein; /apan, Dresser; Mikado's Empire, W. E. Grif
fis; Manners and Customs of the /apanese, Humbert; Hand
book for /apan, Chamberlain and Mason; Mythology and Reli.
gious Worship of the Ancient /apanese, Satow in Westminster
Review for July, 1878; /apaneseEnglish Dictionary, Hepburn;
Anyseki, Hirata no Kuro Tane, being selections from the
Aoshiden of Hirata Atsutane; AVotes on the Ancient Stone Imple
ments of /apan, T. Kanda, Tokyo. The only articles on Shinto
at once original and, at least in outline, complete are the three
following which are named in their time order:
Mittheilungen ber die Kamielehre, by P. Kempermann in
Mittheilungen der deutschen Gesellschaft fr Natur und Volker
kunde Ostasiens, January, 1874.
Mythology and Religious Worship of the Ancient /apanese, by
E. Satow in Westminster Review for July, 1878.
Introduction to the Kojiki, by B. H. Chamberlain in Transac
tions of the Asiatic Society of /apan. Supplement to Vol. X., 1882.
It is noteworthy that each of these correct and learned treatises
altogether overlooks the phallic cult which is undoubtedly extant
in Japan.

Though the range of this article is limited to Japan, the gen

eral subject of phallicism is so little known even to those
likely to meet this paper that a specification of some general
sources will probably prove acceptable. It is a matter for regret
that treatises on comparative religion omit all recognition of
phallicism as a general phase of religion. Of such may be noted:
Primitive Culture, E. B. Tylor, 1871; Introduction to the
Science of Religion, F. Max Mller, 1882; Prologomena of the
History of Aeligions, A. Reville, 1884; Ecclesiastical Institutions,
H. Spencer, 1885; Religionsgeschichte, C. Saussaye, 1887; Myth,
Aitual and Religion, A. Lang, 1887; Science of Religions, E. Bur
nouf, 1888; AVatural Religion, F. M. Mller, 1888; Physical
Religion, F. M. Mller, 1890; Anthropological Religion, F. M.
Mller, 1891.
We venture to draw special attention to the last but one, which
in treating nature-worship should have included phallicism. But
while it treats abundantly of fire, it makes no mention of the
phallos, or linga as it is called in India, to which country all Mr.
Mller's treatises are confined. Yet while the traveler in that
country sees little or nothing of fire-cult, he sees hundreds of linga,
the whole number being estimated at nothing less than thirty
millions !

Saussaye's classic of course mentions phallicism in its historic

sections, but no due recognition is made of phallicism in the top
ical treatment of the subject entitled Phenomenologischer Theil.
Strangely enough, the immense Encyclopaedia Britannica has no
article on our topic, but the American and International Encyclo
paedias, and the German Conversations Lexicons give correct
general statements of it. An excellent account of Indian phalli
cism appears in the Hinduism and Brahmanism of Sir M. Wil
liams (cf. index sub linga), and in his Buddhism, p. 372. For
the wider Aryan field consult Mythology of the Aryan Nations, by
Sir G. W. Cox, though the details here advanced are still under
discussion. It is not too much to say that all the works hitherto
devoted exclusively to phallicism are unreliable. In fact the rule
seems to be, as stated to me by Dr. Reid of the British Museum,
that so soon as one begins to study phallicism he goes crazy.
The writers of these special works on phallicism are all amateurs
a plurality being medical doctorsand most of them are
warped by an anti-Christian bias. They represent the reaction
inevitable on the general neglect of the topic by those theologians,
philosophers and anthropologists who have for one reason or
another ignored a phase of religion, as natural as it was in fact
general, if not quite universal. The chief of these special works
are :

A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus, by R. P. Knight, to

which is added An Essay on the Worship of the Generative Pow
ers during the Middle Ages of Western Europe, Anon., London,
1865. The starring of this work in Sonnenscheins Best Books
must be taken strictly in relation to such other works as exist,
and not as a sign of satisfactoriness, which in fact it does not
Ancient Paiths embodied in Ancient AVames. T. Inman, M.D.
This is a work of Dr. Reid's crazy kind, full of false etymologies
and identifications, and intensely doctrinaire and anti-Christian.
Its lexical form affords excellent opportunity for the repetition
in which it abounds through the 792 pp. of Vol. I., and the 1028
pp. of Vol. II. The uncritical nature of the whole may be
inferred from the author's caution that where statements in the

later portion of the work differ from those in the earlier, the
later must be considered correct | Such books will continue to
entrap the unwary until accredited writers deal with the topic in
its rightful place. Yet Inman demonstrates some survivals in
Christianity which its accredited teachers find it convenient to
hush up. Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism. Same
author. The statement in Sonnenschein that this work will suf

fice for acquaintance with the author's views I cannot confirm.

Wholesale condemnation of such works are usually as falsely
motived as the works themselves. -

Rivers of Life. Forlong. 1883. The experience of this

writer throughout a long residence in various parts of India as
military engineer makes him an authority on rarely known facts,
but his neglect to specify names of places and persons lends the
whole an untrustworthy air, and damages it as proof. In the six
chapters into which his 548 folio pages are divided, no analysis,
progress or order whatsoever is discernible.
Tree and Serpent Worship. J. Fergusson, 1873. This is the
Fergusson of archaeological and architectural fame and the star
ring of his work in Sonnenschein is well deserved by his extensive
acquaintance with the phallic phenomena of India.
Monumens du Cu//e Secre/ des /)ames Romaines. A. Capre,
1874. These are chiefly reproductions of gems engraved by Greek
artists at Rome about the time of Augustus, and exhibit in great
beauty and detail the phallic sacrifices and processions of their own
and preceding ages. Particularly one on Plate 50, representing a
phallic procession carved on cornelian, about 2 by 1 inches is, so far
as I know, after searching museums around the world, a unique
monument of that once familiar rite. It comprises besides the
phallos which is borne in triumph under a canopy, a gigantic
kteis (pudenda muliebria), a bull, a goat, and numerous musi

I met the above works, among others, in the British Museum,

most of them in the reserve shelves, to which only special stu
dents are allowed access.

1) Of Shinto Cultus Implements. The only museums outside

Tokyo where I have seen or heard of Shinto cultus implements
are the Leyden Museum, the Muse Guimet in Paris, and the
Pitt-Rivers Museum in Oxford. The last two make no preten
sion to completeness, and indeed both are conspicuously incom
plete. Phalloi from Japan these museums have none, nor had
their curators learned that such objects were found there. Of the
Leyden Museum I unfortunately know nothing in detail,
2) Of Phallie Cultus Implements. The implements of the
phallic cult where possessed at all are mostly withdrawn to secret
cabinets, except where so conventional as to run no danger of
scandalizing the prude and the prudent or of pleasing the pru
rient and the vile. Only in the Naples Museum is any notice
given of the existence of such cabinet, or is admittance granted
the general public. In all other museums examination is granted
only on request and that for scientific purposes. An eminent
American anthropologist, known to me, visited the British
Museum armed with full credentials to the curator of the religious
section, and was allowed to leave without information that a
phallic collection originally valued by R. P. Knight at 50,000
was preserved there. It is such precautionsnecessary in some
degree in behalf of present-day moralitythat have made possi
ble that garbling of history, philosophy, comparative religion, and
theology that at present misleads the majority of even the highly
educated. But true science knows no sex, and those who cannot
forget the latter should eschew the former. Altars, reliefs, neck
laces, gems, but especially Greek and Roman vases form the most
likely places for phallic monumentsexcept of course phalloi
themselves, and generally stand mixed with other objects quite
safe from the observation of the average museum visitor.
Living Authorities on Phallicism in /apan. Though I found
no one in Europe or America aware of the presence of phallicism
in Japan, I never found an old resident in Japan ignorant of it.
It is evidently high time that some mediation be made between
these two parties, and such will be the purpose of the present

Phallicism forms an integral part of nature worship, and as

such will, if normal, possess a cult and a creed, though the
latter may be in part or even entirely implied, and can then be
elicited only by questions put to the devotees. The content of
its religious consciousness may then be compared with absolute
religion, and finally it may be tested for conduct. These four
spheres of religious activity suggest a convenient scheme for tab
ulating data, and will now be considered in the order named.
The phallic cult, that is worship or ceremony, requires a con
sideration of temples, symbols, festivals, and rituals.
I. Temples.Such phallic temples include (1) the fully equip
ped miya or temple with resident priest or priests; (2) the
smaller miya with only occasional services; (3) the mere sheds
protecting from the rain, rows of phalloi; and, (4) a mere fence
or boundary, while the phallos stands in the open. To the
first class belongs a miya at Kasashima, fifteen miles south of
Sendai, said to have been founded about 250 B.C. by Yamato
Takeru No Mikoto. The deity worshiped is Saruta Hiko No
Mikoto, of whom more later. In the service of this famous temple
were once fifteen resident priests with their families and houses.
To the same first class belongs a miya at Makiborimura in
Iwade Ken. The deities here are Izanagi, Izanami, and Saruta
Hiko, which three are associated with Konsei Dai Myojin
Root of Life Great Shining God.
To the second class belongs the shrine at Kande, eight miles
inland from Akashi near Kobe, locally called Dai Seki Miya, or
Ra no Seki MiyaGreat Stone Shrine, or Penis Stone Shrine.
Its seclusion in the country has saved its gigantic phallos from
the iconoclastic zeal of the reformer to bless the eyes of the
archaeologist. I hope the moss-grown pillar deity I found here
may yet be granted a place of honor in some museum when the
rising sun of an exacter science and a nobler faith has enlight
ened the simple, honest country folk who now trust in him for
various daily needs. This miya is about ten feet square, hung
with native pictures, furnished with altar and goheisymbol of
divinity, and provided back and front with a wooden grating
through which the four feet high phallos may be seen standing
behind the miya within an oblong stone fence, but unsheltered
save by the bamboo forest around. The ground inside this fence
is thickly covered with shells, of which more later. Some score
yards from the shrine and phallos stands a kteis, formed in this
instance by a natural collocation of three rocks, the whole being
some five feet high, and requiring so much imagination to con
strue into a kteis that I doubt not the time will come when the
closet philosopher will deny they were ever so considered. Any
doubts that such a rough pile of rocks was really worshipped
would have been soon dispelled by the tiny native paper flags
bearing the legend, Osame tatematsuru, respectfully dedicated,
which had been stuck into the ground before the symbol. The
local names for this interesting pair are for the phallos Okko
San, for the kteis Mekko San, which are names given by the Ainus
the dwellers in the land before the Mongol invasion to the
hill on which the two now stand and a neighboring hill similar
in size and shape, on which the phallos formerly stood. Local
tradition preserves the fact, and the /apan Mail of August 22,
1891, p. 224, refers to Oakkan and Meakkan as names given two
neighboring hills in Yezo where the Ainus are still extant.
Of the third, the mere shed class, I found a good specimen
in a shrine to the phallos as Konsei on the Konsei Pass above
Lake Yumoto near Nikko. That this shrine dates back to the
first possession of the land appears certain from the impartation
of its name to the pass on which it stands. It may turn out that
Okko and Mekko are also names of the pudenda, and originally
gave their names to the hills on which they once stood. I got
track of this shrine from that model Handbook for /apan (third
edition) issued by B. H. Chamberlain and W. B. Mason, two of
the foremost scholars in Japan. Their brief note runs thus:
Tradition says that the original object of reverence was made
of gold, but that having been stolen, it was afterwards replaced
by one of stone. Ex-votos, chiefly wood and stone emblems, are
i. i.
often presented at the shrine. Very little is known about the
origin of phallic worship in Japan, although it appears to have
been at one time nearly universal in the country districts,
especially those of the north and east. This brief statement is
the only general one that has yet appeared on the subject, and
no doubt summed up general knowledge on it three years ago.
It was to be corrected in the forthcoming edition. The shrine
consists of a wooden shed some four feet square with a low shelf
running round three sides on which stand some dozen phalloi
of various sizes in stone and wood. Hard by stands a large
stone lantern. On the shrine appears the name and address of
a Tokyo hotel company specially catering to pilgrims, and at
whose expense the shrine had probably been restored.
Another shrine of this class stands at Yamada outside the
northwest corner of the famous Naiku San the Ise shrine to

Amaterasu, the Heaven-Shiner, regent of the Shinto pantheon,

and between two temples, one to Oho-yama-tsu-mi-no-kami
the Deity-Great-Mountain-Possessor, and the other to his
daughter Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-hime, Princess-Blossoming-Bril
liantly-Like-the-Flowers-of-the-Trees, who presides over Mount
Fuji. The shrine frames a typical phallos and kteis side by side,
though scores of native miniature torii (wooden gateway to tem
ple) ever pile over and hide these antique dual deities from the
careless observer. These torii had been removed for the occasion
when the photograph found at the frontispiece of this work was
taken. At the neighboring temple of the Ko-no-hana-saku
ya-hime native phalloi and ktenes are brought or taken by
persons desiring children, spouse, or healing of diseases of the
generative system. An erotic story is related of this deity, Kojiki
115; and her sister /wa-naga-hime, Enduring as the-Rocks,
presiding over Mount Oyama, is symbolized by a large stone in
the shrine at its summit and there worshiped by the harlots
from Tokyo. This stone should be examined to learn whether
it be a kteis or simply symbolic of the deity's name as explained
in a legend or myth, Kojiki 1 16.
To this class probably belonged the cases mentioned in the Mika
do's Empire 33: I have noticed the prevalence of these shrines
and symbols, especially in eastern and northern Japan, having
counted as many as a dozen, and this by the roadside, in a trip
to Nikko. The barren of both sexes worship them, or offer them
ex-voto. In Sagami, Kadzusa, and even in Tokyo itself, they were
visible as late as 1874, cut in stone and wood. The road here
referred to from Tokyo to Nikko is about 100 miles long, and
three-fourths of it is part of one of the chief highways in Japan.
Of the last class, where the temple reduces to its original
notion of a separated space in the open, there are naturally many
cases of so primitive a cult. Such I infer from the remains was
the now dismantled platform at Nikko, the stone phalloi having
been all dumped below an adjacent Buddhist temple where
they now lie in response to the remonstrance of the then
American minister, on the ground that the place was one of great
summer resort for foreign families.
I transfer from a sheet published by Myase Sadao, and
extracted by him from the Koshiden (Ancient History) of the
famous Japanese historian and archaeologist Hirata Atsutane, the
following cases. All belong to the last-named class or a
subdivision of it yet to be mentioned :
Phallos in the open at Kotakamura, in Katorigori, province
of Shimosa.

Ditto at Otamura, Inabagori, Shimosa.

Ditto at Ishigimura, Mishimagori, Echigo.
Ditto at Shibuimura, Nishi Kasaigori, Musashi,
Phallos with kteis beside it at Matsuzawamura, Katorigori,
Shimosa. Both like to drink wine, and hence are called Sake
nomi ishi, Wine drinking stones. The worshiper presents wine
which they absorb very quickly. More than 250 years ago the
kteis departed to the next village, and in consequence no mar
riage could be contracted between the people of the two villages.
Sixty-two years ago the stone returned.
Lastly come an interesting sub-group, standing in the open
hut distinguished by being naturally of sexual shape. Whether
art of man has assisted groping nature, or the artist has embel
lished his sketch, I cannot judge. Certainly any such stones
would not fail to attract the attention of primitive man and sug
gest or confirm that sexual philosophy of life which meets the
student of primitive culture in every part of the world.
First comes an entire island, though of course a very small
one, of height greater than breadth and bearing on its crown
some dozen trees. It lies northeast of Awaji and is named
Onokorojima, Spontaneously congeled island, or Eshima,
Placenta island, about which more later.
Next comes a natural phallos some twenty feet high and a
kteis of proportionate size, about two-thirds of a mile apart, on
Inushima in Bizen.

Last on this sheet of Hiratas is a natural phallos and kteis

placed suitably for the inception of coition. Some one did
injury to the rock and was destroyed, and all his house.
This is simply the list of a single observer and enquirer, and
needs the complementation that can easily be given when once
attention is called to the importance of the subject as a legiti
mate branch of nature worship, and one of the normal manifes
tations of religious thought in its search for some clue to that
Absolute Ruler of Nature that the deepest thinkers still declare

Last in this strange story come two groups, each of four

immense natural phalloi 15200 feet high, situated in the court
of a Buddhist temple called Reiganji, near Kuroki in the province
of Chikugo.
II. Symbols.Next let us consider phallic symbols, and here I
cannot do other than describes the phallic part of my own col
lection of Shinto cultus implements now on exhibition in the
Walker Museum of the University of Chicago."

1. Natural water-worn phallos of stone with a nodule forming

the glaus penis. Highly prized by former owner as the phallos
of a deity. Cn. 22 x 10. From one of the very numerous brothels
at Yamada, where stands the famous shrine to the Sun Goddess.
2. Natural water-worn phallos, the ridge of the glaus being
formed of a harder stratum, 9.5 x 4.8. From temple at Mizusawa.
3. Like No. 2 in all respects but size which is 7.1 x 2.3. From

4. Natural Phallos but so little like its original that only its
*All measurements are given in centimeters.
source from a phallic temple would induce an unpracticed for
eigner to credit that it was ever considered one. From phallic
shrine at Yamada. -

5. Phallos cut from volcanic stone, well executed and new,

20 x Io. From shrine on the Konsei Pass.

6. Phallos of baked clay, blackened by age. Realistic,

22 x 7. From brothel at Yamada, where it stood on the Kami
dana God-shelf, for occasional worship when an inmate had
obtained a good fee.
7. Phallos of cast iron, 9.1 x 3.2. From Mizusawa.
8. Phallos of wood, 17 x 4. From Mizusawa.
9. Another, 1.9 x 4.
Io. Another, stained pink, 22 x 6.
11. Phallos used in pairs as amulet for boys. Octagonal
shaft surmounted with octagonal pyramid, stained in pink, scarlet
and green. A string passing through central and vertical hole
serves to suspend over child's shoulder. From Mizusawa.
12. Phallos of clay, gilded and painted to represent the
shime-nawa or sacred rope, 3.5 x 1.5. From earthenware store
opposite the Inari shrine.
13. Phallos-glaus, forming head of a seated man in ceremonial
costume. Clay, with impressed and colored garments, 6.5 x 5.5.
Old, from dealer in Miyajima. A remarkable case of personifi

14. A Priapus, phallos enormous and colored bright red.

Clay, 4.5 x 3.5. From Inari store.
15. Phallos in shape of enormous mushroom, borne on a wom
an's back. Painted clay, 7 x 2.5. From Inarestore. A toy, cf. No. 17.
16. Phallos in shape of a wood obelisk, being a votive for
easy parturition, 12 x 6. From a shrine at Nikko.
17. A nest of five objects carved in wood and gaily painted,
as follows: a, Fukusuke. A man in old Japanese style beckon
ing with his left hand. Common in stores to insure success in
trade. Compare Robin Goodfellow. 14 x 10. b. Otafuku. A
woman of the fat type of beauty. Function similar to above,
both are known to every Japanese child, 9 x 5. c. Phallos painted
red with sacred rope round, 6 x 4. d. Phallos painted yellow,
with rope, 4 x 2.5 e. Hoshi-no-tama Jewel of Omnipotence.
An onion-shaped object of Buddhist origin, 2 x 2, cf. p. 29.
From a store in Nikko near the site of a demolished phallic
shrine and meant for use as a toy. The associates of the phallos
in this group plainly show that it has here sunk from the rank of
a god receiving worship to that of a more or less efficient sign of
good luck, much as the horseshoe, cornucopia and slipper all
probably symbols of the kteis are still used in England. This
use was exceedingly common in Japan until about twenty years
ago, the toy shops, earthenware shops, and hawkers being well
supplied with them. (Mikado's Empire, W. E. Griffis, 33.)

18. Natural water-worn kteis, being a flat piece of slate with

irregular periphery some 4.5 in diameter, and having a water-worn
aperture near the center. From Mizusawa.
19. Natural kteis of quartz with deep indentation near centre,
but not water-worn. Irregular, 4 x 2.5. From Yamada shrine.
20. Sea ear shell, Latin Hallotis tuberculata, Japanese Awabi.
Bears name of donor to the Kande shrine. The living shellfish
is so suggestive of the kteis that Japanese women often use its
name in that sense. From Kande shrine.

21. Cowry shell, Latin Cypraea porcel/ana, Japanese Taka

ragai, treasure shell. Presented at temples by barren women,
3.5 x 2.5. From Yamada store.

22. Bamboo grass rings interlinked to symbolize coition, but

precise use not learned. From Mizusawa.
23. Votive picture on wood from the phallic shrine at Kande,
representing a tiger which symbolizes the month in which the
donor was born, 32 x 25.
24. Votive picture on wood representing a horse, from the
phallic shrine at Yamada, 6 x 4. For meaning cf. p. 29.
25. Akaza no tsue. Canes of the thorny shrub Chenopodium
album, from Mizusawa. These are used to set up round the
house lot to preserve boundary lines. This combination of
phallic and boundary ideas by a temple dedicated to Sarutahiko,
whose ephithet here is Dosofin Way-beginning God, which
may refer to his function (Kojiki, section 33) as guide, easily sug
gests the same triple combination in Hermes. Other evidence
for identity between the phallos and the road-god appears in Mr.
Satow's article in the Westminster Review. Was the phallic cane
placed in the field to render it fertile, then made to serve also as
boundary mark, and finally to preside over the roads which would
naturally often adjoin boundaries 2
26. Peach made in candy and sold to children by hawkers at
certain festivals as a symbol of the kteis, for which it appears its
cleft adapts it. So the apricot is used in India. From Kyato.
27. Ginseng, Chinese Genseng, Japanese Minjin. The best is
grown in Corea. Price varies with degree of the root's resemb
lance to the human form, which in some cases is remarkable.
The best specimens fetch three dollars each for use in medicine
where it passes for a panacea. It is the mandrake of Genesis 30,
but not the plant wrongly so named in the United States.

Of all cultus implements paper charms are by far the most

numerous in Japan, no house being without some dozen. Among
the various kinds is the phallic.
28. Charm guaranteeing easy birth bearing the name of
Konsei. Cf. p 18, 11 x 5.
29. Charm bearing the inscription An-san-marmori, Easy
birth-charm. The paper is folded into a triangular shape and
contains a natural equilateral triangular black stone, 16 x 8.
This shape is unique among all the ten thousand charms in
Japan and can be accounted for in no way except its resemblance
to the pudenda viewed externally, which, as seen, e.g., in statues,
is just that of this talismanic stone taken base uppermost. The
color is also thus alone accounted for. Of the same color is the
famous Diana of the Ephesians now in the Naples Museum.
Her numerous breasts, and the erotic symbolism on her robe all
indicate the sexual idea. From Sumiyoshi temple.

30. Charm bearing the inscription Honorable-God-offering,'

and containing rice and seaweed, the broth from which must be
drunk by a barren woman. 20 x 12. From Sumiyoshi temple.
31. Charm bearing the inscription Seed-lend-temple-divine
ticket. 16 x 5. From Sumiyoshi temple.
32. Charm bearing the inscription Sh ichi i Konsei dai myo
in Zai hatsu. True first rank, root life, great shining deity, great
charm. Right and left of this central text stand the words
Good for all diseases below the belt. Life will be long. Good
for woman when rearing child. Mother and child will be
healthy. Inside this envelope is a slip bearing the inscription
Ho sai. Saruta hiko. /zanagi. Izanami. Chinza. Harai tamae
Kiyome de Zamae. Offering, purification. Saruta hiko. Izanagi.
Izanami. Seat (of worship). Grant to clear away and clean.
The introduction into this charm of Izanagi and Izanami
will become clear on reading the section, Phallacism in the
Kajiki. Saruta hiko finds mention here, I believe, owing to an
extension or misunderstanding of Saruta's original function as
guide to Ninigi no Mikoto when descending from heaven,
Kojiki, 1078. His consequent title michi moto, road origin,
has been taken in the sense of life-origin, while he has been said
to have been born spontaneously. All the data known to me
indicate that his true place is in a lightning myth.
This charm is water-stained in consequence of its having been
consigned in a box together with many like it to a neighboring
pool on suppression of the cult some twenty years ago. When
iconoclastic zeal had somewhat abated, the box was fished up, and
its owner courteously presented this precious relic of a well nigh
extinct cult to a zealous collector of cultus implements. The
supreme interests of science should protect the giver from any dis
agreeable consequences that might be inflicted by those about
him now ashamed of the cult. The very high rank, next that of
the Mikado himself, here assigned Konsei shows the high con
sideration the cult could receive. The presence of a phallos today
in the garden of a samuraithe old military and literary class
well known to me, though long ignored by the noble family, affords
additional proof that the cult was not limited to the lower class.
33. Charm bearing the inscription Konsei, great shining
god. Easy birth god charm. From temple at Mizusawa.
Before leaving this topic a caution on the danger of confusing
phalloi with other stone monuments, of which there are in Japan
as elsewhere several kinds, may not be wasted. Not every stand
ing stone or log longer than it is thick is a phallos, though some
90 per cent. of phalloi are included in that definition, the
remainder lying horizontal or pendant but in either case then
accompanied by the scrotum. One needs first of course to learn
the history, use, and any inscription on the stone, and then
frequently discovers that the stone is a wayside gravestone, a
boundary stone, a sign post guiding to a place of pilgrimage, a
weather-worn Mure-butsu an unsheltered image of one of the
Buddhasor some memorial stone, perhaps, of an extinct tree,
perhaps of an execution ground. These specifications all find
examples in Japan, and might be mistaken by the tyro anxious to
find spoil. Per contra the phalloi now extant and the product of
handicraft in Japan are unmistakable by reason of their realism,
though those produced by nature need a practiced imagination.
III. Phallic Festivals.Every temple in Japan besides celebrat
ing the great national festivals makes one in honor of the
deity to which itself is specially dedicated. In 1892 I visited
the Kande shrine a second time on such an occasion held

there on the 18th day of the 3d month, old style, which cor
responds to a varying date in our March. The date of the
festival at the phallic shrine at Morioka varies from this by only
a day, and both plainly concur with the Springtide festivals of all
peoples. Tylor's Prim. Culture II., 297. This festival presented
no features other than those usual on such occasions. A Shinto

priest came from a distance for the occasion and presented in the
little shrine the usual offerings of rice cake, fruit, etc., accom
panying them with prayers. Men, women and children from the
country side came and departed after making the little offering
and brief prayer, and purchasing refreshment at the temporary
stalls hard by. The neighboring kteis received no offerings
though most of the worshipers visited it also. The conduct of
all was irreproachable, and the bearing quite unembarrassed, for
their errand was the honest one of entreating sexual health and
family increase from that deity whose attributes best fitted him to
grant them. Here is an account of a more questionable phallic
procession as given by Dresser, pp. 1979: At the next village
(en route from Tokyo to Nikko, where Griffis saw the dozen
phalloi) which we reached a great Shinto festival was being held.
Thousands of people were laughing and shouting and following
an enormous car, something like that of Jaganath in India. On
this car is a platform surrounded by a low railing, while in the
center rises a mast thirty or forty feet high from the top of which
fly the cut papers which symbolize the Shinto religion (gohei are
meant), while around its lower portion a tent of red and white
cloth is suspended from a hoop. On the platform are musicians
making rude music with gongs and fifes, and a masked actor,
whose actions would not be tolerated in England. The staff of
this actor is unmistakably phallic. He appears alternately as a
man and womanchanging his dress in the tent of which we
have spoken. It seems that, since foreigners have been permitted
to enter the country, such ceremonies have been shorn of many
of their characteristics, symbols have been reduced in number,
while the processions themselves are now but of rare occurrence.
(This was written in 1882. The restriction referred to resulted
from the first Japanese embassy to Europe in 1872.)
I have learned orally from an old resident in Japan of a pro
cession similar to this, where the center of interest was an
enormous phallos carried in appropriate position by a man.
The magnificent procession described by Humbert on pp.
3223 of his Manners and Customs of the /apanese as taking place
in Tokyo in 1863 was not properly phallic, though it included some
suspicious objects, such as a model lobster, buffalo, and monkey,
and seven prostitutes majestically attired in state costumes.
The following festival may easily be a survival of a thoroughly
phallic one, and affords evidence for a sexual symbolism that
strikes the modern mind as very strange. It is held in the court
of a Buddhist temple, which probably adopted and modified the
originally coarser rites. Young men and women meet at this
Gwanzandaishi temple located half way up Mount Hiyei, amidst
a vast forest traversed only by footpaths, in the month of August
of an evening, and spend the entire night in a peculiar dance,
where forming promiscuously in lines they work their way through
the crowds of elder and younger people with a simultaneous
swing of the arms, meanwhile singing a composition, which after
expressing sympathy with a certain criminal Gorobei by name,
in his examination before the stern judge, proceeds to the erotic
effusion of a young woman, from which I cull the symbolic part:
With what words shall I compose my love letter? With those
belonging to birds, or fishes, or vegetables? Yes, Yes, as I am
a greengrocer, I will use the names of vegetables. After several
vegetable metaphors and puns suited to expressing her passion,
she continues, Would you like to taste the first fruit of the long
bean P If not, would you not try to break the hairless peach P
Oh quick Ego sum cupidus coiendi tecum.
Lastly, here is a neat piece of sexual metaphor which speaks
volumes for the familiarity in the primitive times, from which the
Manyefushifu where it occurs dates, with such symbols. White
shells seem to be a synonym for hairless peach. Generally of
course in the Orient the kteis is figured or described as black,
while the phallas is colored red, if at all. It is necessary briefly
to premise that the piece refers to a method of divination called
Tsujiura Road-divining where the person planted a stick in
the road, made offerings to it and besought an answer:
When I went out
and stood in the road,
and asked the evening oracle
when he would come back
who went over the sweetheart's mount
and the lover's mount,
saying that he would
pick up the awabi shells
which come ashore
in the Region of Woods,
the evening oracle said to me:
Sweetheart |
he for whom you wait
is searching for
the white shells which
come near on the waves
of the offing, the white shells
which the shore waves
bring near.
He does not come,
he picks them up.
If he be long,
'twill be but seven days,
if he be quick,
'twill be but two days.
He has heard you.
Do not yearn,
my Sweetheart!'"
Trans. As. Soc., Vol. 7, p. 427
IV. Rituals.No fixed ritual for the phallos is known to me.
Certainly none is contained in the list of the Yengishiki, the
official collection of rituals made 927 A.D. (Trans. As. Soc.
Vol. 7, prt. 2, pages 103-4.) The content of the impromptu
prayers made in this case is always request for some good in
connection with generation, e.g., the charm from Makibori bears
guarantees of easy birth, health of mother and child, cure of dis
eases of the generative organs, and long life. Inquiries from
worshipers elicit similar ideas and they reappear in the practice
of borrowing a phallos from the shrine during child-birth, and,
when the issue has proved good, of returning two new ones.
V. Phallicism in the Kojiki.Having examined some extant
data we are in a position to attempt the interpretation of two
passages in the Kojiki, the sacred book of Shinto. This was
committed to writing 7 12 A. D., when a collation was made of
the then extant traditions purporting to extend backward to a
divine age which ended some 1500 years before. None of the
authorities on Shinto known to me have attempted any detailed
interpretation of the cosgmogony forming Volume 1 of this
Kojiki. The general, and for the rest correct statement that
Shinto is a compound of ancestor-worship and nature-worship
has not been further discussed by any writer except Mr. Satow, who
enters more fully into the matter in his Westminster Review
article, without however at all noticing separate myths, and mak
ing no mention of sections 3 and 4, which we here copy from Mr.
B. H. Chamberlain's translation given in the 77 ans. As. Soc. Sup
plement to Vol. X.
Section 3.Hereupon all the Heavenly Deities commanded
the two Deities, His Augustness the Male-Who-Invites and Her
Augustness the Female-Who-Invites, ordering them to make,
consolidate, and give birth to this drifting land. Granting to
them an heavenly jeweled spear, they (thus) deigned to charge
them. So the two Deities standing upon the Floating Bridge of
Heaven, pushed down the jeweled spear and stirred with it,
whereupon, when they had stirred the brine until it went curdle
curdle, and drew (the spear) up, the brine that dripped down
from the end of the spear was piled up and became an island.
This is the island of Onogoro.
Section 4.** Having descended from Heaven onto this island,
they saw to the erection of an heavenly august pillar, they saw
to the erection of a hall of eight fathoms. Tunc qusi
vit (Augustus Mas- Qui - Invitat) a minore sorore August
Femin-Qui-Invitat : 'Tuum corpus quo in modo factum
est ? ' Respondit dicens: Meum corpus crescens crevit, sed
una pars est qu non crevit continua.' Tunc dixit Augustus
Mas-Qui.Invitat : ' Meum corpus crescens crevit, sed est una
pars qu crevit superflua. Ergo an bonum erit ut hanc corporis
mei partem qu crevit superflua in tui corporis partem qu non
crevit continua inseram, et regiones procreem ? ' Augusta
Femina-Qui-Invitat respondit dicens: Bonum erit.' Tunc
dixit Augustus M.-Q.-I. : ' Quod quum ita sit, ego et tu,
hanc coelestem augustam columnam circumeuntes mutuoque
occurrentes, augustarum (i. e., privatarum) partium augustam
coitionem faciemus.' Hc pactione fact dixit (Augustus M.
Q.-I.) : ' Tu a dexter circumeuns occurre ; ego a sinistr occur
ram.' Absolut pactione ubi circumierunt, Augusta F.-Q.-I.
primum inquit : ' O venuste et amabilis adolescens !' Deinde
Augustus M.-Q.-I. inquit : ' O venusta et amabilis virgo !'
Postquam singuli orationi finem fecerunt, (Augustus M.-Q.-I.)
locutus est sorori, dicens : ' Non decet feminam primum verba
facere.' Nihilomimes in thalamo (opus procreationis) inceperunt,
et filium (nomine) Hirudiuem (vel Hirudini similem) pepere
runt. This child they placed in a boat of reeds, and let it float
away. Next they gave birth to the island of Aha. This likewise
is not reckoned among their children.
Now our view is that from beginning to end of this Vol. I is
presented a series of nature-myths still susceptible to interpreta
tion, and that among them these sections 3 and 4 attempt a cos
mogony expressed in terms of a phallic symbol sec. 3 and of
a phallic ceremony sec. 4.
First, no one will deny the transparency of the epithets
Male-Who-Invites and Female-Who-Invites. They are just
the complementary pair so indispensable to reproduction pro
jected backwards to account for original production. Hirata,
a Japanese antiquarian of first rank, considers the jeweled
spear'' a phallas and scrotum (7rans. As. Soc., Vol. 3, Appendix,
p. 59), while the Island of Onogoro on account of its peculiar
shape passes in the native imagination for a gigantic phallos,
and is said to contain many such scattered about it. Hear the
redoubtable Hirata again in the Inyoseki under the sketch
described in this article, p. 14. He writes: This is Onokoro
jima, etc. It is solitary and has no connection in its roots. It
stands in the midst of waves and never moves in spite of great
earthquakes even. In the island are many curious stones, many
of them being shaped like male and female generative organs.
The stones produce dewlike liquid, and have a mineral taste on
the outside, while within (the stones?) are earths and sands.
Now, though this record was made by Hirata so late as 1812,
since the phenomena are all natural, they of course antedated
the mythical imaginings of the Kojiki, to whose authors the
island was well known, and doing so they evidently formed the
elements of the myth. The only need then was for poetic fancy
to weave primitive pair, artificial phallos, and phallic island into
some connected whole, and this made section 3. What was
Hirata's ground for his view of the jeweled spear is not stated,
but Japanese archaeology gives monumental evidence of the
existence in the polished stone age of phallic rods in great
variety, though their exact use is a matter only of inference.
These stone rods or stones, called locally Raitsui or thunder
bolts, are figured, along with numerous other remains, in an
admirable monograph by the owner of the finest collection of
raitsui in Japan, ex-Governor T. Kanda of Tokyo. In this
monograph Plate 7, Figs. 2 and 4; Plate 8, Fig. 8, and Plate 9,
Fig. 1 show incised figures which are plainly the kteis, in full
accord with another statement of Hirata's, that the jeweled
spear bore on it the figure of the female organ (/nyseki).
In section IV. our mythical cosmogony first introduces coition
as a means of conceiving origins. After using, in sections I. and
II., terms of terrestrial motion and vegetable life, and in section III.
a mixture of terms from terrestrial and animal life, the myth pro
ceeds to fuller circumstantiality in the familiar terms of purely
animal life. Our previous investigations make quite obvious
the meaning of heavenly august pillar, while apart from those
side lights the terms here employed must have remained unintel
ligible, or at least conjectural. Plainly it was a phallos. As to
the parallel reading in the Wikongia nearly contemporaneous
but much rationalized a la Chinese account of Japanese history
which Mr. Chamberlain translates they made the island of
Onogoro the central pillar of the land, and which he considers
more rational than the account in the Kojiki, the obvious truth
is that it is more rational only to those not aware of or not
awake to the phallic phenomena described in our preceding
pages. Per contra in the light of those phenomena the Kojiki's
account is fully vindicated. Textual purity can never be verified
better than by archaeology. The hall of eight fathoms was
probably a coition house. Mr. B. H. Chamberlain writes in his
Introduction to the Kojiki XXVIII., It would also appear to be
not unlikely that newly married couples retired into a specially
built hut for the purpose of consummating the marriage, and it
is certain that for each sovereign a new palace was erected on his
accession. (Trans. As. Soc., Vol. X. Supplement.) Mr. Cham
berlain no doubt bases his view on the specifications in the Kojiki
of a thalamus as the place of first coition for man and wife. Of
such mentions I count three, viz., pp. 20, 66, and 75, and note
further the following, which seems to indicate a similar purpose:
Eight clouds arise. The eightfold fence of Idzumo makes
an eightfold fence for the spouses to retire (within). Oh! that
eightfold fence. (Trans As. Soc., Vol. X., Supplement 64.)
The parturition house is described, Kojiki 1 18, as eight fathoms
long, and this is the length of the coition house in our myth, eight
being the perfect number of the Japanese, and probably often
used in the sense of fitting or proper. The purpose of such a
coition house will be obvious to those familiar with the original
function of the bridegrooms best man as protector during the
consummation of a marriage which depended on capture, and
with the jocose interruptions made on a bridal pair after retiring,
e.g., even in England, and so late as the sixteenth century,
according to Brand's Antiquities. The sequel of section IV. rather
implies that the column stood in the thalamus, but whether within
or near it, the running round the column before the marriage
consummation will be best understood in the light of those
notions we have found everywhere connected with phallic cult,
among which that of productivity is plainly the proper one here.
In Japan, as elsewhere under the patriarchal government of
primitive times, the more children a pair had the richer they were
likely to become, and such a recognition of Konsei as this would
be considered effectual to that end. If so, nothing would be
more natural than for mythic fancy to express in terms so familiar
that fruitful union which resulted in the production of nothing
less than the islands of divine Japan, as the later sections pro
ceed to relate. The later Shinto apologists of the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries smooth all difficulties by stating that the islands
have grown enormously since birth ! I submit that this view
meets all the special and concrete notions of the myth, while no
other view can meet any, and would have to account for a sense.
less farrago of ideas, ending in what must then be regarded as a
mere bawdy tale, for which the undoubted general coarseness of
manners in primitive Japan, as everywhere under like conditions,
affords no sufficient ground.


To every cult belongs a creed, implied or expressed, written

or oral. Of the phallic cult the creed is implied. It shares its
world-view with the nature-worship of which it forms one phase,
and, as such, sees a superior being, spirit, or god embodied in
objects naturally or artificially made to resemble animal generative
organs. I write embodied in advisedly, having in mind par
ticularly the natural phalloi which are prized vastly higher than
the manufactured ones, and being found in nature could hardly
be taken for aught else than the veritable organ of the god.
Mysticism would cover all difficulties in the view. To such
superiorswhich is all that the Japanese kami, often translated
gods or god, meansprimitive man turned in his needs, and
naturally, to that particular one presiding over the sphere in
which his need occurred. Hence comes the phallic cult which
forms as natural, proper and legitimate a system of worship as
that of the sun or fire, and can only by gross misconception be
associated with obscenity, though this is often done by those
devoid of sympathetic, historic imagination and anxious to point
a moral or adorn a tale. That the whole symbolism, though
most natural and striking for that ever mysterious vital force of
nature, has become inappropriate for us who are wont to say:
God is spirit, affords no proof that its first intent was not
wholly as described above. Cf. Mythology of the Aryan Nations,
by Rev. Sir G. W. Cox, 34950.
I have written in the preceding paragraph as if the object of
the phallic cult were one single thing, the phallos; and, if the
reader has accepted the assumption without challenge, he has
but thought in accord with the general treatment of the subject
which faultily neglects to duly express the duality of the cult.
We speak of phallicism and the Germans of Phalluscult, and
thereby tend to ignore the kteis-cult which prevails but little if
any less than phallos-cult. But just as the term man is used for
mankind, i. e., man and woman, so phallicism serves for what is
properly phalloktenism, cult of the phallos and kteis. This
dualism shows itself in the usual juxtaposition in India of the
linga and yoni, in Syria of the masseba and ashera (I take the
masseba as the male symbol), in Greece of the phallos and kteis
(Monumens des Dames Romaines, Plate 50. Mythology of the
Aryan AVations, G. W. Cox, 362), in Egypt of the cross and
ring combined into the crux-ansata, in China of the yang and
yin as seen intertwined in the Corean crest called in Japanese
futatsu-tomoye, and finally in Japan of the yoseki and inseki.
This dualism is equally conspicuous in the more anthropo
morphized objects of worship represented by the phallos and
kteis. Thus Hinduism cordinates Kali with Siva, whose symbols
in particular the kteis and phallos are, and Minakshithe local
goddess at Madura identified with Kaliis carried every night
to share the couch of Sundaresvara. Indeed, in India, where
pretty much everything both rational and irrational has been
tried, a whole sect, the Saktas devotes exclusive attention to this
feminine side of nature. In Syria Astarte cordinated with Baal,
in Egypt Isis with Osiris, in Greece Demeter with Dionysas
(Mythology of the Aryan AVations, G. W. Cox, 362), and in north
Europe Freya with Freyr, and each of these goddesses has often
received exclusive honors, usually with the same demoralizing
effect as in India. Some students point to Mariolatry as the last
example of the same tendency (Mythology of the Aryan Nations
G. W. Cox, 355). So obviously necessary to reproduction is
duality that where a spouse is wanting, feminine qualities are
attributed to the male, as with Quetzalcoatl god of reproduction
among the Aztecs (American Hero Myths, Brinton, 127).
Similarly in Japan we find the couples Kami-musubi-o-kami
and Takami-musubi-o-kami, the Divine-Producer and Divine
Produceress as some understand them (Parliament of Religions,
J. H. Barrows, 452. Lectures on Shinto, Professor Matsuyama,
Kyoto. Kakemono from Izumo O Yashiro), and again Izanagi
and Izanami, the Male-that. Invites and Female-that
Invites, compared by native Christians with Adam and Eve, a
comparison made in the first place naively, but hitting the mark
quite closely since both couples belong to phallic myth, though
they differ absolutely in subsequent moralization and consequent
religious value. But in Japan, where phallicism remains still, as
in India, a living faith, it becomes possible to trace out this dual
ism into a number of details not otherwise, I think, easily expli

A quite unequivocal case is that of the interlinked rings of

bamboo grass (No. 22 p. 16) expressly designed to represent
coition. Equally significant is the presentation of awabi shells
(No. 20)symbols of the kteisbefore the phallos and not the
kteis at Kande. Conversely a woman borrows from the Mizu
sawa temple a phallos, not a kteis, to help her in parturi
tion. At Yamada the reciprocity is recognized only in so far as
votives of both sexes are presented, though whether any distinc
tion is made in the deity before which they are placed I have yet to
learn. The rule valid there to offer a phallos in order to obtain
a husband or son, and a kteis for a wife or daughter implies the
notion underlying all magic that formal likeness with anything
insures power over it. Here too belongs the offering only of
phalloi to the phallos on the Konsei Pass. Perhaps a further
detail of the dualism necessary to all fruitful issue appears in the
practice of pouring wine over the phallos and kteis at Matsuzawa
which are said to rapidly absorb it, and in the statement of Hirata
that the phalloi and ktenes of Onogoro-shima secrete a dewy
liquid. Similarly tiny wooden tablet votives bearing a sketch of
a horse are presented to the Yamada pillar pair. This horse can
hardly mean other than in Buddhist symbolism, namely, the fer
tilization rain cloud (Indian Buddhism, T. W. Rhys Davids, 133).
The rain falling from this cloud is the impregnating medium
from heaven to earth in the cosmic myths of so many peoples.
Were it not that the hosbi-mo-tama, Jewel-of-Omnipotence, like
wise a Buddhist symbol, has been introduced on to the sacred
Ise Shrine in the same town, I should hesitate to believe that any
Buddhist symbol had penetrated this citadel of Shinto. The
horse, however, may prove, together with the sacred albino horse
common in great Shinto shrines, a survival of the great horse
sacrifice of the Mongol shamanism from which Shinto is descend
ent. With this Japanese notion of fertilization compare the effu
sion of watersometimes with bilva leaves and marigolds in
the Indian cult of the linga-yoni (Brhmanism and Hinduism, M.
Williams, 439). Lastly, in the phallic procession described by Mr.
Draper, an actor appears dressed alternately as man and woman
with which compare the exchange of attire in Western orgies.
Further data may require modification of the position here taken,
and it is much to be hoped that such will be obtained by many
investigators in Japan before this primitive formal biology yield
to the modern causal science of that name. In any case some
special reason must be sought why the votive offering to phallos
and kteis are duplicates or reciprocals of themselves. No paral
lel to this practice outside of phallicism is known to me either
in or out of Japan; for the foxes so often duplicated there are
so-called servants of Inari San, to whom, therefore, they are
offered, and not to the fox itself.
The creed or mental equivalent of the phallic cult, then, is
that reproduction is controlled by two deities related as man and
wife, that these are best represented by their reproductive organs
found by man in stream and field, and that they are best wor
shiped by the presentation of similar objects of a sex, either
opposite or similar to that of the deity concerned. In the case
of Konsei, worshiped near Yumoto without any sexual partner,
emphasis is placed, as frequently in other cults, on the male

One commentary on such a creed is obvious and unavoidable

and will serve equally well for all creeds. The mental elevation
and consequent value of gods varies solely and directly as the
mental elevation of their worshipers. Show me your man, and
I will show you his god.



First, there is no need to search for any simpler or more obvi

ous principle on which to base phallicism than its own, namely,
worship of the superior beings that control reproduction. In
other words phallicism may easily be, what no existing evidence
confutes and all confirms, namely, a thoroughly primitive form of
that naturism nature worshipwhich judicious thinkers regard
as cordinate with animism spirit worship instead of attempt
ing, as H. Spencer, to derive it from the latter. This contention
rests particularly on the existence of the natural phallos and
kteis, than which, of course, nothing can be more primitive since
man has roamed this earth. Wherever the erosive action of water,
whether rain, river or sea, produced from rocks and stones the
shapes which even now can vividly suggest to our restrained
imaginations the animal generative organs, there a fortiori the
primitive savage must have seen indubitable evidence of what to
him would seem explicable only as a partial embodiment of the
controllers of his otherwise often unaccountable fortunes. Thus

in a very striking way Nature the instructor of primeval man

has suggested to him not only his inventions but his worship
(Tylor's Primitive Culture, I., 64). But, moreover, and of
peculiar interest in its bearing on the contention of naturists and
animists as to the origin of religion, here in the phallos and
kteis were found direct indications of the anthropomorphic
nature of those his controllers, for which sun, moon, star, or any
other object whatsoever of nature worship failed to afford any
morphological hint. If here were the veritable phallos and kteis
of his controllers, the controllers themselves could not be far
off, and would necessarily be imagined in full complementation
of the visible organs, that is as human beings, or minds in bodies,
which conception is precisely what animism sometimes supposes
itself alone able to account for.
Second, as to the sequences of this cult. The light thrown
by phallicism on the essential nature and evolution of religion
is clear and striking. Both the distance and the direction of
the newer views of God from the older are made apparent.
That distance is not immeasurable but has lain in time, and
that direction is not inscrutable but has consisted in progress.
Man has been the measure of thingsif not the individual
yet the race, and that whether his measure has worked as the
limit of capacity or limit of construction. If the former
alternativethat of capacitybe taken, an objective, real
god has revealed himself progressively, and therefore at any
single stage only partially, to man, just because such partial
revelation has been all that man could receive ; if the latter
alternativethat of constructionbe taken, a subjective, unreal
or according to some thinkers nevertheless real God has
been constructed, imagined, or projected by man, but always
only progressively, and therefore at any one stage only par
tially, just beecause such partial construction was all of which
man was then capable. (Self Revelation of God. S. Harris,
passim). And therefore, in any case, as man has evolved through
out his physical and mental nature, his concept of God has pari
fassu improved. Du gleichst dem Geist den du begreifst
holds equally true in its converse form. We understand the
spirit we resemble. In the case of the Absolute Spirit this under
standing can never reach completeness, and our principle there
fore reduces in its case to the humbler proposition: Man under
stands God so far as he resembles him. The challenge of the
skeptic: Show me your God, must be met by the answer alike
of Christian, philosopher and anthropologist : Show me your
man. There was a stage in man's mental progress when God
could be revealed to or constructed by man bestthat is most intel
ligibly and impressivelyas phallos and kteis. Among all the
things that are made it would have been marvelous indeed, if organs
so conspicuously instrumental to the mysterious propagation of life
had not been used to perceive the invisible things of him since
the creation of the world even his eternal power and divinity.
Rom, 1:20. Of all the power desired by man alike for himself,
flocks and fields, productivity was the chief, and consequently
the objects considered to embody that power the most honored.
That man thus often submerged his god in nature instead of
conceiving him as an eternal power above nature was natural
anthropologically, though justly repudiated by Paul, a represen
tative of a more progressed order. The original symbols, now
so shocking to us in their bare materialism, have been refined
with man's refinement until finally in the exquisite legend of
the Sangreal the symbols have become a sacred thing, which only
the pure in heart may see and touch. (Mythology of the Aryan
Mations. Rev. Sir G. W. Cox, 360.)


Since phallicism has shrines, festivals, priests and amulets

identical with those of Shinto, and since its principal symbol
and ceremonial receive mention in the sacred book of Shinto,
and since phallicism belongs of right to nature worship, which
in Japan constitutes, with ancestor cult, Shinto, it seems probable
that the phallicism of Japan forms an integral part of Shinto.
And so Rein in his /apan Like phallic-worship, which, together
with its symbols formerly so numerous and widespread, has, as a
result of foreign influence, been entirely banished since the begin
ning of the reign of Meiji (1868), belonged to Shintoism, so also
does this ancestor-worship appear at least to have judged the
Yoshiwarasprostitute quartersvery mildly, if not to have
directly favored them. /apan, p. . Note several errors here,
however. Phallicism, as we now know, has not yet by any
means been entirely banished. Shinto is not rightly designated
ancestor-worship, certainly not if it includes phallicism. Nor
should phallicism ever be linked, as here, with an undoubtedly
immoral institution like the Yoshiwara, the Japanese name for
the harlot quarter, primarily in Tokyo, but subsequently anywhere.
On the other hand, the somewhat unequal distribution of
phallicism in Japan, e.g., its apparent absence from the great
highway called the Tokaido, the absence of its ritual from the
Shinto official prayer-book or Yengishiki, and some philological
and archaeological facts that point to the Ainus as the source of
the cult require consideration before the connection with Shinto
can be considered settled. Batchelor indeed makes no mention
of phallicism in his Ainu of /apan, but the fashion of garbling
treatises from all that would unfit them for parlor reading prevails
to such an extent that negative evidence on this topic and kindred
sociological and physiological ones amounts to simply nothing.
The above data best suit the view that phallicism, while originally
and properly a part of Shinto, was little if at all recognized in
later official religion, though it persisted in the folk-religion,
where indeed it still survives in moribund state.
One general remark. The bearing of the discovery of phalli
cism in Japan upon the science of comparative religion is of con
siderable interest. Phallicism, long since demonstrated for the
Indo-Keltic race and easily demonstrable for the Semitic, now
turns up among the Mongols. Thus this now obsolescent cult
appears to have prevailed in all three of the historic races. This
generality well matches the naturalness and obviousness of the
notion involved. The bearing of Japanese phallicism upon the
controversy between Canon McClatchie and Dr. Legge upon
Chinese phallicism must remain for future treatment.


Are there other dances of the Gwan-Zan-daishi type?

How did hashira come to be the numeral for gods?
Why are snakesdried and enshrinedworshiped in
Idzurmo as protectors from fire and flood? The snake associated
with Benten, and worshiped at Shirakumo-jiuja, Kyoto, by the
presentation of toy pails of water probably came with Benten
from Hinduism via Buddhism.
Why does a bit of awabi, or its picture, accompany every
present made in Japan P Kaempfer in his chap. 13 writes,
it is intended to remind them of the frugality as well as
the poverty of their ancestors who lived chiefly upon the flesh
of this shell. Pinkerton, 7, 734. Probably no such high
didactic motive ever entered the heads of men of the period
when this custom began. Kaempfer assigns the same reason
here well known to be falsefor preserving the primitive type
of structure in the Ise Shrine. Does this bit of awabi mean I

am clinging to your friendship, in the sense of Awabi no kata

omoi. Or does the awabi here signify a wish for that abun
dance which the kteis mediates and in other lands symbolizes?
And does its lozenge-shaped envelope symbolize the same organ?
Why were so many phallic shrines found on the highway from
Tokyo to Nikko (Mikado's Empire 33), and none on the much
longer road from Tokyo to Kohe, i.e., the great Tokaido? That
none were there when Caron, Kaempfer, and Siebold traveled it
is fairly inferable from their silence as to them, while they did
not spare the licentiousness they found common around them.
(Caron 613, 629, 634. Aaempfer chap. xx.) Kaempfer, how
ever, remarks on other religious objects on the road, as also
other monstrous images and idols.
Why are red and white the favorite colors of Shinto, as seen
in the miko's dress at the kagura, in the flags carried at funerals,
and in those about Miya, as at Miajinja dedicated to Hiruko, the
leech child of Izanaji and Izanami?



PH ()T() (, RAPHS





HINA defies the world to equal her in three important
C respects: age, population, and industries. As for
the first, she undoubtedly has the oldest Government
on earth. Even the Papacy is young compared with it; and as
for our republic, it is a thing of yesterday. A Chinaman
once said to an American: Wait till your Government has
been tried before you boast of it. What is a hundred years?
Ours has stood the test of forty centuries. When you did not
exist, we were. When you shall have
passed away, we still shall be." -

In point of numbers, too, the Chinese

empire leads the world. Its area is nearly
twice as large as that of the United States,
and it has six times as many people. The
governor of one Chinese province rules
over sixty million souls. Have we a defi
nite conception of what four hundred
million human beings are? Arrange the
inhabitants of our globe in one long line,
and every fourth man will be a Chinaman.
As for her industries, Musa, the Saracen conqueror of
Spain, once aptly said that Wisdom, when she came from
heaven to earth, was lodged in the head of the Greeks, the
tongue of the Arabs, and the hands of the Chinese. China

was once what the United States is nowthe birthplace of

inventions. Paper was manufactured there in the third cen
tury of our era. Tea was produced a century later. If
Europe had enjoyed communication with China, it would


have learned the art of printing many centuries before it did;

and who can say what might have been the result? A thou
sand years ago the Chinese made designs on wood. Print
ing from stone was a still earlier industry among them. In
China, also, gunpowder was first inventeda thought by
which, alas! so many thoughts have been destroyed. This
same astonishing race produced the mariner's compass in the
fourth century, porcelain in the third, chess and playing
cards in the twelfth, and silk embroideries in almost prehis
toric times. An empire, therefore, of such vast antiquity,

overwhelming population, and great achievements must be,

despite its faults, a country of absorbing interest.
The most delightful portion of the voyage from Japan to
China lies in the Japanese Mediterranean, known as the
Inland Sea. It is a miniature ocean, practically land-locked
for three hundred miles, with both shores constantly in sight,
yet strewn with islands of all shapes and sizes, from small and
uninhabited rocks to wave-encircled hills, terraced and culti
vated to their very summits. It seems as if volcanic action
here had caused the land to sink, until the ocean rushed in
and submerged it, leaving only the highest peaks above the

We lingered here all day upon the steamer's deck, like

passengers on the Rhine, fearing to lose a single feature of
the varied panorama gliding by on either side. By night it was
more glorious even than by day; for then, from every danger


ous cliff flashed forth a beacon light; the villages along the
shore displayed a line of glittering points, like constellations
rising from the sea; and, best of all, at a later hour, moon
light lent enchantment to the scene, drawing a crystal edge


along each mountain crest, and making every island seem a

jewel on a silver thread.
When we emerged from these inland waters, we saw be
tween us and the setting sun the stretch of ocean called the
China Sea. At certain seasons of the year this is the favorite
pathway of typhoons; and the Formosa Channel, in particu
lar, has been a graveyard for countless ves
sels. Indeed, only three weeks before, a sister



ship of oursthe Bokhara,"had gone down here in a ter

rific cyclone. Yet when we sailed its waters nothing could
have been more beautiful. Day after day this sea of evil omen
rested motionless, like a sleek tigress gorged with food and
basking in the sun.
After a three-days' voyage from the Japanese coast, we
began to meet, in constantly increasing numbers, large,
pointed boats, propelled by huge sails ribbed with cross-bars,
like the wings of bats. Upon the bow of each was painted an


enormous eye; for of their sailing craft the mariners of China,

in elementary English, say: If boat no have eye, how can
boat see go? We were assured that these were Chinese sail
ing craft, and that our destination was not far away; but it
was difficult to realize this, and I remember looking off beyond
those ships and trying to convince myself that we were actu
ally on the opposite side of the globe from home and friends,
and in a few brief hours were to land in that vast Eastern

empire so full of mystery in its exclusiveness, antiquity, and

changeless calm.

That night the agitation that precedes one's first arrival

in a foreign land made sleep almost impossible. It seemed to
me that I had not closed my eyes when suddenly the steamer
stopped. To my astonishment, the morning light had already
found its way into my state-room. We had arrived ! Hurry
ing to the deck, therefore, I looked upon the glorious harbor of
Hong-Kong. A hundred ships and steamers lay at anchor here,
displaying flags of every
country on the globe. Al
though the day had hardly
dawned, these waters

itfittitt *III:


showed great animation. Steam-launches, covered with white

awnings, were darting to and fro like flying-fish. Innumerable
smaller boats, called sampans, propelled by Chinese men and
women, surrounded each incoming steamer, like porpoises
around a whale. On one side rose some barren-looking moun
tains, which were a part of the mainland of China; but for
the moment they presented little to attract us. It was the
other shore of this magnificent harbor that awoke our interest;
for there we saw an island twenty-seven miles in circumfer
ence, covered with mountains rising boldly from the sea.

Along the base of one of these elevations, and built in terraces

far up on its precipitous slopes, was a handsome city.
What is this? we inquired eagerly.
The town itself, was the reply, is called Victoria, but
this imposing island to whose flank it clings, is, as you may
suppose, Hong-Kong."
The first impression made upon me here was that of mild
astonishment at the architecture. Almost without exception,
the prominent buildings of Victoria have on every story deep
porticoes divided by columns into large, square spaces, which


from a distance look like letter-boxes in a post-office. We

soon discovered that such deep, shadowy verandas are essen
tial here, for as late as November it was imprudent not to carry
a white umbrella, and even before our boat had brought us
from the steamer to the pier, we perceived that the solar rays
were not to be trifled with.

As soon as possible after landing, we started to explore

this British settlement. I was delighted with its streets and
buildings. The former are broad, smooth and clean; the lat
ter, three or four stories high, are built of granite, and even
on a curve have sidewalks shielded from the sun or rain by

the projection of the roof above. Truly, the touch of Eng

land has wrought astounding changes in the fifty-five years
that she has held this island as her own. Before she came

it was the resort of poverty-stricken fishermen and pirates.


But now the city of Victoria alone contains two hundred

thousand souls, while the grand aqueducts and roads which
cross the mountains of Hong-Kong are worthy to be com
pared with some of the monumental works of ancient Rome.
Along the principal thoroughfare in Victoria, the banks,
shops, hotels, and club-houses, which succeed each other rap
idly, are built of the fine gray granite of the adjacent moun
tains, and show handsome architectural designs. Everything
looks as trim and spotless as the appointments of a man-of
war. Even the district of the town inhabited by Chinamen
is kept by constant watchfulness immeasurably cleaner than
a Chinese city; although if one desires to see the world-wide
difference that exists between the British and Mongolian races,

he merely needs to take a short walk through the Chinese

quarter of Victoria. But such comparisons may well be de
ferred until one reaches Canton. There one beholds the gen
uine native article.

The police who guard the lives and property of the resi
dents of Hong-Kong, are for the most part picked men of
English birth, and are considered as trustworthy as regular
troops. But several hundred of these guardians of the peace
are Sikhsa race imported hither from Indiarenowned for
bravery, loyal to the British government, and having no sym
pathy with the Chinese. These Sikhs have handsome faces,
brilliant eyes, and dark complexions, the effect of which is
wonderfully en- hanced by their
immense red turbans, con


spicuous two or three blocks away, not only by their startling

color, but because their wearers exceed in stature all other
races in Hong-Kong.
Strolling one morning through the outskirts of the city, I
came upon some troops engaged in military manoeuvres, and

attired in white from head to foot, to shield them from the

sun. What traveler in the East can forget the ever-present
soldiers of Great Britain, of whom there are nearly three
thousand in

the garrison of
Hong-Kong? I
know it is fre

quently the
fashion to sneer
at them and to

question their
efficiency in
- case of war. I
POLICEMEN. know, too, that

in certain ways the vast extent of England's empire constitutes

her weakness. But I must say that in a tour around our planet
I was impressed as never before with what the British had ac
complished in the way of conquest, and with the number of
strategic points they hold in every quarter of the globe. We
had but recently left the western terminus of England's North
American pos
sessions, yet in
a few days we
discerned the

flag of England
flying at Hong
Kong. Next
we beheld the

Union Jack at
Singapore, then
at Penang, then SoLDIERS DRILLING.

at Ceylon, and after that throughout the length and breadth

of the vast empire of India, as well as the enormous area
of Burma. Leaving Rangoon, if we sail southward, we are

- ---

reminded that the southernmost portion of Africa is entirely

in English hands, as well as the huge continent of Australia.
Returning northward, we find the same great colonizing power
stationed at the mouth of the
Red Sea, in - - - the British

citadel of . Aden. Again

a trifling journey, and we reach
Egypt, via the Suez Canal, both vir

tually controlled to- day by Eng

land. Then, like the three stars in Orion's belt, across the
Mediterranean lie Cyprus, Malta, and Gibraltar; in fact, we
find one mighty girdle of imposing strongholds all the way,
bristling with cannon, guarded by leviathans in armor, and

garrisoned by thousands of such soldiers as were drilling at

One of the first desires of the visitor to Hong-Kong is to
explore the mountain which towers above the city of Victoria
to a height of nearly two thousand feet. To do this with the
least exertion, each of our party took a canvas-covered bam
boo chair, supported by long poles, which Chinese coolies
carry on their shoulders. On level ground, two of these
bearers were enough, but on the mountain roads three or


four men were usually needed. To my surprise, I found the

motion of these chairs agreeable. The poles possess such
elasticity that, leaning back, I was rocked lightly up and
down without the least unpleasant jar. In fact, at times the
rhythm of that oscillation gave me a sense of drowsiness diffi
cult to resist.

But, alas! we had not here for carriers the cleanly natives
of Japan. It may be, as some residents of Hong-Kong
assert, that Chinamen are more trustworthy and honest than
the Japanese, but certainly in point of personal attractiveness
the contrast between these races is remarkable. The bodies

of the lower classes of Chinese reveal no evidence of that care

so characteristic of the natives of Japan. Their teeth are

often yellow tusks; their nails resemble eagle's claws; and
their unbecoming clothes seem glazed by perspiration. Nor
is there usually anything in their manner to redeem all this.
Where the light-hearted Japs enjoy their work, and laugh and
talk, the Chinese coolies labor painfully, and rarely smile,


regarding you meantime with a supercilious air, as if despising

you for being what they call a foreign devil.
Nevertheless, despite the repulsive appearance of our
bearers, we thoroughly enjoyed our excursion up the moun
tain. At every step our admiration was increased for the
magnificent roads which wind about the cliffs in massive ter
races, arched over by majestic trees, bordered by parapets of
stone, lighted with gas, and lined with broad, deep aqueducts,
through which at times the copious rainfall rushes like a
mountain stream. It will be seen that such a comparison is

not an exaggeration, when I add that not many years ago,

thirty-two inches of rain fell here in thirty hours. This
mountain is the favorite abode of wealthy foreigners, and
hence these curving avenues present on either side, almost to


the summit, a series of attractive villas commanding lovely

views. On account of their situation, the gardens of these hill
side homes are necessarily small; but in the midst of them,
about five hundred feet above the town, a charming botanical
park has been laid out.
Forgetful of our coolies at the gate, we lingered in this
garden for an hour or two, delighted with its fine display of
semitropical foliage. It is marvelous what skillful gardeners
have accomplished here, in transforming what was fifty years
ago a barren rock into an open-air conservatory. Palms,
banyans, india-rubber trees, mimosas with their tufts of gold,
camellias with their snowy blossomsall these are here, with

roses, mignonette, and jessamine, surrounded with innumer

able ferns. Occasionally we encountered in this fragrant area
a Chinese gentleman, indulging leisurely his love of flowers;
for this delightful park is open to all without regard to race
or creed, although the population of the island is extremely
cosmopolitan. Englishmen, Americans, Germans, French
men, Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, Parsees, Mohamme
dans, Jews, Hindus, and fully one hundred and fifty thousand
Chinamen, are residents of the city of Victoria alone.
In this retired park one does not realize that Hong-Kong
is such a rendezvous for different nationalities; but frequently,
while we were walking here, the sharp report of a cannon
forced a discordant echo from the neighboring hills and told
us that some foreign man-of-war had just appeared within the
bay ; for here
some ship or
steamer is con

tinually arriv
ing or depart
ing, and many
times a day
there comes a

deafening inter
change of Sa
lutes that sends

a thrill through
every window
pane upon the
One can well

un d e rst and,
therefore, that with so mixed a population and in such close
proximity to China, the officers sent out here by the British
government must be men of courage, the garrison of the island

strong, and its administration prompt and resolute. A single

incident revealed to me the crimes which would undoubtedly
creep forth, like vipers from a loathsome cave, were they
not kept in check by vigorous justice and incessant vigilance.
In one of the residences on the height above Victoria, I
met one day at dinner the captain of a steamer anchored in
the bay. He asked me to come out some evening and pay a


visit to his ship. The following night, soon after dark, I

walked down to the pier, intending to embark on one of the
many boats along the shore. I was about to enter one, when
a policeman rapidly approached. Give me your name and
number," he said roughly to the Chinese boatman. Then
turning to me, he politely asked my name, address, and des
tination, and when I intended to return. I am obliged to
do this, he explained, for your protection. There is a
population of twenty thousand Chinese living in this harbor

upon boats alone, besides the usual criminals who drift to

such a place. Before we adopted this precaution, a foreigner
would sometimes embark on one of these craft and never be

seen again. In such a case search was useless. He had dis

appeared as quietly and thoroughly as a piece of silver
dropped into the bay."
When I stood on the apex of Victoria Peak, I thought that
I had never seen a finer pros
pect. Nearly two thou


sand feet below us lay the renowned metropolis of the East

which bears the name of England's queen. From this great
elevation, its miles of granite blocks resembled a stupendous
landslide, which, sweeping downward from this rocky height,
had forced its cracked and creviced mass far out into the bay.
Between this and the mainland opposite, curved a portion of
that ocean-girdle which surrounds the island, and on its sur
face countless boats and steamers seemed, in the long perspec
tive, like ornaments of bead-work on a lady's belt.
Around the summit of the mountain are several handsome
villas and hotels, whither the residents of Victoria come in
summer to escape the heat; but, as a rule, in riding over the
island I saw outside of the city very few houses, and little
agriculture. The soil of
Hong-Kong is not fer
tile; but politically and
commercially the island
is immensely valuable, for
England has now made
of it the great emporium
of the Far East, and, gar
risoned by British troops,
it guards completely the
approaches to that river,
upon which, ninety-two
miles inland from the

ocean, lies the city of



One of the pleasantest
excursions in Hong-Kong
may be made in sedan-chairs, some six miles over the hills, to
the great reservoir which supplies the city with water. The
aqueduct which comes from it is solidly constructed, and on its
summit is a granite path protected by iron railings. This

winds along the cliffs for miles, and is in many places cut
through solid rock. It is an illustration of the handsome, yet
substantial character of everything accomplished here. One
feels that such works are not only artistic, but enduring. Here

are no wooden trestles,

no hastily constructed
bridges and no half-made
roads to be destroyed by
mountain torrents, but everywhere the best of masonry, cyclo
pean in massiveness and perfect in detail.
On reaching the terminus of this granite pathway we saw
before us the principal reservoir of Hong-Kong. Though
largely artificial, it looks precisely like a natural lake hidden
away among the mountains. Before it was constructed the
island's water-supply was lamentably insufficient, and the no
torious Hong-Kong fever" gave the place an evil name.
But now, in spite of its large native population, Victoria has
as low a death-rate as most European cities. The foreign
residents are very proud of these magnificent water-works;
yet, after ten days' sojourn here, when I took leave of sev
eral gentlemen by whom I had been entertained in private

houses and at clubs, candor compelled me to confess that, so

far as I had been able to observe, the foreign population
makes very little use of this water for drinking purposes.
On starting to
descend the
mountain, we
found a shorter
route than the

circuitous path
by which we had
comean ad

mirably man
aged cable-road.
In viewing this,
A MOUNTAIN ROAD, HoNG-KoNG. the question nat

urally arises how the Chinese can look on such conveniences

as England has here introduced, and still remain content to
have in their enormous empire scarcely a decent road, and
only a few miles of railway, built to transport coal. Canals


and rivers are

still the usual
arteries of travel

through the
most of China.
In the northern

provinces, where
carts are used,
the roads are
often worn be
low the surface
of the adjacent
land, and hence
become, in the
A CHINEs E ROAD. rainy Sea SO n,

mere water-courses. Travelers are occasionally obliged to

swim across them; and cases have been known of people
drowning in a Chinese roadway. Moreover, the characteristic
carts of China are of the most primitive description, having
no seats except
the floor, and no
springs save the
involuntary ones
contributed by
their luckless

passengers. Yet,
in many dis
tricts, even such
vehicles can find

no path, and
people travel
about in wheel

barrows pro
pelled by coolies A CHINES E VEHICLE.

who are sometimes aided by a sail. The Bishop of North

China, for example, makes many of his parochial visits in
a wheelbarrow.

There is now in China a small progressive party which

favors building railroads, as the Japanese have done, but the
immense majority are against it. Some years ago a foreign
company built a railroad near Shanghai, but the Chinese
speedily bought it up at a great cost, transported the rails and


locomotives to the sea, and left them to rust upon the beach.
This opposition to railways is principally due to the belief
that the use of them would deprive millions of people of their
means of gaining a livelihood, and that they would, more
over, disturb the graveyards of the country. This latter objec
tion seems at first incredible; but it must be remembered
that Chinese cemeteries are strewn broadcast over the land,
Thick as autumnal leaves that strow the brooks
In Vallombrosa.

One sees them everywhere, usurping valuable tracts of terri

tory needed for the living. Outside the city of Canton, for

example, there
is a graveyard
thirty miles in
length, in which
are buried fully
one hundred

Yet the Chinese
insist that not

one grave shall

be disturbed, lest
multitudes of

avenging ghosts
should be let loose upon them for such sacrilege. In fact,
the permanence and inviolability of graves lie at the very
foundation of Chinese life and customs, which is ancestor
worship. From childhood to old age the principal duty
of all Chinamen is to propitiate the spirits of their ances

The Foreign ceMETERY, HONG-KoNG.

tors, and to
make offerings
to them regu
larly at their
tombs. This

custom cripples
the colossal em

pire of China as
paralysis would
A FELLOW PASSENGER. a giant, and fear

of doing violence to their dead holds China's millions in

an iron grasp.
The discussion of this theme, as we were descending the
mountain, suggested to us the idea of visiting the foreign
cemetery in Hong-Kong. In this, as in the public garden,
charming results have been obtained by care and irrigation.
We were accompanied by a gentleman who had resided on
the island nearly thirty years. In spite of the beauty of
this place, he said, I dread to think that I shall probably
be buried hereunable to escape from China even after death.
For notwithstanding many pleasant friends, my life, like that
of many here, has been at best a dreary banishment from all
that makes your Occidental life so stimulating to the intellect



and so rich in pleasures. The world at home, he added,

sometimes blames us for faults, the cause of which is often
only an intense desire to counteract the loneliness of our ex
istence; and foreigners in the East deserve some sympathy, if
only from the fact that in these cemeteries, kept with so
much care, the graves of those we love increase so rapidly.
After a few days at Hong-Kong we embarked on one of
the American steamers which ply between Victoria and Can
ton. These boats are modest imitations of the Fall River

steamers on Long Island Sound. We found the one that we


took clean and comfortable and its American captain cordial

and communicative. During the trip he related to us many
incidents of his life in China. This he could easily do, for
there were only two other foreign passengers on board, and
hence, so long as we remained upon the promenade deck, the
spacious vessel seemed to be our private yacht.
On passing, however, to the deck below, we found a
number of Chinamen, likewise going to Canton. Most of
them were smoking, lying on their backs, their heads sup
ported by a bale of cloth. At first we thought these consti
tuted all the passengers; but presently we learned, to our
astonishment, that farther down, packed in the hold like

sardines in a box, and barricaded from us by an iron gra

ting, were more than a thousand Chinese coolies. A sentry,
heavily armed, stood by the padlocked grating constantly;
while in the wheel-house and saloon were stands of loaded

* * -

six: xx:
# ". -

. '.


muskets ready for emergencies. The danger is that Chinese

pirates will come on board in the disguise of coolies, and at a
favorable moment take possession of the ship. One naturally
thinks this an impossible occurrence; but only a few years
ago this actually took place on one of these boats. A well
armed band of desperadoes swarmed up from the hold, shot
down the captain in cold blood, and also some of the passen
gers who tried to interfere. Then, taking command of the
ship, they forced the engineer and crew to do their bidding,
steered to a lonely point where their confederates awaited

them, unloaded the valuable cargo into their boats, disabled the
engine so that the survivors could not give the alarm, and
finally made their escape. Such are the indisputable facts.
Yet, sailing up this peaceful river, reclining in our easy chairs,
and soothed by the soft, balmy air, the tragedy seemed so
incredible that we were obliged to put our hands upon the
guns, in order to realize that precautions were still needed.
As an additional proof, the captain showed us a photo
graph of the sequel to that act of piracy. For, as a matter
of course, the British Government demanded satisfaction for
this outrage, and in compliance nineteen criminals were
beheaded. Whether they were the actual pirates, however,
has been doubted. China always has scores of men awaiting
executiona dozen here, a dozen there. What matters it
if those who merit death are said to have committed one

crime or another? England had no way of identifying them.

Accordingly she shut her eyes, accepted what the Chinese said
of them, and took it for granted that the decapitated men
were the real culprits. At all events, as an eye-witness told
us, the deed itself was quickly done. In each case there was

WITH starino, EYEs TURNED Upw ARD.


only one swing of the executioner's arm, and one flash of the
two-edged sword; then, like a row of flowers clipped from
their stems, the heads of all the kneeling criminals were lying
in the sand,
with staring -

eyes turned up- |

ward to ward --->4. |

the sky.
On leaving
this repulsive AN old chis Esk Forr, CANTON River.

picture in the
captain's cabin, we found that we were approaching the once
important settlement of Whampoa. Its glory is gone now,
but formerly it
played a prom
in ent part in
Eastern politics
and commerce;
for previous to
the Opium War
of 1841 and the
establishment of

the Treaty Ports,

this was as far

as foreign ships
were permitted
to come, and
Whampoa was
then a kind of
CO unter a CrOSS

which Cantonese

and Europeans traded. We now began to observe along the

shore strange-looking boats protected by a roof and filled with
fruits and vegetables for the Canton market. Moreover, on

both sides of the river for many miles we looked on countless

little patches of rice, bananas, oranges, and sugar-cane. At
one point our attention was called to an island on which are
some old fortifications used by China fifty years ago in her
attempt to exclude opium from her territory. I suppose that
no intelligent student of the subject doubts that the real cause
of the war of 1841 was the attempt of England to force upon
the Chinese a drug which no one dares to sell in London, even
now, unless it bears the label poison." In 1840, the Com
missioner of
Can to n thus -----
addressed the

Queen of Eng
How can

your country
seek to acquire
wealth by sell
ing us an article
so injurious to.
mankin d ? I
have heard that A CHINESE BRIDGE.

you have a gen

erous heart; you must be willing, therefore, to obey the
motto of Confucius, and refuse to do to others what you
would not have others do to you.
In an address to foreign traders, issued in 1840, the
Chinese also said: Reflect that if you did not bring opium
here, where could our people obtain it? Shall, then, our peo
ple die, and your lives not be required? You are destroying
human life for the sake of gain. You should surrender your
opium out of regard for the natural feelings of mankind. If
not, it is right for us to drive every ship of your nation from
* *
our shores.

Finding that these appeals were of no avail, the Chinese

finally compelled the British merchants in Canton to give up
all the opium in their possession. It amounted to twenty
one thousand chests, or about three million pounds. This



- -

- -

- - = -


mass of poison the Chinese threw into the river, chest after
chest, much as Americans treated English tea in Boston
harbor. As it dissolved, it is said that a large number of
fish died. England retaliated by broadsides from her men
of-war, and in 1842, after an unequal struggle, China was
forced to pay her victorious enemy twenty-one million dollars
six millions for the opium destroyed, and fifteen millions
as a war indemnity, besides giving to England as her property
forever, the island of Hong-Kong, and opening five new ports
to foreign trade.
About a century ago opium was rarely used in China
except as medicine. To-day it enters through the openings
made by English cannon, at the rate of six thousand tons a

year, and at an annual profit to the Indian treasury of from

thirty to forty million dollars. But this is not the worst:
the vice of opium-smoking has spread with such rapidity that
in one Chinese city alone, where thirty years ago only five
opium dens existed, there are now five thousand. In the
minds of many Chinamen, therefore, Christianity is principally
associated with the gift of opium and its attendant evils.
China has now begun to cultivate the poppy for herself, and in
some provinces six-tenths of the land is given over to produc
ing opium, to the great detriment of agriculture. For the
Chinese argue that if they must have it anyway, they may as
well profit by it themselves, and let their own crop yie with
that which England sends from India. It should be said that
earnest protests have often been made by conscientious Eng
lishmen against this conduct of their Government, but all


remonstrances have failed to change its policy. Hence, when

our British cousins sometimes humorously say that we Ameri
cans worship only the almighty dollar, it may be well to ask
if any deity under the sun is more devoutly reverenced than
the omnipotent pounds, shillings, and pence.

When we had steamed about five hours from Hong-Kong,

we came in sight of our first Chinese pagoda. It is a hollow
tower of brick about three hundred feet in height, and re
sembles, on an enormous scale, one of those tapering sticks
which jewelers use for sizing rings. At first, I thought that
the nine circular terraces which mark its different stories were

adorned with flags or tapestry, but closer scrutiny revealed the

melancholy fact that weeds and bushes are now growing here.
Indeed, like most of the sacred buildings that I saw in China,
it looked both dirty and dilapidated.
Soon after leaving this neglected edifice, we found ourselves
amid a constantly increasing throng of Chinese boats, and I
began to realize that these were specimens of that floating
population'' of Canton of which we have all read, but of
which nothing but a visit to it can
give an adequate idea.
Hardly was our steamer an
chored in the stream before the

city, when hundreds of these boats

closed in upon us on all sides,
like cakes of floating ice around a
vessel in the Arctic sea. Wedging
and pushing frantically, the boat
men almost swamped themselves.
They fought for places near the
ship like men and women in a
panic. The din of voices sounded
like the barking of five hundred
canines at a dog-show ; and
Chinese gutturals flew through
the air like bullets from a mitrai/

leuse. It seemed impossible to disembark in such a mob.

But suddenly I felt a pressure on my arm. I turned and
saw apparently three laundrymen from the United States.

A glance assured me they were father and sons. Good

morning, sir, said one of them in excellent English, do
you know Carter Harrison, of Chicago?'"
This question, coming in such a place and at such a time,


rendered me speechless
with astonishment.
He mentioned us in -

his book, A Race with the Sun,'" continued the young

Chinaman. This is my father, the famous guide, Ah Cum.
This is my brother, and I am Ah Cum, Jr. The others are
engaged for to-morrow, but I can serve you. Will you
take me?'"

So you are Ah Cum?'' I rejoined; I have heard much

of you. Your reference book must be a valuable autograph
album of distinguished travelers. Yes, we will take you;
and, first of all, can you get us safely into one of those boats?
And if so, who will guarantee that we shall not be mur
dered ?'"
Ah Cum.''

Accordingly we came, and presently found ourselves

in a boat. I cannot relate how we got there. I do not
know, myself. I think of it now as one recalls the pulling of

a tooth when under the influence of laughing-gas. I have a

dim remembrance of jumping from one reeling skiff to another,
of stumbling over slippery seats, of holding on to Ah Cum, Sr.,
and being pushed by Ah Cum, Jr., and now and then grabbing
frantically at a Chinese queue, as a drowning man catches at
a rope. The only reason that I did not fall into the water is
that there was not space enough between the boats. At last,
however, bruised and breathless, we reached a place of ref
uge, and watched our boatmen fight their way out through
the crowd, until
we landed on

the neighbor
ing island of
Shameen. Af

ter the pande

monium around
the steamer, this
seem ed a per
fect paradise
of beauty and
repose. It is
about a mile and

a quarter in cir
cumference, and is reserved exclusively for foreigners.
Shaded by drooping banyan trees, stand many handsome
houses inhabited by Englishmen, Germans, and Americans
whom the necessities of business keep in banishment here.
Their social life is said to be very pleasant, and I should
think, indeed, that in so small a settlement the members of
this little colony (if they did not hate) would love each
other cordially. This pretty place, before the capture of
Canton, in 1857, was nothing but a hideous mud-bank.
But foreigners have transformed it almost as completely as
they have Hong-Kong, and have built around it broad

. -
-- -

embankments made of solid granite, which form an agreeable

Unfortunately, however, Shameen boasts of only one
hotel, and of this such dismal stories had been told us that we
had half made up our minds to eat and sleep on the American
steamers, changing from one to another every morning as they

INTERior of A EUROPEANs House.

came and went. This seemed, however, so difficult, that we

resolved to try the accommodations here. We did so, and
discovered that in this case the devil is not so black as he

is painted." At all events, clean, comfortable rooms made

some amends for a meager bill of fare.
I cherish no delightful recollections of our meals on the
island of Shameen. In fact, when a globe-trotter has
reached India or China, the time has come for him to eat

what he can get, and be devoutly thankful that he can get

anything. Misguided souls who live to eat should never
make a journey around the world. Of course, the foreign
residents here live better than travelers at hotels; but a gen
tleman who entertained us apologized for his poor table, and
said that it was especially difficult to get good beef, since
Chinamen consider it extravagant to kill such useful animals
as cows and oxen. Accordingly, he added, we classify
the so-called
beef that we con
SU11 in C als 'donkey
beef,' c am el
beef,' and preci
pice beef.
beef!'' I ex
claimed, what in
the world do you
mean by preci
pice beef?
That, he
replied, is nea -
THE JINRikishA IN chinA.
est to the genu
ine article, for it is the product of a cow that has killed
herself by falling over a precipice."
On one side of this island flows the Canton river, and on
the other is a small canal which separates it from the city.
Two bridges span this narrow stream, each having iron gates
which are invariably closed at night and guarded by sen
tinels. No Chinese, save employees of the foreigners, may
come within this reservation. In 1883, however, a Chinese
mob attacked it fiercely, and swarmed across the bridges, as
the legendary mice invaded Bishop Hatto's tower on the
Rhine. The English, French, and German families escaped

to steamers in the river, leaving their houses to be plundered

or burned. During my stay here, every evening when this
bridge was closed, and every morning when it was reopened,
I heard a hideous din of drums and horns, concluding with
the firing of a blunderbuss. Our consul told me that the
object of all this was to inspire fear. Tremble and obey!
are the words which close all Government proclamations in the
Chinese empire.
The morning after our arrival, we found awaiting us outside
the hotel door some coolies
with the sedan - chairs in


which we were to make our first excursion through Canton.

Another party also was about to start, including several ladies,
each of whom held in her hand either a flask of smelling-salts
or a piece of camphor wrapped in a handkerchief. In fact,
the druggists of Hong-Kong do quite a business in furnish
ing visitors to Canton with disinfectants and restoratives.
Some of these ladies feared being insulted by the Canton pop
- ulace, and told
* '', exciting stories
| - of an English
lady who had
been recently
- # - Spat upon, and
# - . #. of American
' #' | ladies who had

| *: been followed by
#4 ~ a hooting crowd.
##!", ####| || Ah Cum, how
#|| | *|| . ever, smiled
- * * |- #|| complacently.
--- - - | '' There is no

danger," he as
- sured us; my
'. father will take

care of you la

dies, as I will of
these gentlemen. Every one here knows us. Our people
are always safe."
Accordingly we started, crossed the bridge, and two min
utes later found ourselves engulfed, like atoms in a sewer, in
the fetid labyrinth of Canton. One should not be surprised
that illustrations of its streets are not clearer. The marvel is

that they are visible at all! Streets, as we understand

the word, they cannot be truthfully called. They are dark,

tortuous alleys, destitute of sidewalks, and from four to eight

feet wide, winding snake-like between long lines of gloomy
shops. Comparatively little daylight filters through them to
the pavement, not only by reason of their narrow limits, but
from the fact that all these passageways are largely filled up,
just above the people's heads, with strips of wood, which
serve as advertising placards. Many of them are colored
blue, red, white, or green, and bear strange characters, gilded
or painted on
their surfaces.
These in the

dark perspec
tive of a crowd

ed alley look like

the banners of

some long pro

These letters

do not give
the merchants'
names, but serve
as trade-marks,
like the dedi
catory words
above the doors of shops in France. How any one can read
them is a mystery; not merely on account of the twilight
gloom, but from the fact that here at every step one comes
in contact with a multitude of repulsive Chinamen, many of
them naked to the waist, who seem compressed within this
narrow space like a wild torrent in a gorge. To stop in such
a place and read a sign appeared to me as difficult as study
ing the leaves of the trees while riding through a forest on a
Texas broncho.

As our bearers pushed their way through these dark,


narrow lanes, the people squeezed themselves against the

walls to let us pass; then closed about us instantly again, like
sharks around the stern of a boat. At any moment I could
have touched a dozen naked

shoulders with my hand, and

twice as many with my cane.
Meanwhile, to the noise of the
loquacious multitude were
added the vociferations of our

bearers, who shouted constantly

for people to make way, ascrib
ing to us, we were told, dis
tinguished titles that evidently
excited curiosity even among
the stolid Chinamen. Occasion

ally we met a sedan-chair com

ing in the opposite direction.
Both sets of bearers then began
to yell like maniacs, and we
would finally pass each other
with the utmost difficulty, our coolies having frequently to
back the chair-poles into one shop, and then run them for
ward into a doorway on the opposite corner, thereby blocking
the noisy, surly crowd until the passage could be cleared.
The faces packed about us, while not positively hostile,
were as a rule unfriendly. An insolent stare was
characteristic of most of them. Some disagreeable
criticisms were pronounced, but Ah Cum's
expression never changed, and we, of course,
could not understand them.
Once a banana-skin, thrown

probably by a mischievous
boy, flew by my head; and
I was told that China's



favorite exclamation, foreign devils, was often heard. But

I dare say that if a Chinese mandarin, in full regalia, were to
walk through some of our streets, he would not fare as well
as we did in Can
ton; and that if
he ever went to

the Bowery,
hed never go
there any more.
As we kept
passing on
through other
alleys teeming
with half - clad

specimens of the
great unwashed, ONE OF THE BROADEST STREETs.

I called to mind

the fact that this low class in China has been deliberately
taught to hate, despise, and thoroughly distrust all foreigners.
The unjust opium war with England, the recent territorial
war with France, the stories told them of the treatment of
their countrymen in the United States,all these would, of


themselves, be enough to make them hostile; but they are as

nothing to the effect produced upon an ignorant, superstitious
populace by the placards posted on the walls of many Chinese
cities. I read translations of a few of these, and I believe
they cannot be surpassed in literature for the vulgarity and
infamy of their accusations. They are in one sense perfectly
absurd; but when we recollect the riotous acts to which they


have frequently incited their deluded victims, they challenge

serious consideration.

On entering some of the shops that line these passage

ways, I was astonished at the contrast they presented to the
streets themselves. The latter are at times no more than

four feet wide. Not so the shops. Many of them have a

depth of eighty feet, and in the centre are entirely open to
the roof. In the corner of each is placed a little shrine. A
gallery extends around the second story, and on that floor, or

in the rear of the building, the owners live. Some of these

shops are handsomely adorned with ne wood-carving and
bronze lamps, and on the shelves is stored a great variety of
goods, frequently
including articles #
as dissimilar as -
silk and cotton
fabrics, fans,
jewelry, umbrel =
las, Waterbury milm II:

clocks, and Chi

nese shoes. #
* ..."
# - **

shops we saw a
building used partly as a temple and partly as the Guild Hall
for the Canton silk merchants. Guilds, or trade-unions, have
existed here for centuries. They permeate every branch of
Chinese indus

try, legal and

illegal. Even
the thieves form
themselves into

a guild, and I
suppose there is
honor among
the m . The

origin of these
unions is partly
due to unjust
taxation. Can
ton contains a

vast amount of wealth, but those possessing it are careful

to conceal all trace of any superabundance. On this account
disputes between the various guilds are settled by arbitra

tion. To allow their affairs to go into court would show too

plainly to the tax-ce" tors their financial status. Accord
ingly litigation is almost unknown. Moreover, when a case
is settled by arbitration, the losing party not only pays the
disputed sum, but is obliged to give a supper to the victor.
In another building that we passed I saw a curious cere
mony, which Ah Cum explained as that of three Buddhist
priests who were clearing a house of evil spirits. It appears
that, two weeks before, a
man had committed sui

cide on the premises, in

order to avenge himself on
the proprietor. For in
China a man, instead of
killing his enemy, some
times kills himself, the
motive being a desire that
the hated one shall be re

garded as responsible for

his death, and be pursued
by evil spirits here and in
the world to come. To

be annoyed by ghosts must

be exceedingly unpleasant,
but, on the whole, I hope
that all my enemies will try the Chinese method.
Occasionally we discovered in these streets an itinerant
barber. These Chinese Figaros carry their outfits with them.
First in importance comes a bamboo pole, which is the im
memorial badge of their profession. To this is usually
attached one solitary towel,free to every customer. From
one extremity of this pole hangs a small brass basin, together
with a charcoal stove for heating water; the other end is
balanced by a wooden cabinet, which serves the patient as a

seat during the operation, and contains razors, lancets, twee

zers, files, and other surgical instruments.
It matters not where one of these tonsorial artists prac
tises his surgery. A temple court, a flight of steps, a street,
or a back-yard, are quite the same to him. He takes his
queue where he can find it. One of his commonest duties is
to braid that customary appendage to a Chinaman's head,
without which he would

be despised. It is com
ical to estimate the
thousands of miles of

Chinese queues which

even one barber twists
in the course of his

careerenough, if tied
together, end to end,
to form a cable between

Europe and America.

Yet this singular style
of hair-dressing (now
so universal) was in
troduced into China
only two hundred and
fifty years ago. Before CHINESE BARBER.

that time the Chi

nese wore full heads of hair, and the present fashion of

shaved crowns and twisted queues is of Tartar origin, and was
imposed by a conquering dynasty as a badge of servitude.
The wearing of a mustache in China is an indication that he
whose face it adorns is a grandfather. In fact, until he is
forty-five years old, a Chinaman usually shaves his face com
pletely; but this fact does not prove that after that time he
can dispense with the services of a barber. For the tonsorial
art in China is exceedingly varied; and Chinese barbers not

only braid the queue; they also shave

the eyebrows, clean the ears, pull
teeth, and massage. Moreover, they
scrape the inside of their victim's eye
lids a custom which is believed by
foreigners to be the cause of much
of the ophthalmia in China.
Chinese fortune-tellers had for me
a singular fascination. I found them
everywherein temple courts, at gate
ways and beside the roadsinvariably
wearing spectacles, and usually seated
at a table decorated with huge Chinese
characters. Their services seemed to

be in great demand. In every case

the ceremony was the same. Each applicant in turn ap
proached, and stated what he wished to know; for example,
whether a certain day would be a lucky time for him to buy
some real estate, or which of several girls his son would better
marry. Upon the table stood a tin box full of bamboo sticks.
One of these
slips the cus
tomer drew at
random, and
from the sen
tence written on
it the fortune

teller gave his

answer in oracu
lar words
which could, as
usual, be inter
preted in vari

At length,
however, leav
ing for a time
the shops and
dimly - lighted
alleys, we found
ourselves ap
proaching a
huge gate. For
Canton, like

m O St other
Chinese cities, is divided into certain districts, each of which
is separated from the adjoining one by a wall. The gateways
in these walls are always closed at night, and are of special
use in case of fires or insurrections, since they are strong
enough to hold in check a surging crowd till the police or sol
diers can arrive.

Passing through this portal, we made our way along the

wall until we arrived at

a prominent point of ob
servation, known as the
Five-storied Pagoda.
Whatever this may once
have been, it is to-day a
shabby, barn-like struc
ture, marked here and
there with traces of red

paint, like daubs of

rouge on a clown's face.
All visitors to Canton,
however, will recollect
the building, with a cer
tain amount of pleasure,
as being the resting-place The FIVE-STORIED PAGODA.

in which one eats the lunch brought from the steamer or

hotel. Not that there is not food of certain kinds obtainable
in Canton itself, but somehow what one sees of Chinese deli
cacies here does not inspire him with a desire to partake of


them. In one of Canton's streets, for example, I entered a

cat-restaurant. Before the door was a notice which Ah Cum

translated thus: Two fine black cats to-day, ready soon.

On stepping inside, I heard some pussies mewing piteously in
bamboo cages. Hardly had I entered when a poor old
woman brought the proprietor some kittens for sale. He felt
of them to test their plumpness, as we might weigh spring
chickens. Only a small price was offered, as they were very
thin, but the bargain was soon concluded, the woman took
her money, and the cadaverous kittens went to swell the
chorus in the cages. Black cats, by the way, cost more in
China than cats of any other color, for the Chinese believe
that the flesh of dark-coated felines makes good blood.

To some Chinamen, dogs fried in oil are also irresistible.

In one untidy street, swarming with yellow-skinned human
ity, we saw a kind of gipsy kettle hung over a wood fire.
Within it was a stew of dog-meat. Upon a pole close by
was hung a rump of uncooked dog, with the tail left on, to
show the patrons of this open-air restaurant to what particu
lar breed the animal had belonged. For it is said there is a
great difference in the flesh of dogs. Bull-terriers, for exam
ple, would probably be considered tough. Around this kettle
stood a group of coolies, each with a plate and spoon, devour
ing the canine stew as eagerly as travelers eat sandwiches at a
railway restaurant after the warning bell has rung. Some
hungry ones were looking on as wistfully as boys outside a
bun-shop. One man had such a famished look that, through
the medium of Ah Cum, I treated him at once. Moreover,
hundreds of rats, dried and hung up by the tails, are exposed
for sale in Canton streets, and shark's fins, antique duck
eggs, and sea-slugs are considered delicacies.
We tried to bring back photographic proofs of all these
horrors, but it was impossible. Whenever we halted in the


narrow lanes, in fifteen seconds we would be encircled by a

moving wall of hideous faces, whose foremost rank kept clos
ing in on us until the atmosphere grew so oppressive that we
gasped for breath and told our bearers to move on. Nor is

this all. These crowds were sometimes positively hostile. A

superstitious fear of being photographed by foreign devils'
made them dangerous. This fact was several times made dis
agreeably evi
dent. Thus, in
a garden adjoin
ing a Chinese
temple, I wished
to photograph
some sacred ''

hogs which were

attached to the

sanctuary in

capacity. But scarcely had the exposure been made, when a

priest gave the alarm, and in three minutes a mob of men and
boys were rushing toward us, uttering yells and throwing


stones. Ah Cum himself turned pale. He sprang in front of

us, and swore (may heaven forgive him ) that not a picture had
been taken. Of course we offered money as indemnity, but

the priests rejected it with scorn, claiming that by the pointing

of the camera we had stopped the growth of the hogs. I do
not think I exaggerate the situation when I say that if the
politic Ah Cum had not been there to defend us, we should
have suffered

personal injury.
Standing up
on the summit of
the Five-storied

Pagoda, we
looked out over

the city of Can

ton. For wide

spread, unre
lieved monotony, I never saw the equal of that view in any
place inhabited by human beings. True, the confusion of the
foreground was to be excused, since a tornado had recently
blown down many of the native houses. But far beyond this
mass of ruins, stretching on
and on for miles, was the same
monotonous, commonplace
vista of low, uninteresting
buildings, seamed with mere
crevices in lieu of streets.
Meantime, from this vast area
came to us a dull, persistent
hum, like the escape of steam
from a locomotive, reminding
us that here were swarming
nearly two million human be
ings, almost as difficult for a
foreigner to distinguish or
identify as ants in a gigantic

The exact population of Canton is hard to determine.

The number arrived at depends upon where one leaves off
counting the three hundred suburban villages, each of which
seems a part of the city. Bishop Harper, who lived here for
forty years, says, that if one should plant a stake in the centre
of Canton, and count all around it within a radius of ten
miles, one would find an aggregate of three-and-a-half million
people. One village, for example, eleven miles away, noted
for silk and other
manufactures, is
thought to con
tain eight hun
dred thousand
Out of this
wilderness of

mediocrity there
rose in one place
a pagoda, which
by contrast
seemed to pos
sess prodigious
height; but such
objects are ex
ceptional. To understand what Canton is like, one must
picture to himself a city which, with its suburbs, is larger
and more populous than Paris, yet has not one handsome
avenue, one spacious square, or even one street that pos
sesses the slightest claim to cleanliness or beauty. Worse
than this, it is a city without a single Chinese building in its
whole extent that can be even distantly compared in archi
tectural elegance with thousands of imposing structures in
any other city of the civilized world. But are there no
European edifices in Canton?" the reader may perhaps in

quire. Yes, one, which makes the contrast only more appar
ent. It is the Roman Catholic cathedral, whose lofty tow
ers are, strangely enough, the first objects in the city which
the traveler sees in sailing up the river from Hong-Kong.
This handsome Gothic structure, built entirely of granite,
rising from such a sea of architectural ugliness, at once
called forth our admiration. To the Chinese, however, these
graceful towers are objects of the utmost hatred. It angers
them to see this area, which French and English conquerors
obtained by treaty, still occupied by a Christian church. So
far, it has escaped destruction; but there are those who
prophesy its doom and
say that the time will
come when not one stone
of it will be left upon
There are, however,
five or six other buildings
in Canton, which rival
the pagoda and the Cath
olic church in height.
These hideous objects,
which look like mon

strous granite boxes set | -

on end, are pawn-shops. *
One might conclude from . ...
their enormous size that
half the personal property
of the Cantonese was in

pawn. They certainly

are well patronized, for
pawning clothes is such
a common thing in China
that hundreds of the



Cantonese send here for safe-keeping their furs and overcoats

in summer, and their thin summer clothes in winter, receiving
money for them as from any pawn-broker. The Chinese
mode of guarding these tall structures against thieves is cer
tainly unique. Upon the roofs are piled stones to be dropped
upon the heads of robbers, and also reservoirs of vitriol,
with syringes to squirt the horrible acid on invaders.
Astonished at this lack of imposing architecture, we asked


if there were no temples in Canton. Assuredly there were

eight hundred of them, all more or less defaced and incrusted
with dirt. One of the oldest and most sacred is called the
Temple of Five Hundred Gods, because within its walls
are seated five hundred life-size images of gilded wood, repre
senting deified sages of the Buddhist faith. But they are all
coarse specimens of sculpture, and many are amusing carica
tures. In front of each is a small jar of ashes, in which the
worshiper burns a stick of incense in honor of his favorite god.
Offerings of money, too, are sometimes madebut not of

genuine money. The Chinese are usually too practical to

use anything but imitation money made of gilded paper. I
do not know what the gods think of this Oriental style
of dropping but
tons in the con
tribution - box,
but the priests
do not like this

sort of currency.
They are all
hard money

But, if we ac
cept the ancient
proverb that TO AN old TEMPLE, CANTON.

labor is to pray," then are the Chinese devout indeed. What

ever other faults they may possess, idleness is not one of them.
The struggle for existence keeps them active. Yet they live
on almost nothing. A German merchant told me that one
of his coolies,
after twenty-five
years of service,
had recently had
his salary raised
to ten dollars a
month. The
laborer was, of
course, delight
ed. Now, he
exclaimed, I
intend to marry
another wife. For years I have longed to have two wives,
but have never been able to afford it; but now, with ten
dollars a month, I can indulge in luxuries!

In strolling about among these Chinese coolies, I found

that life in China is indeed reduced to its lowest terms. In

some of the Canton shops, for example, I saw potatoes sold

in halves and even in quarters, and poultry is offered, not
only singly, but by the pieceso much for a leg, so much
for a wing. Second-hand nails are sold in lots of half-a
dozen. A man can
buy one-tenth of a
cent's worth of fish
or rice. I under
stood, at last, how
Chinese laundrymen
can go home from
the United States

after a few years'

work, and live
upon their incomes.
When one perceives
under what condi
tions these swarm

ing myriads live, one

ONE OF THE MANY. naturally asks how
pestilence can be
averted. One source of safety is, no doubt, the universal
custom of drinking only boiled water in the form of tea.
If it were not for this, there would be inevitably a terrible
mortality, for the coolies take no precautions against infec
tion. A gentleman in the English consular service told us
that he had seen two Canton women in adjoining boats, one
washing in the river the bcdclothes of her husband who had
died of cholera, the other dipping up water in which to cook
the family dinner!
If, perchance, these people should fall ill, I fear they
would not be greatly benefited by any Chinese doctor whom

they might erhploy. Chinese physicians are thought to be

ignoramuses, unless they can diagnose a case by merely feeling
the pulse. Hence, if they are called to attend a lady, they
see of her usually nothing but her wrist, thrust out between
the curtains of the bed. Those who prescribe for internal
diseases are called inside doctors, while others are out
side" men, just as some of our medicines are labeled for
external use only. A story is told of a man who had been
shot through the arm with an arrow. He first applied to an
outside" doctor, who cut off the two ends of the weapon
and put a plaster on each wound. But, said the patient,
the remainder of the
arrow is still in my
arm. Ah! replied
the outside'' doctor,
that is not my affair.
To have that removed,
you must go to an 'in
side' man."
One day, in passing
through a temple gate,
a half-clad Chinaman
offered me for sale a

box of grasshoppers,
which, when ground
into a powder, make a
popular remedy for A CHINES E DOCTOR.

some ailments. In fact,

aside from ginseng and a few other well-known herbs, the
medicines used in China seem almost incredible. A favorite
cure for fever, for example, is a soup of scorpions. Dysen
tery is treated by running a needle through the tongue. The
flesh of rats is supposed to make the hair grow. Dried lizards
are recommended as a tonic for that tired feeling," and
iron filings are said to be
a good astringent. Chi
nese physicians say that*

: . . certain diseases are cur

.* - - -
- * --- -

- * 4. able only by a decoction

whose chief ingredient is
a piece of flesh cut from
the arm or thigh of the
patient's son or daughter.
To supply this flesh is
thought to be one of the
noblest proofs of filial de
votion. This is not an

exaggeration. In the
Pekin Officia/ Gazette of
July 5, 1870, is an edi
torial, calling the emperor's attention to a young girl who
had cut off two joints of her finger and dropped them into
her mother's
medicine. The
mother recov
ered, and the
governor of the
province pro
posed to crect
a monument in
honor of the
In view of

such a pharma
copoeia, it is a
comfort to learn
that in the Chi
nese theology a

*. a . . a =

special place in hell is assigned to ignorant physicians. All

quacks are doomed to centuries of torture, the worst fate
being reserved for doctors who abuse their professional skill
for purposes of immorality. Their punishment is the cheer
ful one of being boiled in oil. Another curious, and not
altogether absurd, custom of the Chinese is to pay a physician
so long as they continue in health, but if they fall ill, the


doctor's salary ceases until they recover, whereupon it com

mences again.
Chinese women seemed to me, as a rule, exceedingly
plain, but, even were they Venuses, one of their characteris
tics would make my flesh creep. I refer to their claw-like
finger-nails, which are so long that apparently they could be
used with equal ease as paper-cutters or stilettoes. Gloves
cannot possibly be worn upon these finger-spikes, so metal
sheaths have been invented to protect them. To show what

can be done in nail-growing,

the following lengths were meas
ured on the left hand of a
Chinese belle: thumb nail, two
inches; little finger nail, four
inches; third finger, five and
one-quarter inches. Under
these circumstances we cannot
wonder that in China it is not
the custom to shake hands:

otherwise, painful accidents

might occur. Accordingly, the
Chinese clasp their own hands
and shake them gently at each

A still more repulsive pecu

liarity of Chinese women is their stunted feet, which for the
purposes of locomotion are little better than hoofs. All
Chinese ladies of the better class

must have these lily feet, as

they are called. Sometimes a
Chinaman will have two wives;
the first an ornamental one with

lily feet," the second, a large

footed woman for business. The
origin of this barbarous custom of
preventing the growth of the foot
is unknown. Perhaps it sprang
from a sentiment which Ah Cum

graphically expressed by saying:

A small foot is much safer to
live with. A big foot runs about
too easily and gets into mischief.
Moreover,'" he added, with a MOTHER AND CHILD

smile, a big-footed woman sometimes kicks." One China

man assured me with great pride that his wife's foot was only
two and a half inches long. There is a class of women here
whose regular business it is
to bind the feet of little

girls when about six years

of age. The process of re
pressing the natural growth
of the foot lasts for seven
yearsthe four smaller
toes being bent under
until they lose their
articulations and become
identified with the sole
of the foot. When this

has been accomplished,

the second and severer

operation commences
of bringing the great toe
and the heel as nearly
together as possible.
The bandage is drawn
tighter, month by month, until the base of the great toe
is brought into contact with the heel, and the foot has be
come a shapeless lump. By this unnatural treatment the
leg itself becomes deformed, and its bones are made not
only smaller in diameter, but shorter. The circulation also is
obstructed, and the large muscles are soon completely atro
phied from disuse. The agony caused by such interference
with nature can be only faintly imagined. It made the tears
come to my eyes to hear a Chinese gentleman describe the
methods taken to console his suffering children and help them
forget their misery. The poor little creatures scream and
moan from the incessant pain, and often lie across the bed

with their legs pressed against the edge, in the hope that this
will lessen their distress; but nothing can relieve them but
freedom from the torturing bandage, which is never relaxed.
It makes one sick at heart to think that such a custom has

prevailed in China for more than a thousand years.

Should we approach a group of Chinese merchants in Can
ton, and ask any one of them How many children have
you?'' we could be almost certain that he would not think of
counting his daughters, or
that he would at least make
this distinctionI have two

children, and one girl. For

to a Chinaman nothing in life
is so important as to have a
son to offer sacrifices for him

after death and worship at his

grave, since, in their opinion,
a daughter is not capable of
doing this. When a boy is
born, therefore, the father is
overwhelmed with congratu
lations, but if the newcomer
be a girl, as little reference as
A CHINESE LADY. possible is made to the mis
fortune. Friends are informed of the birth of a child by strips
of paper carried through the street. If it be a boy, yellow
paper is used, but in case of a girl any color will do. This
feeling, intensified by poverty, is the cause of the infanticide
which has been, and still is, in certain provinces, so dark a
blot on the domestic history of China. It is said, for ex
ample, that in the vicinity of Amoy thirty per cent. of all
new-born girls are strangled or drowned, as unwelcome kit
tens sometimes are with us.
On our second day in Canton we investigated another
phase of Chinese
life, in some re
spects stranger
than anything
we had thus far

seen. Along the

sh or e s of the
Canton river, and
in its various ca

nals, is a popula
tion of a quarter
of d million souls, THE HOMES OF THOUSANDS.

living on thousands of peculiar boats crowded together side

by side, and forming streets, and even colonies, of floating
dwellings. Moreover, these conditions prevail in every river
town throughout the empire.

Each of these sampans, as they are called, though only

about twenty feet in length, constitutes the home of an entire
family. Eight people frequently live on one boat-grandpa
and grandma, father and mother, uncle and aunt, two or three
children, and a
baby. The lat
ter is tied to the
back of its moth
er, even when she
is rowing. As
for the other chil

dren, their pa
rents f as ten
a round the m

pieces of bam
boo, like life-pre
servers, and tie
them to the rail

by a cord. If they tumble over, they float until some one

gets a chance to pull them in. Upon these little boats thou
sands are born, eat, drink, cook, and sleep, and finally die,
having known no other home. Under the flooring are stored
their cooking utensils, bedding, clothing, provisions, oil, char
coal, and other requisites of their aquatic life. Above them,


usually, are movable roofs of bamboo wicker-work, to give

protection from the sun and rain.
Some of these families even take boarders! I verified this

by going at night among this floating population, and found

that sleeping space on the boats is rented to those who have no
fixed abode. Planks are laid over the seats to form a floor,
and on these lie the numerous members of the household and

the lodgers. Conspicuous figures in this boat-life are the

itinerant barbers and physicians, who go about in tiny sam
fans, ringing a bell and offering their services.
Occasionally, however, we beheld a boat much larger and
finer than the craft around it. It proved to be one of the
Chinese flower-boats, which are the pleasure resorts of China's
jeunesse dore. By day they are conspicuous by their size and
gilded wood-work, and in the evening by their many lights.
Never, while memory lasts, shall I forget an excursion made
at night with our hotel-proprietor among these flower-boats
and their surroundings. Many of them were anchored side
by side, and planks were stretched from one to the other, like
a continuous sidewalk. As we walked along, we passed by
countless open doors, each of which revealed a room hand
somely furnished with mirrors, marble panels, and blackwood
furniture. Here were usually grouped a dozen or more hilari
ous Chinamen, who were eating, drinking, and smoking, to
gether with professional singing-girls, who are hired by the
owners of these flower-boats to entertain their guests with
songs and dances. We could not pause to observe them care

fully, for foreigners are not wanted here, either as visitors or

patrons. Meanwhile, at the very doorways of these hand
some rooms, beggars in greasy garments crowded around us
and almost threateningly demanded alms. Look out for
* *

your pockets," was the proprietor's constant warning.

I have an indistinct remembrance of thus passing row
after row of lighted boats, room after room of painted girls,
group after group of sleek, fat Chinamen at tables, and then,
on leaving these, of seeing miles of loathsome boats contain


ing half-clad men stretched out on bunks and stupefied by

opium, hag-like females cooking over charcoal braziers, and
ragged children huddled in dark corners. I have a vivid
recollection, too, of walking over slimy planks, of breathing
pestilential odors, and of looking down on patches of repul
sive water, so thick with refuse that they resembled in the
lamp-light tanks of cabbage-soup. We also shudderingly
passed some leper-boats, whose inmates are afflicted with that
terrible disease, and who are forced to live as outcasts, beg
ging for alms by holding out a little bag suspended from a

bamboo pole. But finally shaking off the beggars who had
followed us, and fleeing from this multitudinous life, as one
might turn with horror from a pool of wriggling eels, I stag
gered into the boat belonging to the hotel. As it moved out
into clearer water, I drew a long breath and looked up at the
stars. There they werecalm and glorious as everscat
tered in countless numbers through measureless space. At
any time, when one looks off into the vault of night, our lit
tle globe seems insignificant, but never did it seem to me
so tiny and
value less, as
when I left

these myriads
of Chinamen,
swarming like
insects in their
narrow boats,
apparently the
reduction of hu

manity to the
grade of mi

The gentle
man who had accompanied me on this occasion was a Wall
street broker. Well, he exclaimed at last, I have spent
fifteen years among the Bulls and Bears, and I think my
nerves are pretty strong, but for experiences which unnerve
a man, and things which (glad as I am to have seen them
once) I never wish to see again, nothing can compare with
the sights and smells discovered in a trip to Chinatown '''
What impressed me most, however, in this experience was
the idea that the millions in and around Canton are but an

insignificant fraction of the Chinese race. It filled me with


horror to reflect that all I had witnessed here was but a tiny
sample of the entire empire. For Canton is said to be supe
rior to many Chinese cities.
One writer has declared that, after walking through the
Chinese quarter of Shanghai, he wanted to be hung on a
clothes-line for a week in a gale of wind. Tientsin is said to
be still worse for dirt and noxious odors. Even Pekin, from
all accounts, has horribly paved and filthy thoroughfares,
and its sanitary conditions are almost beyond belief. If such


then be the state of things in the capital, what must it be in

the interior towns, so rarely reached by foreigners?
It may, however, be objected that in the open ports,
where they encounter foreign influence, the people are at
their worst. But Chinamen are not impressionable, like the
North American Indians or the aborigines on the islands in the
Pacific, who eagerly adopt the vices of their conquerors, and
speedily succumb to them.
China is one of the oldest countries in the world. Most of

her ideas, customs, as well as the personal habits of her people


are of immemorial antiquity, and her inhabitants are too con

servative to change them. What one beholds in Canton,
therefore, may be fairly supposed to exist from one extremity
of the empire to the other.
But now, among so much that is disagreeable, one naturally
inquires, Are there not some redeeming features in this Chi
nese life?'' I must confess there are not many discernible
to the passing traveler, but I will gladly mention one about
which I made careful inquiry. It is their honesty in business.
It is the almost invariable custom for Chinese merchants every
New-Year's day to settle their accounts, so that no errors
may be carried over into the coming year; and I was told
that if a tradesman fails to meet his liabilities at that time, he
is considered a defaulter and his credit is forever lost. Eng
lish and German merchants spoke to us of Chinese commer
cial honor in the highest terms, and drew comparisons in this
respect between them and the Japanese which were not flat
tering to the latter.
Even in Japan, I found at all the foreign banks, in some
of the shops, and in the Grand Hotel, that the cashiers were
not Japanese, but Chinamen. Of course, one who has never
traded with them cannot judge of their comparative abilities
in a business way, but merchants in Yokohama, Shanghai,
and Hong-Kong, as well as on the island of Shameen, told
us that Chinamen were more trust
worthy than the Japanese, and
- could be usually depended on to


live up to their contracts, whether they proved favorable or


An English gentleman who had resided both in China and

Japan for years, once said to me: The more you see of
the Japanese the less you will like them. The more you see
of the Chinese the less you will dis
like them. You will always like the
Japanese; you will always dislike
Chinamen; but the degree in which
you cherish and express these senti
ments will constantly diminish.
Besides the numerous differences
between Oriental and Occidental

customs noticed in Japan, we found

in China many other proofs of
what has been well called a state

of topsy-turvydom. Thus, our tail

ors draw the needle inward; Chinese
tailors stitch outward. With us mili

tary men wear their swords on the

left side; in China they are worn on
the right. In boxing the compass a
Chinaman says East, West, South,
North." To mark a place in a book
we turn the corner of a page inside;
a Chinaman bends it the other way.
A chixEsB JUNK.
We print the title of a volume on
the back; the Chinese on the front.
We play battledore and shuttlecock with our hands; the
Chinese use their feet for a battledore and catch the shut
tlecock on their foreheads. We use our own names when
engaged in business; in China fancy names are taken. We
carry one watch hidden in our pocket; a Chinese gentleman
sometimes wears two outside his clothes, with their faces

exposed. We
black our boots;
the Chinese
whiten theirs.
With us it is con

sidered impolite
to ask a person's
age; in China it
is a high compli
ment, and there
a man is con
sACRED Rocks, iNtERior of CHINA.
gratulated if he
is old. Men, at least in the Occident, have plenty of pockets;
the Chinaman has none, and uses his stockings as receptacles
for papers, and at the back
of his neck inserts his folded

fan. At our weddings youth

ful bridesmaids are desired;
at Chinese nuptials old women
serve in that capacity. We
* .
launch our vessels lengthwise;
the Chinese launch theirs side

wise. We mount a horse

from the left; they mount

J. their horses from the right.
w SNS We begin dinner with soup
and fish, and end with des
sert; they do exactly the re
verse. Finally, the spoken
- language of China is never
written, and the written lan
guage is never spoken.
After all, however, we
should remember that China

Li hUNG chANG's visitixG-CARD.


men who travel in our own country think that our customs are
as strange as theirs appear to us. A prominent official of the
Flowery Kingdom, who made the tour of Europe several
years ago, took notes of what he saw, and published them on
his return. Among them are the following: Women, when
going to the drawing-room of Queen Victoria regard a bare
skin as a mark of respect. When people meet and wish
to show affection, they put their lips and chins together and

A Joss-House.

make a smacking sound." This is not so difficult to under

stand, when we recollect that, like most Orientals, the
Chinese do not kiss, and that even a mother does not kiss her
own baby, although she will press it to her cheek. Again, he
thus describes our dancing parties: A European skipping
match is a strange sight. To this a number of men and
women come in couples, and enter a spacious hall; there, at
the sound of music, they grasp each other by both arms, and
leap and prance backward and forward, and round and round,

-|| | =
|- -

- --|

-- E. -
--- .s|||

till they are forced to stop for want of breath. All this, he
adds, is most extraordinary;" and when we Occidentals
think of it, perhaps it is. A Chinese youth, after eating for
the first time a European dinner, wrote of his experience:
Dishes of half-raw meat were served, from which pieces were
cut with sword-like instruments and placed before the guests.
Finally came a green and white substance, the smell of which
was overpowering. This, I was informed, was a compound


of sour milk, baked in the sun, under whose influence it

remains until it becomes filled with insects; yet the greener
and livelier it is, the greater the relish with which it is eaten!
This is called Che-sce.''

The object of most gruesome interest to me in Canton was

its place of execution. On entering this, I looked about me
with astonishment; for almost all the space between the rough
brick walls was filled with coarse, cheap articles of pottery.
Ah Cum explained, however, that when a batch of heads
are to be cut off, the jars are all removed, much as a hotel

dining-room is cleared for dan

cing. The condemned prisoners
are always brought in baskets
to this place, and are compelled
to kneel down with their hands
tied behind their backs. Their

queues are then thrown for

ward, and they are beheaded
at a single stroke. Traces of
blood were visible on the

ground, and from a mass of

rubbish close at hand a grin
ning Chinaman pulled out sev
eral skulls which he had hidden
there, and claimed a fee for
A PAGODA. exhibiting them. I was pre

sented to the executioner, and asked him how many men he

had himself decapitated, but he could not tell. He kept no
count, he saidsome days six, some days ten, in all probably
more than a thousand. As he was resolutely opposed to hav
ing his picture taken, we placed his two-edged sword against
the wall, and photographed that. When I was told that, once
a week, twenty or thirty men are brought into this filthy court
to die like cattle

in a slaughter
house, I stood
aghast, but when
I subsequently
learned that this

is the only ex
ecution-place in
a great province
with a popula
tion of twenty DRAW ING WATER.

millions, the
number did not

seem so appall
ingly excessive.
This is, however,
merely the aver
age in ordinary
times. After
certain insurrec
tions, such as the
Taiping rebel
lion, this hid
eous square has
seemed almost a

reservoir of human blood. The venerable missionary, Dr.

Williams, states that he saw here one morning at least two
hundred headless trunks, and stacks of human heads piled
six feet high. Careful estimates place the number executed
here during fourteen months, at
eighty-one thousand,or more
than thirteen hundred every

I doubt if many criminals be

headed here feel much regret at
leaving life, so horrible has been
their previous condition in the
Canton prison. We visited this
institution, but to obtain a pic
ture of it was impossible. Within
an ill-kept, loathsome area, we
saw a crowd of prisoners wearing
chains, while around their necks
were heavy wooden collars,
which, being from three to five A PR1SONER,

feet square, were so wide that the poor wretches wearing

them could never possibly feed themselves, but must depend
on others for their nourishment. How they lie down to sleep
with them on I do not know. Yet they must wear such collars
for weeks, and
even months, at
a time. I have
no sentimental

sympathy for
criminals, and
thoroughly be
lieve in the en

forcement of just
laws, but I was
shocked at the
sight of these
poor creatures. Whatever may have been their guilt, such
treatment is a degradation of humanity.
Leaving the place of execution, we made our way to one
of the criminal courts of Canton. It was in session when we

entered it, and I never can forget the sight that met my gaze.
Before the judge was a prisoner on his knees, pleading for
mercy and protesting innocence. Chains were around his
neck, waist, wrists, and ankles. Beside him knelt an aged
woman, whose gray hair swept the floor as she rocked back
and forth, imploring vengeance on her son's assassin. At
last the culprit confessed his crime of murder, and was led
back to prison. How sincere his confession was, it would be
hard to say; for if, in the face of powerful adverse testimony,
an accused man still asserts his innocence, he is often pun
ished in the court-room till he does confess. Around the hall

were various instruments of torturebamboo rods to flog the

naked back; hard leather straps with which to strike the pris
oner on the mouth, thus sometimes breaking the teeth and

even the jaw; thumb-screws and cords by which he is sus

pended by his thumbs and toes; and heavy sticks with which
to beat his ankles. I did not happen to see these used,
because in the three trials I witnessed all of the prisoners
confessed. But they are used; and just as I was entering the
court, I met a criminal being led back to prison, so weak and
crippled by his punishment, that he could hardly step with
out assistance. Curiously enough, after the torture has been
administered, the culprit is required to fall upon his knees
and thank the judge. This I should think would be the
most unkindest cut of all.

It seems impossible to say anything in defense of such a

system as this; for in China a man is not only looked upon as
guilty till he is
proved innocent,
but is kept in
loathsome con
finement, and
may be even put
upon the rack, in
spite of the es
tablished fact
that torture is
never a test of

truth. And yet

a foreign resident
made, as an apol
ogy, the follow
ing statement: A CHINESE Court.
You must re

member that testimony here amounts to nothing, and that,

by paying sixpence apiece, you can pack the court-room with
men who will swear that black is white. Hence, where a man
can easily bribe false witnesses to ruin his enemy, the Chinese

law provides that no one shall under any circumstances be

put to death unless he has confessed his crime. But since a
prisoner on trial for his life will usually protest his innocence
to the last, the court attempts by torture to force him to

We visited finally an object in Canton far pleasanter than

its scenes of punishment, yet equally characteristic of the
national life. It is the place where natives of this province
take the first step in the only path which in China leads to
political and social rank. It is the scene of the competitive
examinations, the fame of which has filled the world.


The courtyard where the contest takes place is by no means

inviting. It is an area of sixteen acres, covered with nearly
nine thousand rough brick sheds. At the time of an exam
ination each of these is occupied by a candidate. Before he
enters it, his person is carefully searched, and soldiers and
policemen guard all passageways to prevent communication.
Each in his narrow cell, these applicants for office then
remain for three consecutive days and nights, about as pleas
antly lodged, I should imagine, as Jonah was for the same
length of time; for these dirty dens of brick are only four
feet long, three feet wide, and possibly six feet high. One
of the horse-sheds in the rear of a New England meeting

house would be a far more comfort

able place in which to eat and sleep.

Perhaps they are meant, however, to
emphasize the triumph of mind over
matter. Their only furniture consists
of two small planks, one for a seat.
the other for a table. Rest is, of
course, impossible in such a cage, and
candidates have sometimes died here

from physical and mental strain. All

this seems inexcusably cruel; yet the
Chinese government may have good
reasons for maintaining this severity. A STUDENT.

: For instance, such a system, if intro

duced at Washington, would rid the District of Columbia of
nine-tenths of its office-seekers within twenty-four hours.
While some of these students persevere in their attempts
till they are seventy or eighty years of age, others are quite
young; but the fact of youth is not considered discreditable,
for Confucius said: A youth should always be regarded with
respect. How do we know that his future may not be su
perior to our present? At all events, the highest place is
open to them,
if their brains
will take them

there; for every

village in China
has its school,
and every free
b or n citize n

may qualify for

this struggle,
the governing
FiSiiiNG ON THE Rivek. principle of
which is Let the best man win ' '.' It is the law of the sur

vival of the fittest exemplified in politics.

In all the provinces of China, on the appointed day, thou
sands of candidates assemble, eager for the contest. Subjects
are given them on which they must produce a poem and orig
inal essays. Their work is then examined by officials ap


pointed by the Government, and so extremely rigid is the

test, that out of every thousand applicants only about ten
gain the first, or District, degree. There are, however,
three degrees to be attained by Chinese aspirants for fame.
Those who come out as victors in the first receive no office,
but are at least exempt from corporal punishment, and may
attempt the examination for the next degree. Even the few
who pass the second, or Provincial," test (about one in a

hundred) receive no government appointment. Yet they

are distinguished among their countrymen by wearing a gold
button in their hats, and by a sign over their houses signifying
Promoted man.

Those who succeed in standing the third, or Imperial,

test at Pekin,-severer even than the other two,-have reached
the apex of the pyramid. They
are now mandarins, and have
acquired all they can desire,
social distinction, office, wealth,
and (what is sometimes still
more highly prized) great na
tional fame. For in the results
of this examination the entire

country takes the greatest in

terest. The names of the suc

cessful men are everywhere

proclaimed by means of cour
iers, river-boats, and carrier
pigeons, since thousands of
people in the empire have laid
their wagers on the candidates,
as we might do on horses at the
Derby. Strange, is it not, to
think that this elaborate Chi

nese system was practised in

the land of the Mongols substantially as it is to-day, at a time
when England was inhabited by painted savages?
Moreover, the honors of successful candidates in China
cannot be inherited. Young men, if they would be ennobled,
must surpass their competitors and win their places as their
fathers did. Even the youthful son of Li Hung Chang, whom
General Grant considered, next to Bismarck, the most re
markable man he met with in his tour around the world, is

not entitled, because of his father's office, to any special rank.

Hence, China, though an absolute monarchy, has no privi
leged class whose claims rest merely on the accident of birth.
Her aristocracy consists of those who have repeatedly proved
themselves intellectually superior to their rivals. Among no
people in the world, therefore, have literary men received
such honors as in China; and it is a remarkable fact that this
vast nation has worshiped for two thousand years, not a great


warrior, nor even a prophet claiming inspiration from God, but

a philosopher, Confucius.
I have often thought that were I asked to compare the
Chinese empire of to-day with some material object, I would
select for such comparison the Great Wall on its northern
frontier. This mighty work has hardly been surpassed in the
whole history of architecture, not even by the builders of the
Pyramids. It is no less than twenty-five feet high and forty
feet broad, with watch-towers higher still, at intervals of

three hundred feet. And yet it has a length of nearly fifteen

hundred miles, a distance exceeding that from Boston to St.
Paul, and in its uninterrupted march spans deep ravines and
climbs to lofty mountain crests, in one place nearly five thou
sand feet in height. Although it was built three hundred years
before the birth of Christ, it still exists, and during fourteen
- -



centuries sufficed to hold in check the savage tribes of Tartars

from the north. It has been calculated that if the Great Wall

were constructed at the present time, and with Caucasian

labor, its cost would pay for all the railroads in the United
States. One hundred years ago an English engineer reckoned
that its masonry represented more than all the dwellings of
England and Scotland put together, and, finally, that its

material would construct a stone wall six feet high and two
feet thick around the entire globe.
In many respects this great rampart is typical of China.
Both have a vast antiquity, both have an enormous extent,
and both have

had their pe
riods of glory,
China her

age of prog
ress and in
vention, and
this old wall a
time when it

was kept in
perfect order,
when war ri
ors stood at

every tower,
and when it

fifteen hundred miles an insurmountable barrier to invasion.

But just as this leviathan of masonry has outlived its useful
ness, and is at present crumbling to decay, so the huge Chi
nese empire itself now seems decrepit and wholly alien to the
nineteenth century. Her roads, once finely kept, are now
disgraceful; her streets are an abomination to the senses; her
rivers and canals are left to choke themselves through want
of dredging; and even her temples show few signs of care.
Stagnation and neglect are steadily at work on her colossal
frame, as weeds and plants disintegrate this mouldering wall.
Will this old empire ever be aroused to new activity, and can
fresh life-blood be infused into her shrunken veins to animate

her inert frame? There is, I think, a possibility that, in the

coming century, the new, progressive party here will overcome

the dull conservatism of the nation, connect her vast interior

with the sea, utilize her mineral wealth, develop her immense
resources, and make her one of the great powers of the world.
Napoleon once warned England that if the Chinese should
learn too well from her the art of war, and then acquire the
thirst for conquest which has characterized other nations, the
result might be appalling to the whole of Europe. For think
what inexhaustible armies they could raise, and what great
fleets they could build and launch upon their mighty rivers!
But this is a problem of the future, about which no man can
predict with certainty.
Many have asked me if I am glad that I went to China,
and I have always answered that, as a unique and useful
study of humanity, I think it one of the most valuable expe
riences of my life. Still I am bound to say, that when I stood
upon the deck of an outgoing steamer, and felt it move be
neath my feet responsive to the engine's stroke, I drew a
breath of pleasure and relief. For I was assured that the


swarming millions of the Chinese empire were being left

behind me, and that my face was turned toward that historic
land where, lighted by the Southern Cross, I was to visit
Hindu shrines and Mogul palaces, and gaze on the Himalayas
and the Taj Mahal.





For the use of Learners of the Language.





THE following little volume is the result of the author's studies of the
idioms and construction of Chinese colloquial. It is of course crude,
imperfect and unfinished, as every first attempt almost necessarily is.
Friendly criticism is invited.
The author had not studied Chinese long before he felt convinced
that there was a far better method of acquiring a speaking knowledge of
it than by learning every sentence by rote de novo. Having acquired the
words and their use, there must be some general principles by which they
are construed into sentences.
Three things seem essential to acquire Chinese, or in fact, any
foreign language: First, A correct pronunciation, that is, one free from
our native accent. This, in Chinese, includes a correct enunciation of the
tones. This pronunciation is of course gotten from the native teacher,
guided, however, by the experience and directions of older foreign
speakers of the language. The beginner makes perhaps no more serious
blunder than to follow his own crude pronunciation, acquired through his
untrained ears, in preference to the experience of acknowledged
authorities. If the pronunciation is faulty, the very foundation of his
acquirements in the language is corrupt and vitiated. Second, A correct
use of words. This is derived at first from dictionaries, &c.; afterwards
from the people themselves. Third, A correct knowledge and use of the
idioms and construction of sentences. This volume is an humble attempt
to guide the student in this third department of knowledge. Whether
the author has succeeded or not, is not for him to judge; if he has, he
will be grateful; if not, he will not be disappointed.
If any are disposed to criticise my devoting precious time to such
work as this, I simply answer, That this has been my method of studying
the language. While I have heard others speak of memorizing sentences
by the score, I can truly say that I have committed to memory scarcely a
dozen sentences in all the several dialects that I have had occasion to
study. My plan has always been to acquire words with their pronuncia
tion and use, and thus combine them into sentences in accordance with

some general rules or principles. Given the rule, any number of

sentences may be correctly formed by it, thus avoiding the irksome task
of committing to memory every sentence.
I would by no means underrate phrase books which have their use,
especially for beginners, and a very important use too. Nor would I
throw overboard grammars which are exceedingly useful, especially in
giving one a general view of the language. In writing this volume, I
have consulted all the phrase books and grammars on Chinese that I
could secure, that is to say, about all written in the English language,
and while I willingly acknowledge the help derived from them, yet I
must say that they very often left me to grope my own way; so that this
volume, whether a failure or success, has at least the merit of being, to a
large extent, an original production.
The principles and rules, &c., laid down, are given rather as general
guides or finger-posts than as rigid rules that must be mechanically
adhered to in forming sentences. I do not claim the name of grammar
for the book, since many things belonging to that department are not
here discussed; such as style, tones, dialectic disctinctions, &c. I have
confined myself strictly to construction and idioms and used Romanized
spelling simply as a help to the student in reading the sentences. Hence,
tone-marks are omitted, and hence, also, I have adopted a general
pronunciationa combination of Northern and Southern Mandarin,
omitting the local pronunciations of each, a pronunciation which I have
found to be of the greatest service among all classes of mandarin-speak
ing natives.
A table of it will be found in Appendix No. II. It is of course
imperfect. I have spelt the short tones of the peculiar sh and ch and j
sounds by simply adding a h after a hiphen, e.g, # sh-h, H j-h, &c.
One is almost tempted to change the initial j to r, as the latter is widely
used, but j is certainly scientifically more correct, since it is simply the
aspirated 2 (j=zh) of Chiangnan. Here, as in one or two other places,
strict accuracy may have been sacrificed to scientific correctness. One
more remark on the spelling seems called for. The initial i I have always
spelt yi, and o, wo, &c. I may be more correct, but as y is distinctly
heard before in, ing, &c., I have added it in all these initials for the sake
of uniformity.
And now the volume is committed to the public, the book-shelf, or
the waste-basket, whichever place is the most suitable for it.


SINCE in Mandarin Colloquial many words are often, and in many

cases necessarily, made up of two or more characters, we must
in accordance with our general plan, begin with the Analysis and
Formation of Words. We give simply a general outline of the
formation of those compounds which will at the same time show
their component parts, or analysis.
I. Many single characters which of themselves express the
whole meaning intended by the word in question, yet add a charac
ter in order to distinguish words that otherwise would be alike or
similar to other words in sound, i.e., for clearness of expression and
ease of pronunciation.
1st. The characters added may be mere suffixes, and as such
lose their own meaning and are combined in pronunciation with the
preceding character. Such are
(1) + ts and 5 er, both meaning son when alone, but
losing this meaning when appendede.g., # + choh-ts table,
# + yi-ts chair, #3 p'an-ts plate, # + shen-ts body, # + l-ts
donkey, Hi + chu-ts cook, # 5 miao-er bird, # 5 hua-er flower,
# 5 p'ing-er bottle, F 5 men-er door, &c.
Remarks.1. Perhaps usage alone decides which of the above two characters is
to be added to a given word. In some cases either may be used. In general, the
Southern Mandarin, with its dialects, prefers + ts, while the Northern Mandarin, with
its dialects, prefers 5. ei".
2. The excessive use of 5. er is very vulgar. Hence, it is more common among
the uneducated than among the cultured. In public speaking, especially, one should
be careful of its use, as the excessive use of it tends rather to the confusion than
the clear distinction of sounds.
3. When 5. er is combined in pronunciation with the preceding character, the
final nazal (n or ng) of the latter is generally dropped or only slightly heard. Thus,
# 5. c'hien-er becomes chier, Fij 5. men-er becomes mer, &c.
4. 5. er is sometimes (vulgarly) added to words already dissyllabic: # # 5.
ul-lunger (k'u-lur), hole, # + 5. chi-ts.er (chi-tser) hen's egg.

(2). HH Teu, head, is added (a) to names of material things having

a blockish shape: S HH muh-t'eu wood, H H sh-h-t'eu stone, H HH
j-h-t'eu sun, # # ch-t'eu finger, $ # chien-t'eu fist, #H# lang-teu
hammer; (b) to monosyllabic verbs in order to give them the force of
abstract nouns: # k'an to look, # # k'an-t'eu something to look
at; # t'ing to listen, # # t'ing-t'eu something to listen to ; # wang
to hope, # HH wang-teu hope; # shoh to say, speak, t # shoh-t'eu
something to say; nien to think, # j# nien-t'eu thoughts; (c) to
locative terms intimating the extremity or end. Here its meaning
head is not entirely lost sight of: If hsi west, # # hsi-teu west
end; # tung east, # # tung-t'eu east end; # che this, H H che
t"eu this end, # na that, #5 H ma-teu that end; so # # li-teu
inside, #, HH wai-t'eu outside, E # shang-t'eu topside, etc.
(3). K. Chu, place, is added to a limited number of words form
ing abstracts: # 59 yih-chu advantage, # hao good, # It hao-chu
benefit; # hai to injure, # 5: hai-chu injury; # ti ground, # It
ti-chu place; # nan difficult, # 3 nan-c'hu difficulty.
Remark.In some compounds the meaning place is distinctly retained in
le c'hu : 4:tso to sit, 43 }: tso-c'hu place, or room to sit ; # tsew to walk, # l:
tseu-chu place to walk; # loh to rejoice, # l: loh-c'hu place, or ground for rejoic
ing; EH ming bright, open, BH l: ming-chu in an open place, openly.

(4) # Chia, family, is added to nouns relating to individuals:

A # jen-chia person, E # kueh-chia kingdom, # ts-chia oneself.
2nd. The first character is sometimes repeated, chiefly those
denoting family relations: # # ko-ko elder brother, # # ti-ti
younger brother, #k #k mei-mei younger sister, $ $ pa-pa papa,
## ma-ma, mamma, #### mo-mo loaves (native).
Note.Many monosyllabic words are repeated for the sake of emphasis. A
discussion of these does not concern us now.

3rd. Often two synonyms are united to form a word: JJ #

p'eng-yu friend, J# 35 kung-lao, merit, # 5 ti-hsiung brethren, bro
ther, # # cha-'kao to investigate, # # mai-tsang to bury, # #
kuan-k'an to behold, # # huan-hsi to rejoice, # # ling-huen soul.
Remark.Usage largely decides which of these two synonyms precedes. In
some words either may begin the word: ## tsang-mai and # # mai-tsang, #
# c"ha-k'ao and # # k'ao-cha, ## ling-huen and # # huen-ling, # +3.
huan-hsi and ## hsi-huan, &c. It might be said that where the two characters
are identical in meaning, and interchangeable, either of them may precede.

II. In very many cases no single character contains the whole

meaning intended to be conveyed in the word; hence, combination is
resorted to.

1st. Characters conveying opposite extremes of meaning are

united to denote the meaning contained between the two extremes:
# shen deep, # chien shallow, # # shen-chien depth; # c'hing
light, H chung heavy, # # ching-chung weight; # chang long, #
tuan short, # # chang-tuan length; # to many, p shao few, $ 25
to-shao amount, how much? # lai come, # wang, go, # # lai-wang
intercourse; # mai buy, # mai sell, # # mai-mai mercantile busi
ness; # hao good, 37 tai bad, #5 hao-tai quality; # yien distant,
#1 chin near, # II yien-chin distance.
Remark.Here also, perhaps, usage decides which of the terms precedes.

2nd. Abstract nouns are formed by adding the character # fah

plan, to verbs referring to the modus operandi : # tso to do, make,
# #: tso-fah the plan of doing; nien to read, & # nien-fah plan,
method of reading; # chiu to save, # # chiu-fah plan of salvation;
# chiao to teach, # # chiao-fah method of teaching.
3rd. Here the first character in the word is specific in meaning,
the second is general. Thus the first limits, and so modifies, the
meaning of the second (compare the English lamp-wick, tea-pot,
house-boy, &c.): # # ts'ao-liao (lit. grass material) feed, #5 #
ma-ping (lit. horse soldiers) cavalry, # # teng tsao (lamp grass)
lamp-wick, # fi teh-hsing (virtuous acting) virtue, + JV chu-jen
(lord man) master, JH A yung-jen (use man) servant, '' 48 yi-sheng
(heal life) physician, #1 % chin-ai (relatives' love) love of relatives (to
each other), # # lien-ai (pity love) love springing from pity, # #
ch'ah-k'an (investigate look) to examine, # R ai c'hiu (grief entreaty)
entreaty (springing from a sense of misery). So also a man's name and
title: # # 4: Chang hsien-sheng, Mr. or teacher Chang, # k #
Li ta-ko elder brother Li, GJ #4: Pao yi-sheng Dr. Pao, etc.
This method of combination is very common, and may be extended
to any required need. Almost any characters suitable to convey any
desired meaning may be thus combined. Witness the facility with
which the Chinese coin words to designate foreign innovations: # #
luen chuan (wheel boat) steamer, # #5 tieh-lu (iron road) railway,
# # tien-pao (electric message) telegram, etc.

4th. Composite terms denoting occupations are made up of a

verb and its object referring to the occupation in question, followed by
the descriptive particle fij tih : # # chang-kuei to have charge of
the money chest, # # 63 chang-huei-tih accountant; # Fij k'an-men
to watch the door, # F# #j k'an-men-lih porter; & # nien shu to
read or recite books, $ # #j nien shu tih student; # # kan-chioh
to drive animals (lit. feet), # # 65 kan-chioh-tih muleteer, # H
t'uei c'he to push barrows, # H #4 t'uei c'he tih barrowman, etc. The
particle # tih is a relative-descriptive character, and means he, who or
that which performs the action designated by the verb.
Remarks.--In a few cases 65 tih is omitted, in others Mjen takes the place of

#j tih ; further, jen may be added to composites with #4 tih, making the appellation
more distinct : # #] hsien-ch (fore know) prophets, #l f hsi-tsoh spies, ' # M.
tuh-shu-jen, students # # #j A mai-mal tih jen merchants (lit. those who buy
and sell.

III. Finally, there are a few words, chiefly anomatopoetic, that

cannot be analyzed: # 5 k'eh-seu cough, H. W. a-l'i to sneeze, * *
ha-ha loud laughter, 13 || 3 huh-huh sound of wind, # 5 JB ha-na-li
broad (lit. Holland) cloth, # H ya-p'ien opium, etc.


HAviNG considered the formation of compound words, we now come

to the general classes or kinds of words in a sentence. The most
general divisionand, perhaps, as such, the bestis that adopted by
native grammarians, as follows:
First,-Dead or Fixed Words (35 H S ts) i.e., Substan
tives, nouns and pronouns, the names of things, actions, &c. As
names, these have a fixed use and fixed position in the sentence, and as
such can be used for no other purpose# 64 stih dead, immovable.
Second,Living or Movable Words (## hoh ts) i.e., the
predicate, words that imply action and are, therefore, not fixed in
any one place or use.
Third,Empty or Meaningless Words (## hsii ts), i.e.,
particles, including conjunctions, interjections, terminals, &c.; words
that are supposed to have no meaning of their own, but depend on
their environments for this.

It is evident that these divisions describe the places in which

words are used rather than definite classes of words. This is evident
from the fact that a given character or word may very often be used
as a 35.5 s ts, # # hoh ts, or if H hsii ts without change of form,
the class to which it belongs being determined by the place it occupies
in the sentence.

In fact, it may be stated as a general principle, that the part

of speech of a word depends not on its form, but on its position in
the sentence.

Remark.The chief exceptions are the forms given in Chap. i., I, 1st (1), (2), (3),
and (4) which, as such, can only be nouns. We will now take up each of these
divisions in order, and attempt to give their subdivisions, idiomatic uses and what
belongs to each.




THE Substantive may be

I. A Nou.N, or anything used as such, or, II. A PRONoUN.
I.With regard to Nouns we here need to notice only Number.
1st.To personal nouns alone belong number, properly so called.
The singular has no specific form. If there is nothing in the context
to indicate the contrary, the ordinary form is singular. It may be
added that unless the plural is emphatic, it may be left to be gathered
from the context, omitting the usual plural ending. But the plural of
personal nouns is regularly formed by adding the syllable || men :
# 5 ti-hsiung brother, # 5 # ti-hsiung-men brothers, brethren;
# A: ['i hsien-sheng-men teachers, # + || hai-ts-men children.
RemarkM jen seldom, if ever, takes this plural ending, being too general in
2nd.With reference to concrete nouns other than personal, it
may be said that they refer rather to classes of things than to the
individuals themselves. The form of the noun has no reference either
to the singular or plural. Hence, when either number is required it
must be indicated by modifying words. Thus, the singular is indicated
by placing before the noun,
(1) The numeral yih one, and the appropriate classifier:
- || A yih ko jen one (or a) man, - # # yih t'iao kew one (or a)
dog, - # # # yih k'uai yang chien one (or a) foreign dollar.

Remarks.1. It will be seen from the examples given, that the numeral " yih
covers the ground of the English indefinite article.
2. Even here the numeral makes the classifier rather than the noun singular:
- # #] yih tiao kew, really one piece (pidgin English) of the dog kind.
(2). The singular demonstratives # che this, and #5 na that,
especially when followed by a classifier: E A che ko jen this person,
# As # na pen shu that book, #### che k'uai yang chien this

che and #5 na also cover the ground of the English definite article

The plural is indicated

(1). By the numerals above yih, followed by the classifier
appropriate to the noun: E # # + san chang choh-ts three tables,
+ +i (# 4 AH sh-h-wu ko hsioh-sheng fifteen pupils, + # chill
pen shu seven books.
(2) By the plural of the demonstratives, # it che hsie these, and
#5 it na hsie those : E + A che-hsiejen these men, #5 it # na
hsie shu those books.

(3). By the collective classifiers : - # # yih chiin chu a herd

of swine, - # 3 # yih t'ao yi-shang a suit of clothes, - # A
vih panjen a class of men.
Remarks.When a numeral above " yih is used with a collective classifier it
makes the classifier plural: E # # san chiin yang three flocks of sheep, J #
&# span hsioh-sheng, four classes of pupils (see above singular, (1), Remarks, 2).
This rule is an exception to singular (1), above.

(4). By adjectives having a plural sense, as # chung the whole

number of, # 3 shii to very many, 3 p to shao how many? # chi
several, - # yih hsie a few, &c.; # W chung jen the whole number
of persons, the multitude, #3; # II hsil-to sheng-keu many beasts,
# P # to-shao chien how many cash 7 - # 3: A yih hsie n jen
a few women.
Remarks1. In the above varieties of plural, when personal nouns are in question,
(# men may also be added: # # + # che-hsie hai-ts. men these children,
fi fi :# 5t. " wu ko ti-hsiung-men five brothers, E # # 4: [' san pan
hsioh-sheng-men three classes of pupils.
2. The plural is often clear from the connection, and is not indicated specially
by any modifying word: JV # jen shoh people say.
II. The PRONoUNs. Pronouns may be1st, Personal; 2nd,
Reflexive; 3rd, Interrogative; 4th, Correlative.

1st. Personal Pronouns. To these belong both person and num

ber. To form the plural the same suffix is added as to personal nouns:
(F men. We give the personal pronouns in tabular form:

l. 3' wo I, me. # (# wo-men we, us.

2. ($ ni you, thou, thee. fR (; ni-men you, ye.
3. *b, ta he, she, him, her. {b t'a-men they, them.
Remarks.l. {b, t'a is properly personal, and is sparingly used for inanimate
objects (Eng: it), though freely for animals. The noun referring to the inanimate
is generally repeated instead of a pronoun in the nominative; for the objective the
Chinese idiom is so construed that the equivalent for it is generally not needed.
However, the third personal pronouns # c'hi and 2 ch from the wen-li are fre
quently used in colloquial language, especially in sentences formed after the book style.
# chi is used in the nominative and possessive, and 2 cl in the objective cases:
# # |# t'ing chi men I hear reports of it, 5: r 2 t'ien ming ch heaven
decrees it, 2 # # na ch chii pa take it and begone!
2. In North China || | tsa, plural |IH # tsa men (contracted to # tsan), and

{# an are much used for the first person.

2nd. Reflexive Pronouns. Those in universal use are # E ts
chi and # # ts-chia, equivalent to myself, yourself, &c., in
English. When used with personal pronouns, they follow the latter,
as in English: # # D, wo ts-chi I myself, 5, E. 3' + ta ts-chi
ai pa let him come himself, {b, H E # # E, t'a ts-chi hai ts-chi he
injures himself.
Remarks.1. # ts really means from, and B, ohi is the true reflexive, # .
ts-chi from oneself, of one's own accord.
2. The shortened forms ts and B. chi are aften used alone in sentences
formed after bookish models, but never in connection with the personal pronouns;
H ts in the nominative and objective, and E. chi in the passive and objective cases:
# # D. ; ts hai chi shen to injure oneself, Ijt ts hung ts to deceive oneself,
# A #) B, hai jen lichi to injure others for personal advantage, # M #Il C.
ai jen ju chi to love others as oneself.
3. When the reflexive is modified by a character, # ts alone is used: # #
# woc'hin ts in person, {. # # t"a tuh ts he alone.
4. The reflexive is more used than in English, especially with or instead of
5. t"a, as the latter might refer to a third party: {b, # T # D. # % #
t"a shah liao ts-chi tih fu-chin he has killed his own father, where (b. #j %. t"a

tih fu c'hin simply, might mean someone else's father.

Note.This is because {. ta in book language means other, not he.
5. The words Z# pen shen, As A pen jen, and a few similar terms, often
replace the reflexives: 5. As f % # t"a pen shen yu ping he himself is ill.

3rd. Interrogative Pronouns. The most widely used are,

(1). # shuei (in Northern Mandarin), and #5 ( na ko (in
Southern Mandarin) who? whom? These two are used only of persons,
and form possessives with #4 tih : # 65 shuei tih, # 5 # na ko tih
whose ? They have no plural forms. # # chao shuei whom are you
looking for ? # #T # F# shuei ta-choh men who is knocking at the
door? #5 || # T na-kolai la who has come P E + #5 || #4 #H +
che sh na-ko tih mao-ts whose hat is this?

(2) # A na-yih-ko, plural ### na-chi ko, which one?

which ones? This pronoun is used both of persons and things: # -
# A na yih ko jen which man? #5 # Z: na chi pen which volumes?
A possessive is formed with #4 tih : E # #5 - || # chi sh na yih
ko tih which one's is this?
(3) # # shen-mo what? is used of things and (vulgarly) of
persons: # # # 5 che sh shen-mo what is this? ($ # # # # ni
lai tso shen mo what did you come to do? # # # 5 shen-mo tung
hsi what thing? # # M shen-mo jen what man (vulgar for # shuei
or #5 || na ko who P).
Remarks.l. }: Mo, alone, |# sha and f+ # sh-h mo are used in some dis
tricts for # }# shen-mo, but are too local to be considered good Mandarin.
2. It will be easily seen that both #5 - || na-yih-ko and # # shen mo are
freely used as interrogative adjectives: # Z: # ma-i-pen shu which book?

# # }: P shen-mo tung-hsi what things?

3. Of course in #5 |- |# na-yih-ko any appropriate classifier takes the place
of # ko : # - Z: # ma-i-pen shu which book? # e-# # + ma-yih
chang choh-ts which table P # Na as an interrogative is pronounced in the shang
As to Position, the interrogatives take their normal place in the sentence, unlike
their English equivalents: {i, % J. # ni lai chien shuei whom do you come to
see ? # # # k'an shen-mo what are you looking at P

Exception.An exception to this rule for position occurs when an interrogative

is used intending a strong denial of a preceding expressed or implied assertion; the
interrogative here begins the sentence and is emphatic: # # # #j # #. shwet
sh wo tih mu-c'hin, who is my mother? (implying that the one supposed is not),
# }: R: * shen-mo wei liang-hsin, what is conscience P As will be seen
hereafter, this is in accordance with the general rule for emphatic clauses. It will
be noticed, too, that it is precisely like the English idiom.
their use as direct interrogatives, the above words are used also in the
sense of the indefinite words whoever, whatever, anyone, no one, &c.
These uses we will now attempt to make clear in detail.

(1). Whoever, whatever, &c. When there occurs an interrogative

in the protasis of a compound sentence, its sense is then indefinite,
and it may or may not be repeated in the opadasis, or, its place there
may be filled by a personal pronoun: 3: # # # IJ C # ni yao
shuei, shuei chiu k'o-yi lai whomsoever you desire, may at once come,
# # # II PI # # shuei yu chien k'o-yi chin lai whoever has
money may come in, #5 - fit # # 5, # # 5 # na-yih-wei
yu sh, t'a chiu hao lai chien wo whichever gentleman has business, it
will be well for him to come to see me, #3: # - # # 4: #5 -
# ni yao na-yih-pen chiu na na-yih-pen take whichsoever volume you

Remark.When the interrogative is in the objective, it, or a personal pronoun,

had generally best be expressed in the apadasis: # # #. # # #] # wo p'eng
chien shuei chiu wen shuei, whomsoever I meet, I will ask him; H # # F# # #
gu shen-mo, c'h-h shen-mo, eat whatever there may be at hand.

(2). The indefinite words anyone, everyone, anything, everything,

are represented by the interrogative pronouns placed at the beginning
of the sentence, followed by such words as # tu, # chiai, all, &c.: #
# HJ J', 2's shuei tu k'o-yi lai anyone (or, everyone) may come, #
}: # f {# shen-mo tu hsing teh anything (or everything) will do,
# - || # # na-yih-ko chiai hao whichsoever one is good, i.e., they
are all good.
(3). The negative indefinite words no one, nothing, none, are
represented by simply negativing the above construction: # # 7. f
# shuei tu puh ha lai no one is allowed to come; # 5 # Z: # J#
shen-motu puh hao yung nothing is good to use; #5 - # # ZF +
# na-yih-ko tu puh hoh-sh-h none fits; # # Z. { % shuei chiai
puh k'en lai no one is willing to come.
(4). The negative answer to an interrogative is made by repeat
ing the predicate in negative form, followed by the interrogative which
is here indefinite: # # chao shuei whom are you looking for ? Z.
# # puh chao shuei I am looking for no one; # # # yao shen mo
what do you want? A: 3: # 5 puh yao shen mo I want nothing.
(5). The equivalents of the English someone, something, are these
interrogatives in the ordinary affirmative construction when the predi
cate and not the interrogative is emphatic: ; H || # + # 5: 5;
* + + # , che ko hai-ts wei shen-mo k'uh 2 pih sh shen-mo

yao t'a why is this child crying?there must be something biting it;
{{R #5 ZR # 2, #### (; ni no puh tung, pih chao Shuei pang ni
if you are unable to move it, you must call someone to help you; 5.
# # # 3; T t'a mai shen-mo chii la he has gone to buy something;
# # ## T wo chao shuei lai la I came to look for someone.
Remark.The correlative force of the interrogatives is emphasized in each of
the above constructions, except the last one (No. 5), by placing before them the
indefinite phrases X. # puh luen, # # ww luen X. #j puh chii, Z. |# puh wen,
meaning no matter; Z. # # # puh luen na-ko no matter who, i.e., anyone, every
one;Z. # # # puh chil shan-mo no matter what ; X. | #5 -# # ZS
## puh wen na-yih-ko tu puh neng chi no matter which one--none can go.

Note.The above remark shows that, although used in an indefinite sense, these
words still retain their character as interrogatives.

4th. Correlative Pronouns. Correlation in the use of pronouns

is expressed,
(1). By the book terms # pei that, and j', t's this, placed to
gether: # ##### pei t's tuei wen ask each other; {, }; Rij || A #
j}, fil # T t'a-men liang ko jen pei t's ho hao la they have been
mutually reconciled; # 5 # It #4 ## t'a men pei t's tih chung
tan their mutual burdens; # # # # 5 # # yu cheu kai pei t's
an-wei if we have sorrow we ought to comfort each other.
(2). By H. # hu-hsiang or simply # hsiang before another
verb. These terms convey the idea of mutual: {, }; Rij || H # #
R; ta-men liang ko hu-hsiang an-wei they comfort each other; # * H.
# ### wo-men hu-hsiang pang-chu we help each other; # # # #:
# A ji ji fi kai ting-kuei tsai shen-mo ti-fang hsiany huei we
ought to settle at what place we will meet each other; H E # E A
# ###| |E} chung kueh wai kueh jen-o'hing ts-jan hsiang-tung the
feelings of Chinese and foreigners are of course mutually alike; # #4
# F# #1 # # ni tih hsing wei ho hain hsiang twei your actions
and your heart mutually agree. The two methods of correllation may
be combined in the same sentence: # "H # # pei t's hsiang ai
love one another; # j # # # # # # #j ni men ta chia pei
t's hsiang pang hsiang chu you all give each other mutual assistance;
II C. B. H # # # 5 k'o-yi kai j-h peit's hsiang chien we may see
each other on another day.


THE next feature of the Substantive that comes up for consideration is

Apposition. This may be classed under three heads,-1st, Descriptive;
2nd, Pronominal; 3rd, Quantitative.
1st. Descriptive Apposition. Here the term in apposition precedes
the name or noun, in accordance with the general principle that the
modifying term precedes the one modified by it: H E & # # #
chung-kueh huang-ti kuang-hs; Kuang-hs, the Emperor of China,
# E #: @ # ### # Chang-san tih fu-ch'in, Chang-yi-suen, Chang
yi-suen, Chang III.'s father.
Remarks.1. The clause in apposition may follow the noun parenthetically, as
explanatory of it: EE - # #j H] M. # # f wang-er, wo tih yung-jen hen
lao sh-h, or +. # # 3# #4 J# JV. wang-er, chiu sh wo tih yung jen, Wang
II., my servant, (or, who is my servant), is very honest.
2. Titles do not come under the above rule for apposition; the proper name is
attributive to the title and may with it be considered as one compound word (See
Chap. i., 2, 3).

2nd. Pronominal Apposition. In this idiom the term in apposi

tion follows the pronoun as explanatory of it (see Remark 1, above):
# F# F# ( wo-men liang ko, we two; #5, # H. : W tea-men wu ko
jen, they five men; (b || |I| H A t'a-men shan-hsijen, they Shansi
people; # F# #5 # 63 A ni-men na-pen tih jen, you people over

3rd. Quantitative Apposition. This consists of a class of terms

following the subject of the sentence in order to designate how far
the subject is concerned in the action of the predicate. These terms
are: # to many, p shao few, # tu, & ch'ien, # chiai, {{ chii,
all, ## t'ung-tung, ## lung-tsung, &c., the whole number of,
4# A mei jen each person, # A koh jen, || || A koko jen &c.,
every, k + ta-pan, 3 + to-pan the greater part of, k # ta-kai

generally, E > san fen three-tenths and fractional terms generally:

# H # A ### T t'a men chungjen tu lai la, the whole number of
persons have all come; # 6, # # 7. E. feng-suh koh yu puh tung,
every custom has points of difference; Kj # #4 it ######
miao li tih shen t'ung-tung sh chia tih, the gods in the temples are
every one false; is k #2 + r # A t'a-men ta-pan sh chiang-su
jen, they for the most part are Kiang-su people.
Remarks1. When two substantives precede the predicate, the quantitative term
refers to the one nearest to itself: {i, JL # # # H jj ni fan sh tu teh chuh
lih, in all things you must use exertion; 5. # # I. # f t'a-men, peh kung tu
huei, they can do all kinds of work. When it is desirable to quantify both substan
tives, two terms must be used, one referring to each term respectively: {b, # #
A. f I. # f t'a-men met jen peh kung tw huei, they each are skilled in all
kinds of work.

2. These quantitative terms are separated from the predicate only by adverbs
qualifying the latter; auxiliaries precede the quantitative term : BH 5K ). ##
j. ming-t'ien pih tu k'an-chien, to-morrow everything shall be seen; 5. #5 # #
# # T t'a-men tu k'uai-k'uai tseu la, they all quickly left.
3. These terms may refer back, not to nouns or pronouns, but to any word or
clause used substantively as well: B: 4. # B. 4: H #5 f hoh tso chuan hoh
tso c'he tu hsing, whether boat or cart, either will do; B. # B. # #5 # hoh heh
hoh peh tu hao, either white or black is good.


HAVING done with the Substantive, we now come to the Attributive

Modifiers of the Noun Substantive. The general rule for the position
of Attributive Modifiers is, that they must precede the Substantive
- Exceptions.1. When a noun has already been given, it may be
separated into different classes by attributives following it: # Wii #I
# # #4 # #4 # # yang pu, hung tih, huang tih, lantih, tu yu,
foreign cloth, red, yellow, and blue, are all on hand; # # # # #
% T chiao-yu man n tu lai la, the Church members, both male and
female, have all come.
2. An explanatory clause descriptive of the subject may follow
it parenthetically: # # # 48 # J# E 64 HJ J') is # # pen-ti
hsien-sheng na yung kung tih k'o-yi neng chin-tah, native teachers
those who make an effortmay be able to get promotion.
NoteThe above exceptions are apparent rather than real. The noun, having
already been given, is omitted in the parenthetic clauses simply to avoid repetition.
It will be noticed that the English has the same idiom.

Attributive Modifiers may be divided into five classes, viz., 1st,

Numerals; 2nd, Classifiers; 3rd, Possessives; 4th, Demonstratives;
5th, Adjectives.

(1). Cardinal Numbers. The first ten are yih 1; - er 2; E

san 3; W S 4; fi wu 5; 7's luh 6; chih 7; WV pah 8; jL chiu 9;
+ sh-h 10. The combinations to form higher numbers are founded
on the unit and decimal systems, as in English, and are of course
exceedingly simple: + - sh-h yih 11; + = sh-her 12; + fish-h
wu 15; + JV sh-h pah 18; ~ + er sh-h 20; - + - er sh-h yih 21;
L + fier sh-h wu 25; + + san sh-h 30; # + wu sh-h 50; -

Bi yih peh 100; SH 5 wu peh 500; - + yih chien 1,000; - + #.

T yih chien wu peh 1,500; - # yih wan 10,000; - + JW 5 JV +
V\ yih chien pah peh pah sh-h pah, 1888, &c.
Remarks.1. When one or more ciphers occur in the middle (not at the end) of a
number, the fact is indicated by inserting the word # ling surplus, which may be
repeated for two or more ciphers: - + E + vih chien ling sansh-h 1,030,
- + # E |# yih chien ling san (or ling ling) ko 1,003; fi. # # E Tiff
wu wan, ling san peh 50,300; - + # + fi yih chien ling sh-h ww 1,015.

2. When a number ending with one or more ciphers is stated absolutely, i.e.,
without a substantive or classifier following, the denominations indicated by the

ciphers need not and generally are not expressed: fi. + - wu chien san 5,300,
- H - yih peh er 120, E # fisan wan wu 35,000. But when it is less than
100, or when there are already ciphers in the middle of the number indicated by
# ling, the denominations of the ciphers at the end must in any case be given in
#. + wu-shih 50 ; ju +
full, otherwise their denominations would be uncertain :
chiu sh-h 90; -- + : + gih chien ling san sh-h 1,030; E T # 7": {#
san peh ling luh ko 306; fi # (#) T # E {# wu wan (ling) s peh
ling sanko 50,403.

3. In ordinary colloquial, Rij liang takes the place of ~ er, (except in com.
pounds,) before concrete nouns, while - er is used with abstract nouns and where a
bookish style is imitated: # |# A. liang ko jen, two men Rij # # liang tien
chung, 2 o'clock; but + - sh-her 12, - -i er sh-h 20, &c.

2nd. Ordinals. These are simply the cardinals prefixed by #

ti No., or in the case of yih by HH t'eu head: # - te'u, or # -
ti yih No. 1, # ti s No. 4, # = + + || tier sh-h wu ko No.
25, # - # # E # ti yih peh ling sanko, the 103rd, &c.
Exception.In general, historical dates omit # ti : # #-F
kuang hs sh-h nien the 10th year of Kuang Hs, HI # # # - +
JV # JV + A ye-su chiang sh yih chien pah peh pah sh-h pah
nien, the year 1888 of the Advent; IE J + H. cheng yeh sh-h wu,
15th day of the 1st moon; 7's H + XV luh yieh sh-h pah, 18th of the
6th moon. But the days of the month from 1 to 10 inclusive take #1
ch'u to begin instead of # ti: # 7, chu pah, the 8th; #1 chu yih
the 1st. Days of the week are similarly given, the number of the
day following the word # # li pai, or simply pai, week: Et # E
li pai san, the 3rd day of the week, i.e., Wednesday; # # fi li pai
wu 5th day of the week, i.e., Friday. In the case of historical
dates the date given is supposed to include all up to it.
Note-Sabbath is not included in the weekly enumuration, but is called it #
H ii-patj.h, # & H an-hsih j-h, &c.

Remark.In asking the day of the month, if supposed to be under 11, #) #

chu chi is used; similarly from 10 to 20 + # sh-h chi, and from 20 to 30 - +
# er sh-h chi respectively are used: 4. 5: + # chun t'ien sh-h chi to-day is
which day of the month ? (supposing it to be more than the 10th), &c.

3rd, Fractionals. (1). Decimals.The common word for

tenth in measures and elsewhere is # fen division; + 3 # sh-h
fen hao, ten-tenths good, i.e., perfect; > 3; it # WV # (# er fen
tsai yoh pah fen tsai ni (the cure) depends two-tenths on the medicine,
eight-tenths on yourself; H. Z. &# # wu fen nuen cheng five-tenths
(i.e., one-half) of a crop.
Remark.In divisions of taels the first is called # chien, the second (1}o iael)
fen, the third |H li, &c. In long measure + t'suen is T', foot, as inch, and fen
1', t'suen. In the foreign dollar f; chioh, corner, is used for one-tenth and is the
common word for dime; % fen is the word for cent. In foreign time # # tien
chung, or T # hsia chung, stroke of the bell, is used for hour, % fen for minutes,
and #| k'eh a piece cut off, for the quarters: - # 5. # fi. } yih liang san
chien wu fen 1 tael 3 mace and 5 candareens; fi # E fi. % ww k'uai san

chioh ww fen $5.35; E R 7: -j JU % san c'h-h luh, t'swen s fen 3 feet 61% inches;
E# - %| fi % san tien yuh k'eh wu fen, 3 o'clock 1 quarter and 5 minutes

(2). Fractions not decimal are expressed by giving the numerator

as modified by the denominator. Here the character X) fen is used
for the denominator and denotes the size of the parts taken, their
number being indicated by the numerator: VI 2 = 8 fen ch san, 3
of the size, or, more briefly, s ch san; jL # 2 W, chiu fen chs
four-ninths; + 2 - chien ch yih Yo'no. Half is expresed by
pan: || H pan ko yieh half a month; E E + san kopan, 3}.
Fractions are attached to whole numbers by the word # ling and
must follow the classifier, as that indicates whole things: E | # =
# 2 - San ko ling san fench yih 3}; H # # /\ || H wu mien ling
pah k0 yeh, 5 years and 8 months.
Remark.When pan is the fractional term used, it is placed either after the
whole number and the classifier, or after the noun; in the former case # ling is not
used: E |# J} san ko pan yieh, or E {# J} # - sam ko yeh ling
wih pan, 33 months.
Note.The former construction is perhaps used only with pan.

4th. Approximate Numbers. The Chinese have several words

used to give a number not definitely, but approximately.
(1). For expressing the idea of the English word about, the
terms # yoh, k # ta-yoh about, and # Z. 4 etha puh to (lit.
differ not much), almost, may precede the numeral: #4 # Hi + yoh
gu wu chien, about 5000; k # - # ta-yoh yih wan, about 10,000;
# ZS 3 - + cha puh to yih chien, almost 1,000. Or, when - yih
or any round numbers are in question, they may be followed by 56
# kuang-ching aspect, E T shang hsia, # # lai wang, more or less:
- # 65 % # yih peh tih kuang-ching, it has the appearance of 100;
fi + -t T. wu sh-h shang hsia, fiftymore or less; E + $ $
san sh-h lai wang, above or below thirty.
(2). For expressing units above a round number with a classifier,
# chi several, and # lai came, are inserted: + # # sh-h chi ko,
several more than ten; : + # # 3, 4: er sh-h chi ko hsioh-sheng,
more than thirty pupils; # # # # = + 3's II + wo chia li yu er
sh-h lai k'eu tsz, in my family there are upwards of twenty mouths to
feed; + # E A sh-h lai kofen, more than ten men; #5, # H + X:
Du Hi ta yu wu sh-h lai p'ih ma, he has more than 50 horses; $ to,
many, may be added to any round number from 20 upwards, with or
without a classifier: Hi + 3, wu sh-h to, more than 50; - # 3 #
# # yih peh to k'uai yang-chien, more than 100 dollars; it pa, to
take hold of, may follow any number without a classifier in the sense
of more than: 5: # # t'ien palu, a day's journey or more; # #: peh
pa more than 100. Between two numbers it signifies either: Fij # E
liang pa san, two or three. Finally, yi, # 6% yu y, # ling, #
# ling yu, may follow any round number without a classifier: W. H.
f f: s peh yu y, more than 400; E + # san chien yi, more than
5th. Finally, Alternate Numbers are given as in English, except
that no equivalent for or is inserted (but see above, 4th, (2) # pa):
W H # 8 wu ko, 4 or 5; - JV # chih pah chang, seven or eight
sheets (of paper, &c.) This idiom applies also to round numbers
from 20 upward, in which case the unit only of the first number is
expressed: fi + || s wu sh-h ko, 40 or 50; E W H || A sans
peh ko jen, 300 or 400 men; E H H 7's -H # san peh wu luh sh-h
ku'ai, 350 or 360 pieces.

Remark.With the large numbers Ti peh, + chien, &c., when followed by a

number indicating more than, the numeral - yih, may be omitted before them; so
also any round number with # 10a : + 3. # chien to li ti, more than 1,000 li;
f # peh pa, more than 100.

II. Classifiers. It must be remembered that Chinese nouns in

dicate rather classes of things than individuals themselves. Standing
by themselves, therefore, their meaning would often be uncertain both
in sense and sound. Hence the employment of a class of modifying
terms, whose office is in a single character to describe by some tangible
feature the noun modified. They are generally designated Classifiers.
They have reference to the shape, weight, amount, or some other
prominent feature of the object in question. Hence their use is
mostly with concrete nouns. They are also almost always used in
connection with numerals, especially the cardinals.
Classifiers may be divided into three kinds: 1st, Descriptive; 2nd,
Collective; 3rd, Quantitative.
1st. Descriptive Classifiers. These generally have reference to
some prominent feature in the shape of the object referred to. Thus
# t'iao, a switch, is used as a descriptive classifier of long, flexible
things: - # #] yih ti'ao keu, a dog; - # # yih ti'ao lung, a
dragon; E ### san ti'ao she, three snakes, &c. #' pa, to grasp with
the hand, is a classifier of things with handles: 7's #: JJ + luh pa
tao-ts, six knives; - # 54 + yih pa chien-ts, a pair of scissors;
- # #| + yih pashuah-ts, a brush, &c. So the word Ef so, an en
closure, is a classifier for houses, courtyards, &c.; IH ling, top, for sedan
chairs, caps, &c. (from the buttons on the tops of these articles).
Thus throughout the entire list.
Remark.Lists of descriptive classifiers with the classes of words used with each
may be gathered from phrase-books and dictionaries. It is best always in learning
a new noun to ascertain at the same time which of the classifiers is appropriate to it.
A list of classifiers will be found in the appendix to this volume.
The Descriptive Classifierswhen used.
The general rule is that a noun preceded by a numeral must also
have its appropriate classifier. This rule has the following exceptions:
(1). Natural divisions of time omit classifiers, while artifiicial
divisions take them. The reason for this difference seems to be that
natural divisions are abstract terms, artifiicial divisions concrete. Thus
H j-h, 5< t'ien day; nien year, and often # sh, # # sh-heu,

omit, while # R& shchen, hour (Chinese); # # tien-chung, hour

(foreign), and it # li-pai, week, take classifiers; J yieh, month, with
cardinal numbers takes # ko, with ordinals is without a classifier:
Fij je liang ti'en, two days; W # s nien, four years; E # It # san
ko li pai, three weeks; Fij || # 5x liang kosh-chen, two hours (four
foreign hours); W H J s ko yieh, four months; W H S yieh, the
fourth month.
RemarkH # tien chung or T # hsia chung are apparently an exception to
this rule, but as a matter of fact # tien and T hsia are themselves classifiers of
the word # chung, stroke of the bell.

(2). The large round numbers # peh, + chien, # wan, are

themselves used as collective classifiers, hence no other is admitted
with them: # M yih wan jen, 10,000 men; + + yih
chien yin-ts, 1,000 taels; ~ 5 # er peh chien, 200 dollars. With
H peh, classifiers may or may not be used.
(3). For the omission of classifiers with approximate numbers,
see above under that head.
Remarks1. With reference to the classifier ko, individual, it may be said
that, besides being a particular classifier for certain nouns, it is also used in a general
way with nouns that have already been mentioned and whose nature is therefore
known. Thus it is often found with the demonstrative # che, this, and #5 na, that'
Hence the very common forms # # che ko and #5 |l na ko. It should be borne
in mind, however, that the proper classifiers are always admissible with # che and
#5 na, and it is often best to use them.

2. It may be well to remark that descriptive classifiers have a few representa

tives in English. Thus we say, twenty head of cattle, &c.

2nd. Collective Classifiers. These, instead of referring to individ

uals, embrace collections of the individuals spoken of. They are used
in English as well, and so need but a brief notice here. Examples
are: - # # yih chiin chu, a herd of swine; Hj # 4 + liang pan
hsioh-sheng, two classes of pupils; 7% fj # luh hang ts, six columns
of characters, &c.
3rd. Quantitative Classifiers have reference, as in English, to the
amount of the thing spoken of: - JT W yih chin jeu, one pound of
meat; W Rj # + s liang yin-ts, four ounces of silver; E = % san
teumi, three pecks of rice, &c.
General Remarks1. When a noun has already been mentioned in conversation,
in referring to it afterwards, generally only the classifier is given. This is very com.
mon in business transactions, questions and answers, &c.

2. In lists of goods, &c., the name is given first, followed by the numeral and
Ali E ZE pw san p'ih, cloth 3 pieces; # : # shu luh t'ao, books

4 copies, &c.
III. Possessives. Possessive Attributives are nominal or pronom
C inal, but as the construction is precisely the same they are considered
together. They differ from the two classes already given in that,
# besides preceding the noun they modify, they are also generally con
nected with it by the descriptive particle #4 tih : 5% + 65 H + hsien
sheng tih mao-ts, the teacher's hat; # #4 + to tih sheu t'ao, my
gloves; (; ; # # # ni-men tih sh-c'hing, your affairs; # # #4 #
+ wo-men tih hai-ts, our children. This rule has, however, some
(1). When two possessives come together, the first generally omits
# tih for euphonys sake: A is fij : # jen hsin tih yi-nien, the
purposes of men's hearts; HH #4 ##! # t'a peng-yu tih ping li
hai, his friend's illness is severe; # 5% + #4 # #] k wo hsien-sheng
tih hsioh-wen ta, my teachers scholarship is great. -

(2). The use of the demonstratives # che and #5 na may super

sede the necessity of #4 th: {, }} } { } + t'a-men na kofung-ts,
that house of theirs; # # ## wo che kuan pih, this pen of mine;
3E 5% + #| || 4 |# wang hsien-sheng na ko haioh-wen, that scholar
ship of Mr. Wang's.
(3). Often in short phrases #4 tih is omitted, implying simply a
class connection, the possessive and the thing possessed. This applies
more especially to pronoun possessives: # 3. # wofu chin, my father;
# E # t'a koko, his elder brother; # E ta kueh, his kingdom; #
it wo hsin, my heart; # 54 ni shen, thy God; # + wo chu, my
Lord; W is jen hsin, the human heart.
Remarks1. There is apparent ambiguity between possessive pronouns where
the demonstrative replaces #3 tih, and the apposition of a pronoun with a following
noun; the two constructions look precisely the same: # # |# # #R {# ni che
ko woh nu puh, you, this wicked servant; {b. # |l # # M t'a na ko lan to
jen, that lazy fellow; # # |# 'H + wo che ko mao-ts, this hat of mine; fb. #5
#) ta na ti'ao keu, that dog of his. The meaning can be ascertained by noticing
whether the noun and pronoun belong to the same or different categories; if the
former, they are in apposition; if the latter, it is a possessive: so, generally, all
ambiguity may be avoided by inserting #j tih.
2. #4 tih may be used even with a demonstrative, though generally not necessary:
# # # |# Hj wo tih che ko p'eng yu, this friend of mine; # #j # 4+ $
ni tih na chien sh, that affair of yours.

3. The wen-li pronoun # ch'i is used in sentences modeled after book style;
%| # # Z. #! # }); Pl # ch chi jam puh ch c'hi so-yi jan; # Hach'i chung,
in their midst; # # ti'ng chi wen, I have reports of it.

IV. Demonstratives. As already intimated in foregoing connec

tions, the Demonstratives are # che, this, and #5 na, that, with their
plurals # * che-hsie and #5 it na-hsie. The singular forms are
commonly followed by classifiers; but as the nouns to which the
demonstratives refer are already known, the most common classifier
is # ko (see above, Use of Descriptive Classifiers, Excep, 3, Rem.)
The plural forms exclude the classifiers: E [ ], # + che ko hsiao
hai-ts, this little child; #5 || # D na kosheng-k'eu, that beast; # *
# 4: # che hsie hsien-sheng men, these teachers; # * : A na-hsie
ni-jen, those women. -

Remarks.1. When the nature of the object referred to by the noun is familiar,
and especially if there is a tendency to book style, no classifier may be placed after
the demonstrative: # M chejen, this man, these men; # # che sh, this affair.

2. When the domonstratives are used absolutely, i.e., without a following noun,
they always take the forms # |# che ko and #5 |# na ko.

3. The demonstratives have a wider use than their English equivalents, covering
the ground of the English definite article (see chap. III., 1st, 2nd, (2), Rem.)
4. The wen-li demonstratives | t's, this, and # pei, that, are frequently heard,
especially the former; I't #4 t's ti, (this place) here: $t yin t's, on this account;
# y: ku t's, for this reason; #II }: ju t's, thus; # }: pei an, the other shore. A
few other characters have a demonstrative sense; as ZS pen , # tang; Z: J# pen
yeh, this (the present) month; # # # # # #j M wo-men sh tang ti tih jen,
we are men of this place.

5. On the demonstratives taking the place of #4 tih, see above, Possessives, Ex. 2.
As to position, the demonstrative comes next to the pronoun in beginning the
sentence: # E |# M. che san ko jem, these three men ; # # #j # #
na k'uai peh tih sh-h t'ew, that piece of white stone. When, however, there are two
or more adjective modifiers, or one long one, the sense is clearer if the demonstrative
follow them: # # H] 5% #) #5 fit # mien lao hsioh-wen ta tih na wei

hsien-sheng, that old, highly educated teacher.

W. Adjectives used Attributively.

The general statement may be made that any word, group of
words, phrase or sentence that conveys a suitable meaning, may be
used as an adjective modifier. Adjective modifiers may be used both
attributively and predicatively. We consider them now as used

The general rule is, that adjectives used as attributes are con
nected with the noun substantive, which they modify by the descriptive
particle #4 tih. Exceptions will be noted in their proper places. We
may divide adjectives conveniently into the following general classes:
1st. Quantitative terms, as # chung, the whole number of; #
chu, all; # koh, every; mei, every; JL fan; 5% N. ta-fan; JL #
fan-peh, all; % to, many; # 3; hsil to, very many; 3 JP to-shao, how
many? &c. This class of adjectives, which is quite limited in number,
simply precedes the noun, without 64 tih or a classifier, and all in the
above list, except the last three, are used only as attributives. #
chung and # chu, when modifying persons addressed, take the
honorary classifier fit wei ; # W koh jen, every man; # #| f |& koh
tao koh chu, everywhere; R. ji fan sh, every affair; % J. A ta-fan
jen, all men; J.L H # # # fan-peh yang sh-c'hing, all kinds of
affairs; # 3 # DJ hsil-to sheng-keu, very many beasts; # /> #
to-shao chien, how many cash 7 H. B. JR H shen-mo tung-hsi, what
thing? # fit 5% A chung wei ta jen, honored gentlemen; # fit # 7.
chu wei ti-hsiung, respected brethren.
Remark# 3. hsil-to and % 3. to-to may take the particle fij tih as a
connective: if 3 & # II hsil-to tih sheng-keu, very many beasts; 3 3 #j
A. to-to tih jen, very many men.
2nd. The second class includes all those adjectives that ascribe
qualities to the nouns they modify. This class is, of course, very large
and varied: M. jenjen, humane people; # WA ai hsing, loving hearts;
# A hao jen, good people; # 6, # ching-sch yi-fuh, dark blue
clothing; t # 63 fi fi shang t'eng tih pin-hsing, superior behavior;
s fil #4 # # p'ing ho tih tao-lu, level, easy roads; # ' fij :# #
p'ing-chang tih sh-c'hing, ordinary affairs, &c., &c. This class of
adjectives in general conforms to the rule already stated, of being
connected with the noun modified by the particle 64 tih. The chief
exception occurs when the adjective and noun are so closely united as
to be regarded as one word (see above, Possessives, Ex. 3): see examples
above given. So, also, when two adjectives are considered as one
modifier: }; 5 A kuang ming jen, enlightened persons; # It #
cheng sh-h hua, sincere words; so, again, when the adjective and noun
are both dissyllabic, thus forming a four-character group: Z\ # # +
kung tao fah-ts, equitable plans; & # k # hen shen shuei c'h, very
28 y
deep pools. In these examples # tih may or may not be used. The
point is, that omission is allowable.
3rd. The third class consists of verbal adjectives, i.e., relative
clauses. This class is, of course, also very large and varied. It may
be subdivided into two kinds, dependent on the use or omission of the
particle Eff so, an enclosure.

((1). Without Ef so. Here the verbal adjective describes simply

one or more of its class, like other adjectives. In this kind #4 tih is
necessary, hence always present: # #4 # shoh tih hua, words spoken;
# # 6: M pei hai tih jen, injured persons; # # #4 # # ting tso
tih yi-shang, clothes made to order; # j< # 6: A tsoh-t'ien lai tih
jen, persons that came yesterday; # # # #4 # tsai chia li k'an
tih shu, books read at home; E 3; # 64 M shang-nien chi-sh
tih jen, persons that died last year; &c.
(2), With E so. This character, in agreement with its meaning,
includes all of the class designated by the verbal adjective accompany
ing it. In translating into English, the definite article placed at the
beginning of the sentence gives the correct meaning: El Hi #4 # so
k'an tih shu, the books that are read; E X: # W so lai tih jen, the men
that came; E E 64 # so shoh tih hua, the words spoken; Ef ##
# A so pei hai tih jen, the persons that were injured. This inclusive
force of Eff so is emphasized by inserting after it the verb # yu to
exist, possess: Ef #4 # # so yu tih yi-shu, lit. what there are
of medical books, i.e., all of that class of books; Eff H #1 (# 64 so
yu hsiang-hsin tih, all that believe, all that there are of believers.
The position of Ef so in the clause must be observed. The rule
for its position may be stated thus: the subject of the clause, if any,
all adverbs of time, and prepositional phrases, precede Ef so, other words
all follow; # # j< Ef # # 63 A wo tsoh-t'ien so yi-chien tih jen,
the man whom I met yesterday; # # # Ef 3, #4 # wo chiang
lai so yao nien tih shu, the books that I wish to read in the future;
# E # # & #4 wo so shen ch-wang tih, that which I very much
hope for; # E #! # # R. t'a so chien ai tih hsiung-ti, his
dearly loved brother; # ### Ef 64 # tsai che li so nien tih shu,
the books read here; # (b. 5 # 63 A pei t'a so shah tih jen, the
men killed by him; # (# Ef $ pei ni so ai, the one, or ones, loved
by you.

Remark.The phrase # yw tih means some, there are those who; #

# yw tih shoh, some say; Ziff #j # # j't gw tih shu hen kuei, some books are
very costly. -

The Use of the descriptive particle, #3 tih, in connection with

Attributive Modifiers. From what has already been said in the chapter
it will be easily seen that, in general, # tih is used with possessive
and adjective modifiers. Exceptions to its use were noted in their
proper places. What was said, however, had special reference to these
two classes of modifiers considered in themselves, or when standing
alone. But when both adjective and possessive attributes modify the
same noun, the use of 64 tih is somewhat modified. The general rule
is that, except when these attributes are long, #5 tih occurs only once
before the noun modified. Hence:
(1). When two or more adjective modifiers precede a noun,
only the last one retains #5 th: # # 4 || k ##### 4 mien
lao hsioh-wen ta tih na wei hsien-sheng, that old, highly educated
teacher; H # H. JH # it #: NH # ting pao-pei ting tsuen-kuei tih
p'eng-yu, very precious and highly valued friends. So also with verbal
adjectives: # # # #| {# #: @ 44 yang-h oh chiao-hsin ni th fu
mu, parents that nourish and teach you; 4% (### 5 # # || 65
5: 48 pao-yu yang-hoh yin-tao wo-men tih t'ien-fu, a Heavenly Father
that protects, nourishes and leads us; # F# Ef 5k Ef # 64 wo-men so
chiu so hsie tih, what we pray for and what give thanks for. Even
when a possessive precedes two or more adjective modifiers, the rule
still holds good: #5, # 3, 4 BH 6: J. 5 + t'a ling chiao ts'ung
ming tih hsiao er-ts, his clever, intelligent little son; # # 5 # it
$ v. fij H. W. wo che ko lao-sh-h chung-hsin tih yung-jen, this honest,
faithful servant of mine.
(2). When a possessive and one adjective precede the noun, the
former takes #4 tih, the latter omits it: # 4: #j je #H + hsien
sheng tih ta mao-ts, the teacher's large hat; # 2E fi : # "f hsioh
sheng tih kao choh-ts, the pupil's high table; # 65 IH #f HH # wo tih
ting hao p'eng-yu, my excellent friend. But when a demonstrative
follows the pronoun, or when the adjective is verbal, the latter takes
# tih : #5, #5 # JH #! # 65 # t'a na tiao ting li-hai tih keu, that
very dangerous dog of his; ($ # # # 5 + ni c'hin ai tih er-ts,
your dearly loved son; # E # Z. {f #4 # 48 wo che ko puh hao tih
hsioh-sheng, this worthless pupil of mine.

(3). A verbal adjective takes #5 tih in preference to any other

modifier: # Ef H #4 # Z: je fi ni so mai tih na pen ta shu, that
large book which you bought; ER 2's #5 # # # # A so lai tih na
hsienien-lao jen, those old men who came; #5, # #j # + t'a mai
tih ta choh-ts, the large tables bought by him.
(4). Finally, when the phrases are long, #5 tih is allowable with
each, as already intimated above: # 5< Ef # #4 # fift ### ifi
# 5% # tso-ti'en so lai tih na wei nien-ching t'i-mien tih hsien-sheng,
that young fine-looking teacher that came yesterday.
Remara-i. In the case above given, 6 tih is thus omitted merely for emphony's
sake. It sounds very harsh to have # tih following each short possessive adjective.
In such cases it should be used as sparingly as clearness of construction will allow.
In the Mand. New Test., #4 tih is very often inserted at the sacrifice of euphony
and the easy flow of the sentence.
~ (.2. It will be seen from what has been said above that the tendency in general.
is to put #j tih as near the noun modified as possible.
The relative positions of the Attributive Modifiers with reference to
each other.The rule for these positions is important, but simple.
Suppose we have a clause in which all the five varieties of modifiers
above given occur. It will be seen that they come in the following
order, beginning at the head of the sentence: 1st, Possessive; 2nd,
Demonstrative; 3rd, Numeral; 4th, Classifier; 5th, Adjective. {R #
E # k # niche san pen ta shu, these three large books of yours;
fb. # ## # W H J # 4 t'a-men tih na-hsies ko hsiao shioh
sheng, those four small pupils of theirs. When any of the five classes
of modifiers is wanting, the others still preserve their relative positions
with reference to each other: {{R 6: E. B. k # + ni tih San c'hu ta
Jang-ts, your three large houses; - # k H H yih k'uai ta sh-h t'eu,
a piece of large stone; E # # san k'o shu, three trees; W fit 58
s wei hsien-sheng, four teachers. When, however, the adjective
modifies the classifier, it must precede the latter: - }< # H H yih
ta k'uai sh-h t'eu, a large piece of stone.
To the above rule for position there are two exceptions:
1. That with reference to moving forward the demonstrative,
already noticed (see above, Demonstratives, after Remarks 5.)
\2. A verbal adjective or prepositional phrase comes next after the
pronoun in position: ($ R$ H # # Hj ni tsoh-j-h lai tih peng-yu,
your friends that came yesterday; # #2; # # 3' + wo tsai pen
ti tih Ju-mu, my parents who are in my native land; # E R #4 #5
Ef IH # E + ni so mai tih na so ting kao fang-ts, that very tall
house which you bought.




THE Chinese predicate requires careful consideration, as it plays the

most important part in the construction of sentences. We will first
take a general survey of it, and afterwards give the several varieties
and what is peculiar to each.
I. The most general division of the Predicate is into: 1st, the
Incomplete Form; and 2nd, the Complete Form.
Neither of these two forms have any direct reference to time, but
only to the state or action of the predicate as to its completeness or
incompleteness as viewed by the speaker.
1st. The Incomplete Form gives the state or action as simply
existing or going on ; # || 3: H # che ko tung-hsi hao, this thing
is good; # # # # it wo-men tsoh mai mai, we are engaged in
mercantile business; jenjen tu yu tsuei, all men have sin.
2nd. The Complete Form indicates that the state or action, as
viewed by the speaker, is completed. This form is made by adding to
the end of the sentence, i.e., the end of the predicate, the character T
liao, (generally pronounced la in this connection), to complete, to finish:
# tsoh, to make, to do; # T tooh la, made, done; # hao, good,
well; # T haola, has gotten well, allright; # * BH H # I wo
men ming-j-h chii la, we will be off to-morrow; (b. Hj T t'a
tsai puh lai la, he is not coming again; J# JJ + # T & T yung
tao-ts shoh liao t'a la, killed him with knives, &c.

II. We now come to Tense and Mood, as they are exhibited in

the Predicate viewed generally.
1st. Tense. There are four tenses belonging to the predicate
taken as a whole: (1) Present; (2) Past; (3) Perfect; (4) Future.
All of these tenses occur in both the complete and incomplete forms of
the predicate, but no separate mention of both forms is necessary in
treating of the tenses.
(1). The Present Tense may be either (a) general, (b) specific,
or (c) negative.
(a) The general present has no notes of time, but simply gives
the state or action in its most general form as existing or going on : #
# 6: # # {# wo-men tsai cheng li chu, we live in the city; 3.
# # #j t'a sh hao chiu tih, he is fond of wine; # 64 # 7. It
T ni tih fu-c'hin puh tsai la, your father is dead; # # # T wo
men tseu la, we are off; ZF #f # puh hsii t'eu-tao, thou shalt not
steal, &c.
(b) The specific present is formed by adverbs denoting present
time placed before the predicate. These adverbs may refer to present
time generally, as # hsien-tsai, #11 49 ju-chin, # 4 hsien-chin,
now ; # # hsien sh, the present time; # ft 5i che huei-er, this
time, &c., or they may refer to a particular period of present time:
4, 5- chin-t'ien, to-day; it #| t's-k'eh, this moment; IE cheng, just
now, &c.; # H # 3. # A hsien-tsai yu hsil-to ping jen, now
there are many sick people; # #| T H t's-k'eh hsia y, at this
moment it is raining; # E # 5 ZR # wo che huei-er puh ch, I am
not going this time; # # #: # "Hi ni-hsien tsai hao ma, are you
well now f { }] IE I'5 # t'a-men cheng ch-h fan, they are just now
(c) The negative present is regularly formed by placing the
negative adverb ZF puh, not, before the predicate: # Z. 3; wo puh
chii, I am not going; # F# # # 7. # 1' wo-men hsien-tsai puh
nien shu, we are not studying now; 5, j Z. {: ' ' t'a-men puh
two mai-mai, they are not engaged in mercantile pursuits; 4 j- Z.
T chin-ti'en puh hsia yi, to-day it is not raining, &c.
(2). The Past Tense may be (a) positive, like the specific present
above; or (b) negative,

(a) The positive past is indicated in general by adverbs denot

ing past time. These adverbs may refer to past time generally, as
# # ts'ung-chien, JX 5% yi-hsien, J.I # yi-c'hien, HH # t'eu-chien,
# # hsien-chien, formerly; H H tsao j-h, in early days; H # teu
li, at first; # ts'eng ; or they may refer to particular dates, as # j<
chien ti'en, the day before yesterday; # chii-nien, last year; #
# 5< c'hien chi tien, several days ago; # H tsoh-j-h, yesterday, &c.:
# # it # # 4 ts'ung-chien kuei hsien-tsai chien, formerly costly,
now cheap; # Wu H 4: # # # 63 che p'ih mats'ung-chien sh wo
tih, this horse formerly belonged to me; #5, # 4 + || ||} + t'at'eu
chien sh ko tsai-chu, he formerly was a rich man; # 5: # #4 #:
# # T chien-t'ien tsai tih hua ts'ai hoh liao, the flowers plucked the
day before yesterday have just bloomed; # 3; # # # #: ####:
# ni chi-nien chin ching tsai na li chu choh, when you went to the
capital last year, where did you lodge? # # 5: # # # chien chi
ti'en wo yu ping, some days ago I was ill; &c.
(b) The negative is formed, as with the present, by the negative
adverb Z. puh: 4: # ZF # t'a ts'ung-chien puh hao, formerly he
was worthless; # T. H. # 5< 2. # 5 tea puh sh c'hien-ti'en lai tih
ma, did he not come the day before yesterday? 5, # # E 4: #
# t'a ts'ung-chien suan puh teh ts'ai-chu, formerly he was not reckoned
a rich man; # A # #1 ff.: # # # Z: # # shjen wu ch tih sh
heu shen puh chuei-chiu, at the time when men were ignorant, God
overlooked; # Z. if f= # 4: # f: chii-nien puh hsiang-hsin
hsien-tsai hsien-hsin, last year he did not believe, now he believes;
# # H Z: #| # wo tsoh-j-h puh ch-tao, yesterday I did not know.
Remark.The character ZF puh negatives the predicate at the time designated
by the term indicating past time; the characters # muh or # % muh yu would
negative the predicate up to the time indicated by these terms; i.e., would form a
pluperfect tense which does not belong to the predicate as a whole.

(3). The Perfect Tense may also be designated as (a) general,

(b) specific, (c) negative.
(a) The general perfect is regularly formed by adding the com
pletive particle T liao to the predicate. In meaning, it generally
corresponds to the English perfect with have, has, when
reference is had to present time, and to the English pluperfect with
had when reference is had to past time, and to the English future

perfect with shall or will have, when the reference is to future

time: (b. 64 # # T t'a tih ping haola, his illness has gotten well;
# F# G# T # wo-men c'h-h la fan, we have taken a meal; #5, # #
# {# T # 3; H + t'a tsai c'heng li chu liao hsil-to j-h ts, he has
lived in the city for many days; 5, # #| || || ## T # 3, #
t"a tso che ko mai-mai p'ei liao hsii-to chien, he by engaging in this
mercantile business has lost much money; 5, T # 3, ## 1'.
# T ta shoh liao hsii-to hua ts'ai la-tao la, when he had spoken, or,
having spoken, many words, he then broke down; (b) WR # T # #
:W #5 # T t'a chuei-mieh liao teng wo yu tien choh la, when he had
blown out the lamp, I lighted it again; f: # I # | T 5: HJ DI
% + # # tsoh-wan liao che ko kung-fu k'o-yi lai kao-su wo, when you
will have finished this work you may come and tell me; 5, | T #
# # # # t'a tao la chia wo chiu yao ch, when he will have, or
when he has, arrived at home, I wish to go at once; H #5 # T #
+: # # A chung-fan hao la ts'ai c'hii c'hing k'eh-jen, when dinner is
ready, then go and invite the guests.
Remark.The difference between T liao in the complete form of the verb,
already noticed, and T liao with the perfect tense, is that in the former construction
it comes at the end of the sentence without any reference to time; in the latter it
comes immediately after the verb. When the verb has no object, the position of the
two coincides and the sense alone determines which use of liao is intended.

(b) The specific perfect is formed by prefixing to the general

perfect the adverbs E. # yi-ching, F # ts'eng-ching, &c., already:
# E # F# T # wo yi-ching ch-h la fun, I have already eaten; # #
D. # # T wan-fan yi-ching haola, supper is already prepared; #
5K b # # E # #| # T chien-t'ien ta tih ping yi-ching li-hai
la, the day before yesterday his illness had already become severe;
# #| T (b. D. # 35 T wo taola t'a yi-ching sla, when I arrived
he had already died, was already dead; # ### E # 5 # T
wo k'an choh ni yi-ching ch-h paola, I see that you have already eaten
to satisfaction; #5, #: @ # E # Z. ET t'a tih fu-mu yi-ching
puh tsai la, his parents are already dead.
Remark.The perfect with these adverbs can perhaps not be used with reference
to future time.

(c) The negative perfect is regularly formed by prefixing the

adverb # muh, or # # muh yu, have (or has) not ; # wei, # # wei
t'seng, have not yet, the dissyllabic forms being used with dissyllabic

predicates. As these adverbs indicate incomplete or unperformed

action, T liao is not properly used in connection with them, as it always
implies a completed or finished state or action: # 65 # ## t'a tih
ping muli hao, he has not gotten well; #5, # # # 2's #| t'a-men
muh-yulai-tao, they have not arrived; # # # # 5 # wo-men wei
ts'eng ch-h fan, we have not yet eaten; R # # # F# ni huan muh
chii a, you have not yet gone! # * (#######, wei-ts'eng
c'huan tao yen neng ti'ng-chien, if there has yet been no preaching
how can (they) hear? (b. 5 # j< # # # ### t'a-men tsoh
ti'en han muh-yu pei-pan hao, yesterday they had not yet gotten ready;
# 65 % # # # 8A H R 38% t'a tih ping han muh hao ming
j-h puh neng lai, if he shall not have gotten well he cannot come to
morrow; 4 4E X: # 4 & # 4E Z. {{# E # chin-nien wei-ts'eng
hsioh-huei ming-nien puh neng huei chia, if this year you shall not
have become proficient, you cannot return home next year.
(4). The Future Tense, like the majority of those already given,
may be (a) general, (b) specific, (c) negative.
(a) The general future is indicated by the auxiliary verbs #
chiang, on the point of ; # chiu, at once; # yao, will; 2 pih, shall;
# # chiang-yao, will; and 2, # pih yao, shall; E E # + # 35
che ko hai-ts chiang s, this child is about to die; 5, 3: T t'a chiu
lai la, he will be here presently; M M # 2, # 5 # #4 # #jen
jen tu pih sheu ying teh tih pao ying, all men shall receive due reward;
# A BH + X: t'a yao ming-nien lai, he will come next year; # ||
A k + che ko jen pih chii, this man shall (or must) go; # T #
A # 4 g # # + mah-liao shjen chien pih-yaojen chiu-chu, at
last the inhabitants of the earth shall all acknowledge the Saviour.
Remarks.-1. # Yao implies free agency, willingness on the part of the subject;
J. pih implies compulsion or necessity from without, like will and shall in
2. In position, these auxiliaries must precede all adverbs, unless it is intended
that the adverbs modify the auxiliaries, in which case they precede the latter.
(b) The specific future is indicated by adverbs, either general,
as # 2's chiang-lai, in the future; # T wang-hsia, afterwards; # #
ts heu, after this; or special, as # Wil ko-shang, afternoon; BH 5:
ming-ti'en, to-morrow; W # # 8 nien heu, four years afterwards, &c.
These adverbs replace # chiang, but not necessarily any of the othe

future auxiliaries: # # 2, ##! ( heu-lai pih-yao ta-chang, after

wards there shall be fighting; # E + # * : [E] E. heu san
wu nien wo-men yao huei kueh, after three or five years we will return
to our native country; 3: BH H # t'a yao ming j-h chii, he will
go to-morrow.
Remark.The above examples show that the auxiliary # chiang is the only
real future, (see above (a) Rem. 1).
(c) The negative future is formed by the words V. Z. pih-puh,
# 2, wei-pih, and ZF puh, with adverbs denoting future time: # "j
# 2, # ni-men wei pih s, ye shall not surely die; b, \, X # #
# # 9- 6 ft # t'a pih-puh neng kuan che yang fatih sh-ching, he
shall not be able to manage so large an affair; T + j : R _E #5
hsia-pan-ti'en wo puh shang chiai, I am not going on the street in the
afternoon; 5, ZF # t'a ming nien puh lai, he will not come
next year; # ZS 3: # j< #| # # 35 wo puh yao ming ti'en tao
hsiang li ch'i, I do not wish to go to the country to-morrow.
Remark.With simply . Puh, for the future negative compare above (2, b.
Remark). It negatives the future at the time designated by the future adverb, from
which point of view the future is really a present.
2nd. Mood. The Moods of the predicate may be divided into
(1) Indicative; (2) Potential; (3) Imperative; and (4) Infinitive.
(1). The Indicative has a much wider range than in English,
including the subjunctive and potential of the latter. It is the mood
of ordinary direct discourse and needs little said about it here.
Remarks.1. The subjunctive is in Chinese indicated by the position of sub
ordinate clauses and does not effect the structure of the predicate,
2. The English potential with may, can, must, &c., is generally repre
sented in Chinese by the indicative, followed by an infinitive, as will be seen

(2). The Potential is very fully developed in Chinese and is in

constant requisition, especially the negative form of it (there are many
things that the Chinese cannot do). At present we give only a
general outline of it common to the predicate as a whole, reserving
a fuller discusion till we come to the verbal predicate.
The form of the potential is made by adding to the predicate for
the postive # teh, for the negative ZF puh, followed by a suitable
word to complete the state or action expressed in the predicate: # #

E k'an teh chien, able to preceive by hearing; # ZF # chao puh

choh, not able to secure by seeking, &c. The different varieties of
potentials is determined by this completive word; a few are common
to the predicate as a whole, others are used only in the verbal pred
icate,we here give the former.
(a) The most general variety, and which includes all the others,
is made with # lai, to come, as a completive. This simply states
the possibility, or the contrary, of the state or action expressed in the
predicate, without assigning a reason; # ZS 2# tso puh lai, cannot
be done; # ZS # mai puh lai, cannot be bought; P E X: shao-puh
lai, cannot be dispensed with; # # #4 # # # 6 F # t'a
chiang tih tao-li wo huei puh lai, what he preaches I cannot take
in; SE 4: $ #### che chien sh-c'hing tso teh lai, this affair
can be worked; # E # # ZS 2# # 3% # tsai cheli mai teh lai
hao yi-shang, here cannot be bought good clothing, &c.
(b) In the next general form T liao takes the place of lai,
indicating the possibility, or the contrary, of bringing the action of
the predicate to completion. The action may in itself be possible,
but its completion is the point in question: 3 AS T to puh liao, it
cannot amount to much; H # # # Z: T wu tien chung wan puh
liao, 5 o'clock cannot be too late; # 2. J chia puh liao, it cannot
turn out to be false; E E H + (5 : RE # {# R T che chu
fang-ts ni-men liang chia chu puh liao, this house you two families
cannot fill up; # D # + # 4+ T : chek'eu tai-ts cheng-teh
liao ma, will this bag contain all? # E #4 # T # I # #####
# T R T sh shang tih k'u liao-teh-liao ti-yuh li tih k'u liao-puh
liao, misery on the earth can be brought to an end, in hell it cannot
be ended.
Note.Care must be taken to give T liao its full sound when used in this idiom
not la.

(c) A third general form, though less used than either of the
above, is made with # teh as a completive term. This form has
reference to the fitness of the action of the predicatewhether it
will do or not: # Zk ## *p ZF # # che pen shu sh shao-p'uh
teh tih, this book is indispensable; # | # F# Z. 45 che ko fan
c'h-h-puh-teh, this food is not fit to eat; 5, # 5 # 1' 4: # Z.
# t'a na yang kuang-ching sh-tsai k'an-puh-teh, he in that plight is

truly not fit to be looked at; E S T R # che-ko liao-puh-teh, this

is not fit to have an end, unending, awful.
Remark.In the positive form of c, where # teh would be repeated, its repeti
tion is omitted for euphony's sake: # # # # # Z. # Z. # # k'an-teh
gao mai, k'an-puh-teh puh yao mai, if seen to be suitable, buy; if seen to be unsuit
able, do not buy; # M3. H # # # # {# Z. # an-hsih-j-h yi ping sh teh
sh puh teh, is it proper or improper to heal on the Sabbath day?

(3). The Imperative. (a) The mildest form of the imperative is

identical in construction with the indicative, just as in English: 3:
# ni lai k'an, you come and see; ($ 3: # #ff (b. ni chil kao-su ta,
you go and tell him; 3: # # ni lai pei ts, come and recite, &c.
(b) A direct command is given when the subject addressed is not
mentioned (here also compare English): # lai, come; # # 35 k'uai
k'uai-chi, go quickly; # # 3' k'uai chilai, get up quickly !
(c) The imperative of (b) is emphasized by appending #pa, to
have done with, to the end of the sentence: # # chipa, begone;
# F# # kuan men pa, shut the door !
Remarks.-1. When the person addressed has not been previously spoken to, his
name or title (or a pronoun referring to it) is first called, followed by a pause often
strengthened by ||| a, then the command is given: # J #: if: % E watt
shuen, k'uaichi laipa. Wan-shuen, get up quickly; # ['i #j Fij # # chang
kuei-tih a, lai suan chang, cashier, come take accounts.
2. The imperative is often softened by inserting words like IJ J) ko-yi, may;
# hao, it is well to, &c.; H] J). # fji k'0-yi pai fan, you may set the table; {#
# # + # 5. ni hao chi kao-su t'a, it is well for you to go and tell him.
(d) The negative imperative is formed with Z. puh : R A puh
yao, do not; F II puh k'o, you have no right to; F if puh hsil, you
are not allowed to; ZF # puh k'uh, do not cry; Z. & #T 5 puh yao
ta t'a, do not strike him; A HI # # puh k'o sah hugng, do not lie,
lying is not allowable; Z: # # M puh hsil shah jen, thou shalt
not kill; (, ; # # puh yao chin lai, do not come in.
Remarks.1. The above positive forms can all be turned into negatives except
that with # pa, which is used only with positive forms.
2. In North China Z. # puh yao is often contracted into #| pieh or # pai;
in Southern Mandarin I': moh is very commonly used for Z. puh or ZR # puh-yao.

(4). The Infinitive. This word is known by its following an

adjective or a verb on which it depends: # # hao k'an, good to look
at, beautiful; # # nan k'an, difficult to look at, ugly; 3, BH #

yung-yi ming-peh, easy to understand; $ # # # # ni lai tso

shen-mo, what do you come to do? # # lai k'an, come and look;
# 5% (b. ch'il han ta, go to call him, &c.
Exceptions to this position of the infinitive are:
1. When the infinitive is emphatic, it may, according to a
general rule, begin the sentence: # # UE # h if # UE # # chu
ti ni, wu lih, t'ao fan mi, pa hsiu, to dig I have no strength, to
beg I am ashamed; # # b # # DJ + c'huan tao t'a muh yu
k'eu t'sai, as for preaching, he has not command of language.
2. The two verbs of direction, # lai and # chil, very commonly
follow the infinitive, being put at the end of the sentence. Here
again emphasis seems to be the controlling principle: { {{# # #
T t'a mai shen-mo chu la, he went to buy something (see chap. iii.
Indefinite Use of Interrogative Pronouns, 5); # #j (; # 2' T wo
men c'huan taolai la, we have come to preach.
Note.The verb of direction may even be repeated: 5. j; # T ta c'hit
na chii la, he went to take it; # # # X # # wo chis mai yi-shang chii, I
am going to buy clothes;but this is inelegant.
Remarks.1. The English potential is represented in Chinese by the indicative,
with a dependent infinitive (see above 2nd, (1), Rem. 2): # ) fr # neng-yi
hsing lu, able to travel; f # # huei-mien-shu, can read; EJ J) # # k'0-yi
chin-lai, may come in; }# # J. it, ging-tang hsiao-hsin, ought to be careful;
* # # # pih teh k'uai lai, must come quickly, &c. That these are indicatives
and not mere auxiliaries is easily seen rom their identity of construction with the
indicative and infinitive generally, and also from the fact that they may be modified
by adverbs like other indicatives: # # # I. hen neng tso kung, quite able to
work; f #: Z. # # sh-h-tsai puh hao-k'an, truly unsightly; # f # #
shan huei chiang hua, skilled in talking, &c.
2. The verb # neng, and its compounds # J) neng-yi, and #8 # neng-keu,
expressing ability, with an infinitive are equivalent in meaning and interchangeable
with the potential under (2) above: # {# neng-tso-# # % tso teh lai, &c.
3. A tentative infinitive is formed by repeating the principal verb, followed by
# k'an in the infinitive. The general form is # # sk sh k'an, give it a trial,
but any verb may take the place of # sh: , # # nien mien k'an, read it by
way of trial; # % # chang chang kan, taste it and see.
4. An infinitive indicating capability is formed by H] k'o, to have a right to,
followed by an infinitive. In meaning it corresponds to the English suffixes able,
ible, &c.: III # k'o-ai, lovable; HI # k'o-lien, pitiable; IJ # k'o-k'ao, trustworthy,


THE Predicate may be divided into1, Adjective; 2, Verbal; 3,

Noum Predicates.

1. The Adjective Predicate. Adjectives in general have

already been discussed under Attributive Modifiers (see chap. v. 5).
But, as a general rule which has few exceptions, adjectives without
change of form, but merely of position, are used as predicates. As
such they have the range of moods and tenses given in the former
chapter. It should be specially noticed that they have a predicative
power of their own and need no copula to connect them with the
subject: # Z$ # k che pen shu ta, this book is large; # ##| 4:
* ## na tiao keu tsung-chien li-hai, that dog formerly was very
dangerous; #| BH jR (b. 64 # 2, # #f T tao ming-t'ien ta tih
ping pih-yao haola, his illness will be well by to-morrow; (b || 3:
sk # ta k'uan-hung t'a-liang, he is magnanimous; # 4+ K ###
# & che chien yi-shang kai chien hsie, this piece of clothing ought to
be a little cheaper; k - # # ta yih tien pa, a little larger; E #
# # 7. $8 # che k'uai yang chien puh neng hao, this dollar cannot
be good; #5, #4 # (# ZG T ta tih hua chia puh liao, his words
cannot turn out to be false; je 3 k # k # ti'en-fu ta t-s ta pei,
the Heavenly Father is very compassionate and sympathetic, &c.
Remarks.-1. The negative forms common to all classes of the predicate have
already been given in chap. vi. It may be further remarked here that an emphatic
positive is very often given by an adjective of opposite meaning in negative form:
5: X. H. t'ien puh tsao, it is not early, i.e., quite late; # # # A. Z. 2P tsai.

cheli jem puh shao, here the people are not few, i.e., very many, &c.
2. It may be said further that negative adjective forms, corresponding to
the English prefixes in, un, &c., are generally compounded of the negative
puh and the adjective of opposite positive meaning: Z. # puh yi, unrighteous,
- ZR f 64 puh hsin tih, unbelieving; ZR f puh huei, incompetent; ZR # puh
neng, unable, &c.

The most prominent feature of adjective predicates that calls for

separate discussion is Comparison.

1st. When the object with which the comparison is made is

not expressed. In this idiom there is no word used to express the
comparison, but when a state or quality is ascribed to one or two of
two or more objects, it is thereby implied that the others lack it: E
{# k che ko ta, this is larger, or the largest; # Rj (: # cheliang
chien hao, these two pieces are better; # E # A JE #5 - ||
# k na san ko jen ni na yih ko nien-suei ta, of those three men,
which is the oldest? # Rj it #5 As it cheliang pen shu na
yih pen kuei, of these two volumes, which is the costlier?
Note.It will be noticed that in the last two examples the subjects with which
the comparisons are made, are given before the sentence, hence, they form no excep
tion to the rule.

Remarks.1. In this implied comparison it is not asserted that the subjects with
which the comparison is made totally lack the qualities ascribed to the others, but
that they have or may have them in lesser degree; good and bad, &c., are relative
terms; when one thing is good, all inferior to it are considered bad.
2. It will be seen, too, from the above construction that there are no defined
degrees of comparison as in English. A thing may be better or best according to the

3. The comparison may be strengthened by prefixing to the predicate various

# tsai, % yu, again; Hi keng, still more; JH ting, the
qualifying adverbs, as
top; # tsue, very; X chih, extreme; # ch, uttermost; # l, tsai hsiao, still
smaller; # {# 2% # Hi # che chien yi-shang keng kuei, this piece of clothing is
still more costly; # # # J# # na koshu ting kao, that tree is the very highest;
# # chih hao, the best; # #g # # ch sheng ch shan, extremely holy and
4. The amount of difference between the objects compared, follows the predicate
in the shape of a result, or sequent: #E # # + # it. che chang yi-ts ching
hsie, this chair is a little lighter; # #j # # # wo tih ping hao yih tien,

my illness is a little better; # ZN # % # # che pen shu ta chipei, this vol

ume is several times larger; # E JR twan san c'h-h, shorter by three feet.

2nd. When the object with which the comparison is made is

(1). When the subjects compared are alike or similar. This
idiom takes such words as () spa s-hu, $ fang-fuh, hsiang, #
{# hao-hsiang, #f H hao-pi, #1 ju, ll [i].ju-tung, &c., all meaning
like; or, finally, ho, with, between the subjects compared: # 4,5
# A fiq # + che ko fang-fuhjen tih yang-ts, this is like a human
form; #5 || W #11 F + DI na ko jen ju-tung sheng-k'eu, that man
is like a beast; #f Ji Et hao pi shoh, as if to say; # 4% # # hao
hsiang yao tseu, just as if wishing to walk, &c.

Remark.1. The comparison is strengthened by appending to the predicate the

phrases - # gih-yang, of one kind; " # gih pan, alike; {} #j s-tih, like.
With #! ho, such an addition is essential; fil ho, with - # yih-yang, and # [H]

hsiang-t'ung, means, of the same kind; H #, # M. {} #j hsiang wai-kueh jen s

tih, like foreigners; {j # # % - # Jang-fuh chiang 8 yih pam, as if about to
die; # #E {# # {# # # {} #j k'an che ko eu-hsiang hao hsiang hoh s
tih, when looking at this image, it looks just as if alive; Aft # # # {!! #j
fang-fuh shoh hua s-tih, as if speaking; #l {b, - # hota yih-yang, of the same
kind with him; 5. # 2% # fil # {# # |[i] t"a c'huan yi-shang howo men
hsiang-tung, he wears clothes like we do.

Note[i] T'ung or $ y (bookish) may take the place of fil ho in this con

2. Of course clauses and sentences may be compared equally well: # # fij

# #Il |H] # # M. #j # she wo tih tsuei ju-tung wo she jen tih tsuei, forgive
my sins as I forgive the sins of others; (# # # #1 # # "' # ni shoh hwa,
ho wo-men yih k0 yang, you speak just like we do. So a subject with a following
predicateverb or adjective: {b, {} 32 Ziff # #. t"a s-hw yu hao yi-s, he
appears to have good intentions; Aft # E: # fang-fuh yao tseu, as if wishing to
walk; 5. #Il |E] &# # t"a ju-tung sheng-ping, he appears to be taken ill; #
|# Aft # # che ko fang-fuh hao, this is apparently good.
Note.Here the terms expressing similarity are really adverbs modifying the
3. Dissimilarity is expressed by negativing some of the above terms: as ZR
puh hsiang, ZR #ll puh ju; or after fil ho by Rij # liang-yang, ZS # |[i] puh
hsiang-tung, &c.: X. #Il % puh jus, not like death; H: Z. {# 5||N
chung-kueh puh hsiang wai-kueh, China is not like foreign countries; #l 5. Fij #
ho t'a liang yang, different from him; {# fil {b, X. H |H] ni ho t'a puh hsiang
tung, you and he are mutually different.
4. Of course these forms of likeness or unlikeness may be modified like other
predicates; T # 5. keng hsiang t'a, more like him; # # Xi HH IE #|| [i] -
# - # chek'wai sh-h-t'ew cheng ju-tung yih k'o shu yih yang, this piece of
stone is precisely like a tree; {b, # : {b, f: % # t"a hen hsiang t'a tih fu
chin, he is very like his father.
/ - ^p."
(2). When the subject compared is different from (better or ''''
worse than) that with which the comparison is made.
(a) The terms () s, #1 ju, like; # ko, # # ko y, #
sheng ko, # () sheng-s, &c., to surpass, or # chi, to excell, are
placed between the predicates of the first and the second subjects: {,
# 4) # t'a chiang s wo, he is stronger or better than I; # Z: je
# # Z: che pen ta chi na pen, this volume is larger than that; %
% # # # # 5 # ai fu-mu ko yii ai hsiung-ti, love parents more
than brothers; see also Matthew x, 37; Mark ix.4357.

Remarks.1. Different degrees of the same thing are compared by simply placing
the degrees to be compared side by side, without inserting words implying comparison:
- J# # *- } yih t'seng kao yih t'seng, higher each step; - JE: - vih
t'seng yih t'seng, step by step; - j- # - j: yih ti'en hao yih ti'en, better each
day; - j: - 5K yih tw'en yih ti'en, day by day.
2. The negative takes Z. #ll puh ju, not like, # Ziff muh yu, &c., and the
predicate comes at the end of the sentence: # # {b, # muh yu t'a hao, not as
good as he; Z. #II # 4: # % # puh ju muh sheng chuh lai hao, not as good
as not to have been born; # | # % #5 # j't che-ko muh yu na-ko kuei, this
is not as costly as that; # # # ZS #Il # # # # t80 mai-mai puh ju chung
ti wen-tang, mercantile pursuits are not as reliable as agriculture.

(b) The words H. pi, to compare, # yu, to possess, and, in larger

sentences, # # chiao-pi (or pi-chiao), are placed between the subject
compared, much as in English: E H # + HE # # # che ko fah
ts pi na ko hao, this plan, compared with that, is better; 4 5: HE HE
j< * chin-t'ien pi tso-t'ien leng, to-day is colder than yesterday;
# As # # # As # che pen shu yu na pen hao, this book is better
than that; III # A # r $ # 3 shan-tung jen, yu chiang-su tih
to, Shantung has more people than Kiangsu; for examples of # It
chiao-pi see Luke xv. 7, 14, 18.
Remarks.1. In comparing one term with two or more *.
others (English super
lative) a quantitative term is placed before the predicate: # # Jt. # * #
# che ko pi na-hsie tu kuei, this is dearer than any of those; 5. Jt. # %. # #
# 5% ta pi chung hsiung-ti-men tu ta, he is larger than any of his brothers.
Otherwise, the whole class may be subjected to an individual by the word |: shwh,
to yield: th # J\ #5 R; 5. # HH chung-kueh jen tu shuh t'a t'swmg-ming, the
Chinese all yield to him in wisdom.
2. For the negative under this idiom, Z. J puh pi, # muh yu, ZS X
puh chih, not reach up to; # Z. E kan puh shang, cannot come up with, &c., are
used: # f ZR Jt. # # puh hsing puh pih c'hi ma, to go afoot does not com
pare with horseback riding; #: II Z. }: J. # + # BH sheng-k'ew puh chih
hsiao hai-ts t'sung-ming, beasts do not reach children in intelligence; # &
W. # ZR l ($ ma-hsie jen k'an puh shang ni, those men cannot come up to
you ; #E it. 2% # # Z #5 i # cheh hsie y-shang muh yu na hsie hao, these
clothes are not as good as those.
3. A double comparison is formed by placing before each predicate # gieh or
# # yeh-fah, to go beyond: # 3. # # yieh to yieh hao, the more the
better; # # # yieh, chwan yieh p'o, the more it is worn the more it is torn;
# # yieh tsev yieh cha, the further he walks the farther he goes astray;
# # # 2, #4 # #! # yiel-Jah chang-chiu vieh-yah ii-hai, the longer the
more Severe.


THIS Predicate asserts or denies an action of the subject: examples

are not necessary.
to 1. The first thing that claims our attention is a further con
sideration of that peculiar form of the verb which we may style the
* . Completive. It will be remembered that in chapter vi., when speaking
of the Potential Mood, mention was made of the potential form with #
teh or ZF puh and a completive word. Three varieties were considered,
i.e., those with # lai, T liao, and # teh, as being usable more or less
with other varieties of the predicate. These three forms are usable
perhaps only in the potential. The completive form of the verb is a
fuller development of which those three varieties there given are
merely the outlines. The completive in the verbal predicate is by
no means confined to the potential mood but may be used anywhere.
This form is made by adding a character of suitable meaning
to the verb to complete the action designated by the verb. Of
course the meaning of the added characteror completivemust be
adopted to that of the verb: # t'ing, to listen; # chien, perceive;
# E t'ing-chien, to perceive by listening, i.e., to hear; # yi, to
practice the healing art; # hao, well, good; # # yi-hao, to heal,
cure; Fj kuan-men, the act of shutting the door; E shang, up,
ascend; # E Fli kuan-shang-men, to shut up, or close the door; #
tiao, the act of carrying; # tung, move, agitate; # # tiao-tung,
to move by carrying; # tseu, to walk, go; # ko, to pass; # #
tseu-ko, to go across, to pass over, &c., &c.
Two general features should be noticed with reference to these
(1). A given completive may be used with any one of a class of
verbs that have a suitable meaning. Thus + shang, as a completive,
may be used with verbs denoting elevation, addition, increase: #

tat, to bear (by two or more), # E t'ai-shang, to bear or carry up;

# an, to place; # E an-shang, to place or lay up upon; # t'ien, to
add; # E t'ien-shang, to increase; # ti, to mention; # E t i-shang,
to bring to mind, &c.; # chan, the act of studying; # chan-chu,
to stand still, secure; ; lih, to set up; tr. ft lih-chu, to set up,
establish; $J ting, the act of nailing; #1 (+ ting-chu, to fasten by
nailing, nail up; #K chua, to grab at; #K # chua-chu, to fasten by
grasping, &c., &c. These are only examples selected. The actual
number of words ordinarily used as completives is limited perhaps
only by the necessity for their use.
Remarks.-1. It will be seen from the above examples that the verb merely
expresses the act, while the completive indicates the accomplishing of that act, of
course without any reference to time. -

2. The verb may be considered as indicating the means by which the result
denoted by the completiveis brought about. Thus {# chu, to fasten; $J {#
ting-chu, to fasten with nails; # {# so-chu, to fasten with locks; # {# choh-chu
# {# k'uen-chu, to fasten by tieing with cords, &c.
to secure by seizing;
(2). On the other hand, a given verb may be followed by any
one of a number of completives showing the different directions or
shapes in which the completion may be accomplished. Thus, the
verb # tseu, to walk, may be completed as follows:
# # tseu-lai, to come, i.e., come by walking.
# T tseu-liao, to come, completed action.
# # tseu-ko, to walk past, to pass.
# Lt. tseu-shang, to walk up, ascend.
# T tseu-hsia, to walk down, descend.
# # tseu-chin, to walk in, enter.
# # tseu-chuh, to walk out, exit.
# # tseu-tung, to walk through.
# #| tseu-tao, to walk to, arrive.
# # tseu-kai, to walk apart, separate, &c.
# kan, to look, may be completed thus:
# E k'an-chien, to see, perceive by looking.
# # k'an-t'eu, to look through, comprehend.
# # k'an-c'huh, to look out,
# # k'an-chin, to look in,
# E k'an-shang, to look up,
# T k'an-hsia, to look down,
# # k'an-tung, to look through (as, a hole), &c.

Remark1. Some of the completives are never used, except in the potential
mood; these are omitted in the examples given.
2. This complete form has something in common with the English verbs followed
by adverbs of direction: as up, out, &c., come up, cast up, throw out, cast
down, &c., &c.

2. The second feature peculiar to the verbal predicate to be

noticed is that the two verbs of general direction, % lai and # ch,
generally follow verbs denoting bodily or mental action. In position
they come at the end of the predicate, i.e., after the completive and
the object of the verb. As to ther import, # lai indicates motion
toward the speaker, and # chii, motion away from the speaker.
They answer the rhetorical purpose of rounding off the predicate or
the sentence when they end it.
# # # chao-chuh lai, to hunt up; # # # kan-c'huh lai, to
see, to find out; # #3, na-chuh chii, take out; # # 3' ti'ao-chin
lai, jump in ; # # 3: t'ai ko ch, bear a cross; # # # tu-ko chii,
to ferry over; & # # + # na ko yi-ts lai, bring chairs over;
# ####j + k'an-c'huh nati'ao keu chii, drive out that dog;
# (b. 5 ling t'a chii, lead him away; # 3' na t'a lai, bring him
(this way); # # # # 3: T : ni sung-ko hsin chii la ma, have
you taken letters over ? , # # || 3: UE t a chi-sh huei lai ni,
when is he coming back? &c., &c. -

Remark.In some connections these verbs of direction modify the meaning of

the verb: na, to take; % na ai, to bring; # +: na chi, to take away, &c.

3. We must now consider further the subjects of Tense and

Mood, as these have a fuller development under the verbal predicate
than elsewhere.

1st. Mood. Here the potential again claims our attention.

There are two methods of expressing ability or inability. (1). The
first has already been given in chapter vi, when speaking of the poten
tial. It needs only to be added here that with all verbs ending in a
completive, ability to perform the act expressed by the verb and its
completive is indicated by inserting # teh between the two: # # H.
k'an-teh chien, can see; # # 35 na-teh-ko-chi, can take across;
# ### ti'ng-teh chuh-lai, can hear him; ### chao-teh-choh,
can find ; # # # 5, ; if # t'ing-teh-tung t'a tih hua lai, can
understand his words; ji' 4: # # # t'a chiai-teh-tiao ya-p'ien,
he can break off opium smoking, &c., &c.

The negative, expressing inability, is formed by inserting R puh

instead of # teh : # 7. Yi k'an-puh-tung, cannot see it so as to
understand it; # ZF # 35 na-puh-ko chii, cannot take it across;
# ZF + t'ai puh-tung, cannot carry (too heavy;) # Z. & tsal-puh
teu, cannot guess it; (b) # 7. H # # t'a nien-puh-chuh Shu lai, he
cannot read books aloud; # # 7. BH i wo t'ing-puh-ming-peh, I do
not understand (hear, but not so as to comprehend, do not comprehend
by listening); E 4, 5- # Z: # che sh chin-t'ien tso-puh-wan,
this affair cannot be finished to-day; E # # # A. E. chiai
Shang jeh-mao chi-puh-tung, the streets are crowded, one cannot
elbow his way through ; # # # # 7. BH tsai che-li tseu puh
k'ai, here, there not room to walk, &c.
Remark.It is important to observe generally with reference to these comple
tives in the potential that % lai after the negative ZR puh expresses simply inability
without hinting at the cause of this inability; the other completives contain in the
meaning of the characters used more or less clearly, the reason for this inability
or ability. Thus Hi, tung, to move, as a completive, has reference to the strength of
the actor as to whether it is sufficient or not to accomplish the action of the verb;
{b, # X. Hi, t"a tsew-puh-tung, has not sufficient strength to walk; T liao, has
reference to the completion of the action, generally within a given space or time:
4. H #| -* ZR *T chin-j-h tao-p'uh-liao, cannot complete the journey to-day; #

{# {# Z[. f #E {# J# + wo-men chu-puh-liao che ko fang-ts, we cannot occupy

this whole house, i.e., it is too large for us; |# k'ai, to open, refers to the space in
which the action of the verb is to be performed: # # {# X #| # {j H' +
wo-men chu-puh-k'ai che ko fang-ts, we cannot occupy this house, i.e., it is too small
for us; # # # 4: X. |# tsai che li tso-puh-k'ai, there not sufficient room to
it here, and so on with other completives. (See also chapter vi, 2, 2nd, (2), b. c.).

(2). Ability or inability may be expressed by the verbs # neng

and its verbal compounds, meaning natural ability, and by huei,
meaning acquired ability, skill (See chapter vi. 2, 2nd (4), Remark 2):
{b, A. He # # t'a puh neng tseulu, he cannot walk; # $, $ wo
huei hsie ts, I can (have acquired the skill to) write characters. This
idiom, which is potential in meaning but infinitive in form, has
already been given when treating of the Infinitive (see above refer
ence), and needs no further discussion here.
Remark.The other moods were sufficiently discussed when treating of the
predicate as a whole. (See Chap, vi, 2, 2nd).
2nd. Tense. What was said in Chap. vi, 2, 1st, about tense
holds true here, but we must add a few more varieties of tense
peculiar to the verbal predicate, to those given there.

(1). The Aorist. This is formed by adding to the verb the

character # ko, to pass, to go by. It indicates that the action of the
verb is over and gone. This condition of the action may be with
reference to past or future time. The action is represented as being
over and gone at the time indicated: # 5 # 6, wo chien ko t'a, I
saw, or have seen him; 3; # E # # # nichii ko peh-ching
muh yu, have you (ever up to this time) been to Peking? ## T
chii kola, have been there; 5, 3: # t'a chien nien chii ko, he
went year before last; # # 5 - # - s wo-tsoh-t'ien mai ko yih
pen, I bought a volume yesterday; # (E (b. E #2: # I # hsien
tsai ta yi-ching lai ko la pa, at present he has probably already come;
# T + 5. H. ####### 2, ##### I tao hsia-pan-t'ien wu
tien chung wo-men pih-yao chiang koshu la, afternoon at five oclock
we will have lectured; #| BH &# {, }, XE # I tao ming-nient'a
pih s kola, by next year he shall have died.
For the negative of this tense, when reference is had to the past,
the same terms are used as with the negative perfect: # #j # muh
tao ko, have not been there; # # # 5 # 5 muh yu k'an-chien ko
t"a, have not seen him, &c. When reference is had to the future,
the same terms are used as with the future tense: #| BH H # E (b.
b). ZF #) tao ming-j-hwan-shang t'a pih puh tao ko, by to-morrow
evening he shall not have arrived, &c.
Remark1. As this tense has reference to a completed act, T liao may be
appended ad libitum to the positive form. This is T liao of the completive form
not the tense sign of the perfect.
2. When the verb is followed by an infinitive dependent on it (see Infinitive),
# ko follows the infinitive: # # # 7 ting shohl, la, have heard it said,
3: #. # {b. T chii chien ko t'a la, went to see him; ## ## muh ting
chiang ko, have not yet heard it preached.
3. # Tseng, a general sign of the past, may be used with # ko: # ##
T t'seng shoh kola, but this is bookish.
4. T Liao, in the perfect tense, is not interchangeable with # ko. The former
has reference to the completion of the verb's action up to, and continuing complete,
at the time specified, like the English perfect tenses; the latter has reference to a

definite act of the verb past and gone at the time specified, somewhat like the
Greek aorist.

(2). Continued action. The particle # choh (in some localities J/ >
pronounced ch in this connection), added to the verb, indicates that
the action of the latter is going on at the time in question. Thus it

y sometimes is equivalent to the English present partiple: # # chan

choh, standing; 4: ' tso-choh, sitting; # # E ### tsai c'huang
shang t'ang-choh, lying on the bed; # - j # ### H + na yih
t'ien wo kan-choh che-ts, that day I was driving carts; # F# #
$ # # tsai shu-fang li mien-choh shu, in the library reading. This
tense is much used in subordinate clauses to indicate that the actions
designated by their predicates are in process when the action of the
principal predicate occurs: $; $ # # 3: I t'a chi-choh mai lai
'a, he came riding on a horse; H #### (b. 2' yung chuang
tai-choh sung tai lai, bring him carried on a bed; b # # # ; H
% t'a na-choh shu nien-chuh lai, he holding a book reads aloud. This
tense is also much used in narrative style with subordinate clauses
as describing the circumstances: {1 + #5 # E ; # F# #k # 1't
# # # ta tsai na-lifeng kuah-choh y lin-choh sh-h-tsai nan ko, be
there, the wind blowing and the rain pouring, is truly in difficulty; #5
| A # # # 3: $; # JH # #f # If i na ko jen chuan-choh
c'heu-yi tai-choh ting-mao sh-h tsai t i-mien, that man, wearing silk.
clothes and a buttoned hat, is really handsome. .
(Note# choh is much more frequently used with monosyllabic than with
dissyllabic verbs, since with the latter it is generally not euphonious, yet even here
it is often admissible.

V Remark.This idiom has no reference to time as present, past or future; this is

determined by other words in the sentence, as in any other form of the verb.

(3). What may be called a cessative form is regularly formed

by placing the negative Z. puh before the complete form of the verb
with I liao. (See Chap. vi, 2). It indicates that the action of the
verb has stopped; R & # 1 pull mien shu la, have stopped reading;
. H. I puh chien la, no longer seen, lost; b. 'j . ' '. T t'a
men puh ting chiang la, they no longer listen to explanations.

THESE have substantives, i.e., Nouns or Pronouns in the predicate

instead of adjectives or verbs.
It is a characteristic of Noun Predicates that they have verb
copulas to connect the subject with the predicate. The verbs serving
the purpose of copulas are # sh, is, are; # tso; tsoh, to do,
make; wei, be, become, and verbs meaning to designate, call, style,
&c. We divide on the basis of these verbs.

1. # Sh is used with the indicative. It has the range of time

in the three general divisions of present, past and future: (###5
fi # #| ||# ni sh na wei hsien-ch ma, art thou that prophet? # T.
.# (b, wo puh sh t'a, I am not he ; # 4: # H || # A t'a ts'ung
chien sh ko hao jen, he formerly as a good man; b. It # (# # HH
t'a chen sh ko hao p'eng-yu, he truly is a good friend; ($ H. H. H.
+ ni sh ko tsai-chu, you are a wealthy man; # # || # A wo sh
ko pin jen, I am a poor man.
2. # Tso or # tsoh is used when action instead of simple
existence is intended: { {: # "a tso kuan, he is a mandarin; #
# F# 65 WH; ni tso kan-men-tih ma, are you porter ? As f: tso is an
active verb, it is used in all the moods and tenses as a copula: # #
A tso hao jen, be good men; 2: # # puh yao tsotseh, do not be
a thief; b 3: ( # # t'a ch-nientsoh ko kuan, last year he
was a mandarin; # F# # # # + ni kai tso ko hao han-ts, you
ought to be a good fellow.
Remark-l. # Tang either alone, or with f: tso, is used as a copula in the
sense of acting the part of : 5. {# # J: #j t'a-men tang ping tih, they serve as
soldiers; # {# # 4: tang-tso hsien-sheng, fill the place of a teacher.
2. In bookish style wei is used for .# sh or # tso: # }# R *
shen-mo wei liang-hsin, what is conscience; # # # A. tsai sh wei jem, to live
in the world.

3. # Wei is used colloquially in the infinitive with an accusa

tive after verbs denoting to call, style, &c.; also in the corresponding
passive form: # # 43 k + cheng t'a wei chiu-chu, call him savior;
# #5, # # feng t'a wei shen, exhalt him to be a god; if 43 A.
# lih ni wei huang-ti, elevate you to be Emperor; # (; # (#
p'ai ni wei chai-sh, appoint you as an official messenger; passive:
{b # 48 % + t'a cheng wei chiu-chu, &c.
Remark1. When action is prominent (see 2 above), tso in thoroughly colloquial
style takes the place of wei: 5. {# # f ($ # # # t'a-men p'ai liao ni tso
chiao-sh, they set you apart to be a missionary.
2. When the noun in the predicate is a proper name, the copula (in this case
# tso; {{: tsoh) may be omitted: 5. % P} # t"a ming chiao chang, his name
was called Chang.
3. When there is merely a supposition that the subject is identical with the
predicate, it is expressed by the compound verb J) gi-wei, literally, take to be,
the subject (which here becomes an accusative with the infinitive comes in between
the two parts of the verb: J} {, , H}} Z: yi t'a wei p'eng-yu, take him to be a
friend; {b, # J) #E {# # # # t'a-men yi che-ko wei hsi-chi, they considered
this strange, &c. The same idiom may be given more colloquially by substituting
# swan-tso, or % # suam-sh; # # tang-tso; # H] tang k'o, &c., to take, or
reckon, to be : # {b, IJ }: tang t'a k'o ch tih, consider him as something to
be ashamed of.


ADvERBs may be classified as follows:

1. Monosyllabic. 1st. Real adverbs, as # tsai, again, AR hen,
very: # shen, very; k tai, too, very; # tsuei, very; # ts'ai, just
now, then; R puh, not, &c.: # 3% tsai lai, come again; 3, t'ai to,
too many, very many; # # shen kao, very high; # k tsuei ti,
very large.
2nd. Words taken from other parts of speech; as % hsien
before (in time); # heu, behind; H shang, ascend; # ch, to arrive
at, as an adverb, extremely, &c.; % #1 hsien ch, to foreknow; E #
shang-lai, come up; Hg ch sheng, extremely holy; # # chiu laa,
come at once (chiu, to approach), &c.
2. Disyllabic. 1st. Repetition or combination of monosyllabic
adverbs, as #| || kang-kang; # # kang-ts'ai, just now; 5% if hsien
c'hien, formerly; # jan heu, afterwards. So also adverbs in
combination with verbs, especially with # lai; as # 35 heu-lai,
afterwards; ): # yen-lai, ZS 2# pen-lai, originally, &c.
2nd. Adverbs ending with # jan, thus as # # t'u-jan; #
# wang-jan, in vain; # # eu-jan; # huh-jan, suddenly; # #
ts-jan, of course; # # hsien-jan, openly, &c. This class is limited
in number.

3rd. Adverbs composed of a noun or a numeral and some other

word, or of an adjective and noun and similar combinations, as
# j, chieh-lih, with the whole strength; in f# chia-pei, doubly; El
* t'ung-hsin, unitedly; - ifi yih ch-h, and # If pih-ch-h, straight
on; - [i] yih t'ung : - # 5 yih-k'uai-er, together; # yih lu,
all the way; - \, yih-hsin, with all the heart, &c. Ex: {: HF # #
I t'a wang-jan tso kung, he works in vain; # # 6, ####|
k'ung-p'a t'a eu-jan lai tao, lest he arrive suddenly; # * g #3;

wo-men ts-jan ch, we of course go; # - If #: if # yao yih ch-h

wang chien tseu, must go straight forward; # * - || # wo
men yih-t'ung tseu, we go together; [i] # # t'ung-hsin pan sh,
unitedly manage affairs; - # # , yih-lu pang-chu, help all the
way, &c.
As to position, the above varieties of the adverb simply precede
the verb they modify without the particle #4 tih, to connect them.
We come now to

3. Adjective-Adverbs, i.e., words that may qualify nouns or verbs

without change of form. Whether they are adjectives or adverbs
depends entirely on the character of the word they modify. Thus #:
k'uai, sharp; # JJ k'uai tao, sharp knives; # # k'uai tseu, walk
fast; H tsao, early; H # tsao chi, to rise early; # hao, good; # f:
hao tai, treat well, &c. Often the adjective is duplicated in becoming
an adverb for the sake of emphasis: # peh, white; # H #4 # pel
peh tih p'ao, to run in vain; # # p'ing-an, peaceful; # ### #
*# p'ing-p'ing-an-an tih tseu, go in peace; ###4 # k'uai-k'uai tih
lai, come quickly, &c. It will be seen that in this class, when the
adverb has more than one syllable (from duplication or otherwise), it
is generally connected with the verb by 6 tih, similar to adjectives.
This variety of adverbs is very large, in fact, by using #5 tih, we may
coin almost any phrase that we wish to modify the adverb.
Remark.Thus also anomatopoetic adverbs are formed: R& |g #4 huh-huh tih,
sound of wind blowing; # # fi: hah-hah tih, sound of laughter, &c.
4. Demonstrative Adverbs are formed by adding to the demons.
tratives # che and #5 na the characters # mo; # # mo-choh ;
}: # mo-yang; or # yang: as E che-mo; # 5 # che-mo-choh ;
# # # che-mo-yang; # # che-chang, all meaning thus, or in this
way; # Wis na-mo; # 5 # na-mo-choh, &c., meaning thus, or in
that way; E. B. Eit che-mo shoh, to speak thus; # W. ### R fi
na-mo-yang pan sh puh hsing, to manage affairs in that way will not
do; # He fi : X che-mo k'an-chi lai, thus you may begin to see.
Remark.The book word #II }: ju-t's, thus (lit. like this) is much used in the
colloquial; #ll l' # # ju-ts k'an-lai, thus it will be seen; #. # #ll |
yesh ju-t's, is also thus.
5. Interrogative Adverbs are formed by adding the same words
above given to the interrogatives 5 tseu, how P and 3 to, how
much? & 9: t; # WE tseu-mo-yang shoh ni, how is one to speak?

# 5< & B # 3: # tsoh-t'ien tsen-mo muh lai ko, how is it that you
did not come yesterday? # 4 H H & B ### che chien sh tsen-mo pan
fah, how is this affair to be managed ? & H k to-mo ta, how large?
Remarks1. Other interrogative adverbs are the book words #Il fi! ju-ho and
f] J) ho-yi, and the more colloquial # c'hi, how P # # "an-tao, #
man-shoh, is it possible? (lit. hard to say); # # #E # JB chi sh che yang ni,
how, or why is it thus? # X. .# kf !' chi puh sh hao ma, is it not good? #
# K # {b, W# man-tao yao shah t'a ma, you don't say that you are going to kill
him P So also # geu and #5 # na-li how; implying a negative answer: % A.
# # # # WE s jen yen neng fuh-hoh ni, how can the dead arise? Z: # J\
#5 # f #, # UE pen-ti jen na-li huei shoh wai-kueh hua ni, how (lit.
where?) can natives speak foreign languages?
2. The above interrogative adverbs (except # chi and # # man-tao ; #
# man-shoh,) have the same correlative uses as the interrogative pronouns:
# {# }}# # {# # # # }: # tra kan-su ni tsen-mo tso ni chiu, yao tsen
motso, you must do just as he tells you; # 3. # Sk f: % }: 5% yao to-mo ta.
tso to-mo ta, make it as large as you want it.
6. Adverbs of place are formed by adding to the demonstratives
# che and # na, the locative terms # li, inside; # pien, side; iii
mien, face; and HH t'eu, end: #E # che-li, here; # # na-li, there;
# # na-pien, on that side; #5 Ili na-mien, on that side; E # che
t"eu, at this end, &c. Similar combinations are made by placing
before the words # pien, Ifil mien and # t'eu the characters #
chien, before; and # heu, after : ## chien-pien; # Wii chien-mien,
before; # fil heu-mien ; # # heu-teu, behind, &c.
Nearly every variety of adverbs above given may be used as
predicates: exceptions generally are Nos. 1 and 2, 1st. When used
as predicates, they of course became descriptive adjectives: # 4+ +
# # 58 6.j na chien sh sh che-motih, that affair is thus; # E #
# # # i fi fij tsai che-li ch'uan tao sh peh-peh tih, to preach
here is vain; # # # 5: # WE che sh tsen-yang ni, how is this?
45 k # H + ##### tso ho-luen-che-ts sh k'uai-k'uai tih, to
travel by rail is very speedy; # ###, k'an shu yung-yi, to read is
easy; # 5 # hsie ts nan, to write is difficult.
Remarks1. In thus construction when an action is the subject (as in the last
three or four examples), the verb is in the infinitive and is construed as a substantive.
2. Although the position of the adverb as such is before the predicate, it is not
always certain as to whether it follows the subject or begins the sentence, the subject
following it. It may be said generally that long or important adverbs begin the
Sentence: # % 5. hew-lai t'a shoh, afterwards he said; #E W$ # # X. #
che-mo-choh wo puh, chii, if this is the case, I am not going; 4. j- {b, X. %
chin-ti'en, ta puh lai, to-day he is not coming.


THESE form quite an important part of adverbial modifiers. They

may be divided into1, Prepositional; 2, Locative; and 3, General
Introductory Clauses.
1. Prepositional Clauses. These clauses are introduced by
prepositions. Many words used in a prepositional construction are
really verbs, but as the idiom is the same, they will here be classed
as prepositions, in order to complete the list. They may be classified
as follows:

1st. Locative Prepositions referring to rest in, or motion to, or

from the noun before which they are placed. These are # yi, p.
hu (both bookish), denoting vaguely proximity to a place; tsai ; #
tang (with time) at, in; # ts; tsung ; # 4: ts-tsung; #T ta,
from; # teng (to wait); # tao ; # #| teng tao; # ch, until up
to; # lin, at the time of; (ii hsiang; # wang; # wang; towards;
E shang; T hsia; # tuei, to, over against; # y (bookish); Rij
tung; #1 ho, with: # 5 -E tsai t'ien shang, in heaven; # E #
tsai shang-hai, at Shanghai; 4: ' ' # T tsung kuan-tung lai
la, came from Manchuria; # 5 # 4 tsku ch chin, from ancient
times till now; E E #1 #5 || Hi + che-ko ho ma-ko pi-liang,
compare this with that; EJ (b. 5: # tung-ta shoh hua, talk with
him; # #5, ### tuei t'a shoh hua, talk to him; (ii) (b. # # hsiang
t"a shoh hua, talk at him; # #### wang wo t'ao chien, beg cash
of me, &c.
Remark.-1. # tsai, in the predicate uniformly has its proper meaning of to be,
exist, consist in: 5. #! t"a tsai wuh li, he is in the house; # # # + J.
shu tsai choh-ts shang, books are on the table; # j- + shen tsai t'ien shang,
God is in heaven.

The following particulars may be specified.

51 -

(1). When followed by a substantive without a locative, it means to depend on,

to consist in f# As f: E hsin puh hsin tsai ni, whether you believe or not
remains with you; Z. # # J; # f; puh tsai shoh-hua nai tsai shing
wei, it does not consist in words, but in acts.
(2). Followed by # chia, without a locative, it means to beat home: 5.
ZR # # ta puh tsai chia, he is not at home; #| # + # # # tao wan,
shang ts'ai tsai chia, will be at home by evening.
(3). When standing alone, tsai means to be living. {# #4 %. + #
Z: # ni tih fu mu tsai puh tsai, are your parents living ? # # huan tsai, still
2. The prepositions #1 ho, [H] tung and $ y may be followed at the end of
the sentence by the phrases - |E] viht'ung, [H] # tung tsai, - # 5. yih k'uai
er, together with; - # yih yang, - # jih pan; like, &c., fil # E
ho t'a tung tsai, together with him; [E] {# # 5. tung ni yih k'uai-er, together

with you; $ 5. - # yi, t'a yih yang, like him; #l {# -# 5. # ho mi

yih k'uai-er chii, go in company with you. (Compare chap. vii., 1, 2nd (1), Rem. 1).
3. j# yi is used colloquially in expressions modeled after wen-li: # # yil sh
(lit. at this) thereupon; # # kuei yi, to belong to, return to; # # #Il l'
ch yi ju-t's, as far as this, to this point.

2nd. Prepositions of Advantage. These are # chih, # pa

(in southern mandarin), # yii, to, for; yin, wei, [k # yin
wei, # yin-choh, T wei liao, # 63 wei-tih, # # wei
choh, because of, on account of ; # ti, ft. tai, #ft t'i tai, instead
of: # # : I chih wo tso kung, work for me; # ### yi ni
2010 yih, ofno advantage to you; # 5, 64 wei ta tso tih, done on
his account; K (#4 # 48 # yin hsin teh cheng wei yi, on account
of faith to be pronounced righteous; # k # I t'i ni tso kung, work
in your stead; # 5 ft 5k tita tai chiu, entreat in his stead, &c.
Remark.The prepositions yin and # with some of their compounds may
be strengthened by # # yen-ku, cause, reason, following the noun: -

yen-ku is generally construed in the possessive after the noun: T , #j #

# wei liao ni tih yien-ku, on your account; # # #j # # yin ta lai tih
gen ku, because of his coming.

3rd. Prepositions denoting Manner, as # an ; # # an-choh ;

# chao; #4 # chao-choh, according to ; # p'ing ; # chii, to prove
by; # yi and tsai (with a verbal phrase following) in accordance
with: # # # #E # # an-choh kuei-chii pan sh, manage affairs
according to rule; # # # # chao-choh lh-fah, according to law;
# (b. Eit taking as proof what he says; # (R #4 # yi ni tih hua,
according to your words; # # ## tsai wo k'an lai, in my view of
the case, &c. -

a a to wo" , * ,

4th. Prepositions preceding the means, agent, &c., as # sh,

J# to use, by means of ; # pei, by (with a personal agent); # na, to
take, make use of; JH jJ # (b. yung tao shah t'a, kill him with a
knife; & # # # Wi ma chien mai tung-hsi, make use of cash to
buy things; # (b. # # pei t'a shah-tiao, killed by him; ### (b.
#T # sh chiang pei ta ta-shah, killed by him with a gun; # # #
# 3 pei chiang-tao chiang-toh, taken by robbers, &c.
2. Locative Clauses. These are formed of a substantive followed
by a word locating the action of the predicate with reference to the
substantive. Locative Phrases may be divided into 1st, those of place;
2nd, those of time.
1st. Locative Clauses denoting location in space. The locatives
here used are the points of the compass, as # tung, east; if hsi,
west; man, south; : E peh, north, &c., and such terms as H #
chung-chien ; # H tang-chung, in the centre, among; # li; H
chung, in, among; # wai, outside; # pien ; # # p'ang-pien,
side, by the side of ; # # tso-pien, left side; fi # yu-pien, right
side; E above; T hsia, below, &c.; # # cheng li, in the city; E
% wuh li, in the house; F #1 men wai, outside the door; # + E.
ZH # choh-ts shang yushu, on the table are books; (; ; # HH in,
or, among you; H ' His t'a-men tang-chung, among them, &c.
It will be seen now that locative clauses are simply locative pre
positional clauses viewed from a different standpoint. (See above 1,
1st). As a general rule in these locative clauses a preposition precedes
and a locative follows the substantive. We now note the principal
exceptions to the rule.
1. The locative is omitted (1), after the proper nouns of places:
# E # tsai shang-hai, at Shanghai; # 38 K tsung peh-ching,
from Peking; #| # # tao hang-chow, to Hangchow, &c.
(2). After the idiomatic uses of tsai, given under 1, 1st,
Rem. 1 above (see examples there given).
2. With reference to the omission of prepositions it may be
said (1), that in the ordinary construction of the sentence, tsai
may or may not be used in a locative phrase used attributively.
Thus, we may say # + E # # choh-ts shang yu shu, or # # +
E H if tsai choh-ts shang yushu, on the table are books, &c.
53 -

(2). The other locative prepositions indicating motion to or from

a place are required, except that 4: tsung, and its compounds may
be omitted in what we shall call the descriptive constructions. (See
chap. xv); # # # 5 # 65 wo sh peh-ching lai tih, I am from
Peking. But even here the prepositions can always be used.
Note.Locatives are used only with those prepositional phrases where rest in
motion to, or motion from, a place is indicated.
Remarks1. When separations from the substantive is intended, it may generally
be denoted by the character J21 yi placed before the locative: # Cl + ti yi
shang, above the earth; # b. El #N chu t'a yi wai, besides him; ch may take
the place here of Pl gi. The amount of separations is given by a numerical term
following the locative; J) yi is then not used: # # # E T# H! li che-li san
peh li, distant from here 300 li; # -E E JG Ziff i: HH t"ew shang san ch-hyu
shen-ming, three feet above one's head there is divine light; # # # ZR #
li wo-men puh yen, not far from us; F# # - # # # # men wai yih chang
gu chang pih, ten feet outside the gate there are walls.
2. With pronouns the locative adverbs ## che li and ## na-li must be
used when the locality of the person and not the person is intended; # {# #5 #
the place where you are; # # # # tsai-wo che-li, where I am, here.
3. Often a locative is not preceded by a noun. Its construction is then the same
as that of any other adverb or adjective: # # _E. # # #j wo-sh shang t'ew
lai tih, I am come from above; 5, HH Ziff #f 3, M wai-teu yw hsil-tojem, outside
are very many men;# # #j H. + li-pien tih fang-ts, houses that are inside;
T M ti-hsia jen, underlings.
Locative Clauses of Place used predicatively. Here they denote
the terminus ad quem of the verb's action.
# tsai has two uses in the predicate. (1) When there is no
other verb in the sentence, it is itself a verb with the meaning is,
are, &c.: # # + -t shu tsai choh-ts shang, books are on the
table; { {# # F# t'a tsai li-teu, he is inside. In this idiom it
cannot be omitted; (2) When there is a previous verb, tsai has
the meaning so as to be; but in this idiom it may be omitted: #
# #: # + E pai shu tsai choh-ts, place books (so as to be) on the
table; # 7k #| #I # pa Shuei tao kang li, take water (and) pour
(it) into the stone jar.
The other prepositions are construed like # tsai, under (2)
above; but are not omitted: # 5, ] ### sung t'a tao cheng li,
accompany him to within the city; # #! # F# # kan kew tao men
wai, drive dogs out of the door. The preposition here becomes really
a verb. (Comp. chap. xii., 3, 2nd). Thus verbs are freely used in
this construction where in English we use prepositions: # # #
- 54

# # chiu wo-men chuh tsuei, save us from sin; 4% ($ # XE pao ni

mien s, protect you from death; # # # E j< # chiw ling-huen
shang t'ien t'ang, save souls into heaven, &c.
4. The difference between the attributive and predicative positions
of the locative clause is that in the former position it describes the
sphere of the verb's action; in the latter it indicates the tendency or
result of the action; # + E ## tsai choh-ts shang pai shu,
means that the action of arranging books goes on upon the table, it
begins and ends there; # # *E # + E pai shu tsai choh-ts shang,
means that the end of the action is upon the table, but it begins some
where else; so #: B # # tsai wuh li tseu, to walk inside the house;
# #: B # tseu tsai wuh li, a walk that terminates in the house.
(Compare Greek ts.)
5. General direction is indicated by the verb of motion f# wang,
followed by a locative: it wang-tung, eastward; # T wang-hsia,
downward; # E # wang shang p'ao, run upward, &c.
2nd. Locatives denoting location in Time. The locatives here
used are # li, # chien, in (with months and years); % hsien,
before; # heu, before; 9 E yi shang, above, before; # T wang
hsia, downward, afterward, &c. With general designations of time,
as # sh, # # sh heu, no locative may be used when the same time
is meant. The prepositions are used here as with locatives in space,
which see. Here # tang must be added to the list of prepositions
used attributively only with the same meaning as # tsai. It must
be noticed further that with locatives denoting priority in time the
preceding predicate must be negative. Finally, the general designa
tions # sh, # # sh-hew, and the locatives # hsien and # heu are
generally connected to the preceding noun by 2 ch, El yi, or, in the
case of # # sh-hew, by 6 tih : { % #4 # G# t'a lai tih sh-hew, at
the time of his coming; #5 # # tsai na kosh-hew ; #5 (#| ||#
# na kosh-hew; # # # tang nash, &c., at that time; #| # 5<
# C. chuang-tsao ti'en ti yi heu, after the creation of heaven and
earth; # 2's 2 # t'a laich heu, after he came; # # ft # 2 %
t"a wei tiseng lai ch hsien, before he came; # + # # # # 91 %
chiu chu muh yu chiang sh yi hsien, before the Savior's advent; #
# # 4 f Ll L. K'ang-hsi muh tso wei yi shang, before K'ang
hsi sat on the throne; # #4 #| K'ang-hsi nien chien, during the
time of K'ang-hsi; 7% H # luh yiehli, in the sixth month.
55 -

Remark.1. As with locatives of place, the amount of time before or after an

event is given by numerical phrases following the locative.
- - - - .. 4:
4 # # T E
#: *** - -

T ts'ung Kang-hsi wang hsia san peh mien, from K'ang-hsi down for 300 years;
# # # |# # J) # *- + chiu chu muh yu chiang sh yi hsien yih
chien nien, 1,000 years before the Savior's advent.
NoteAn exception occurs with reference to position under the above rem.,
when no verb is given. The amount of time may then precede or follow the locative:
- # san mien heu, as # ~ hew san nien, three years after.

2. When no noun precedes, the locative has the same construction as an ordin
ary adverb: J) # yi heu, afterwards; J) # yi hsien, before, &c. (See above
1st, Rem. 3).

Further examples of locative clauses with prepositions: # #

tang sh, at that (or the same) time; # 5% ### F# G# 2 % tang
Kuang-hsii wei tso huang-ti ch hsien, before Kuang-hs was emperor;
#] { % #4 # tao t'a lai tih sh-heu, until the time of his
coming; # it fil] # 5< # CA 3: ts^ing shew chuang-tsaot'ien ti
yilai, from the time that God created heaven and earth; # # 65 %
# lin, ching tih sh-hew, when the end comes, &c.
3. General Introductary Clauses. These are exceedingly varied
in character. It is rather the position that can be defined than the
character of the clauses that may be used. The general office of
these Clauses is to stand before the sentence and thus introduce it, in
a general way modifying the whole or part of the sentence. They
stand at the head as being the most emphatic position. They may
form the logical subject of the sentence, if suitable; but the gram
matical subject may generally be inserted in its proper place after
them. These introductory clauses are very common in colloquial.
We may divide them as follows:

1st. Dissyllabic or Polysyllabic Adverbs giving the general

character or circumstances of the thought; as J. 38 yen-lai, Z: #
pen-lai, originally; # 33 chiu-ching, after all; j K. tao-ti, finally;
#11 # ju-t's ; # 5 # che-mo-choh, thus, &c.; Ji. X: T. H. # 5 #
yien-lai puh-sh che-mo-yang, originally it was not thus; #| H. (j; H
# ## * tao-ti ni yushen-mo yi-8, to come to the point, what is
your intention?
Remark.These adverbs, if they have no more than two syllables, may precede
or follow the subject. (See Chap. x, 6, Rem. 2).

2nd. Locative clauses of time (see above 2nd), very generally

serve as introductory clauses. # F# # 5 - T -k # HE T Kang
hsi nien chien t'ien-hsia tahsing-wang lu, during the time of K'ang-hsi
the empire prospered greatly; # 3' 65 H4 # # # tang t'a
lai tih sh-heu wo yu ping, at the time he came I was ill; # # # #
3. M. XET tang-sh yu hsil-to jen sla, at that time there were many
persons died.
3rd. A general subject may be stated first after which particulars
may be given. This general subject itself may be introduced by
such phrases as # #j hun-tao, ###| chiang-tao, to discuss, &c. If
the grammatical subject is a person, it is generally inserted after the
clause: # #| ###################, luen-tao
chin-yoh, luh-fah sh sheug-shan tih yi-li sh chuen-chie tih, as to the
Old Testament, its laws are holy, its ceremonies pure; 2's #4 # WE
{b, E #31 + # T Li ta ko ni, t'a yi-ching wu shh suei la, as to
brother Li, he is already 50; 3B # 6: N || + k if: peh-pien tih
jen ko-ts ta-hsie, as to northern people, they are rather large in
stature; H F #5 A (b || # 3; # * # chuh men tih jen ta
men kai to tai hsie c'hien, for those that go abroad it is necessary to
carry a little more money; # 55 E M #5, # k # # # # #]
luen-tao wai-kueh jen, t'a-men ta-kai yu hsie hsioh-wen, as to foreigners
they generally have a little education. (Comp. chap. iv., 3).

1. Transitive and Intransitive Forms of the Verbal Predicate.

THERE is in Chinese no distinction between transitive and intransitive

verbs. Any verb may be transitive or intransitive, dependent on its
having or not having an object. Perhaps every verb in the language
may be used transitively when occasion so requires.
1. Hence, the general rule, a verb in colloquial mandarin never
has a preposition with an object after the verb. Apparent exceptions
will be noticed in their proper places: # # tseulu, to walk on the
road; 4: $ + tso chiao-ts, to sit (ride) in a sedan; E # shang ching,
to go to the capital; # 5's ir tseu wai chiang, to go along the outside
river; H H tsew chung-chien, to go along the middle; k # #|
#I shuei yao tao kang, the water you must pour into the stone jar;
# ### # E shu yao koh chuang-t'ai shang, the books must
be placed on the window sill; # # & + # I mei c'heng tai-ts li
la, coal is put into bags, &c., &c.
Note.It will be seen from the above examples that it is not necessary to insert
before the object the word # tsai (to exist) as a preposition. More of this hereafter.
Remarks.1. When no object is intended, the verb of course is intransitive:
b. # # T t'a-men tseu-la, they have gone; J. # + # # hsiao hai-ts
shuei-chiao, the little child is asleep; so where the object has already been mention
ed, as in questions, it is often omitted in the answer: f; T # }#fu la chien ma,
have you paid the money P fi T fu-la, I have.
2. In some cases the verb is repeated, as if to supply the lack of an object:
# j# #
tsew tsew, or -e # tseu yih tseu, to take a walk, walk a little ; #T

#I ta yih ta, give it a lick, &c.

2. The object together with its modifiers, in the normal construc
tion of the sentence, comes directly after the verb, as in English:
# 4# E # # #5 wo tsai chiai shang chien-ko t'a, I saw him on the
street; 5, # - || $f # 63 Hi + t'a kai-choh yih chu hao-k'an
tih-fang-ts, he is building a beautiful house; # #5 5: ###
# # wo na-yih t'ien tsai chia li mien-choh shu, that day I was at

home reading books. The tense-signs. T liao and # ko, and #

choh, being considered part of the verb, of course precede the object:
{#3; # 38 K H ni chi-ko peh-ching ma, have you been to Peking?
# 5 # b wo chien-kota, I saw him; 5, J T # t'a tao-la chia,
he has gotten home; #5, # # #1 + t'a kan-choh che-ts, he is
driving carts.
3. The Secondary Object. This 1st, Precedes the direct: # (b.
- # sung t'a yih kuan pih, present him with a pen; # # - #
# # chih wo yih k'uai yang chien, give me one dollar; 5< 3: $; #
# k & ti'en fu t's women ta en, the Heavenly Father bestows
upon us much, or great grace.
2nd. When the secondary object also has a verb, both follow the
primary object, as being in order to, the terminans ad quem of the
primary object: # fB # (b. shao hsin chih t'a, send a letter (to give)
to him; # ### (; mai shu chih ni, buy books for you; # # E #
sung wo shang c'huan, accompany me to the boat; # #j + # F# #,
kan keu-ts tao men wai, drive dogs (to) outside the gate; # # #:
# + E pai shu tsai choh-ts shang, place books upon (so as to be on)
the table; # 5, J ### sung t'a tao cheng li, accompany him to
(within) the city; # # # # E c'hi ma tsai lu shang, to ride
horses upon the road; # # # E tiao tsai ti shang, to fall on the
ground, &c., &c. (See chap. xi., 2, 1st after Rem. 3).
3rd. When the first object is not present, both verbs come before
the second object; in this case the second verb fills the place of a
preposition: # # 5, chiang yi t'a-men, explain it to them; }}
# (; ; fen chih ni-men, divide to you; ###| || ti chih t'a-men,
hand to them; # # + $ # # R pa yin-ts sung chih-nan min,
give silver to the sufferers. -

4. A secondary accusative may follow the direct object showing

the extent of the verb's action: # 5 -H # # # fah t'a sh-h k'uai
yang-chien, fine him ten dollars; # T # = # 3: # tew liao wo
san chien yi-shang, stole from me three pieces of clothing; #| || H.
# # # went'a shen-mo yi-s, ask him the meaning; # ####
chiu wo wu k'uai chien, beg of me five dollars; # # 4 men ta an,
ask after his welfare, &c.


THE distinction between the active and passive forms of the verb is
not always clearly marked as in the English. Often in fact, a clear
distinction is unnecessary. We give a few general rules with refer
ence to active and passive constructions.
1. When the action of the verb is completed by either (1) T
liao, (2) a completive, (3) a sequent, or (4) a secondary object denoting
the terminus ad quem, the verb is active when it has an object,
passive when it has no object: # T #### E t'a koh-la
shu tsai choh-ts shang, he placed books on the table; # # # # +
_E shu koh tsai choh-ts shang, books are placed on the table; # #
T #wo tien-la teng, I lighted the lamps; ####T teng tu tien
la, the lamps are all lighted; # # # # wo wei-t'seng ting-kuei,
I am not yet decided; # # # E # E 4: $; $ wo wei-ts'eng
ting-kuei che chien sh-c'hing, I have not yet decided this matter; #
T # F# E tiao-la tsai-lu shang, dropped on the road; Fij || ET
men kuan shang-la, the door is closed.
Remark.1. This form of passive of course applies generally to verbs that can
also be used in an active transitive sense.
2. When it is desired to designate the agent in the above passive construction, it
assumes a descriptive form, the agent being introduced by # sh, and followed by the
predicate; active : # # #E # shuei tso che ko, who does this P. Passive : # | #
# # # che kosh shuei tso tih, who is this done by ? # |# # #E Zx # #
#1 _E ma-ko fang che pen shu tsai ti shang, who threw this book on the floor; # ZN
# .# #5 {# # # # -E f: che pen shu sh na-ko fang tsai ti shang tih, by
whom was this book thrown on the floor; # # # {# # # |# che hua sh ni
shoh tih ma, were these words spoken by you? # 5. fij sh t'a shoh tih, they
were spoken by him.
2. A formal passive occurs when a person is the sufferer as
well as the actor. The verb # pei, to cover, becomes in this construc
tion the sign of the passive. The subject may or may not be expressed.
The construction is similar to the English passive: # b # T pei
t"a shah-liao, killed by him ; # # pei shah, to be killed; # R Ef #

pei ni so ai, those loved by you; (b || # # # T ## T t'a-men

tu pei ping-ting shah-chin-liao, they were all killed by soldiers; # #
# I pei tsih lioh-liao, captured by thieves; # # pei hai, to be
injured by a person ; # # shew hai may mean that the injury
comes from some other source.
NoteThis construction is not confined to persons, though properly used only
when they are the agents and receivers.
Remark.H. chiao, to cause, is used in some ports of northern China instead of

3. There are a few verbs that with an active construction have

a passive meaning. Such are # sheu, to receive (in a suffering sense);
# meng (lit. to cover) to be favored with; # ai, to rub against,
come into contact with ; # chien, to seem; # feng, to receive from
a superior; 5, T #T t'a ai-la ta, he received a beating; # # shew
k'u, to suffer; # , it meng en-tien, to be favored with grace; #
# A feng ming-ling, to receive command, to be commanded; (b. 5.
# t'a chien hao, he seems to be well.
Remark.That these are not real passives is seen when the agent is given :
# # E. fij $. J# meng huang-shang tih en-tien, receive the Emperor's favor;
# jih #j # #feng shen tih chai-chien, to receive commission from God; # '#
#j #T ai kuan-fu tih ta, to receive a beating from the mandarin.


(FoR questions not requiring a categorical answer, see Interrogative

Pronouns, Chap. iii., 2, 3rd; also Interrogative Adverbs, Chap. x., 5).
For questions requiring categorical answers yes or no, there
are two main constructions.
1. Repeating the predicate with a negative (Z. puh, for the
present or future; # muh, 1% f muh yu, for the past). In this
construction the questioner simply places before the party questioned
both the positive and negative sides of the predicate, and the latter
shows which of the two he accepts by repeating it: (b. 2' T & #
ta lai-liao muh yu, or # # muh lai, has he come? # # muh lai,
no; # 35 ZR # nichi puh ch'i, are you going or not? F # puh
c'hu, no ; (; H T f{ }}# # # mi mai-liao sheu-mo muh yu, have
you bought anything? # T mai-la, yes, have bought. (b. 4 3.
# Z. 3, t'a chin-t'ien nien shu puh nien, is he studying to-day? #
# nien shu, yes, he is.
Remarks.1. In the negative part of the predicate and in the answer there is
quite a good deal of latitude as to how much of the predicate-modifiers, object, &c.
is to be repeated.
In the question at least the negative adverb with the following predicate (adjec
tive, verb or noun) noun must be repeated; more may be repeated, but is not essential.
In the answer, when negative, only the negative adverb is necessary, but also the whole
sentence may be repeated: # |# A. # ZR # {b. na ko jen sh puh sh t'a, is that
man he P ZR Puh, no; 1. 4. 5K # T # # t"a chin-t'ien lai-la muh yu, has he
come to-day; 4. j: # % chin-t'ien muh yu lai, has not come to-day.
2. When the verb has an object, the predicate may be repeated before the
object, or the latter may also be repeated: {# f X. f: b. ni hsin puh hsin t'a, or
{{R f {b, ZS f: 5. ni hsin ta puh hsin t'a, you believe him?
3. Very often when an affirmative answer is expected, especially when the
question is long or complicated, instead of repeating the predicate negatively, simply
Z. # puh sh, in the sense of isnt it so? is put in the place of it : , 4. j:
# # EH 5: [E] % As # ni chin-t'ien yao chii ming-ti'en huei lai puh sh, you
wish to go to-day and return to-morrow, don't you ? {b. # # Z. % t"a yao mai puh
sh, he wants to buy, doesn't he P The answer is of course .# sh or ZN .# puh sh,
or the predicate repeated.

4. A still more vulgar form, when an affirmative answer is expected, is to give

only the affirmative part of the predicate, looking for the assent of the interrogated
party: {# 4. j: % T ni chin-ti'en lai-la, you came to-day? ( fi. + }: T
ni wu-sh-h suei la, your are 50? The suggestive particle # pa may be appended
to this form: {b, BH H # # t"a ming-j-h chii pa, I suppose he is going
to-morrow? {j # # # 3. &E T # ni hai che hoping to mien la pa, I
suppose you have had this illness for many years?
5. The general forms of assent to a preposition, not interrogative, are: # sh, #
# sh-tih, # T sh-la, # T twei-la, ZR # puh tso, (no mistake), &c.
2. The second form of interrogative sentences is to append to
the predicate the interrogative # mo (pronounced ma and often
written ||5); # # T # t'a lai-la ma, has he come? A: I # 1';
ch-h-la fan ma, have you eaten? ($ ### F# ni huan yao ch
ma, do you still wish to go? The answer is in the same form as No.
1, above: (#4 H $ # 1's ni chin-j-h nien shu ma, are you studying
to-day? A: 3; # puh nien shu, no.
Remark.When a positive answer is expected, the predicate must be negative:
{. # # # T !' t"a huan muh lai-la ma, has he not yet come PZR # {# I'
puh sh mi ma, is it not you? So when existence or possession is intended, the
negative phrase ZR .# puh sh is followed by Ziff yu : ZS # Ziff Fij |# # + ||#
puh sh yu liang ko hai-ts ma, are there not two children? {# X. # ZH fi # #
'# ni puh sh yu wu k'uai chien ma, have you not five dollars? Another construc
tion is simply to place the negative # muh before yu : {# # Ziff Hj
WH; ni muh yu p'eng-yu ma, have you no friends? fb. # # |# t"a muh yu chien
ma, has he no cash P
3. Alternate questions are construed in the same way as No. 1,
above, i.e., by giving the two sides of the predicate. The second part
of the question may begin with # hoh, E' }, hoh sh: # ($ $ 5.
sh ni sh t'a, is it you or he? 4, 5- # E + EH 5 # ni chin
t'ien ch ch sh ming-t'ien chii, are you going to-day or to-morrow?
# 2, # # # #4 # 3 #5, # # che pen shu sh ni tso tih hoh
sh t'a tso tih, was this book made by you or by him. Ans.: # #5, #
# sh t'a tso tih, it was made by him. Again, the first number may
be closed with the emphatic particle UB ni: H. (b 3: T ): R. Eff sh
ta lai-la ni, sh shuei, was it he that came or who was it? ($ ##
# VE EX + # 5 mi lai chao wo ni, hoh sh chao t'a, did you come
for me or for him?
Remark.The character $ y may be placed between the two parts of a sentence
{# [i] , # $ Z. # you
in the sense of the English or: ask him whether
he wants it or not; # Z. %ll # f Z. wo puh ch-tao hoh yi puh hoh,
do not know whether it suits or not.


THE office of this construction is to describe the subject. The predi

cate is therefore adjective in meaning, although it may be a noun,
verb or adjective.
This construction is regularly formed by placing before the pre
dicate the verb # sh, to exist, followed at the end of the sentence by
the descriptive particle #4 tih. It describes the subject as being one
or more of a class of things of which the same could be predicated:
{{ {# # # # # 63 t'a-men sh tso mai-mai tih, they are of the
merchant class; # # #3; # wo sh yao chii tih, I (am one that)
want (s) to go; ####|ji 65 ni tsuei sh chuh lih tih, you are
one that very much exerts himself ; # 4: # # # F# 65 ta tsung
chien sh k'an men tih, formerly he was a gate-keeper; H. & 5
# #4 # ni sh chin-t'ien lai tih pa, I presume you came to-day, &c.
Here belongs a large class of predicates that describe their
subjects as to their origin: E # # # # # chesh shen-mo tso tih,
what is this made of ? # # # 64 sh tieh tso tih, it is made of iron;
# 4+ K # 3 & #5 # # 64 che chien yi-shang sh t'sung na-lilai
tih, where did this piece of clothing come from ? # # #| # 65 sh
su-chow lai tih, it came from Suchow; # 44; 3% E # 63 che chien
sh ting-tso tih, this piece was made to order; # # # F# # 65 na
sh hsien-cheng mai tih, that was bought ready made.
The copula verb # sh precedes all the modifiers belonging pro
perly to the predicate. The change of position of # sh gives a
different shade of meaning: 5, # # F# G# t'a sh "sung
chien k'an-men tih, he is a former gate-keeper; 5, ### F# 65
t"a tsung-c'hien sh k'an-men tih, he formerly was a gate-keeper, &c.,
that is to say, the modifiers preceding # sh qualify it instead of the


WE conclude the discussion of the clauses of the simple sentence by

giving a brief notice of whatfor want of a better namewe call
Sequents. These are words, phrases, or clauses attached to the end
of the sentence indicating the tendency, extent, or result of the action
of the predicate. They differ from adverbs in that they indicate
the result, &c.; while adverbs indicate the manner of the predicate's
action, e.g., 4th BH # t'a ming shoh, means he speaks clearly, referring
to the manner of his speaking as to enunciation, &c.; (b) # EH ta shoh
ming, means he makes a clear statement, although his pronunciation,
&c., may be very faulty. The one refers to the manner of making
the statement, the other to the character of the statement made.
Remark.In adjective predicates the distinction above given is not always so
clear:# # hen hao, means about the same as # # # hao teh hen.
Sequents may be classified as follows:
1. Sequents of Tendency. These indicate the tendency of the
action of the predicate, without intimating that the result is actually
reached. In form they are generally short words of one or two
syllables. They are used with present or future time in all moods,
especially the imperative: # BH shoh ming, state distinctly; # X
hao chih, very good; # (b. 4R H fah t'a hen chung, punish him very
severely; H ## hsie ts ching-chu, write (so as to be) clear, &c.
2. Sequents of Result. These are united to the sentence by #
teh (or #3 tih), or, the sequent is followed by T liao, both indicate
the reenlt as reached. They are used with past time: # ###
hsie teh ching-chu, written so as to be distinct; #5 || K # 63 fil
# na ko shuei shen tih li-hai, that water is dangerously deep; H #4
P} N # 7, # 2. chung tih chiao jen tai-puh-chi lai, so heavy
that men cannot lift it; R: # T yah ying liao, pressed compact; #
# T c'huan p'o liao, worn through, to rags; +T # T ta shang
liao, struck so as to be wounded.

Remark#4 tih is perhaps wrongly used for # teh, as the two are similar
in sound.

3. Sequents of Extent. These indicate the extent of the predicate

action. (See Chap. vii., 1, 1st, Rem. 4, with Ex.): # Z: # #f $
3 che pen sha hao teh to, this book is much better; # ### + #
# na chang choh-ts kao hsie, that table is a little higher; # F# #
* # - # na tso chiang-pih kao yih chang, that wall is one chang
(10 ft.) high; # F# E R # it; BH chii teu san c'h-h yu shen-ming,
raise the head three feet and you have the gods.
Remark.This variety may or may not take # teh according as the result is or
is not supposed to have been reached.

4. Sequents of Number, used with verbal predicates to indicate

the number of times the action of the verb takes place. The words
used as sequents are # t'ang, t's, # tuen, [E] huei, &c., which may
be translated times, &c.: # # - # chii ko yih t'ang, went once;
# T E lai la sant's, have come three times; ### E lai ko
chi huei, how often did you come; # # J' 2, yao chii li t's, must
go many times.
Remark.This variety does not admit of # teh.
Note.Sequents must not be confounded with the completives following verbs.
In the former the character# teh implies that the result is actually obtained, in the
latter it implies only the possibility of bringing to completion the action of the predicate.

FROM what has been said in former Chapters, it may be readily seen
that the relative normal positions of the clauses in a sentence are
as follows:
(1). At the head ofor rather, beforethe sentence, come
General Introductory Clauses and Words. Then comes
(2). The Subject, preceded by its modifying words;
(3). The Predicate, preceded by its modifying words;
(4) The Object, if any, preceded by its modifying words;
(5). Finally, there may follow a sequent, concluding the sentence.
Thus the sentence in its normal form. We must now look at the
variations from this form. While the position of attributive modifiers
with reference to the words modified is fixed, i.e., the former precede
the latter, the clauses with reference to each other have not an
invariable position. Emphasis may change their relative position.
Hence, the Emphatic Position of clauses. Before going further, it
may be well to state, first, that the Chinese do not express emphasis,
as we do, by difference in type, nor yet necessarily by tone of voice,
| but more generally by the position of emphatic word or clause in the
sentence. Second, That the emphatic position is at the beginning of the
sentence. Hence, when it is desirable to emphasize any given clause of
the sentence, this clause is taken out of its normal position and placed
at the beginning of the sentence. We will now take up the clauses of
the sentence that are thus brought forward and notice peculiarities.
1. The most frequent and important clause in this construction
is the object of a transitive verb. It is brought forward under two
1st. By simply placing the object at the beginning of the
sentence: # | }{# # ($ 4: $ H # na ko teng-lung ni teh chao
chuh lai, that lantern, you must hunt it up; - # 7. 44 yih yen
puh tah, not a word is said in reply; # E #4 M #5, # # # sh
shang tih jen ta tu neng ai, he is able to love all men.

Remarks.-1. When no subject is mentioned, the construction may be passive; see

second example above (Comp. xiii., 1): 3: # # # # # gi-shang teh hsi kam
ching, clothes must be washed clean; #5 # {# .# # T WH; na feng hsin tai chil
la ma, has that letter been taken P # 5' 6' 3% # # F# 95 hsien-cheng tih
wi-fuh neng mai ma, can ready made clothing be bought P
2. When the object thus brought forward refers to a person, i.e., is a noun or
pronoun, its normal place in the sentence may be filled by a pronoun, as in English:
#5 # M {j H] J) # {. #| # # # na ko jen ni k'o -yi sung t'a tao cheng
lichii, that man, you may accompany him to the city; : 5% &# # W {i, #
Li hsien-sheng yao han ta lai, Mr. Li, you must call him to come. (See chap. xi, 3).
3. The emphasis of this construction may be strengthened by placing before the
object the adverb # lien and before the predicate # ye: # 5. #j # +
4. 't T lien t'a tih hsiai-ts ye mai liao, even his shoes were also sold ;
# # {. #, ZK. $5 lien fan ta ye puh c'h-h, he does not eat even rice ;
# - # 4, Z. # lien yih yen ye puh tah, not even a word is said in reply.
(2). By bringing forward the object introduced by an instru
mental verb # pa, # chiang (rare in colloquial), and (more loosely) #
na, meaning to take. Vulgar English has the same idiom (take and
do this), but this construction in Chinese is standard. Of the verbs
given, pa is most commonly used in speech, # chiang is used in
books: # # + # 5 chiang choh-ts no k'ai, move the table away;
# F##### E pa men tu kuan shang, shut up all the doors; # # #
# # # # # T #5, #j wopa che-hsie huo tu kao-su liao t'a-men, I
have told them all these words. By inserting a pronoun in the
normal place of the object (see (1) Rem. 2), this construction and the
one above under (1) may be combined: #k # #j ($ 4+ {, }k #
juan-joh tih ni teh pat'a fu-chu, the weak you must support.
Remarks.-1. It must be observed that in the above idiom (2) the verbal predicate
must be completed. (See chap. xiii., 1)., e.g., we cannot say: # # #5 # pa men tw.
kuan, we must add a completive, else the sense is not clear.
2. When the subject of the sentence is expressed, it begins the sentence;
{# # #E # {# # # ni pa che feng hsin sung chil, take this letter.
3. The tense-signs # ko and T liao are connected with the principal, not
with the instrumental verb, but adverbs and auxiliaries precede the latter:
## ## # # # T wo pa na pen shu mai ko la, I sold that book:
# # {b, # # # T chiang-yao pa t'a-men shah chin liao, will exterminate
4. This construction connects itself with that of such verbs as #fi hsii, # chih
(pronounced here chi) to allow, |: chiao, to cause, &c., followed by an infinitive :
ZS g # J. # + # # 5. # puh chi hsiao hai-ts tsai che li wan-wan,
do not allow little children to play here. The fundamental idea seems to be to
take the matter in hand and do it wg.
5. As the construction No. (2) is more commonly used than No. (1), it is also
less emphatic.

2nd. The Subject. When this is thus emphasized it is really

placed before the sentence. Its normal place in the sentence may
then be filled by a pronoun or a term denoting quantitative opposition.
(See Chap. iv., 3): # k # VE #5 B # Ji + # T Li ta ko ni ta
yi-ching wu-sh-h suei la, brother Li, he is already 50; R. t # #
J. V. Jan sh tu teh hsiao-hsin, in everything one must be careful;
# || M #####5, #: @ #! na ko jen wo jen-sh-h t'a tih fu-chin,
that man, I know his father; III # A k ##! #4 # + # Shan
tung jen ta-kai sh ta ko-ts tih, Shan-tung men are generally large in
stature. (Compare Chap. xi, 3, 3rd, with which this construction
is really identical).
3rd. The Predicate, when emphasized is, like the subject,
placed before the sentence, and since it cannot be represented by a
pronoun, it is itself repeated in its normal place. The predicate, when
thus brought forward, leaves behind it all modifying words and tense
signs: # # # #4 hao shao hao tih, as to good it will do, but ; # 2,
# 35 (; T ping pih ping s ni liao, as to your getting sick, it will
sicken you to death; # # ## # E # tseush tseu teh ma-shang
k'uai, as to going, it goes at a galloping pace.
Remarks.1. When the predicate has an object, the latter may also be brought
forward, and in this case it need not be repeated with the predicate in its normal
position: #T # # # # #T # 5% # ta 8a0 ti-pan yao ta-sao kan-ching, in
sweeping the floor, you must sweep it clean; or only a modifier of the predicate, or a
sequent may fill its place: f: I. # # ji tso kung yao chuh lih, in work you
must put forth strength.
2. When an infinitive after an indicative is emphasized, the latter ends the
sentence, preceded by the infinitive. This is true, especially of the two verbs of
direction% lai and # chii : # # # T k'an shuei lai liao, came to see whom ?
# # # # #T wo-men c'huan taolai liao, we come to preach; {b, it # #T
t"a mai shu chii liao, he went to sell books, &c.

4. When Sequents are brought forward, they are repeated in

their normal place, accompanied by modifiers, if any : # # 4: 5:
k'uai tseu hen kuai, as to fast, he goes very fast; # It 5, # 7.
j- # 1't chieh-sh-h t'a pang teh puh ta chieh-sh-h, as to secure, he
did not bind it very secure.
5. The ordinary infinitive, after an indicative, is also brought
forward for emphasis, as in English: # UE # j, c'hu ti ni wu lih,
as to digging, I have no strength; # # WB # # t'ao fun ni p'a c'h,
to beg, I am ashamed.

Conjunctions and the Connection of Words, Clauses and Sentences.

SINCE Conjunctions connect and show the relation between words,
clauses and sentences, the subject of conjunctions will also include a
discussion of simple, compound and subordinate sentences with refer
ence to their inter-relations. This whole subject may be divided as
follows: -

1. The connection of Substantivesnouns and pronouns.

2. The connection of Modifiers and Predicates.
3. The connection of Co-ordinate Sentences.
4. The connection of Principal with Subordinate Sentences.
1. The Connection of Substantives. These may be connected
without, or with the use of conjunctions.
1st. Without conjunctions.
(1). When two or more substantives are taken together as one
conception, no conjunction is used: # + wah-ts hsiai, socks and
shoes; 5: # t'ien ti, heaven and earth; j\ }{i : 4% t'ien ti wan wuh,
heaven, earth and all things-the universe; III 2k shan shuei, hill and
waterlandscape; H H II # er muh k'eu pih, ears, eyes, mouth
and nosethe countenance; H H R K j-h yieh hsing chen, sun,
moon, stars and empty space-the sky, the heavens; # # ni wo,
you and Iwe; + I fish nung kung shang, scholars, farmers,
artizans and merchants-citizens; # =E # E chtiin-wang kuan
shang, emperor and mandarins-the rulers; R 5: # T min-fu
ping-ting, citizens and soldiers-the people, &c.
(2). When there is placed at the end of the list of substantives
a general term summing up the whole, such as # teng, # lei, class;
# yang, kind, &c.; or, a term denoting quantitative opposition. (See
chap. iv., 3): # ### chuan c'he tu yu, boats and carts are all on
hand; # # k H J H - # # = # wo yao tac'he, hsiao che,
er-pa-shew San yang, I want large, small, and double end barrows,
these three kinds; ########| ma, lo, niu, lii, chu, yang,
teng-lei, horses, mules, cows, donkeys, hogs, sheep, &c.
2nd. With Conjunctions. Conjunctions are used.

(1). Between substantives that express different conceptions, as

where there is an implied contrast, &c.; # #1 (b. # # # # wo ho
t"a muh yu lai-wang, I have no intercourse with him; # # fil # #
chiu-yoh ho hsin-yoh, the Old Testament and the New ; # # | fil
# El H; # pa che-ko ho na-ko pi-liang, compare this with that;
# 4: E 44; hsien-sheng t'ung hsioh sheng, teachers and pupils, &c.
(2). When there is danger of confounding some other relation,
such as apposition, the possessive, &c., with co-ordination existing
between two or more terms: # 5 # 4 t'a-men hsien-sheng, might
mean they, the teachers (apposition), or their teachers (possession);
to make co-ordination clear a conjunction must be inserted: # "j fil
# 4: t'a-men ho hsien-sheng, they and the teacher; so # 54 # #
sheng-tien yoh-kuei, may mean the ark of the temple, but with a
conjunction the co-ordinate idea is unmistakeable: # A fil # #
sheng-tien ho yoh-kuei, the temple and the ark. Thus in numberless
The conjunctions used under Nos. (1) and (2) above are # yi
(in bookish style), fil ho (general in northern mandarin), and [H] tung
(general in southern mandarin), all meaning with, together with.
Remark.Other words are used as conjunctions instead of the above terms in
dialetic variations, but are not good mandarin.
(3). In enumerating more than two co-ordinate substantives the
conjunctions just given may be omitted, except before the last term,
precisely as in English. Or, which is preferable, the last term may
be added as something extra by using the conjunctions j ping, # H.
ping-chie, moreover, # lien, even, too, X chih, or J. K. yi-chih, up
to the extreme: J # + # M H E # A R ######## hsiao
hai-ts ni-jen t'ung nien-lao jen puh neng pu-hsing tseu lu, little
children, women and old persons cannot travel on foot; # 63 AH #
# JL #5. Ef 64 t'a tih niu li ping fan ta so yu tih, his cows and
donkeys, with everything that he has; JJ + X + fil #8 + # 5 #
H #4 tao-ts cha-ts ho ch-ts sh c'h fan yung tih, knives, forks and
spoons are used in taking meals; # 6' 5 + # # # # + # 35
T t'a tih er-ts, kuei-m lien chi-ts tu sla, his son and daughter and
even his wife all died. So also when the conjunctions used above
under 2nd (2) are already in the sentence, the last co-ordinate term
or terms may be attached by conjunctions given under (3): 64 R;
# fil # # # NH + & # T # T t'a tih ma-kua ho t'ao-k'u ping

mao-ts chien toh liao chii liao, his coat and leggings and also his cap
were all snatched away; # 65 (#4% [i] # # 3: # C. K. R. Ef
# ##### Two tih chia-ho t'ung shu ping yi-fuh yi-chih fan so yu
tih tu shao-tiao liao, my furniture and books and clothing, together
with all that I possessed, were all destroyed by fire; 3E ' fi j<
# El K. 5< T ##### # tsai peh-ching hot'ien-chin yi-chih t'ien
hsia chih yien tih pien-chiai, in Peking and Tientsin and even to the
uttermost limits of the Empire.
Remarks.1. When both terms of two co-ordinate substantives are emphatic,
each is preceded by # lien, or the first by # lien, the second by # tai, like the
English bothand : # # # # # # lien shu-hsiang lien p'u-kai, both book
boxes and bedding; # 2: M # # + lien n-jen tai hai-ts, both women and

2. When two or more objects come after the same verb, the latter may be
repeated before each object, in which case no canjunction is used, (comp. 3rd
below): 't # # # W: H #. mai peh-tsai mai jew mai yii, buy cabbage and
meat and fish. The repetition may be avoided by using synonyms: # 4: # #
shah miu tsai yang, kill oxen and sheep; #% III # # Jan shan ko ling, go around
mountains and cross over hills.

2. The Connection of Modifiers, i.e., adjectives and adverbs.

These are generally connected without conjunctions, unless the latter
are especially called for. The following cases may be specified:
1st. The last term may be attached as something extra by using
the conjunctions: # H. ping-chie, iff H. er-chie, or # H k'uang
chie. (Compare (3) above): it; # # If H ## nien shu hsie ts
er-chie c'huan tao, read, write and also preach; 4 5: 5% + +
# # & N. W. H. H. # chin-t'ien hsien-sheng yush-c'hing Ju k'eh-jen
k'uang-chie yu ping, to-day the teacher has business, his guests and
furthermore is ill; # 3 || # f # * if H # Z: # 63 A t'a sh
ko lao-sh chung-hsin ping-chie yu pen-sh tih jen, he is an honest,
faithful and withall a talented man, &c.
2nd. When two verbs follow a subject in close succession, they
may be united by the men-li conjunction if er in the sense of the
English and : f: Hij : # 65 hsin er sheu hsi tih, those that
believe and receive baptism; $ in # sung er lai, take and bring.
3rd. The object of two or more transitive verbs may be repeated
after each verb, like (3), Remark 2 above, and thus answer the
purpose of conjunctions: f: (b. 5: 5, 5 hsin ta ai t'a ken ta,
believe, love and obey him. So also an adverb is repeated before an

adjective: # # # k # # 63 H SH hen kao hen ta hen chung tih

sh-h-t'eu, very tall, large, heavy stones; # ### ch sheng ch shan,
extremely holy and good.
Note:-The repetition of the words in question is necessary in this construction
in order to avoid the verbs or adjectives running into compounds.
4. When each of two or more terms are emphatic, each is
preceded by X yu or ye, or, as under above (3), Rem. 1, by #
lien# tai : X #: N yu chuang yu ta, both strong and large;
5, #5, #1 ye tseu ye p'ao, both walking and running; # # # #
lien suny tai mai, both give away and sell; X # X # yu chuan yu
chiang, both preach and lecture. The same idea is expressed by
placing before each of two terms the phrase - il yih mien: - ifi
# - Ifil 4 yih mien chiao yih mien hsioh, both teaching and learning
- Ril 5: - Ifil & yih mien k'uh yih mien hsiao, both weeping and
5. What will now be said of the other classes of conjunctions
applies to the connection of both substantives and predicates under
1 and 2 above.
1st. Disjunctive connection (Eng. eitheror) is indicated
(1), by E. hoh, E' }, hoh sh, or # # hoh-che before each number of
a compound: E. H. # E # 65 hoh sh nihoh sh t'a, it is either you
or he; HR 3 By # # # hoh hsi hoh nu wu yih ting, whether
pleased or angry is uncertain; # k E. 'J, hoh ta hoh hsiao, whether
large or small; # ########### hoh-che tsai chelihoh
che tsai na li, either here or there.
(2). By 7: # puh sh, before the first of two terms and # #
shiu sh, before the second: T. H. ($ # # (b. puh sh ni chiu sh t'a,
if it is not you, it is he, it is either you or he; # T. H. (# # # #
# # wo puh sh c'huan tao chiush mien shu, we either preach or read;
2, # # # # # puh sh heh shiu sh peh, it is either black or white.
(8). After # 8 wu luen, Z. 3 puh luen, &c., two or more
terms are disjunctively connected: # 8 J, wu luen ta hsiao, no
matter whether large or small; # # 4: H 4: ## IJ J'I + wu
luen tso che tso chuan tu ko-yi chii, can go either by cart or boat;
7. H. H." #h puh men chung-kueh wai-kueh, either Chinese or

2nd. Negative disjunction (Eng. neithernor) is made by

a negative predicate after terms connected with conjunctions: # #
# ##| || #5 ZR # 3. lien che-ko tai na-ko tu puh hoh-sh-h, neither
this nor that fits; B' # # 4: By # #5 T. # # hoh tseu hoh tso
hoh t'ang tu puh shu-fuh, not easy either walking, sitting or lying
down; ZF # 54 (5 + (b. 5 ( i puh luen sh nish t'a tu puh neng,
neither you nor he is able.
3rd. Antithtical disjunction is expressed by placing Z. {H puh
tan, ## (H fei tan, or # # wei tuh before the first term, and ##
chiu sh, # H. ping chieh, &c., before the second: R (H # # #
# (b. puh tan sh wo chiu sh t'a, not only it is I but also he; R (H #
# fj H. # # puh tan nien shu er-chie hsie ts, not only read, also
write; # (H # in H E 1 fei tan huang-nien er-chie fan-luan,
not only famine but also rebellion.
3. The Connection of Co-ordinate Sentences and Clauses.
What was stated above under 2 holds true here as a general
principle, viz., That where sentences are strictly co-ordinate in time
and logical relation, they simply follow one after the other without any
connecting words. Conjunctions in Chinese generally have a meaning
of their own besides simply connecting sentences. Hence, when there
occurs a diversion out of the direct line of discourse, a turning back, a
new starting point, an addition, &c., a conjunction is introduced having
a suitable meaning, to note this break in the sentence. The principal
conjunctions will now be classified according to their uses in co-ordinate
sentences and clauses.
1st. An advance from a new starting point in the discourse is
indicated by # chin, ipien (in books), then, ff.: # y sh, thereupon
(lit. at this), # tsai, j fang, j ##) fang-ts'ai, or #| # kang-ts'ai,
all meaning then, just then, just now; and by It # t's heu, J.I #
yi heu, ###jau heu, &c., afterwards: 3: T # ' ' If H + T
t"a lai liao wo-men chiu tung shen chila, when he had come, we then
started and left; 5, # t'a chiu shoh, he then said; ## E # #3
# III C, # # tuh shu shang-chin tih pien k'o-yi tso kuan, those that
study and make advancement may become mandarins; # + # #
# # # 3: H #3 ### nan-ts yu teh chiu sh ts'ai ni-ts wu ts'ai
chiu sh teh, when men have virtue, that is endowment, when women
have no endowments, that is virtue; 2% H ## T tsj-h ts'ai chila,
74 -

he left on the next day; ##| 4 # E ###| T Mi ni tao chin

t'ien wan shang tsai lai-tao la ma, did you just arrive to-day at night
fall? # T H # E H ###ET ko liao wu-peh nien kueh-tu ts'ai
hsing-wang la, after 500 years the kingdom prospered; 'B' | # +
j # # che ko fah-ts fang-ts'ai hao, this plan then is good; # #
# F# F# #5, #! # ## T wo-men tao liao cheng men ta kang
ts'ai chuh lai la, when we arrived at the city gate he had just come
out; # 4 & 5< # # 5 - # C. # ZS # 35 wo-men chin
t'ien huan yao chii yih t'ang yi-heu tsai puh neng chii, we will go
to-day once more, thereafter we cannot go again; #5, # It # ZS 3:
t"a shoh t's heu puh chii, he says that after this he is not going. Of
the above conjunctive terms only # # y sh and the lacatives C.
yi heu, &c., precede the subject of the sentence, if the subject is given,
all the others follow it.
2nd. A sentence adding something extra is marked by # huan,
still, yet; X yu, again; # tsai, again; #5 ye, also; H chie, now,
further, all following the subject; or, by # # tsai-che, again,
further: }; # t's wai, besides; # # huan yu, still more; in H.
er-chie, 3 H k'uang chie, moreover, furthermore, all preceding the
subject: # # - # huan yu yih yang, there is still one kind;
5K # - || M. yu yu yih ko jin, again there was a man; # 8, #
- #! # wo ye yu yih chi hua, I also have a word; # #####
tsai-che wo-men shoh, again, we say that; # 55 (b. 4, R + 2}:
ts wait'a ye puh k'en lai, besides, he is not willing to come; ## 5.
t # j: R ### huan yu "a shoh yu sh puh neng lai, still more,
he says he is engaged and (therefore) cannot come; 5 H #5, # ##
k'uang-chie t'a shoh yu ping, furthermore, he says he is ill; 5, 5
H # # ni-men chie c'h k'an, you go now and see.
3rd. A sentence marking an adversative idea is marked by #|
chioh, Ji nai, however; 5 #jeng-jan, all the same; # # wu-nai,
but ; E fan, #| tao, 5 fan-tao, on the contrary, all of which,
except # # wu-nai, follow the subject of the sentence; and [H tan,
{H # tan sh, but; R ch-h, R. # ch-h sh, Z: # puh ko, only;
and # Wii jan-er, nevertheless; # 1' chi sh-h, but the fact is, all
preceding the subject: ####### t'a shoh yao lai c'hioh
mah yu lai, he said he would come, but has not come; # 4: # #
# A f: # 2, ### # E yi-sheng neng chiu pieh jen tao wei pih neng

chiu ts-chi, physicians can save others, but not always themselves;
{b #! # # #| Z. 41 # t'a ch-tao ni c'hioh puh ch-tao, he knows,
but you do not; A. H. A. D. #4 #### A J5 # H II #4 #8 #5
# A puh sh juh k'eu tih neng ww-huei jen naish chuh k'eu tih neng
ww-huei jen, Matt. xv., 11; # # 3: $; # ## (; ; ZF # #wo
men lai c'huan tao wu-nai ni-men puh t'ing tao, we come to proclaim
doctrine, but you will not hear it; 5, f ##### E # - fil
Z: ta shoh huei chiang ching shu fan-tao yih chi puh huei, he said
he could explain the classics, but not one sentence can he explain;
# # # 3 #### 4H # # # # Z. K wo yu hsil-to hua shoh tan
sh hsien-tsai shoh-pul-chi, I have a great deal to say, but at present
have not the time; # [i] & # T (H #f ; if k #j # woku-jan
tso liao tan tseh-pei tih hua tai li-hai, I have made a mistake, sure
enough, but (your) words of reproof are too severe; # || A Iff
_E 4: # Wii U, # ## T che ko jen tsai mien shang hsiao jan-er
hsin li k'u chih la, this man wears a smiling face, nevertheless in his
heart he is extremely miserable; (b. E:## JR #4 5- Z. #8 t'a ting
yao lai ch-h sh chin-t'ien puh neng, he certainly intends to come, only
he cannot do so to-day; # F# # # Z: # # # # wo yien-yi mai
puh ko muh yu chien, I desire to buy, only I have no cash; A # 3.
# # It # (b. 64 AH # jen shoh sh t'a chi sh-h sh t'a tih peng-yu,
they say it is he, but the truth is, it is his friend. So also two
adversative conjunctionsa stronger and a weakermay occur in the
same sentence: BH BH # b # 643; H # b # 7. Hi HH ming-ming
sh t'a c'hi tih sh tan sh t'a c'hioh puh chuh t'eu, clearly it is an affair
begun by him, but he, however, does not show himself; H # 5,
ZF # B), tan sh t'a tao puh shoh-ming, but he, however, does not make
a clear statement.

4th. A co-ordinate sentence bringing in the conclusion is intro

duced by #| T 5 tao liao-er, to come to the end; # T moh-liao,
# # T 5: moh-moh liao-er, the end; #| A tao-ti, finally; #
chiu-ching, after all, &c.: # T #5, # # moh-liao t'a chiu shoh,
at last he then said; # 3 ($ $ 3, 2P # tao-ti ni yao to-shao chien,
to come to the point, how much money do you want? {# T # #
5K # # T # # T t'a teng liao hao chi t'ien moh-moh-liao ts'ai
ch liao, he waited a number of days and finally left; # # R +
# 54 f. chiu-ching puh sh che-mu yang, after all, it not thus,

Remark.A general subject is generally introduced by # #! lwen tao, # #|

chiang tao, # # ch yil, &c., with reference to # #| # {# # lwen, tao che

chien sh, with reference to this affair, &c.

4. The Connection of Principal and Subordinate Sentences and
Subordinate Sentences may be divided into two general classes:
1st, Those preceding the Principal Sentence; 2nd, Those following
the Principal Sentence.
The former sustain a relation to the principal clause similar to
that of modifiers to the words modified; the latter, on the other
hand, are similar to sequents in their relation to the principal sentence.
1st. Subordinates preceding the principal sentence.
(1). It is very common to place a subordinate sentence before a
principal, without any conjunctions, the former sentence simply modify
ing the latter in a general way, while the latter completes the meaning
of the former. This is the simplest and most common form of protasis
and apodosis. The sense may be conditional, temporal, concessive,
&c.; or, there may be more than one of these ideas implied in a given
sentence. When the protasis and apodosis are strictly contempor
aneous, the latter follows the former without an introductory adverb
or conjunction; when the time is, or is conceived to be later, the
apodosis has # chiu, # tsai, X. pih, &c. (Comp. 3, 1st, above): #
# # # # E # # # ni yao chien wo tsai cheli yu chien, if, or,
when, or since, you want money, I have some here; (; ; # # #
# ni yao chii wo sung ni, as you wish to go, I will accompany you;
A # # # IJ J'I # jen yu sh-ching k'o-yi lai, if, or, when, &c.,
any one has business, he may come; # ### F# # yu ping ts'ai
hao ch-h yoh, when one is sick it is well to take remedies; # 5R 4
# yu chiu pih teh, if, or where, or when, &c., there is prayer, it shall
be answered; # #| H R & J & #: Two-men k'an-chien k'eh-tien
chiu chu hsia, if, or when, &c., we see an inn, we will put up; # #
# $ $ WS 2# WE muh yu sh wei shen-mo lai ni, since you have no
business, why do you come; # # # # # A wo chi chiang
muh yu jen ting, suppose I go to explain, there is no one to listen,
&c., &c.
We now come to where the protasis is divided into different
varieties as indicated by adverbial terms or particles. The first
variety that we will notice is the -

(2). Temporal protasis, which notes the time at which the action of
the apodosis takes place. This time in the protasis may be indicated.
(a). By the perfect tense with T liao in the sense of the English
perfect participle having, &c. (Comp. Chap. vi., 2, 1st. (3), a. with
ex.): #| T ###### tao liao cheng li tsai hao, when get into
the city, we shall be all right; J T 5: # # # T tao liao t'ien
liang chiu chil liao, went at daybreak; # E T (T S 2# # # #
t"a tseu liao ni chiu lai kao-su wo, when he has gone, come at once
and tell me; # # T E # j: # "j }. H fji pan-cheng liao cle
chien sh wo-men chiu c'h-h fan, when we have finished this affair, we
will eat; (b. 2: # T # # 3: I t'a lai liao wo chiu chil liao, he
having come, I then went away.
Note.It will be seen that in this idiom the apodosis contains a progressive term
tsai, # chiu, &c. See above under (1). - *

(b). By the use of a locative of time in the protasis (see Chap.

xi., 2nd): ###2% ########## t'a muh yu lai ch
hsien wo-men huan tsai cheng li chu-choh, before he came we were still
living in the city; # # #4 # (b. E. # 3: I wo lai tih sh-hew
t"a yi-ching chii liao, at the time of my coming, he had already gone;
|######### E # 5 #4, # 3: T lin chung tih sh-heush shang
tih fuh-chi chien ko chil liao, when the end (i.e., death) comes, the
happiness of this world shall all have gone by ; E 2 # 5, [E]
# # I san nien ch heu t'at'sai huei chia chii liao, after three years
he returned home.
(c). By the term # # chi-sh when, beginning the protasis,
followed by # chiu, # tsai, &c., or # # chi-sh, repeated correla
tively in the apodosis: # " # # # # # # # #ff (; wo-men
chi-sh tsai lai chiu yao kao-su ni, when we come again we will tell
you; # # # IHI # # # ##### # # t'a chi-sh huei-lai tsai hao
chiang che chien sh-c'hing, when he returns it will then be suitable to
talk about this matter; # ####### chi-sh neng chi-sh chil, go
whenever you can.
(3). A Conditional protasis, formally expressed, is introduced by
conditional particles, such as # # joh sh, # # t'ang-joh, #j B'
t'ang-hoh, #11 # ju-joh, &c., meaning if. The apodosis follows as
under No. (1) above: ##! (b. As 3' # Z$ 3; joh sh t'a puh lai wo
puh chi, if he does not come, I will not go; # # # Z. {# # IJ
p1 || # A t'ang-johni puh hsin wo k'o-yi wen p'ang jen, if you do

not believe me, you may ask others; # # 65 ZR # 5 # # #

###### t'ang-joh shoh t'a puh hao hsin lichiu chien-chien yien
hen chi lai, if one speaks of his being not good, there will gradually
arise in the heart hatred (against him); # E 5, # T joh chien
t"a chiu pa liao, if one sees him, that will end the matter. (See Gospel
of John, 6, 44; 6,62, &c).
(4). A Concessive protasis, formally expressed, contains chiu sh,
granting that; # suei, ## sueijan, although; or, when the notion
of time comes in, by # chi, #% # chi-jan, since seeing that. The
apodosis may begin with a suitable conjunction, generally one of the
adversatives or finals, #| c'hioh, # If jan-er, #| | tao-ti, &c.: # ||
# + #####| T # # # # + che ko fah-ts suei-jan la-tao la
huan yu kofah-ts, although this plan has fallen through, there is still
another; # ##### H H #4 # If H > f : T # A fij :R 4: wo
sueijan sh ts-yu tih jan-er kan hsin tso liao chung jen tih nu-p'uh, al
though I am free, yet I have willingly become the servant of all men;
{, }### 5:###| R. # # E ### t'a chiu sh che-mot'so tao-ti
huan neng huei-chuan-ko lai, although he is so far wrong, he can yet
after all return; # # # W:# # F# 49 jR ####| chiu sh che
mo yien wo-men chin-t'ien han kan-teh-tao, although it is so distant, we
can still get there to-day; 5, # 35 T (; ZF H + t'a chi-jans
liao ni puh yung chii, since he is dead, you have no need to go;
5, x # 7, 2% (5 k + t'a chi-jan puh lai ni kai chii, since he is not
coming, you ought to go; ### 3& # 63 vs. # # 2, ## (##
sueijan sh fu-mutih hsin-chang wei pih muh yu p'ien ai, although
it be the parents affections, they are not necessarily impartial; # *f
# # # # # ZS fir suei chien fah wan chi huan sh puh hsing,
although (we have) numberless plans and devices, it will not act.
(5). When an a fartori idea is formally expressed, the protasis
generally begins with fi H shang-chie, the apodosis with 3 ho
k'uang, how much more, or less? & # tsen-mo, how 2 #5%# na-li,
where? fij H. Z. EJ ##| A fij :# 6, HI # # E WE shang-chie
puh k'o shah pieh jen ho-k'uang tao k'o shah ts-chi ni, since we have
no right to kill others, how much less ourselves? # #4 #fff H.
# Z: # f X if fiq E H WE wo tih hua shang-chie tang-puh-c'hi
ho-k'uang shen tih cheu-tsu ni, if my words cannot be endured, how
much less God's curse. (See John, iii., 12; 2 Cor. iii., 78.)

(6). In a compound sentence giving the reason for a course

of action, the protasis has 5 yin, wei, and their compounds.
(See Chap. xi., 2, 2nd); the apodosis has E. J.I so-yi, therefore;
}, yin-t's, # 1't ku t's, for this reason, &c.; # # 3.
#4 # E DI # Z. 38 + yin-wei yu hsii-totih sh so-yi wo puh neng
chii, be there is so much business, therefore I cannot go; # 63 A
# E PI # Z. If wei tih jen to so-yi chi-puh-tung, because of the
many people one has not strength to press through; # T 5, #
# It # 35 wei liao t'a ching woku t's wo chii, because he invites
me, for this reason I go; # 6, # 5: ZF # Ef E! # # # 5 T
wei tih t'uei t'oh-puh-k'ai so-yi wo t'sai cheng-ying liao, it was because
I had no way to get out of it that I promised.
Remark.When caution or fear is the cause, the protasis has # p'a, # #
k'ung-p'a, ### wei-k'ung, for fear, lest; # * * Z. {# # Ef DI ## # H.
k'ung-p'a ni puh tsai chia so-yi wo lai teh tsao, for fear you should not be at
home, I therefore came early, 'H # Z. # # # j}: #2k 4: #5 {R p'a ni puh
hsiao-teh ku t's wolai kao-sw ni, lest you should not know it, therefore I came to tell
yon; : {b, ZS # | ### % wei-kung t'a puh lai yin t's kai c'h
han ta, lest he do not come, for this reason one ought to go and call him.
(7). A compound sentence instituting a comparison is indicated
by the protasis beginning with # ning, # II ning k'o, or ## yi
chi, rather, better; ZF in puhju, not like; # # 3: H # F# # +
R # # ning k'en to yung chiliang yin-ts mai hao tih, better be
willing to spend a few taels more so as to buy good ones; # H] p
# - # 7. ET 1: 3; # 7 ft ning k'o shao nien yih tien puh k'o
t"an to nien puh huei, better read a little less than desire to read much
and not comprehend it; # # 35 ZR HI # # y chi s puh k'o sah
huang, better die than falsify; R in # # 5 $ # puhju chi:
kao-su t'a sai hao, had better go and tell him then it will be
all right.
2nd. Subordinate Sentences following the Principal Sentence.
These generally indicate purpose or result and follow the principal
sentence as sequents follow simple sentences. We will notice
(1). Those indicating aim or purpose.
(a). When both the principal and subordinate clause have the
same subject. Here the latter may follow the former immediately
with any connecting word. When, however, the idea of purpose
is emphatic, such words as # yao, wish; ## Ku yi, for the
purpose of ; # * *eh wei, ## t'eh yi, on purpose, may introduce

the subordinate clause: (# 3: I' (b. nichii chiao t'a, you go to call
him; E. T. H. ''{1 + t'a shang liao ma p'ao chii, he mounted a
horse to flee; # || |H| # # 3' + wo-men huei chia chien fu-mu,
we are going home to visit our parents; t # # 2, # t'a
shang ching pan kung sh, he goes to the capital on public business;
# # 5% + # # # #wo ching hsien-sheng lai yao hsioh kuan
hua, I call a teacher to learn mandarin; #55 E M #| H E # #
# ### yu wai-kueh jen to chung-kueh lai teh wei yao fah tsai,
there are foreigners who come to China for the special purpose of
acquiring wealth; (b | # E # 3: A # # t'a-men che-mo
tso ku yi yao jen k'an chien, they act thus especially to be seen by men.
(b). When the subjects of the principal and subordinate clauses
are not the same, the latter is introduced by Pi chiao, # sh, (# 4:
sh-teh, to cause, in order to: # F# # (# # 4 ($ 'j je 4: # Ig
wo-men lai ch'uan tao chiao ni-men ta teh hao-chu, # # 63 HE #
|# # 5 WS # UE yi-choh ni tih chu-yi chiao wo tsen-mo pan ni,
according to your idea, how would you have me manage it; (; 5 #
5, i (b. 5: #8 (# F# ni ch'i pang t'a sh t'a k'uai neng tso cheng,
you go and help him in order that he may complete it quickly.
(See Matt. v., 14, 15, &c.)
(c) Negative purpose, the avoidance of a certain end is indicated
by beginning the final subordinate sentence with % #mien teh, #4,#
sheng teh, or with a negative before || chiao, or a negative predicate
after || chiao, &c.: # ## J. # + # 4:# (b | # #| yao k'an choh
hsiao hai-ts mien teh t'a-men tieh-tao, you must watch the children
lest they fall down; # j< * (# {fi: # "j # 4:# F# G# $# # yen
t'ien fu pao-yu wo-men mien teh hsien tsai tsuei li, may the Heavenly
Father protect us from falling into sin; # #3; # #### I j
yao k'uai chii sheng teh tan-wu kung-fu, you must go quickly so as to
save time; J. V. Z. P} {: " : 4; hsiao-hsin puh chiao t'a-men
hsiao-teh, be careful so as not to let them know; # ## (b. 7. It':
{b 3: # k #| # yao an-weit'a puh chiao t'a yu-c'heu t'ai li-hai,
must comfort him so that he sorrow not too excessively.
(2). Those indicating result.
(a). When the principal and subordinate sentences have the
same subject, the latter is introduced by # ch, #3: shen ch, ###
shen ch y, ifi ] ch-h tao, &c., all meaning up to the point indicated

in the sentence; also by # teh, to get, obtain: 5, 5 # E fl 33 fix

# XE (b t'a tih ping puh neng ch y ping sta, his illness cannot
cause his death; 5, ; # If # 3 ff. A # # # # T ta chuan
chiang ch-h tao t'ing tih jen tu k'uh-chi lai la, he preached until the
hearers all began to weep; # 6: A \, 4+ hsiang-hsin tih jen
pih teh chiu, those that believe shall obtain salvation; # E 5: !? 4+
E (b. 6; Ifil wo ming-t'ien pih teh chien ta tih mien, to-morrow I shall
get to see his face; # # # A # # #5, # 25 fl. 5. H. '
# 5, 5 shen aish jen shen ch pat'a tuh sheng tiher-ts t's chih t'a-men,
John 3, 16.
(2). When the subjects of the two sentences are not the same,
Here the causative conjunctions given under (1), b, above, are used.
(See examples there given.) The Chinese do not distinguish between
designed and natural results in case of a subordinate subject being
different from the principal: 2: Ug # # || M. H. ZF H # li s shoh
hua chiao jen t'ing-puh-chuh lai, Li IV speaks in such a way that
one cannot hear him; (; H # X # 14 M # # "Hi ni che yang
puh pa chiaojen hsiao-hua mo, by your acting in this way, are you
not afraid of exciting the ridicule of others? # T E # * A
# # # # + ### lai liao che-mo-hsie jen sh wo muh yu fah-ts
an-p'ai, there have come so many persons that have no way of
arranging them.
(3). Final subordinate sentences adducing proof of the preceding
proposition are introduced by K # yin-wei, &c. : M # # Z. if XE
# E ######## jen muh yu puh p'a stih yin-wei,
che sh t'ien-jan hsing-ching, there is no one who does not fear death
because this a heaven-given disposition; # ####! # (b. 5 # #
# IR 43, H. R. ' H. Kit # ni na-lich-tao t'a pih-jan che yang yin
wei feng-men t'ing-chien shoh lai, how do you know that he will
be of this character? because I hear it reported; J. fij \; # # p.
%l # E # # + $# F# jen tih hsin-shuh man-yi ch-tao yin-wei
t'sang tsai li t'eu, men's designs are difficult to be known, because
they are hidden within.
(4). A conclusion is introduced by GJ H k'o chien, it may be
seen; # ##### che yang k'an chi lai, thus it will be seen;
El J) so-yi, wherefore; # # 64 che-motih, thus, &c.: #[. # 63 k
2, # E D1 g E # kani li tih shuei pull to so-yi yao-p'uh
shang lai, the water in the jar is low, hence, cannot be dipped up;
HI # 5: # T # # E D # + # T chien chi tien fang liao
ping-hsiang so-yi yin-ts chien liao, a few days ago provisions were
given out to the soldiers, therefore silver has become cheap; # J#
# # 4 jR H F # II; W T # # # If H M #T # 7. H. H.
wo yien ting-kuei chin-t'ien chuh men c'hioh-c'hiao yu hsia-chi y
lai k'o chien jen ta-suan puh chung-yung, I had decided to go out
to-day, just then it began again to rain; hence, it is seen that one
reckons to no purpose; 5, H j< # # 4, 5- # E # # #
# ### (b. H. # Z. {# 64 tea shoh tso-t'ien yao lai tao chin-t'ien
wan shang han muh yu lai k'an-chi lai ta sh k'ao-p'uh-chu tih, he
said he would come yesterday, but until this evening he has not yet
come; thus we begin to see that he cannot be trusted.
((5). Finally, an explanatory sentence is introduced parentheti
cally after the subject or predicate, without breaking the line of
thought. This explanatory sentence very often corresponds to the
English relative clause. When short, it usually begins with # #
chiu sh, that is; when longer, with the pronoun b t'a : #% AH #
># # # # 64 49 j ZS 2# Chang hsien-sheng chiu sh wo chiao shu
tih chin-er puh lai, Mr. Chang, who is my teacher, is not coming
to-day; 3% # #5, # # 65 Hj # # Pao ta ko t'a sh wo tih
p'eng-yu yu ping, brother Pao, that is, my friend, is ill. See under

1. Interjections. These stand before the sentence, or, with a

pause, after the subject or other important substantative. The most
commonly used are
1st. 3 ai-ya, or 3 # ai-yo, indicating surprise; ; hai,
# yi, denoting disgust, all placed before the sentence: X. X # El
# #: T Z. 44 ai-ya che-kosh-h-tsai liao-p'uh-teh, oh! this is truly
awful! # # 2, #1 # hai ni puh ch-tao, pooh! you do not know, &c.
2nd. If a, denoting emphasis, used after the name or title of a
person addressed, like Eng. O: + 'A chu a, O Lord, &c.
2. Of final particles # ma, T liao, and #pa have already
been noticed in other connections, and need no further discussion
here. We need to notice only
1st. # a, which, besides being particle of address (above 1, 2nd),
is also used at the end of a sentence to give emphasis to the preceding
statement: 5 # # 4 X W ni k'uai chu na lai a, you go quickly
and bring it, do you hear?
2nd. We ni is used as an emphatic particle after the subject of
a sentence, or any emphatic clause brought forward to the head
of the sentence, after the first number of an alternate interrogative
sentence, at the end of an interrogative sentence, and finally,
at the end of any emphatic assertion. It differs from ' a, in that
the latter is used especially with commands, like # pa, while UE
ui is used with an emphatic assertion of a fact: 3, # UE by
Z. 55% li ta ko ni t'a puh neng lai, as to brother Li, he can
not come; # # UE # j, chuan tao ni wu lih, as to preaching,
he has no strength; fl. 4: $; $ ZR # WE t'a wei shen-mo puh lai
ni, why does he not come P M # 4: # WB jen to teh hen ni, the
people are exceedingly numerous, &c.
Remark.The important fact to be noticed about W ni is, that it is not an
interrogative particle, but may follow any word clause or sentence where emphasis
is called for.

A List of the Descriptive Classifiers with their Definitions and the Classes
of Words with which they are used. (For a discussion of Classifiers,
see Chap. v., 2) :
1. # Ch, a branch, classifier of stiff slender things; pens,
pencils, arrows, chop-sticks, &c.
2. # Ch-h, a single bird, class. of things standing on narrow

bottoms or foundations; as ships, candles, birds, cattle; also

of things that go in pairs when only one of the pair is
mentioned; as legs, eyes, shoes, &c.
# Chan, a cup, class. of lamps.
. # Chang, a sheet, class. of extended or flat surfaces; as
tables, beds, chairs, paper, &c.
# Cheng, a carriage, class of sedan chairs.
kil O'heu, an axle, class of pictures and maps on rollers.
. # Chia, a frame, class of framed articles; as bells, clocks,
shelves, &c.
# Chien, a single article, class of affairs, pieces of clothing,
boxes, &c.
# Chien, a roll, class. of rolls, divisions in books.
10. I': Chu, a place, class. of houses and places.
12. # Chuang, a club, class of affairs (see also No. 8).
13. HR Chuang, a bedstead, class of bed-clothes.
14. # Feng, an envelope, class. of letters, epistles.
15. #f Kan, a pole, class of muskets and balances.
16. # Ken, a root, class of slender things standing on an end
or having a root; as posts, masts, blades of grass, &c.
17. [] Keu, a mouth, class. of things that contain or consume
as water vessels, coffins, bags and individuals (considered
as consumers), &c.
18. # Ko, an individual, class. of men, boxes, loaves, cash,
written characters, and may be used with anything that is
well known. (See Chap. 5, 2, 1st, Rem. 1).
19 # K'o, a kernel, class. with beads, pearls, &c.

20. # K'o, a kernel, class. of trees.

21. # Ku, a thigh, class. of things that branch off; as branches
of rivers, roads, detachments of troops, &c.
22. # K'uai, a slice or piece, class. of bricks, boards, dollars,
stones, &c.
23. # Kuan, a tube, class. of tubular things; as Chinese
pencils, fifes, &c.
24. # Lih, a grain, class of grains, beans, buttons, &c.
25. # Liang, a pair of wheels, class. of wheeled vehicles.
26. # Ling, a collar, class. of things rolled over; as mats,
straw beds, &c.
27. ifi Mien, a face, class. of drums, mirrors, and gongs.
28. # Pa, a grasp of the hand, class. of things taken or used by
one hand; as knives, forks, fans, brooms, chairs, &c.
29. As Pen, a root, class. of books and documents.
30. JU P'ih, a mate, class. of horses and mules.
31. # P'u, a spread, class. of beds.
32. H: Shan, a fan, class. of leaves of doors, shutters, &c.
33. Ef So, an enclosure, class. of houses, courtyards, &c.
34. # Tao, a road, class. of rivers and bridges.
35. HH Teu, a head, class. of cattle.
36. # Tiao, a switch, class of slender flexible things; as days,
dragons, snakes, roads, &c. (See above No. 1).
37. JH Ting, the top, class of hats and sedans.
38. 2: To, a cluster, class. of flowers and clouds.
39. E3 Tso, a seat, class. of mountains, tombs, temples, houses, &c.
40. # Tsuen, honorable, class. of cannon.
41. # T'ung, dignity, class of monumental tablets.
42. H. Wei, a tail, class of fish. (See also No. 36).
43. fi Wei, dignity, class. of gentlemen, princes, &c.
44. Y Wen, an inscription, class of coins and cash.
45. H Yeh, a head, class of leaves of books, doors and tiles.
46. # Yen, an eye, class. of fountains.
To the list might be added
47 # Shew, ahead, class of hymns, and perhaps others.
List of General Mandarin Sounds.
hsien - ||{ chiao - 2.
1. Vowel Ini hsiang - fil
tials with Cor yin - - # c'hiao - #5
responding As yao - - #
pirates. hsiao - - -], hsin - # chief: -h #
1st, a, asp. h. ye (# -h # 2. Consonant chie H. -h
Initials. chien -
a || -h \| hsie it -h #
yen - - # c'hien
ha WA -h W 1st, ch., asp.".
hsien- - 5t. chin -
ai - - # ch #il -h R.
yin - - # c'hin -
hai - - # c'h # -h
an - - # hsin - - A ching
cha 'E -h :
han - - # ying - - #! c'hing -
c'ha # chioh
ang - - # hsing- - fj chai -
yoh - - # c'hioh
hang - - #. chai -
hsioh- - # chiu -
a0 - - # chan -
hao - - # yu # -h # c'han
hsiu - - : chiung
2nd, e, asp. h. chang
yung- - J chiung
eh - - # chang choh -
hsiung - 5. chao -
heh - - # c'hoh -
0 or wo, chao
en - - ch fil
asp. h. che # -h
hen - - 4% c'hit #
eng - - ||# wo # -h # c'he H
chen -
heng - - # ho ij -h B.
c'hen chie's
er - - 5. U or wu, chien
eu - - || asp. h. cheng
heu - - # cheng
wu it -h #1 chew - chiin
3rd, i, or yi," hu # -h # c'h liin
c'heu - -
asp. hs. hung - - #I chi t -h # chu + h

yi 3: -h - U or Jii, chi # -h #. c'hu #]

hsi Wii -h , asp. hs. chia # -h H chua -
gii - - #. c'hia!' -h # c'hua
ga + -h #
hsii # -h #1 chiai - - # chuai
hsia X -h #
yeh - - H chiai - # c'huai
yai - - #
hsiai - - # hsie # -h # chiang - #I. chuan

gien - - ): chiang - # c'huan - #

yang - -#
In spelling the sounds i is omitted after y as the latter contains the vowel
force of i.

chuang - #: kan - lao - 7th, n.

chuang - # k'an - leh -
lei -
na # h#
chuei - # kang -
nai - - #}}
chuei - Dk kang leng -
kao - leu -
nan - - #
chuen - #
kao -
mang - - #
chuen - # li # h
keh - nao - - #
chung - H liang
k'eh - liao -
nei - - PG
c'hung - 5:
ken - 'ieh - Tuen - - #
2nd, f. meng - - #8
k'en - lien -
fah - - #: lin - new - - #
fan - - 5. keng
ling -
ni (# h #
fang - - jj k'eng nieh - - #
keu - - lioh -
fei - - # nien - - #
k'eu - - liu -
fen - - ). 70272 - -

feng - - E. ko # h lo # ning -
few - - # k'o II h lu # : nioh -
ku # h luan -
Joh - - # niu -
k'u # h luen -
Ju 5: h H 720

3rd, j.

jan -
jang -
gao -
jeng -
jeu -

# h#
- H
- #
- $
- #

- A
- #5
- Bj
kua JR
k'ua #
kuai -
kuan -
kueh -
h lung -


meh -
6th, m.
ma # h #
mai -
*(17? -


nung -

pa #
pa fi

7t?! (17) -

711/6/2 -

h W\
joh - - # kuei -
700,000 - pai - - #
ju in h A k'uei -
meng p'ai - - #
7/2010 -
pan - -
Juan - - # kuen -
mi # h p'an - - H%
juei - - # k'uen
miao - pang - - #
juen - - # kung mieh -
jung - - # pang - #
k'ung mien - pao - - 6).
4th, k, asp. . 5th, l. min - p'ao - - #.
ka - - 4 la h
ming peh - - #:
k'a - - - lai miu - p'eh - - #
kai -
k'ai -
- B:
- #
lang -
- -

: mo #
**t # h
pei -
P'ei -
- #

pen - - Z: she h # tew - - H. tsao - - H1

pen - - # sen - - # t'ew - - # "sao - - #
peng - - # shen - - # ti # h #4 tseh - - Hil
p'eng - # seng - - # t'i # h # t'seh - - #
peu - -# sheng - 4: | tiao - - H tsen - - 5
peu - - #| | seu - - # tiao - -# t'sen - -%
pi # h \, shew - - # tie # h # tseng - #
p'i k h P: so Eff h # tieh - - # t'seng - #
piao - - # shoh - - #. tien - - J.H tseu - - #
p'iao - - # su # h # t'ien - - 5: t'seu - - #
pieh - - #| | shu # h # ting - - E tso # h
p'ieh - - # shua g h #| | ting - - # tso # h #]
pien - - - shuai - # tiu - - # tsu # h #
p'ien - - # suan - - # to # h # t'su # h (
pin - - # shuan - # to # h # tsuan - #
pin - - # shuang - # tu # h # t'suan - f'
ping - - # suei - - # t'u + h # tsuei - - #
p'ing - # shuei- - % tuan - - # tsuei - #
po # h # suen - - # tuan - || | tsuen - #.
p'o # h # shuen - N tuei - - # t'suen - if
pu Ali h A. sung- - # t'uei - - # tsung - #
p'u # h # tuen - - # tsung - 4:
10th, t, asp. . tuen - #
9th, s, asp. sh: ta k h # tung - - $ 12th, w, asp. .
s - - # t'a 5 h # t'ung - Ril wa # h #
sh ji h fi | tai - - y hua # h #
sa - h# t'ai - - % 11th, ts, asp. . wai - " - 5,

sha p h # tan - - # ts - - + huai - - #

sai - - # t'an - -# t's - - % wan - - #
shai - - # tang - - # tsa if h# huan - #
san - - E t'ang- - # tsah - - # wang - BE
shan - - III | tao - - # tsai - - huang - j:
sang - - $ t'ao - - # t'sai - - + | wei - - $
shang - # teh - - # tsan - - # huei - - []
sao - - # teh - - # t'san - # wen - - X
shao - - JP teng - - # tsang - # huen- - #
seh - - # t"eng - % t'sang - weng - #





LONDON : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trbner & Co.

In reply to a copy of this article forwarded through the American representa
tive to H. M. the Emperor of China, the Tsungli Yamen, which is the Imperial
Foreign Office, returned the following informal communication:


Informal. PEKIN, May 6th, 1896.

YoUR ExcelleNCY :

We have had the honor to receive Your Excellency's note, wherein you state
that by particular request you send the Yamen a copy of the Monistan American
Magazine. Your Excellency further states that it contains an article on Chinese
Philosophy" and the author asks that it be delivered to H. M. the Emperor.
In reply we beg to state, that the article in question has been translated into
Chinese by order of the Yamen and has been duly perused by the members thereof.
The article shows that the writer is a scholar well versed in Chinese literature,
and has brought together matters which indicate that he fully understood the sub
ject he has treated.
The book will be placed on file in the archives of the Yamen.


HINESE philosophy is as peculiar as the Chinese language and

Chinese customs, and it is difficult for Western people to un
derstand its nature or to appreciate its paramount influence upon
the national character of the Celestial Empire. It is a rare mixture
of deep thought and vain speculations, of valuable ideas and useless
subtleties. It shows us a noble beginning and a lame progress; a
grand start and a dreary stagnation; a promising seed-time and a
poor harvest. The heroes of thought who laid its foundations,
were so much admired that none dared to excel them, and thus be
fore the grandeur of the original genius which looms up in the pre
historic age, the philosophy of all later generations is dwarfed into
timid insignificance.
The Chinese are naturally conservative because their written
language is rigid and inflexible, rendering the task of forming new
words extremely difficult. And the people who are hampered in
forming new words are also hampered in their conception of new
ideas and the discovery of new truths. Butlet us remember that this
drawback of the Chinese script is only an incidental consequence of
its extraordinary advantages. Consider that whatever changes there
may have been in Chinese speech, i. e., in oral language, the Chi
nese scholars of to-day can read without great difficulty the books
that were written two and one-half millenniums ago. Moreover, their
ideographic script is more impressive and direct than our phonetic

* The Chinese characters that appear in this article were made by Mr. H. H.
Clarke of the Stationers' Engraving Company, Chicago, Ill.

method of writing in which the letters must be translated into sound

before they can be understood by the reader. Dr. Morrison says
in the introductory remarks to his dictionary (p. 11):
As sight is quicker than hearing, so ideas reaching the mind by the eye are
quicker, more striking, and vivid, than those which reach the mind by the slower
progress of sound. The character forms a picture which really is, or, by early as
sociations is considered, beautiful and impressive. The Chinese fine writing darts
upon the mind with a vivid flash; a force and a beauty, of which alphabetic lan
guage is incapable.

But it is not the rigidity of their language alone that is at the

basis of the Chinese conservatism, it is also the simplicity of the
fundamental ideas of their world-view and the striking symbolism in
which they are expressed and which makes it impossible for the Chi
nese to think in any other modes of thought than their own. The
inviolable power of their tradition is further strengthened by an im
perturbable patience and unbounded reverence for the sages of yore.
The former renders the people submissive to many unheard-of abuses
on the part of the authorities, while the latter keeps them in faithful
adhesion to established conditions.
From time immemorial the highest ideal of Chinese thinkers

has been to bow in modesty and submission to the insuperable gran

deur of their ancient traditions. Criticism is very meek, originality
of thought is strangled ere it can develop, and any attempted pro
gress beyond the old masters appears to them as insanity. It is as
if a Christian would dare to be better or wiser than Christ. In a
word, the whole Chinese civilisation is saturated with the belief in
the divinity, the perfection, and the unqualified excellence of its
principles, doctrines, and institutions.
In the following pages we shall attempt to delineate in large
outlines the philosophy that underlies the Chinese civilisation, and
we hope that it will not only enable the reader to comprehend how
the Chinese are hampered by their mode of notation in both their
thought-symbols and their language, but that he will also learn to
appreciate the causes which produce Chinese conservatism. For,
indeed, there is in the Chinese world-conception so much that ap
peals to us as self-evident and on a priori consideration as a matter

of course, that we can understand how difficult it is for the Chinese

to free themselves from the rigid forms of their traditions and adapt
themselves to the more plastic modes of Western thought.

The ancient Chinese were distinguished by a mathematical turn
of mind. For, while the literature of all other nations begins with
religious hymns and mythological lore of some kind, the oldest docu
ments of the Chinese exhibit arithmetical devices, two among which
are known as the Ho T'u' and the # H# Zoh shu, the
map of the Ho, or [yellow] River and the writing of the (river)

All Chinese scholars who have attempted to reconstruct the

map of the Ho and the writing of the Loh agree in adopting a dual
istic system, which conceives the world as the product of
YANG and |%
YIN. Yang means bright, and Yin dark.
Yang is the principle of heaven, Yin is the principle of earth. Yang
is the sun, Yin is the moon. Yang is, as we should say, positive; Yin
is negative. Yang is, as the Chinese say, masculine and active;
Yin is feminine and passive. The former is motion, the latter is
rest. Yang is strong, rigid, lordlike; Yin is mild, pliable, submis
sive, wifelike. Yang was originally represented by a small, bright
circle (o), Yin by a small, dark circle (), but in their combina
tions these symbols were replaced by full and broken lines,
and --.

The symbols of Yang and Yin are called the two I or ele
mentary forms, and the four combinations of the two I in twos are
called the four Figures or Siang." They are as follows:"

* The spiritus asper in T'u indicates that the T must be pronounced with a cer
tain vigor or emphasis. French and German sinologists spell Thu, which tran
scription, however, is misleading in English.
*Ho, the River, stands for Hoang Ho, the yellow river.

f shows the symbols place" and spreading";
# is the shady
side of a hill.

*See Mayer's Chinese Reader's Manual, pp. 293 and 309.

* Yih King, App. V., Chap. VII.

- - - - *- -
*- - - - - -

the great Yang the small Yin the small Yang the great Yin

Groups of three or more elementary forms are called Kwai Y.

The eight possible trigrams, or permutations of three I, possess

their own names and meanings, which (according to Legge) are as

- - - - - | rere.

I = | chin. Heaven or sky. Strength. Horse.


2 E tui. Lake (water collected in Pleasure or satisfac- |Goat.

a basin). tion.

3 =E li. Fire (the sun or light- Brightness. Pheasant.

4 E E chan. Thunder. Energy or mobility. Dragon.

5 - siuen Wind. Penetration. Bird.


6 - || kn Moon, streams of water | Sinking down, danger. Pig.

in motion, clouds, rain.
7 = kan Mountain. Arrest, standstill. Dog.

8 EE kwun. Earth. Compliance or docility. Ox.

All the things in the world, man included, are thought to be

compounds of Yang and Yin elements. In this way the Chinese
philosophy has become a theory of permutation, and the origin of
all things is traced to a change in the combinations of Yang and Yin.

Y -\,f
Es: TIS. - -

As to the map of the Ho and the writing of the Loh, we must
state at once that nothing definite is known concerning their original
form and significance. Only this much is safe to say, that tradition
unanimously connects the former with Y. # Fuh-hi, the first

emperor of China and the legendary founder of the Chinese civilisa

1 The character .# shows on the left-hand side batton," on the right to


tion (about 3322 B.C., according to another calculation about 28oo

B.C.), and the latter with 'il the Great (about 2200 B.C.),

the founder of the second Chinese dynasty.

We are told of a great deluge that devastated the country un
der the virtuous Yao, the last emperor but one of the first dynasty;
and that Kwen, the Minister of Works, labored in vain to control the
waters. Kwen was banished for life to Mount Y in 2286 B. C.,
while his duties were intrusted to his son, Y, who at last, after nine
years, in 2278 B. C., succeeded in draining the floods. Emperor
Shun, the son-in-law and successor of Emperor Yao, in disregard of
his own sons, raised Y to the position of joint regent in 2224 B.C.,
and bequeathed to him the empire. When Shun, in 2208 B.C.,
died, Y observed a three years' period of mourning, whereupon he
assumed the government, in 2205 B.C.
Much may be legendary in the records of the ancient history of
the Chinese, but there is no doubt that Yao, Shun, and Y are his
torical personages. They represent an epoch of civilisation which,
probably in more than one respect, has never been reached again by
the Chinese. Public works, such as regulating the course of great
rivers, were undertaken, and the sciences of mathematics and astron
omy flourished. Eclipses of the sun and moon were calculated;
we know that the brothers Hi and Ho observed and calculated the

planetary revolutions; and we possess in the Shu King documents

that give evidence of manliness and moral stamina. There is, for
instance, the speech delivered by Y's worthy son and successor,
Ch'i, at Kan in 2197 B.C., which reminds us of Frederick the Great's
famous address to his generals before the battle of Leuthen. No
wonder that these days of pristine glory are still remembered in the
proverbial expression, the heaven of Yao and the sun of Shun,
which denotes the highest prosperity imaginable.
If the Map of Ho #| and the Writing of Loh }% #
are not to be attributed to the Emperors Fu-Hi and Y p'n.'',
we can safely trust the old tradition, at least so far as to say, that

1 Mayer's Chinese Reader's Manual, Part I., No. 9oo.

*Sacred Books of the East, III., pp. 7678.

these two documents (whatever their nature may have been) belong
to the ages represented by Fu-Hi and Y.
The ancient kwa-philosophy, as we may call the system of com
prehending things as permutations of the two principles Yang and
Yin, plays an important rle in the thoughts of the Chinese people
and forms even to-day the basis of their highest religious conceptions,
their scientific notions, and their superstitions. With its help the
origin of the world is explained, rules of conduct are laid down and
a forecast of the future is made.

As to the original meaning of the kwa-philosophy, we have

positive evidence of its mathematical character, not only in various
suggestions of Chinese traditions, but also and mainly in the nature
of the kwa themselves. It is to be regretted, however, that in
times of war and civil disorder the historical connexion was inter

rupted. Says Chu Hi in his introduction to Cheu-tsz's T'ai Kih

T u : 1

After the Cheu (dynasty) [which ruled 1122255 B.C.] perished and Meng
Kho died, the tradition of this doctrine was not continued.
When further the T'sin were succeeded by the Han, passing the Tsin, Sin,
and T'ang, so as to arrive at our Sung [the dynasty under which Chu Hi lived] and
the five planets met in the Kwei (constellation) so as to usher in an age of science
and erudition, the sage [Cheu-tsz'] came."

The oldest work of Chinese literature which embodies the phi

losophy of Yang and Yin is the Yih King (or simply the Yih), };
i.e., the book of permutations.
In the Yih King we find the eight trigrammatic kwa combined
into groups of hexagrammatic kwa, resulting in eight times eight
or sixty-four permutations, every one of which has its peculiar name
and significance. To the sixty-four permutations of the kwa hexa

* See Gabelentz's German edition of the T'ai Kih T'u, p. 14.

2# (king) signifies a classical book of canonical authority; and %gim

means permutation"; the character shows the sun above the moon, the latter in
its archaic form. The translation change, which is commonly adopted by sinolo
gists, does not always convey the right idea.

grams an explanatory text is added consisting of seven lines." The

first line, written by Wen Wang, applies to the hexagram as a
whole, and the remaining six, written by Cheu Kung, have reference
to the six sundry lines of the hexagram, counting the lowest line as
the first and the topmost as the sixth. The full lines, representing
Yang, are called kiu; the broken lines, representing Yin, are
called I- luh. There can be no doubt about it that in its present
form the Yih King is chiefly used for the purpose of divination.
The most ancient commentaries of the Yih King have been ap
pended to the book in the shape of three double and four simple ad
ditions called the Ten Wings. The first addition of two sections,
called Twan is commonly ascribed to Wen Wang, the second called
Siang, to his son, Cheu Kung, while the rest belong to later periods,
containing expositions ascribed to Confucius.
The Yih King is one of the most enigmatic books on earth, the
mystery of which is considered by many beyond all hope of solu
tion; and yet it exercises even to-day a greater influence over the
minds of the Chinese than does the Bible in Christian countries.

Its divine authority is undisputed and every good Chinese, is confi

dent that it contains the sum of all earthly wisdom. There is no
Chinese scholar who cherishes the least doubt that there is any truth
in science or philosophy that could not be found in, and rationally
developed from, the Yih King.
The oldest mention of the Book of Permutations is made in the

official records of the Cheu dynasty, which succeeded the Yin dy

nasty in 1122 B.C. There three versions of the Yih are mentioned.
We read:

"The first and second kwa are exceptions. They possess an additional eighth
line, which refers to all the six I together.
* Wen means scholar, or scholarly," i. e., he who pursues the arts of
peace." Wang means king. Wen Wang received the posthumous title Si Peh,
i.e., Chief of the West." His proper name is Ch'ang; but as it is not respectful
to use the proper name, he is commonly called "Wen Wang.
* Kung means duke. Cheu Kung (i.e., the Duke of Cheu) was the fourth
son of Wen Wang ; his proper name is 7am.

*The original meaning of ju Kiu is nine, of -ANI - /uh six."


The Grand Diviner had charge of the rules for the three Yih (systems of
permutation), called the Lien-shan, the Kwei ts'ang and the Yih of Cheu ; in each of
them the primary figures were eight which were multiplied in each till they amounted
to sixty-four.Sacred Books of the East, XVI, p. 3.
The third mentioned version of the Yih is ascribed to Wen

Wang, 12311135 B.C.), and his son Cheu Kung (11691116)."

Wen Wang, a man of unusual piety and stern justice, was the
most powerful vassal of the last ruler of the house of Yin, called
#j # Cheu Sin, the dissolute tyrant. When Wen Wang had
excited the wrath of Cheu Sin and of his equally brutal consort,
Ta-Ki, by expressing disapproval of some of their atrocities, he was
imprisoned, but after three years released through the intercession of
his son F, afterward called Wu Wang. The latter sent rich presents
to Cheu Sin and with them a beautiful girl, for whose sake the tyrant
gladly acceded to the requests of F." While in prison at Yew Li,
in 1143 B.C., Wen Wang studied the hexagrams of Fuh-Hi, and
comforted himself with the propitious prophecies which he believed
he discovered in their mysterious lines.
When Wen Wang died, F inherited his father's kingdom.
Meanwhile the tyranny of his suzerain, Cheu Sin became so intol
erable that even the tyrant's own brother K'i, the prince of Wei, fled
to his court and appeared before him with an iron chain round his
neck. After this event no choice was left Wu Wang. He had
either to betray the confidence of K'i or to resist the unrighteous
tyranny of Cheu Sin. In the spring of the year 1121 B.C. he offered
a solemn sacrifice to Shang Ti, the Lord on High, and marched
against his suzerain. He crossed the Hoang-Ho at the ford of

"The ancient rulers of China are called emperors or Ti; but the rulers of the
dynasty Hia preferred the more modest title of King or Wang. -

* The Yin dynasty is also named Shang.

* F, surnamed Wu Wang (i. e. the war king), was the oldest son of Wen
*Cheu Sin (the dissolute tyrant) is a posthumous title. His proper name is
Show. The word Cheu " in the name Cheu Sin is not the same word as the
name of the principality of Cheu," after which the Cheu dynasty is called.

s (shang) above, high in heaven, or supreme, rji ti) Lord em

peror, sovereign. The etymology of ti" is doubtful.

Meng-tsin and gained a decisive victory in the plain of Muh. Cheu

Sin shut himself up in his palace, at Luh Tai, ordered his servants
to set it on fire and died in its flames in the year I 122 B. C. Thus
the Yin dynasty was superseded by the Cheu dynasty. Cheu Kung,
Wu Wang's younger but more famous brother, contributed much
toward the consolidation of the Cheu dynasty as chief counsellor,
first of Wu Wang and then of Ch'ung, i. e., the Perfecter, his
imperial nephew and successor to the throne after Wu Wang's

There seems to be no question that the founders of the Cheu

dynasty revised and rearranged the traditional Kwa systems; and
the Yih of Cheu, is according to undisputed tradition, the Book of
Permutations which is extant to-day.
Tradition preserves two schemes of the eight trigrams in the
shape of a mariner's compass-card, in which south is always top
most. The older scheme is ascribed to Fuh-Hi, and the later one to
Wen Wang. Their arrangements are as follows:

*- '. ~ S'

II |
-|| || || |:
*- -
2% SS
4. *- -

*-N- -N=

Fig. 1. The Trigram According to FUh-Hi. Fig. 2. The TriGRAM According to Wen WANG

Fuh-Hi's table shows the Yang and Yin symbols evenly bal
anced, so that each couple of opposed kwa is made up of three full
and three broken lines.

We are unable to say why Wen Wang changed the more natural
order of the Fuh-Hi system. Probably he argued that if the world
were arranged in the evenly balanced way of the traditional scheme,

*See Victor Strauss's German translation of the Shi-King, pp. 3944.


it would not move, but remain at rest. Thus he naturally might

have come to the conclusion that change which is the condition of
the actual universe can only be due to a displacement of the regu
larly arranged order which would represent the elements of exis
tence in a state of equilibrium.
One of the arrangements of the hexagrams that are met with
in all the larger editions of the Yih King, consists, as can be seen in
the appended diagram, of a square surrounded by a circle.


In the square the sixty-four permutations of the hexagrams are

arranged in the order of what may be called their natural succession;
that is to say, on substituting for broken lines zero (o), and for full
lines the figure 1, we can read the hexagrams as a series of num
bers from o to 63, written in the binary system. The topmost figure
in the left corner represents zero, i.e. oooooo; and reading from

the left to the right, we have 1, i.e. ooooo.1; 2, i.e. oooo.Io; 3, i. e.

oooo 11; 4, i.e. ooo1oo; etc., until 111111, which, in the decimal sys
tem, is 63.
The circle contains the same symbols so arranged that those
which diametrically face one another yield always the sum of 63.
Thus heaven, i. e. or 63, and earth, i. e. # or zero, are, the
former at the top, the latter at the bottom of the circle. Beginning
with zero at the bottom, the numbers ascend from 1 to 32, after
which they reach, in the topmost place, opposite the zero, the num
ber 63; thence they descend to the right in backward order from 62
to 31, which is the neighbor of zero.
Chinese authors inform us that the square represents the earth,
while the circle that surrounds the square symbolises heaven.
There is another arrangement of the hexagrams, as follows:

E = H H#= ==# HH#H = HH==

55 53

| =HH

|| 33




FIG. 4.
#== ==H:
| : Io

E== E:= = = =
THE HExagrams According to WEN WANG.

Beginning from the right on the bottom line, the sixty-four

kwa" are arranged in the order of the Cheu version, ascribed to
King Wen. The design exhibits in the even columns the inverse
arrangement of the kwa of the odd columns, with this exception, that
whenever an inversion would show the same figure, all the Yang
lines are replaced by Yin lines, and vice versa.
Thus the hexagram No. 44, called Kn is the inverted
hexagram No. 43, called Kwai , while K'ien, =# in No. 1,
is changed into Kw'an" =# in No. 2.
"The names and significance of the several hexagrams depend upon the com
bination of the two trigrams of which each one consists. Thus, No. 1 is sky upon
sky," viz., the active principle doubled, which means great and successful display
of energy. No. 2 is earth" upon earth"; the receptive principle doubled, which
means, great receptivity, fertility, stability. No. 3 is rain" above thunder,"
means fulness, boding prosperity to those who are constant, but threatening im
pending danger to those who venture to move, etc. No. 49 is water" above fire,
which means contrasts that confront one another; to boil; to transform (implying
that fire changes the nature of water).
The names of the hexagrams, according to a Japanese authority (in the Ta
ka-shima-ekidan), interpreted in the sense given by Western sinologists, mainly
by Harlez (in his Yih King), are as follows: 1. K'ien, sky, success; 2. Kw'un, earth,
stability; 3. chun, fulness; 4 meng, infancy, growth; 5. hsil, expectancy, danger;
6 song, litigation, lawsuit; 7 sz, an army or a commander; 8 p'i, friendship;
9. hsido chuh, being clouds but no rain, little progress; 10. 4, to march; 11. 7"i
penetration, no obstruction; 12 pei, obstruction, to be besieged; 13, thong zhin
union, fellowship; 14. tai yu, great, power; 15 k'in, condescension; 16 ytt, satis
faction, grandeur, majesty; 17 sui, faithfulness, obedience; 18. ku, care, business,
agitation; 19. Jin, dignity, authority; 20 kwen, manifestation, show, appearance;
21, shi hh, slander, censure; 22, pi, embellishment, flash of light; 23. poh, oppres
sion, deprivation; 24. /*h, reaction, return; 25 wa wang, openness, sincerity; 26. tai
ch'uh, accumulation; 27 f, to sustain, to feed; 28, ta kwo, rising of the great; 29.
'an, difficulties; 30. 4, brilliancy; 31, hien, harmony; 32. hang, endurance; 33.
tun, to retreat, to live in obscurity; 34, a chuang, great strength; 35. ts'in, to
advance; 36 ming f, descent, eclipse, stars; 37, kid zhin, family; 38. k'wei, oppo
sition, contrariety; 30. kin, difficulty; 4o, kieh, escape, deliverance; 41. sun, to
abate, to lessen; 42. Jih, aggrandizement, gain; 43. kui, dispersion, distribution;
44, k'', to meet; 45. tsui, to assemble; 46 shang, to ascend; 47. A'wan, distress;
48. tsing, a well; 49. koh, water over fire, to renew, to transform; 5o. ting, fire
over wood, caldron; 51 chan, thunder, terror; 52 kan, firmness; 53 chien, to in
choate, to move apace; 54 kuei, to give in marriage; 55 fang, wealth; 56 lit, a
stranger, a traveller; 57 stin, pliability, meekness; 58, tui, rejoicing; 59. hwn,
to flow over, to squander; 60 chieh, law, moderation; 61. chung, the right way, in
the middle; 62. hsiao Av, excess in small things; 63 ki tsi, consummation; 64. wei
tsi, non-consummation.
[The translation of the names of the sixty-four kwa, as given here, only ap
proximately agrees with the system elsewhere employed in this article.]

If regarded as binary numbers, the order of King Wen's square

reads in decimal numbers as follows:
2I 42 12 51 5o 19 54 27

13 44 52 11 9 36 29 46

26 22 24 6 31 62 35 49

20 Io 53 43 4o 5 6o 15

28 I4 45 18 3o 33 57 39

32 I 41 37 3 48 25 38

4 8 61 47 7 56 55 59

2 16 13 58 17 34 o 63


The divining stalks" and the tortoise-shell have been in use in
China for the purpose of divination from time immemorial, for the
practice of divination is mentioned in the oldest documents of the
Shu King, where Y recommends the trial by divination.
The outfit for divining #
by the stalks of the divining
plant (Ptarmica Sibirica) consists of six little oblong blocks (like toy
construction-blocks) being, on two sides, divided by an incision after
the pattern of the broken line of Yin and smooth like Yang lines on
the two remaining sides; further, of fifty wooden stalks, a little
thicker than knitting-needles. The six blocks represent Yang lines if
the smooth side, and Yin lines if the incision, is uppermost. The
method of divination as prescribed by the Book of Eki in the Taka
shima Ekidan (Keigyosha, Tokio, 1895), is as follows:
First of all, wash your hands and mouth, clean your body, and sit per
fectly aright in a quiet room, and then you may take hold of the sticks' very rev
erently. Fifty sticks make a complete set, and it must be remembered that they
are the holy implements which reveal the will of the Almighty through their math
ematical changes. "Take out any single stick and let it stand in the stickholder,
A4. H: _*:
1Shi tsao 2% the divining plant is a species of shi # milfoil," or
yarrow, the same plant which is cultivated at the tomb of Confucius. The sym
bol milfoil is composed of the three characters plant" on the top, old man"
in the middle, and mouth" or to speak" at the bottom.
*Part II., Book II., 2; Sacred Books of the East, III., p. 50.

which is to be placed on the centre of the table. This particular one is referred to
the Great Origin.' Hold the lower ends of the remaining forty-nine in your left
hand, and slightly dovetail the upper ends. Apply your right-hand fingers to the
middle of the sticks, the thumb being nearest to you or from inside, and the other
fingers to be applied from outside. Lift the whole thing above your forehead. Now
turn your sole attention to the affair to be divined, close your eyes, suspend your
breath, make yourself solemn and pure, be sure that you are in interview with the
Almighty to receive his order, and further, do not diversify your thoughts to any
thing else. At the moment when your purity of heart is at its apex, divide the
sticks into any two groups with your right-hand thumb. The division must not be
It must be observed here that the moment when the purity of one's heart is
at its apex is, in other words, the moment when one communicates with the Al
mighty. The feeling at the moment of the communication is impossible to describe,
being like that which one feels when electric currents flow through his limbs. It is
absolutely necessary that one shall divide his sticks at the very instant when he feels
the feeling specified. This point of communication baffles every trial of descrip
tion, the only way of acquiring the exact idea being through a continued practice
and consequent dexterity of the student.
Now, the set of the sticks is in two groups, which correspond to the Heaven
and Earth," or "Positive and Negative,' in the terms of the Eki." Place the right
hand group on the table, and take out one from the group. This one is to be held
between the ring finger and the little finger of the left hand; the figures being that
of the Three Figures, namely, 'Heaven, Barth, and Mankind." Count the left
hand group with your right hand: it is to be counted in cycles, each cycle being
four times two by two, or eight sticks per cycle. When any number of cycles has
been finished, there will remain a number of sticks less than eight, including the
one on the little finger. This remainder gives a complement of the destined dia
If one remains you have Ken (=).
If two remain you have Da' (=).
If three remain you have Ri' (==).
If four remain you have Shin' (==).
If five remain you have Son (=).
If six remain you have Kan (==).
If seven remain you have Gon' (==).
If eight or naught remains you have Kon (= =)."
These are the eight emblems of Heaven,' Pond, Fire, Thunder, Wind,'
Water, Mountain, and Earth in their order. The trigram corresponding to
the present remainder is called the Inner Complement, and is to be placed at the

"Here the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese terms is preserved.


bottom of the diagram. The above-stated process is now to be repeated, and the
trigram corresponding to the second remainder is called the Outer Complement,
and is to be placed at the top of the diagram. Now you are in possession of a com
plete diagram of six elements.
The destined diagram is now before you; the only thing left is to observe the
change in the elements.'" The method of dealing out the sticks is the same as be
fore, except the mode of counting them. Here each cycle consists of six sticks, so
that three times two by two are to be counted per cycle. The remainder thus ob
tained expresses the element to be chosen. If your remainder is one, you have
obtained the first element of the diagram; if two, the second element, etc. The order
of the elements is numbered from below, that is to say, the bottom element is the
first, and the top one the sixth.
You have now thus obtained an element of a diagram."
Having thus obtained a definite element in a definite hexagram,
the diviner turns to the book and reads the sentence belonging to it.
This sentence is to him the oracle that he receives in reply to his
question, and must be interpreted in the light of the expositions
given concerning the whole hexagram. The two most important
lines in the hexagrams are the second and the fifth lines, because
they constitute the centre of the two trigrams of which the whole is
composed. The fifth stroke, representing the efficacy of the upper
or heavenly power, is always favorable, and wherever it is obtained,
it bodes to the divining person luck and unfailing success.
Divination by the tortoise-shell is in principle the same. In
the empty shell of the sacred tortoise, Shan Kwei, which is a small
species of Emys, three coins are shaken and thrown out in a dice
like manner. According to their showing heads or tails, an element
of one of the sixty-four hexagrams is determined, and from a con
templation of the sentence attached to the element of the hexagram,
as applied to the given situation, the outcome of the proposed action
is anticipated.
The Chinese conception of the spirituality of the divining stalks
and the tortoise shell is expressed in the third Appendix of the Yih
King as follows:

"Viz., of the particular line in the hexagram.

..]|}; shan, consists of divine and to extend"; while # zwei, is in

tended to represent the general appearance of a tortoise (Williams).

Therefore heaven produced the spirit-like things," and the sages took advan
tage of them. (The operations of) heaven and earth are marked by (so many)
changes and transformations; and the sages imitated them (by the means of the
Yi). Heaven hangs out its (brilliant) figures from which are seen good fortune and
bad, and the sages made their emblematic interpretations accordingly."

Divination is practised officially in China by imperial diviners.

We read in the counsels of Y that Shun submitted the question of
succession to divination, and abided by its decision in somewhat the
same way as among the Israelites problems of grave importance
were settled by consulting the oracle of Urim and Thummim.
The seventh division of the Great Plan gives the following in
struction to rulers concerning the practice of divination :
Officers having been chosen and appointed for divining by the tortoise-shell
and the stalks of the milfoil are to be charged to execute their duties. They will
predict rain, clearing up, cloudiness, want of connexion, and disturbances, through
the inner and outer diagrams.
In all there are seven (examinations of doubt): five given by the shell, and
two by the stalks; and through them all errors can be discovered.
The officers having been appointed, when the divination is inaugurated, three
men are to interpret the indications, and the consensus of two of them is to be fol

When you have doubts about any great matter, consult with your own mind;
consult with your high ministers and officers; consult with the common people;
consult with the tortoise-shell and divining stalks.
If you, the shell, the stalks, the ministers and officers, and the common peo
ple, all agree about a course, it is called a great concord, and the result will be the
welfare of your person and good fortune to your descendants.
If you, the shell, and the stalks agree, while the ministers and officers and
the common people oppose, the result will be fortunate.
If the ministers and officers, with the shell and stalks, agree, while you and
the common people oppose, the result will be fortunate.
If the common people, the shell, and the stalks agree, while you, with the
ministers and officers, oppose, the result will be fortunate.
If you and the shell agree, while the stalks, with the ministers and officers
and the common people, oppose, internal operations will be fortunate, and external
undertakings unlucky.
When the shell and stalks are both opposed to the views of men, there will
be good fortune in being still, and active operations will be unlucky.

*The divining stalks and the divine tortoise-shell


In justice to the original Chinese conception of divination we

must state that it was not intended to discover future events, but to
ascertain whether or not certain plans contemplated for execution
would be propitious. The tortoise-shell and the stalks are called
spiritual, not because they were supposed to be animated by spirits,
but because, like books and pens, they can be employed for the fixa
tion and clarification of thought. Sz' Ma, the most skilful diviner in
the time of Tsin (fifteenth century), is reported in the Lin Chi of the
Ming dynasty to have said to Shao P'ing:
What intelligence is possessed by things spiritual 2 They are intelligent (only)
by their connexion with men. The divining stalks are so much withered grass; the
tortoise-shell is a withered bone. They are but things, and man is more intelligent
than things. Why not listen to yourself instead of seeking (to learn) from things 2"

Spiritual accordingly does not mean possessing spirit in the

sense of being animated; it means that which is significant or is
possessed of meaning.
E. }% -


- - - b
The first authentic passages in which the map of Ho
and # H#
} - - - -

the writing of Loh are mentioned, date as far back as

the age of Confucius. We read in the Yih King, Appendix III., 73:
The Ho gave forth the map, and the Lo the writing.S. B. E., XVI., p. 374.
In the Lun Y (the Confucian Dialogues), V., 7, we read that
Confucius said in an hour of dejection:
The bird Feng does not longer reappear, from the river no map comes up
again : " I am disappointed in my expectations."

The first author who appears to have given a definite shape to

the legends of the map of Ho and the writing of Loh is K'ung
Ngan-Kwoh, a descendant of Confucius (second century, B.C.). He

*This means in other words that divine revelation by a direct supernatural in

terference has ceased. The bird Feng (Fig. 6, p. 18) is like the Phoenix a mythical
creature whose appearance is said to announce great events. Feng, the Chinese
Phoenix, and lung, the dragon, are favorite subjects of Chinese artists. The female
of the Phoenix is called Hwang, hence the generic term Feng-Hwang, which is the
emblem of conjugal happiness. Lung, the dragon (Fig. 5, p. 18), is the emblem of
power; hence it is the imperial coat-of arms.

speaks of the dragon-horse that emerged from the waters of the

Yellow River and presented on its back an arrangement of symbols,
whence the divine ruler Fuh-Hi, derived his philosophy. Concern
ing the writing of Loh, K'ung Ngan-Kwoh adds that while Y was
engaged in draining the flood a spirit tortoise appeared to him
which carried on its back a scroll of writing and a system of divi
sions, in both respects exhibiting the numbers up to nine.
There is but one celebrated Chinese scholar, Ow-yang Sin, who
ventured to express disbelief in the legend while the schoolmen of
the Sung dynasty devoted themselves to a reconstruction of the

FIG. 5. LUNG, THE DRAGoN. (As it appears in

the imperial standard.) The lung is the chief of
scaly beings. It symbolises the watery principle
of the atmosphere. Cosmogonists mention four
kinds. In addition we read of the yellow dragon FIG. 6. The BIRD FENG. (After a
(the same that emerged from the river Loh) and Chinese drawing. Reproduced from the
the azure dragon. Chinese Repository.)

map of Ho and the writing of Loh. The schemes that have gradually
been accepted are the two diagrams reproduced on p. 19 from a Chi
nese edition of the Yih King. They were elaborated by Ts'ai Yuen
Ting who lived under the Hwei Tsung dynasty (11or-1125 A.D.).
The Ho T'u, or map of the Ho, according to Tsai Yuen-Ting,
shows the odd numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 in white dots or Yang sym
bols, and the even numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, and Io in dark dots or Yin
symbols. (See Fig. 7.) This is based upon the theory of the Con
fucian commentary of the Yih King, which reads as follows:
The number 1 belongs to heaven; to earth, 2.; to heaven, 3; to earth, 4;
to heaven, 5; to earth, 6; to heaven, 7; to earth, 8; to heaven, 9; to earth, 10.
The numbers belonging to heaven are five, and those belonging to earth are
five. The numbers of these two series correspond to each other (in their fixed posi
tions), and each one has another that may be considered its mate. The heavenly

numbers amount to 25, and the earthly to 30. The numbers of heaven and earth
together amount to 55. It is by these that the changes and transformations are
effected, and the spirit-like agencies kept in movement.

<> . O-O-O-O-O-O-O |-|

i - A

o Q. -e-o-o-e-Q

Fig. 8. The Writing of Loh. FIG. 7. THE MAP of THE Ho.

(According to Ts'ai Yang-ting; reproduced from a Chinese edition of the Yih King.)

The arrangement of the twenty-five positive or Yang and thirty

negative or Yin elements, is such as to make five the difference in
each group of dots. When we substitute for Yang +, and for Yin
, the Map of the Ho appears as follows:

= +5

8 + 3 || 10 + 5 | +9 4
= 5 | = 5 | = +5

6 + 1
= - 5

The writing of Loh, reproduced (Fig. 8) from the same source,

consists of a magic square as follows:

| :
The sum of each line of three numbers in any direction, verti
cally, horizontally, and diagonally, is fifteen.

Although these two arithmetical devices of the map of Ho and

the writing of Loh according to Ts'ai Yuen-Ting are spoken of as
commonly accepted, we find another and almost more popular
scheme of unknown origin and perhaps of greater antiquity, accord
ing to which the map of Ho on the back of the river-horse is said
to exhibit the eight kwa, as represented in the adjoining illustration
(see Fig. 9), and the writing of Loh on the back of the tortoise is
identified with the five elements (see Fig. 10).
The inscription above the dragon horse reads from the right to
the left Lung ma fu t'u, i. e. dragon horse carrying map.

Fig. 9. THE DRAGoN Horse CARRYING THE MAP. FIG. Io. The Tortoise with the Writing.l

A- - - -

The five elements * according to Chinese notions, are

water, wood, fire, metal, and earth.

1 Drawn after the photograph of a specimen in the possession of Dr. H. Riedel
The writing of the five elements which might be similarly traced in various ways,
is unduly emphasised, for the purpose of showing it at a glance.

21 J hing = "element" exhibits two characters, a step with the left foot,"
and a step with the right foot, which combined denote motion." The elements,
accordingly, are the moving ones," or the active agents."

.7% - shui, As\. y.

mith, ) hwo, 42 kin, and + 7"u. Shui ='' water
is in its original form the picture of three ripples; muh = wood, the picture of
a tree with its roots; hwo = '' fire" represents an ascending flame; 7"u =earth
denotes the place on which to stand; and kin = "metal or gold" is said to contain
the character 7"u = '' earth, because the metals come from the ground.

They were, in old Chinese characters," written as follows:

\ X /\ ^+.
We need little imagination to trace these characters on the shell
of a tortoise, such as sketched in the drawing on page 20 (Fig. 10).
The five elements play a very important part in the thoughts of
the Chinese. In their symbolical significance they represent the
properties or actions that appear to be inherent in them. Their
conception is of considerable antiquity, for it is mentioned in the
Great Plan of the Shu King.
Tseu Yen, a philosopher who lived in the fourth century before
Christ, is reported to have composed treatises on cosmogony and the
influences of the five elements. Other sages who wrote on the same
subject are Liu Hiang of the first century before Christ, and Pan
Ku of the first century after Christ. -

When an idea has once gained a foothold in the Chinese mind, it

stays. Such is the case with the notion of the five elements, which
forms an ineradicable part of the Chinese world-view, so that even
Cheu-tsz', the most independent thinker of later generations, em
bodied it in his philosophy.
The Count of Chi, the grand master at the court of Shang, in
the time of the tyrant Cheu Sin, said once that if ruin overtook the
house of Shang, he would never be the servant of another dynasty.
Having displeased Cheu Sin, he was put into prison, and when the
former died in the flames of his burning palace, his conqueror, Wu
Wang, released the grand master from prison, but the latter,
faithful to his vow, refused to acknowledge his liberator as the
legitimate sovereign of China. Wu Wang, honoring the indepen
dent spirit of the Count, allowed him to leave the country for
Corea, and invested him with that territory. Hereupon the Count
felt constrained to appear at the court of Cheu, when consulted by

* In the so-called seal characters, the forms of shui and muh appear less angular
and are rounded at the corners.

Wu Wang on the principles of government, and communicated to

him the # Great Plan," with its nine divisions. Its trans
lator, Professor Legge, says:
The Great Plan means the great model for the government of the nation,
the method by which the people may be rendered happy and tranquil, in harmony
with their condition, through the perfect character of the king, and his perfect ad
ministration of government.
The Great Plan is preserved among the documents of Cheu,
but it is generally supposed to be of much older date. Says Legge:
That the larger portion of it had come down from the times of Hsia is not
improbable. The use of the number nine and other numbers, and the naming of
the various divisions of the Plan, are in harmony with Y's style and practice in
his Counsels. We are told in the introductory sentences that Heaven or God gave
the Plan with its divisions to Y."

The Great Plan is interesting as a sample of Chinese philos

ophy. Its metaphysical basis consists in a mystical play with num
bers, the reasons of which can no longer be fully appreciated; it
contains a great many confused notions of physics, mixed with
divination and astrology, and in addition some very practical injunc
tions for the moral conduct of rulers. The nine divisions of the
Great Plan are as follows:
1. The five elements.They are characterised as follows:
The nature of water is to soak and descend; of fire, to blaze and ascend; of
wood, to be crooked or straight; of metal, to yield and change; of the earth, to
receive seeds and yield harvests. That which soaks and descends becomes salty;
that which blazes and ascends becomes bitter; that which is now crooked and now
straight becomes sour; that which yields and changes becomes acrid; and from seed
sowing and harvesting comes sweetness.

2. Reverent attention to the five points of conduct.It pre

scribes (1) for deportment, a reverent attitude, (2) for speech, pro

}}: hung, literally vast, immense," but in connexion with #! fan=plan,

the word is commonly translated great. The character consists of water,'
which is the same radical as in the names Ho and Loh, and of all, its original sig
nificance being inundation." See Williams, Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese
Language, p. 236.
.# (ch'eu = division) consists of field" and long life."

priety, (3) for seeing, clearness of vision, (4) for hearing, distinc
tion, (5) for thinking, acumen. By the observation of these five
points of conduct will be insured (1) gravity, (2) decorum, (3) cir
cumspection, (4) discernment, (5) wisdom.
3. Earnest devotion to the eight objects of government.They
are (1) the provision of food for the people, (2) the acquisition of
wealth, (3) the performance of sacrifices, (4) the regulation of labor,
(5) the organisation of instruction, (6) the suppression of crime, (7)
the entertainment of guests, and (8) the maintenance of the army.
4. The five arrangers of time.They are (1) the year, (2) the
moon, (3) the sun, (4) the planets and the zodiacal divisions, and
(5) calendar calculations. -

5. The ideal of royal perfection.It is characterised in the

following lines:
Without deflection, without halting,
Pursue the royal righteousness.
Without selfish preference,
Pursue the royal way.
Without selfish prejudice,
Pursue the royal path.
Avoid deflection, avoid partiality;
Broad and long is the royal way.
Avoid partiality, avoid deflection :
Level and easy is the royal way.
Avoid perversity, avoid one-sidedness:
Correct and straight is the royal way.
(Ever) seek for this perfect excellence,
(Ever) turn to this perfect excellence.

This ideal of royal perfection is unalterable and implies a command;yea,

it is a command of the Lord on High.
All the multitudes of the people, instructed in this ideal of perfect excellence,
will, by carrying it into practice, partake of the glory of the Son of Heaven. They
will say: The Son of Heaven is the father of the people, and the sovereign of all
nations under the sky.'"

6. The three virtues of a ruler are righteousness, severity, and

clemency. The first must be practised in times of tranquillity, the
second serves to put down disorder, and the third applies to high
minded persons.

7. The examination of doubts prescribes the directions of divi

nation, as explained above. (See p. 16.)
8. The eight ways of verification are astrological rules for the
prevention of misfortunes. Rain, sunshine, heat, cold, and wind
must be seasonable, lest evil originate. Gravity in deportment pro
duces rain, propriety sunshine, prudence heat, circumspection cold,
and wisdom wind, each in season. The king should examine the
year, the ministers the months, the officers the days, in order to insure
peace and prosperity. If the seasonableness is interrupted, there will
be failure of crops and misgovernment. If great men are kept in ob
scurity, there will be unrest. The chapter concludes: The stars
should be observed by the people at large. Some stars love wind,
and others love rain; the courses of the sun and moon determine
winter and summer. The way in which the moon follows the stars
produces wind and rain.
9. The five sources of happiness are (1) long life, (2) riches,
(3) health and equanimity, (4) virtue, and (5) obedience to the will
of heaven; and the six sources of misery are (1) shortness of life,
(2) sickness, (3) anxiety, (4) poverty, (5) wickedness, and (6) lack
of character."

In spite of its lack of system and its diverse aberrations from

the straight path of sound logic, the Great Plan has exercised, on
account of its moral ingredients, a beneficial influence upon the de
velopment of China. Yet even here there is a drawback, in so far
as the basis of Chinese ethics consists merely in reverence for the
past, for parents, and for authority in any form; it lacks the most
essential elements that give character to conduct, which are inde
pendence of thought, the courage of individual responsibility, and
bold progressiveness.


The insufficiency of the dualism which finds expression in this

contrast of the Yang and Yin principles, must have made itself felt

"It is hard to understand why in one case there are five, and in an other six

very early, for the Chinese philosophy, as it appears in all the clas
sics, exhibits a decided tendency towards monism. The Yang and
Yin are thought to have originated in a process of differentiation
from the T'ai Kih, which is the grand origin, der Urgrund, the
source of existence; Gabelentz translates it, das Urprinzip, Legge and
other English sinologists, the grand terminus, or the grand
extreme. Its symbol is a circle, thus O.
The word Tai, great or grand, is akin to Ta,
great or large; it implies that the greatness is not of size, but
of dignity.
Gabelentz defines the word 11, Kihl as follows:
Kih originally signified, as is indicated by its radical (which is No. 75, tree,
or wood'), the ridge-pole in the gable of a house. Because it is the topmost part of
the building, the term is used of all topmost and extreme points. Since we cannot
go beyond the top of the gable, but only cross over to descend on the other side of
the roof, Kih means goal,' or turning-point. This latter meaning implies the
idea of neutrality, which is neither on this nor on that side. As is well known, the
Chinese words possess the functions of various parts of speech. Thus Kih, as ad
verb, means very, highly, extremely'; as a verb, to reach the goal, to exhaust.'"
The T'ai Kih is not mentioned in the body of the
text of the Yih King, but is commonly believed to be implied in its
secret teaching. This opinion appears to have been established as
early as the time of Confucius, who is reported to have said:
Therefore in the Yih is contained the great origin, which produced the two
elementary forms [viz., Yang and Yin]. The two elementary forms produced the
eight trigrams. The eight trigrams served to determine good and evil, and from
their determination was produced the great world."Yih King, App. III., 7071.
Legge criticises the author of this paragraph, because there is
no way of deriving the full and broken lines, representing Yang and
Yin, from the circle, and we grant that there is a gap here. The
transition from the Yang-and-Yin dualism to the monism of the
T'ai Kih did not find its appropriate symbol. Nevertheless, we can
understand that the idea necessarily originated. Wang Pi, a cele

* See also Williams, S. D. of the Ch. L., p. 393.

*Although Wang Pi died at the early age of twenty-four years, his authority in
the mystic lore of the Yih King was so great that he is looked upon as the founder of
the modern school of divination.Mayer's Chinese Reader's Manual, W. J., No. 812.

brated scholar of the Wei dynasty (born 225 A.D.), (as quoted by
Legge, i.) says:
Existence must begin in non-existence, and therefore the Grand Terminus
produced the two elementary forms. Thi i [viz. T'ai Kih, the grand terminus]
is the denomination of what has no denomination. As it cannot be named, the text
takes the extreme point of anything that exists as an analogous term for the Thi Ki."
Professor Legge adds:
Expanding Wang's comment, Khung Ying-t says: Thi i [viz. T'ai Kih]
means the original subtle matter, that formed the one chaotic mass before heaven and
earth were divided;' and then he refers to certain passages in Lo-tsze's To-Teh
King, and identifies the Thi K'i with his To. This would seem to give to Thi Ki
a material meaning. The later philosophers of the Sung school, however, insist on
its being immaterial, now calling it li, the principle of order in nature, now to, the
defined course of things, now Ti, the Supreme Power or God, now shan, the spirit
ual working of God. According to Khang-tsze [Confucius], all these names are to
be referred to that of Heaven,' of which they express so many different concepts.

We here reproduce a diagram of the evolution of the Kwa

from the Great Extreme, which, so far as we know, has never been
reproduced in any Western translation of the Yih King.

Ji X + VA % 4k.

Fig. 11. THE DESIGN of Kwa-Evolution from THE GREAT ExTREME.

(From a Chinese edition of the Yih King.)

The eight characters of the title in Fig. 11 read from the right.
to the left:

{R Fuh 3% His >'s six--F typl] # four Kwa % serially

(or in their development) J# represented.

The marginal notes from below upward read the great ex

treme, the two I (or primordial forms), the four Siang or
figures, the eight kwa, the sixteen kwa, the thirty-two
kwa, the sixty-four kwa.
The inscriptions in the two large black and white rectangles
immediately above the circle read from the right to the left yin
and yang, in the second line from below consisting of two black
and two white rectangles, the great yin, the small yang, the
small yin, the great yang, in the third line ch'ien, tui, li, chan,
siuen, k'an, kan, and kw un, which are the names of the eight
Kwa, as quoted above. The thirty-two Kwa have no names. The
names of the sixty-four hexagrams are written in the Chinese original
over the small sixty-four rectangles at the top. They are here omit
ted because they would have appeared blurred in the present repro
duction, which is considerably reduced.
If we fold the diagram in the middle we find that the yin and
yang differentiations of the great origin cancel one another and the
whole world sinks back into nought. This symbolises the omneity
of the zero, which will illustrate what Chinese thinkers mean when
they speak with reverence of the great nothing, of emptiness, of
non-action, of non-existence, and of Nirvna. To them it represents
the omnipresence of the Deity in the All. It is that which remains
unchanged in all changes, the law in apparent irregularity and
chaos, the eternal in the transient, the absolute in the relative, the
universal in the particular, and rest in motion.
We are not accustomed to negative terms in just this sense,
but they are not entirely absent in Western literature. Thus Goethe
- Und alles Drngen, alles Ringen
Ist ev'ge Ruh' in Gott dem Herrn.
[Yet all the strife and all resistance
In God, the Lord, 's eternal rest.]



The monism implied in the unitary and ultimate principle of

the T'ai Kih was worked out by Cheu Tun-i, commonly called Cheu


Cheu-tsz' says in the T'ai kih t'u:

1. Having no cause, (Kih =
principle, origin, limit), therefore
the grand (original) cause.
[This statement may be com
pared to Spinoza's theory of the
uncaused causa sur.]

$ 2. The grand cause moves, thus

producing Yang. Having reached
the limit, however, it rests. Resting
yang |# # yin it produces Yin. Having rested to
the limit again, it moves. Once
moving, once resting; one state
moves #h # rests being conditioned by the other. In
separation it is (here) Yin, in sepa
ration it is (there) Yang. Thus the
two fundamental forms (viz. -
and --) are fixed.

3. Yang changes,Yin is added.

|K. 2-(+) Thus are produced water, fire, wood,
metal, and earth. The five kinds
of weather are distributed. The
four seasons come forth.
wood ".
* I metal
[Fire and wood belong to the
Yang, water and metal to the Yin;
while earth, standing in the centre,
is neutral.]

4. The five elements if united

K'ien's #. # Kw'un's are Yin and Yang. Yin and Yang
if united are the grand cause (Kih).
The grand cause is without cause.

norm# # Inorm The five elements receive at their

origin, each one its own nature.
[The circle indicates that the five
is): Jik is elements, when combined, can be
regarded as magnitudes of plus and
male 3 O
24 o'. minus which in their sum equal the
zero of the T'ai kih.]

the 5. The truth of that which has

"' no cause, the efficacy of the Two
(viz. the two forms - and -- and
of things}) of the Five (viz. the five elements)
in a wonderful way, now combine
and now separate. The K'ien's
through (==) norm is male, the Kw'un's = =)
change norm is female. Both aspirations
quicken one another, and through
originate *H. O transformations they produce all
things. All things are produced in
a process of production. Thus
change and transformation are in
1The myriads of things'' is a common phrase in Chi
nese, denoting the Universe.

Fig. 12. CHEU-Tsz' 's DIAGRAM of THE GREAT ORIGIN. [After Von Gabelentz.]

tsz', i. e. Cheu the Sage, who lived IoI71073. We do not hesitate

to say that Cheu-tsz is the first systematic thinker of China; he
certainly deserves the honorary title, Tao-Kwoh-Kung, Prince in
the Empire of Reason, conferred upon him after death. Lao-tsz'
may be deeper, Confucius more influential, Mencius more versatile,
but none of them is more methodical, none of them is more precise
and clear in comprehension than Cheu-tsz', and there is only one
who, in this particular line, is his equal: his great disciple, Chu Hi.
Cheu-tsz' and his school have systematised and completed the
philosophical world-conception of the Chinese. Whatever the an
cient traditions may have been, they are now understood in China
as interpreted by Cheu-tsz' and Chu-Hi.
Thomas Taylor Meadows says of Cheu-tsz in his book, The
Chinese and Their Rebellions, p. 358.
It is in the spirit of coalescence, and with a full personal faith in a virtual
identity of the teachings of the Sacred Books, that all Cheu-tsz's annotations and
commentaries were conceived. This circumstance, which rendered it unnecessary
for his countrymen, in adopting his views, to discard any part of what they had
long so highly esteemed; together with the fact that his style combined, in a won
derful degree, simplicity with completeness and lucidity with eloquence, procured
unmistakable supremacy for his writings soon after his death; and constituted him
the definitive fashioner of the Chinese mind."

Cheu-tsz has written a great number of works, but only two

have come down to our times; they are the \ if

Kih T'u, or the diagram of the Great Origin, and the T'ung Shul
# or general treatise, which found an expositor in Chu
1 (11301200 A.D.). Both books are excellently translated into
German the former by Gabelentz, the latter in part by W. Grube.
Cheu-tsz condenses the contents of his treatise on the Grand

Extreme in a diagram which is here reproduced. (See Fig. 12, p. 28.)

l T'ung, general, universal, abstract, H# Shu, writing, treatise, book
The T'ung Shu is the second chapter of the Sigg li ta seuen.
When at the request of Emperor Kanghi an abridged edition of the philosoph
ical encyclopaedia was published in 1717, both treatises of Cheu-tsz were again em
bodied in the collection in their complete form together with Chu-Hi's annotations.
This proves the high esteem in which these two thinkers are held in China, and,
indeed, their opinions are recognised as the standard of Chinese orthodoxy.
* T'ai Kih Tu des Tscheu Tsi, Tafel des Urprincipes mit Tschu-His Commen

The first sentence of the T'ung Shu reads:

# =# HH /\ z \
Truthfulness" [is] the holy? man's root."

What a deep and after all clear and true idea is expressed in
these simple words ! And yet Cheu-tsz's treatise will be disappoint
ing to a Western reader, for in the progress of his exposition our
philosopher interprets virtue in terms of the Yang and Yin system.
He says in $2 :
Great is the Ch'ien's origin. All things thence derive their beginning
(It is) Truth's source indeed!

* Ch'ien is the first combination of three Yang elements, (=),

and stands in contrast to Kw'un (==), the pure combination of
three Yin elements; the former symbolises heaven, virile strength,
manhood, creative power; the latter, earth, stability, woman
hood, productiveness. This is one striking instance, among innu
merable others that can be found in Chinese literature, of how deeply
even the most powerful minds, with the sole exception of Lao-tsz',
are entangled in the Yang and Yin philosophy that looms up at the
mythical beginning of Chinese civilisation and still rules the thought
of the Celestial Empire to-day!



The mantle of Cheu-tsz' fell upon Chu Hi, also called Chu
Fu Tsz', who lived 11301200 A. D. In his exposition of the clas

tare. Dresden, 1876. The 7"ai Kih 7"u is the first chapter of the Sing li ta tseuen
(literally, nature principle in full completeness, or, better, philosophical encyclo
paedia) published in 1415 by the third sovereign of the Ming dynasty.

: ch'ing="truth," or truthful," consists of word" and perfect." =#

che, meaning thing, or substance changes its preceding word into a noun, just
as does the English word one" in such clauses as the true one," this one, or
that one." Accordingly the two words mean the truth essence, the most appro
priate translation of which seems to be truthfulness."

"H shing = "holy" or saint," shows the characters ear" and to in

form," denoting (as Williams has it) "one who on hearing knows the whole case, ...
intuitively wise and good, . . . holy, sacred, perfect.

sics and of Cheu-tszs works, Chu Hi' leaves no doubt about the
monism of his philosophy. His works were published at the re
quest of Emperor Kanghi in a collection called Cheu-tsz' Tseuen Shu
(i.e., the complete writings of Cheu-tsz'), containing among other
essays his treatise on The Immaterial Principle (li) and Primary
Matter (Kii), the first sentence of which reads, according to Mr.
Meadows's translation (J. W. p. 373):
In the whole world there exists no primary matter #l (K'i), devoid of the
immaterial principle; and no immaterial principle (li) apart from primary matter."

Williams in his Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language ex

plains (on p. 348) #l
i as follows:

Fume or vapor; . . . steam; ether; the aerial fluid; breath, air; vital force;
spirit, temper, feelings; a convenient and mobile term in Chinese philosophy
for explaining and denoting whatever is supposed to be the source or primary agent
in producing or modifying motion.
Williams adds that k'i is more material than li (order) and tao
(reason); more external than sin M (heart) and is conditioned by
its form (hing). It is opposed to chi # (matter), as 8am or
spirit is opposed to the body it animates.
1See Mayer's Chinese Reader's Manual, s. v., Chu Hi, No. 79, and Chow Tuni,
No. 73; Chinese Repository, Vol. XIII, pp. 552 et seq. and 609 et seq.; also Wil
liams, The Middle Kingdom, I., 683 et seq. Compare also Mr. Meadows's strictures
on Dr. Medhurst's translation, J. M. pp. 372-374. Mr. Meadows's voluminous book
is valuable in many respects. Having served as an interpreter in H. M. Civil Ser
vice, he knows the people and describes the conditions with great impartiality.
However his criticism of other sinologists, even though correct, is too severe. He
forgets the difficulties under which they labored and underrates the power of both
religious and national prejudice. When we remember how greatly the nearest
Western nations, such as the Germans and French, the English and Americans
misunderstand one another, we must confess that the misrepresentations of sinolo
gists are quite excusable.
The weakest part of Mr. Meadows's article on Chinese philosophy is what he is
pleased to call the unfailing pass-key to the comprehension of all difficult passages
in the Chinese sacred books, as understood by the Chinese themselves," which con
sists in the proposition that the differences between T'ai kih (ultimate principle),
A'i (ether), Tao (Logos), Li (world-order), Sin (heart), Sing (nature), teh (virtue),
t'ien (heaven), ming (fate), Ch'ing (sincerity) are purely of a nominal kind."

2 K'i" #l must not be confounded with Kih #


*The character # chih shows the radical property" above which two taels
appear. Thus it may be explained as possessing the quality of weight."

# li is defined by the same authority (on p. 519) as:

The governing principle; that which is felt to be right and does not depend
on force; reason; directing principle; principle of organisation.
l' sing, nature, signifies the subjective disposition of things,
never the objective phenomena of the universe. The word sing is
composed of heart and to bear, to grow, denoting that which
is a manifestation of the inner character of existence.

M sin, heart, means not only the physical heart, which is

regarded as the lord of the body and one of the senses, but also the
core of things, as the wick of a candle, or the heart-wood of trees,
and the ultimate seat of desire, the origin and source of all activity.
Chu Hi (according to Dr. Medhurst's translation) continues:
When the primary matter is not collected and combined in form, there is no
lodging-place for the immaterial principle.
The primary matter relies on the immaterial principle to come into action,
and wherever the primary matter is coagulated there the immaterial principle is
No priority or subsequence can be predicated of the immaterial principle and
primary matter, and yet if you insist on carrying out the reasoning to the question
of their origin, then you must say that the immaterial principle has the priority;
but the immaterial principle is not a separate and distinct thing; it is just contained
within the primary matter, so that were there no primary matter, then this imma
terial principle would have no place of attachment.
When the primary matter is brought into being, then afterwards the imma
terial principle has some place whereon to rest. In regard to great things it is seen
in heaven and earth, and with respect to small, in ants and emmets.
While dwelling on the truth that the immaterial principle is in
separable from primary matter, Chu Hi yet recognises the higher
dignity and priority in importance of the former, but finding no
word to express precedence or superiority (i.e., priority in rank) to
anteriority, (i. e. priority in time), he says:
. . . And it appears to be impossible to distinguish the priority or subsequence.
If you insist on it, the immaterial principle is first, but you cannot say, to-day the
immaterial principle is called into existence and to-morrow primary matter; still
there is a priority and a subsequence.
Wherever the primary matter is collected, the immaterial principle is present;
but after all, the latter must be considered as the chief; this is what is called the
mysterious junction."

Mr. Meadows translates a passage on the problem of the prior

ity of the li over the K'i as follows:
Being asked whether the immaterial principle or primary matter first existed
he (Cheu-tsz') said: The immaterial principle was never separated from primary
matter; but the immaterial principle is what is previous to form, while primary
matter is what is subsequent to form.

Chu Hi perceives that he is dealing with an abstraction of the

highest kind, an abstraction of the universal; and we feel in the
many repetitions which fill his treatise how he grapples with the
problem, the solution of which he has in his mind without being able
to find an adequate symbol to express it. Wherever he turns he
sees inseparableness and distinctness. The immaterial principle is
omnipresent in all things, and yet it is different from matter, in ex
planation of which Chu Hi says: We must not consider the mud
diness of the stream to be the water.

The li or immaterial principle, resembles Kant's a priori or the

purely formal," the laws of which remain true not only of this actual
world of ours, but also of any possible world, and even if nothing
at all existed. Chu Hi attempts to express his idea thus:
You cannot distinguish in this matter between existence and non-existence;
before heaven and earth came into being it was just the same.
The immaterial principle remains true for both existence and
non-existence, but it cannot manifest itself without the existence of
primary matter. Seen in this light, the last quotation will not ap
pear contradictory to the following:
Wherever the primary matter exists there is found the immaterial principle
and where there is no primary matter there is also no immaterial principle."

The immaterial principle is the natural order of the seasons,

the principle of virtue in the moral man, the wisdom of the sage. It
is, on the one hand, the mentality of sentient beings which makes
comprehension possible, and on the other hand, the rationality of
the universe, i. e., the cosmic order which renders the world intel
ligible. Chu Hi says:

1It is what we define in the Primer of Philosophy (p. 79 et seq.) as the rigidly
formal. -

That which perceives is the immaterial principle of the mind; and that which
enables it to perceive is the intelligence of the primary matter.

The immaterial principle as it affects the Yang and Yin is sym

bolised by a circle in which light and darkness are evenly divided.
Darkness contains the seed of light, and light con
tains the seed of darkness.

Chu Hi identifies the immaterial principle with

Lao-tsz's # Tao and with Cheu-tsz's T'ai Kih. O

He says: 3:.
SYMbol of the
The great extreme is merely the immaterial principle of Source
heaven, earth, and all things; speaking of it with reference to OF ExistENcE.

heaven and earth, then the great extreme may be said to exist within heaven and
earth. Speaking of it with respect to the myriad of things, then amongst the myriad
of things" each one possesses a great extreme.
The great extreme is not an independent separate existence; it is found in the
male and female principles of nature, in the five elements, and in the myriad
of things. . . . Should any one ask, what is the great extreme 2 I should say, before
its development it is the immaterial principle, and after its manifestation it is feel
ing; thus for instance, when it moves and produces the male principle of nature,
then it is feeling or passion. -

At the very first there was nothing, but merely this immaterial principle.
From the time when the great extreme came into operation the myriad things
were produced by transformation; this one doctrine includes the whole; it is not
because this was first in existence and then that, but altogether there is only one
great origin, which from the substance [abstract existence; in-itself-ness] extends
to the use [to its manifestation in reality], and from the subtile reaches to that
which is manifest.
Cheu-tsz called it the extremeless or the illimitable, by which he meant the
great noiseless, scentless mystery.

By noiseless and scentless is meant the incorporeal, i.e.,

that which is not perceived by the senses, but can only be compre
hended by the mindas, for instance, the truth of a mathematical
theorem cannot be apprehended by any one of the senses, but is a
matter of pure understanding. Thus Chu Hi says:
The immaterial principle cannot be perceived [viz., by the senses]; but, from
the operations of the male and female principles of nature [viz. the purely formal

"See footnote belonging to Fig. 12 on p. 29.


science of Yang and Yin permutations] we become acquainted with it; thus the
immaterial principle depends (for its display) on the male and female principles of

Should any one ask, what is the great extreme 2 I would say, the great ex
treme is simply the principle of extreme goodness and extreme perfection. Every
man has got a great extreme; every thing has got a great extreme; that which
Cheu-tsz called the great extreme is the exemplified virtue of everything that is
extremely good and extremely perfect in heaven and earth, men and things."
We would say, it is every one's ideal, as Rckert expresses it:
Worjedem steht ein Bild des, das er werden sol/,
Und worer es nicht ist, ist nicht sein Friede voll.

[An image of what it ought to be lives in each creature's mind

So long as that is unattained, its peace it cannot find.]

We can scarcely appreciate the difficulties which Cheu-tsz' and

Chu Hi had to overcome in the dualistic terminology of their na
tional tradition. The term T'ai Kih (Great Extreme) dates back
to earlier days, but the monistic conception derived from its appli
cation was new ; and it was a triumph of philosophical thought
which their inventors, considering the circumstances of the situa
tion, had good reasons to prize highly. Chu Hi says:
The great extreme is the immaterial principle of the two powers, the four
forms, and the eight changes of nature; we cannot say that it does not exist, and
yet there is no form or corporeity that can be ascribed to it. From this point is
produced the one male and the one female principle of nature, which are called
the two powers; also the four forms and the eight changes proceed from this, all
according to a certain natural order, irrespective of human strength in its arrange
ment. But from the time of Confucius no one has been able to get hold of this
idea. Until the time of Shu Kangtsie, when this doctrine was explained, and it
appeared very reasonable and pleasing. It may not therefore be treated with light
ness, and should be more particularly inquired into."

In a word, the monistic school of Cheu-tsz' and Chu Hi are

in the history of Chinese thought what Kant is in the Western
world. They discovered that the Yang and Yin manipulations are
what we would call the most abstract algebra of thought or the sci
ence of pure forms, embodying the universal and necessary laws of
both the objective realm of existence and the subjective realm of
man's mentality.

European and American civilisation has less firm foundations
in us as compared with the deep root which the Chinese view of
life has struck in the souls of Chinamen. It is reflected in their
thought," in institutions, in the habits of their daily life, in their
symbolism, in their language, and above all in their ethics which
reflects their views of the relation of Yang to Yin, being in its noblest
conception the completest submission of a child to the will of his
father, a virtue which is called in Chinese # A tao.

As an instance of the influence of the Yang and Yin philosophy

upon the life of all nations that have ever felt the influence of the
Chinese world-view, we state that the name of the greatest Japanese
monthly is The Great Yang; which is translated by the editors
by The Sun. The flag of the Coreans shows the diagram of the
symbol of the primordial source of existence (as it appears in Fig. 13)
in blue and red colors, surrounded by the trigrams Ch'ien, Kn, Li,
and Kw un, E == ==
The most important field in which the Yang and Yin philosophy
exercises its influence is in the domain of ethics. The dualism that

still lingers in Chinese thought finds its expression in the Chinese

code of morals which always implies an external relation between
two, an authoritative master and an obedient servant, the duty of
the former being wisdom in government, and of the latter submis
sion. One of the favorite treatises of Chinese literature, the booklet
entitled The Classic of Filial Piety, sets forth the idea that filial

"The Yih with its Yang and Yin is part and parcel of the mind of every edu
cated Chinaman. Even Lao-Tsz', the greatest adversary of Confucian scholar
ship, says: The ten thousand things are sustained by the Yin and encompassed by
the Yang; and the K'i (the immaterial breath) renders them harmonious." (Ch. 42.)
As a thoroughly reliable description of Chinese life we recommend Prof. Rob
ert K. Douglas's works, Chinese Stories, W. Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh, 1893.
and Society in China, A. D. Innes & Co., London, 1894.

*The character Hiao, , filial p

piety, shows a child supporting
porting an old man.
*Sacred Books of the East, Vol. III., pp. 447448. The book was written either
by Tsang-tsz', the disciple of Confucius, or by one of Tsang-tsz's school,

devotion is the root of virtue. Filial devotion is said to be the

maxim of Heaven, the righteousness of Earth, and the duty of man

The idea of filial piety is widened into devotion as it applies to
the five moral relations that obtain between man and man; viz.,
between (1) sovereign and subject, (2) parent and child, (3) elder
brother and younger, (4) husband and wife, (5) friend and friend."
When asked by Tsang whether in the virtue of the sages there
was not something higher, Confucius replied:
Of all (creatures with their different) natures produced by Heaven and Earth
man is the noblest. Of all the actions of man there is none greater than filial piety.
In filial piety there is nothing greater than the reverential awe of one's father. In
the reverential awe shown to one's father there is nothing greater than the making
him the correlate of Heaven.

The higher monistic ethics, which becomes possible only on

an advanced plane in the evolution of mankind, unites both the
governor and the governed in one person and expects every one to
be his own king, priest, and instructor, replacing the external rela
tion by an internal relation. This principle of a monistic ethics was
first proclaimed in the history of European civilisation by the re
formers of the sixteenth century, who taught self-dependence and
claimed the liberty of conscience. Liberty of conscience, self-re
liance, the right of free inquiry and free thought abolish personal
authority, not for the sake of anarchy, but to replace it by the su
perpersonal authority of justice, right, and truth.
Filial devotion remains submission, as we read in Chapter XI:
When constraint is put upon a ruler, that is the disowning of his superiority;
when the authority of the sages is disallowed, that is the disowning of (all) law;
when filial piety is put aside, that is the disowning of the principle of affection.
These (three things) pave the way to anarchy.

Rebels are punished with brutal severity, yet there are frequent
revolutions in China; and the Shu King goes so far even as to sanc
tion them, provided they be successful. We read:

*The fivefold relationship which constitutes the substance of Chinese ethics is

supplemented by K'ung Ki's principle that good is the middle way between two ex
tremesa doctrine, which by Western critics has been censured as the ethics of
mediocrity. K'ung Ki was a grandson of Confucius.

Heaven establishes sovereigns merely for the sake of the people; whom the
people desire for sovereign, him will Heaven protect; whom the people dislike as
sovereign, him will Heaven reject.
[The Sovereign's] real way of serving Heaven is to love the people.
When he fails to love the people Heaven will, for the sake of the people, cast
him out.

Thus revolutions are regarded as ordeals in which success or

failure signify the decision of heaven.
How the spirit of devotion is carried to the extreme, can be
illustrated by many instances of Chinese habits, history, and stories.
We quote one tale, which is at once typical and terse, from a pop
ular book called The Twenty-four Filials:"
In the days of the Han dynasty lived Koh K, who was very poor. He had
one child three years old; and such was his poverty that his mother usually divided
her portion of food with this little one. Koh says to his wife, We are so poor that
our mother cannot be supported, for the child divides with her the portion of food
that belongs to her. Why not bury this child? Another child may be born to us
but a mother once gone will never return.' His wife did not venture to object to
the proposal; and Koh immediately dug a hole of about three cubits deep, when
suddenly he lighted upon a pot of gold, and on the metal read the following inscrip
tion: Heaven bestows this treasure upon Koh F, the dutiful son; the magistrate
may not seize it, nor shall the neighbors take it from him.
The neglect of what Western nations would consider as the
highest duties is frequently enjoined for the sake of parents; and in
agreement with this code of morals, the Chinese Emperor of late
concluded to yield to all the demands of the victorious Japanese
only that the Empress dowager in Pekin should not be obliged to
be inconvenienced by a removal of the Imperial Court.
While on this important point our Western ideas of morality
are different from those of the Chinese, we ought to consider that
our American youths go to the other extreme. They can still learn
from the Chinese, whose devotion to old parents is sometimes truly
elevating and touching; and we have to add that one of the chief
obstacles, although not the only one, to the introduction of Chris
tianity into China are such words of Christ's as these :

E+PU #
* Quoted from Williams's Middle Kingdom, Vol. I., p. 539.

If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and
children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my dis
ciple.Luke, xiv, 26.
I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter
against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law."Matth.,
x, 35.

The dualism of Chinese ethics finds expression in a rigid code

of ceremonial forms. Who ever met an educated Chinese gentle
man and was not struck by his extraordinary and almost painfully
polite demeanor? How much stress is laid upon details in propriety,
we can gather from the following injunction of courtesy toward visi
tors as quoted by Williams, in his Middle Kingdom, Vol. I., p. 540,
from Chu Hi's Juvenile Instructor (Siao Hioh):
Whoever enters with his guests, yields precedence to them at every door;
when they reach the innermost one, he begs leave to go in and arrange the seats,
and then returns to receive the guests; and after they have repeatedly declined he
bows to them and enters. He passes through the right door, they through the left.
He ascends the eastern, they the western steps.
If a guest be of a lower grade, he must approach the steps of the host, while
the latter must repeatedly decline this attention; then the guest may return to the
western steps, he ascending, both host and guest must mutually yield precedence:
then the host must ascend first, and the guests follow. From step to step they
must bring their feet together, gradually ascendingthose on the east moving the
right foot first, those on the west the left."
We ask now, what is the original significance of the Yih King,
and, without attempting to decide the problem, present some solu
tions which have been proposed by various scholars.
The oldest European interpretation of the Kwa comes from
the pen of no less an authority than the great Leibnitz. On ex
plaining, in the Mmoires de l'Acadmie Royale des sciences (1703, III.,
p. 85), the nature and advantage of the binary or dyadic system of
numeration, which employs only the symbols o and 1, expressing 2
by 10, 3 by 11, 4 by 1oo, 5 by IoI, 6 by 11o, 7 by 111, etc., he makes
reference to the Kwa of the Yih King, which he calls cova. He

* Cova is the same as coua, v" being equal to u.


" Ce qu'il y a de surprenant dans ce calcul, c'est que cette arithmtique par o et
1 se trouve contenir le mystre des lignes d'un ancient roi et philosophe nomm
Fohy, qu'on croit avoir vcu il y a plus de quatre mille ans, et que les Chinois re
gardent comme le fondateur de leur empire et de leurs sciences. Il y a plusieurs
figures linaires qu'on lui attribue. Elles reviennent toutes cette arithmtique,
mais il suffit de mettre ici la figure de huit Cova comme on l'appelle, qui passe
pour fondamentale, et d'y joindre l'explication, qui est manifeste, pourvu qu'on re
marque premirement qu'une ligne entire - signifie l'unit ou 1, et seconde
ment qu'une ligne brise -- signifie le zro ou o.
- -
- -- = -- - = - - - --
- -- - - - -- - --

3 -
8 O
- O
o C) C) - - - -


O I 2 3 4 5 6 7

" Les Chinois ont perdu la signification des Cova ou linations de Fohy, peut
tre depuis plus d'un millnaire d'annes ; et ils ont fait des commentaires l
dessus, o ils ont cherch je ne sais quels sens loigns. De sorte qu'il a fallu que
la vraie explication leur vnt maintenant des Europens. Voici comment. Il n'y
a gure plus de deux ans que j'envoyai au R. P. Bouvet, Jsuite franais clbre,
qui demeure Pekin, ma manire de compter par o et 1, et il n'en fallut pas
d'avantage pour le faire reconnatre que c'est la clef de figures de Fohy. Ainsi
m'crivant le 14. Novembre, il m'a envoy la grande figure de ce prince philosophe
quiva 64, et ne laisse plus lieu de douter de la vrit de notre interprtation, de
sorte qu'on peut dire que ce Pre a dchiffr l'nigme de Fohy l'aide de ce que je
lui avais communiqu. Et comme ces figures sont peut-tre le plus ancient monu
ment de science qui soit au monde, cette restitution de leur sens, aprs un si grand
intervalle de temps, paratra d'autant de plus curieuse.
" Le consentement des figures de Fohy et de ma Table des Nombres se fait
mieux voire lorsque dans la table on supple les zros initiaux, qui paraissent
superflus, mais qui servent mieux marquer la priode de la colonne, comme je les
y ai supples en effet avec des petits ronds pour les distinguer des zros, et cet ac
cord me donne une grande opinion de la profondeur des mditations de Fohy. Car
ce qui nous parat ais maintenant, ne l'tait pas dans ce temps loign.
" L'arithmtique binaire ou dyadique est en effet fort ais aujourd'hui pour peu
qu'on y pense, par ce que notre manire de compter y aide beaucoup, dont il
semble qu'on retranche seulement le trop. Mais cette arithmtique ordinaire par
dix ne parat pas fort ancienne, au moins les Grecs et les Romains l'ont ignore, et
ont t privs de ses avantages. Il semble que l'Europe en doit l'introduction
Gerbert, depuis Pape sous le nom de Sylvestre II, qui l'a eu des Maures d'Espagne.
" Or comme l'on croit la Chine que Fohy est encore auteur des caractres Chi
nois ordinaires, quoique fort altrs par la suite des temps : son essay d'arithm

|I| E









O | 1 T 1

1 o | 1 o To =52
| [
D [

| I



| =55

T | |
I. EE| |
| ][T]
I | I | I I 1 | =| JTI T][T]D

BINARY System of Leibnitz. Evolution of the Kwa, or The Kwa Evolved

FROM T'ai Kih.

It will be of interest to compare Leibnitz's binary numbers with Cheu-tsz's design; the
similarity among which will appear as soon as o is identified with the black E and 1 with the
white D spaces.

tique fait juger qu'il pourrait s'y trouver quelque chose de considrable par rapport
aux nombres et aux ides, si l'on pouvait dterrer le fondement de l'criture Chi

noise, d'autant plusqu'on croit la Chine, qu'il a eu gard aux nombres en

l'tablissant. Le R. P. Bouvet est fort port pousser cette pointe, et trs capable
d'y russir en bien de manires. Cependant je ne sais s'il y a jamais eu dans l'cri
ture Chinoise un avantage rapprochant de celui qui doit tre dans une caractris
tique que je projette. C'est que tout raisonnement qu'on peut tirer des notions,
pourrait tre tir de leurs caractres par une manire de calcul, qui serait une des
plus importans moyens d'aides de l'esprit humain.

Prof. Moritz Cantor," disposes of Leibnitz's interpretation of

the Kwa because Mr. Duhalde had proved them to be projective
drawings of the knotted cords. He adds that they must, accord
ing to Bouvet, be regarded, on account of their names, not as num
bers, but as physical symbols, and explains Leibnitz's theory as
exclusively due to his philosophical interpretation of the binary sys
tem, which was to him an evidence in favor of his conception of a
creation from nothing or zero with the sole assistance of One or the
unit. But Cantor seems to overlook that in this very respect the
ancient Yang and Yin philosophy of the Chinese closely resembles
Leibnitz's idea, whether we regard the Kwa as numbers, or as a
binary system of such symbols as are still more general and indefi
nite. The fact of both their presence and their philosophical sig
nificance remains the same and cannot be doubted.
The first translation of the #, Yih is in Latin. It was made
by the Jesuit P. Regis with the assistance of some of his colleagues,
and edited in two volumes by Julius Mohl.
Prof. James Legge's translation is based upon the idea that the
book in its main parts and originally was intended to be a kind of
political testament of King Wen and the Duke of Cheu, enlarging on
moral and social questions, but enigmatically written after the man
ner and fashion of diviners. He therefore tries to bring his mind
en rapport with the mind of its authors and paraphrases the mean
ing of the disconnected words and sentences in the sense that he

In his Mathematische Beitrge zum Kulturleben der Vlker, Halle, 1863, p. 49.
*Y King, Antiquitissimus Sinarum liber, quem ex latina interpretatione P. Regis
aliorumque ex Soc. Jesu P. T., edidit Julius Mohl. Stuttgartiae et Tbingae. 1834.

finds indicated in the text. He encloses his additions in parentheses,

I hope, however, that I have been able in this way to make the translation
intelligible to readers. If, after all, they shall conclude that in what is said on the
hexagrams there is often much ado about nothing,' it is not the translator who
should be deemed accountable for that, but his original.

A peculiar conception of the Yih King has been propounded by

P. L. F. Philastre, who lays much stress on the tradition that Fuh
Hi received his first idea of the Kwa by contemplating the starry
heavens and believes that he discovered in the Kwa combinations a

method of symbolising the astronomical lore of the ancient Chinese.

His lucubration embodies translations of the most important Chi
nese commentaries."

Canon McClatchie published a translation of the Yih King in

which he ventures to open its mysteries by applying the key of
comparative mythology. I have not seen it and quote only what
Professor Legge has to say about it (Sacred Books of the East, Vol.
XVI, p. xvii):
Such a key was not necessary and the author by the application of it, has
found sundry things to which I have occasionally referred in my notes. They are
not pleasant to look at or dwell upon, and happily it has never entered into the
minds of Chinese scholars to conceive them.

A. Terrien de Lacouperie believes that the Yih King is a mere

vocabulary containing those word-symbols which the Bak families
brought with them as a sacred inheritance of the Elamo-Babylonian
P. Angelo Zottoli says of the Yih King in his Cursus Literaturae
Sinicae :

A. Terrien de Lacouperie believes that the old Chinese civilisation is an off

shoot of the Elamo-Babylonian civilisation in the very stage of development that
had been reached a little after the middle of the third millennium B. C., and claims
that the hexagrams are the script which the Bak tribes, the oldest civilisers of
China, carried with them to the new homes, and the Yih King is originally a diction
ary of the ancient word-symbols with their lexicographical explanations, the mean

1Annales du Muse Guimet, Vols. VIII. and XXIII.

* The Oldest Book of the Chinese, the Yt King and Its Authors. London: D.
Nutt, 27o Strand, 1892.

ing of which was later on misunderstood without losing the awe that naturally was
attached to the book as embodying the wisdom of the sages of yore."
The book consists of the figures of Fuh Hi, of the divinations of King Wen,
of the symbols of the Duke of Cheu, and the commentaries of Confucius. From
the permutations which the two elements in the composition of the hexagrams un
dergo it is called Yih (the permutator), or Yih King, the Book of Permutations. What,
then, is this famous Yih King? It is, briefly, this. From the continuous or bisected
quality of the lines, their position either at the bottom or in the middle or topmost,
their mutual relation as being opposed and separated, or coming together, the body
or form of the trigrams themselves; further, from the symbol or image of the tri
grams, from the quality or virtue of the trigrams, sometimes from the difference of
one hexagram as compared to another, a certain picture is developed and a certain
idea is deduced containing something like an oracle that can be consulted by drawing
lots, in order to obtain some warning fit for guidance in life or to solve some doubt.
Such is the book according to the explanations of Confucius as handed down in the
schools. Therefore, you must expect neither anything sublime or mysterious, nor
anything unseemly or vile. I see in it rather a subtle play for eliciting moral and po
litical instructions, such as can be found in the Chinese classics, obtrusive, plain, and
natural. Since this book, as a reader of the original text will understand, has been
employed for fortune telling, one expects to gain by it the highest happiness of life,
mysterious communication with spirits and occult knowledge of future events.
Therefore, the book appears as a magic revelation, as a perfect light, as throughout
spiritual and conformable to the life of man. Hence the praises attributed to it by
Confucius, although quite exaggerated, will be seen specially added in the Appendix
of the book, if it is true at all as the common opinion goes, that he himself is the
author of the Appendix."

Ch. de Harlez, the originator of the idea that the nature of the
Yih King is lexicological, does not accept Lacouperie's theory of an
Elamo-Babylonian origin of the Yih King. He says in the preface
to his French translation of the Yih:

Notre systme . . . nous fait voir dans le Yih un reccueil mi-lexicologique,

mi-philosophique determes et de sentences, plein de raison et de sagesse.P. 11.

There remains one more hypothesis on the nature of the Yih

King which is by Dr. Heinrich Riedel, of Brooklyn, N. Y. He has
given me much assistance in my own Chinese studies and I am in
clined to believe that he has something to say on the subject that is

* Translated from the Latin. The original is quoted by Legge in his Preface to
the Yih King, p. xviii.
* Published in 1889 by F. Hayer, Bruxelles, rue de Louvain, 108.

worth hearing. Since his observations have never been published,

I deem it advisable, for the sake of sinology, to present some chips
from his workshop.
Dr. Riedel regards the Yih as a calendar of the lunar year, being
what the title of Cheu-tsz's book on the Yih indicated, a T'ung Shu,
a universal book, or almanac, embodying everything in the do
main of science, religion, ethics, and even sport that appeared of in
terest. T'ung Shu means calendar, and 6 64=384 (the number
of strokes in the hexagrams) is the number of days of the intercalary
year. As to the hexagrams, Dr. Riedel insists that the specific
order of the sixty-four hexagrams which is carefully preserved and
sacredly guarded by devices that remind us of the Massoretic pre
cautions taken in regard to the Hebrew texts of the Bible and which
has yet received little if any attention, is the soul and substance of
the Yih King, and trusts to be able to prove that the circular de
vice of hexagrams including the square represents the problem of
squaring the circle. Here are, in a condensed form, some points
of his theory:
There is in Chinese authors a frequent substitution of symbols
by homonyms; as Gabelentz says: The ancient authors either
through mistake or in emergency, or by sheer whim, used to replace
the character of a word by another one which probably in their age
had the same or a very similar sound. (Gr. Ch. Gr. p. 100.) And
this must be expected to have taken place in the Yih King rather
more freely than in other books. Now take the first sentence of the
Yih King and replace it by homonyms as follows:

H% 7U # #1] H
}:U-H fj }'' E.
Both lines read nearly alike: K'ien yuen hng liching; but
the former means K'ien, origin (and) progress determined by ad
vantageousness, while the latter means See the circle's path rec
tified by reason.
The aphorism belonging to the first (viz. the lowest) Kiu line
of the first Kwa, which reads Tsien lung wuhyung, Dr. Riedel

translates: A hidden dragon through negation is action, which is

meant to set forth the mathematical and logical powers of naught (o).
Legge is unable to bring sense into a passage in which robbery
is declared to teach ethics (Sacred Books of the East, III., p. 203,
48). The paragraph, however, becomes clear when we adopt Dr.
Riedel's proposition to regard robbery as a game like chess and
translate it by latrunculi or robbery-game. Burden-bearers, i.e.
peasants or laborers, should be translated by pawns. Other
allusions that occur in the passage, such as false moves, leaving
exposed, attacking, captured, remind us of our own chess
board terms. In addition, we meet in the Yih passim with generals,
the tsz, i.e., sages or advisers, horses, carriages, and elephants."
Legge translates the aphorism of the second Luh line of the
second Kwa thus:

(The second line divided) [shows the attribute of] being straight, square,
and great. (Its operation) without repeated efforts will be in every respect advan

Dr. Riedel proposes a more literal translation :

Rectify, [or] square greatly (viz. ever so much), not continuously employing
naught, no gain."
The Yang and Yin lines are designated by kiu ju and luh %
two characters which ordinarily mean nine and six. Dr. Riedel
claims with great plausibility, that they are employed to designate
diameter and radius. Kiu means not only nine, but also to
go to the end of; to go through ; or, to bring together. It is a
homonym with , its inversion, which means to take hold of; to
join; to connect. Further, luh means six, and in analogy with
T 'rh, which means two and to divide into two, luh means
also to divide into sixes and then sextant, the sixth part of a circle
or the radius which is equal to the chord of a sextant. This makes it
probable that kiu in the Yih King means diameter-line; and luh
radius line, which again are identified with the full line of Yang and
the broken line of Yin.

On the chess of the Chinese see Williams's Middle Kingdom, I., p. 827.

2 l." mentioned by Williams in his Syllabic Dictionary, p. 413.


A passage quoted from K'ung Ngan Tsz Quoh reads:

The spirit tortoise carried a writing and methodically arranged divisions.
In both respects it had the digits up to nine.

Comparing this with a passage in the Book of Three Characters'

which declares that the five elements have their origin in num
bers, Dr. Riedel deduces from observations made on the carapace
of a half-grown Chrysemys picta, which on account of its abnormal
number of inner and outer plates a Chinaman would class as a shan
kwei, or spirit tortoise, the following writing of the nine digits as a
hypothetical reconstruction of the Loh Shu in its substance:
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
- -
- - m m * - - -

E- *- - *- - - |- - - - - -
*- *- - E- *- - *

The sum of the Kiu lines is 16, of the Luh lines 29.
The plates on the back of the tortoise yield the same numbers
in the same proportion. There are sixteen large inner plates, while
there are twenty-three small outer plates, and in addition we have
three pairs of small ones that appear to be superimposed upon the
three vertebral plates in the centre. The symbols of the five ele
ments, as written on p. 21, yield sixteen long and twenty-nine short

Now, by means of the same distribution of whole and broken

lines amongst the nine digits, Dr. Riedel claims to have constructed
an anagram of the number 7 in one hundred and twenty-three
decimal places, exhibiting the sixty-four Yih kwa in their specific
order, placed in rows of eight each, from below upwards. The use
of an anagram for the purpose of laying down a scientific truth at
the time inaccessible, is by no means a device unheard of in the his
tory of science; for in comparatively recent times such men as
Roger Bacon, Galileo, and Huygens have done the same thing.
The spiritual tortoise accordingly is a lusus naturae which ap

1 - + # An English translation of this booklet is published in The

Open Court, No. 412 The passage quoted above is characters 199204.
*See Fig. 10 on p 20.

pealed to the mathematical mind of the Chinese and caused them to

see in it a spiritual being.
If Dr. Riedel's theory is not the restoration of the ancient Chi
nese conception, we may rest assured that it was some quite analo
gous scheme.
Dr. Riedel, in further attempts at proving the presence of the
number 7 in the order of the Kwa of the Yih King, quotes from
Hi tsz (App. iii, 1, $70) the sentence: The Yih contains the great
extreme, and says, Now as the great extreme which is symbolised
by a circle is not mentioned at all, and as we have in the Yih King
proper only the mutations of Yang and Yin, the Luh and Kiu, the two
primary forms (Liang i), I conclude that they, if anything, must con
tain the number by which to calculate the circle" (i. e., the symbol
of the great extreme). In addition to this argument, Dr. Riedel
quotes the passage Yih Nih Shu Ye, i. e., the mutations (are) a
refractory number, refractory number being defined in Shwoh
Kwa (App. V. 2) by making acquainted with the future, which
is the opposite to a number that has reference to the past, and is
consummated or compliant. Accordingly, says Dr. Riedel,
a refractory number can, in the adduced passage, mean only what
we call an irrational number.

In the beginning of the same Appendix we read: The holy

men of yore who composed the Yih, concealed their help in spiritual
light and thus gave life to the milfoil stalks. They triangulated"
the heaven, made twofold the earth, and relied upon calculation.
All commentators and interpreters agree that in this sentence heaven
means the circle, and earth the square. Dr. Riedel suggests that
making twofold the earth (viz., the square) indicates the primitive
method of approximating n by circumscribed and inscribed squares.
The aphorism of the fourth hexagram declares:
Novice, proceed. We do not seek the youthful and inexperienced. The
youthful and inexperienced shall seek us. In its first (elements) divination is pro
pounded. Further details (literally, the second and third) would be tedious. Te
dious rules are not propounded.

*The ancient character for the verb to triangulate" contains three triangles
Compare the English word trigonometry.

As to the original meaning of divination in the minds of the

Chinese, Dr. Riedel adduces from an English-Chinese dictionary the
explanatory character swan, which denotes the Chinese abacus,
to cipher, a calculation, which goes far to prove that the fun
damental meaning of divination is closely connected with math
ematical, arithmetical, and logical determination.
In addition to all this it is, at least, a strange coincidence that
the name of the dynasty Cheu, J#
after which the present book of
Yih is called, means periphery, curve, enclosure. The verb cheu
is translated by Williams, to make a circuit; to environ.
It cannot be my purpose to enter further into Dr. Riedel's argu
ments, not only because an elaborate proof must, in the very nature
of things, be very complicated, but also because I am not sufficiently
acquainted with all the details of his further evidence. Dr. Riedel's
proposition is, to say the least, not less probable than any one of
the other theories of the Yih King that have been advanced. I have
devoted more space to it because it is as yet unknown, and, being
very striking and ingenious, it is worthy of a careful consideration.
Many of his observations which I have inquired into as carefully as
I could, with my still limited knowledge of the Chinese language,
appear to me correct: but I have not as yet been persuaded to adopt
his main theories, that the Yih is a calendar and that a portion of it
is devoted to the problem of squaring the circle.



At first sight there does not seem to be much room in the Yang
and Yin philosophy for a personal God. Nevertheless, the Chinese
believe in !. the Lord on High, who is the sole ruler of the
universe and the sole God above all the mythological deities.
The divine power to which men look up as to their authority of
conduct is commonly designated with the impersonal term
T'ien," i.e., Heaven, which may be translated by Godhood or Deity.

l y< T'ien consists of 7 \ great" and one."


If conceived as a personal being T'ien is called Shang Ti, i. e. the

High Sovereign, or the Lord on High.
The worship of Shang Ti must be very old, for we read that
after a severe drought Ching Tang, the founder of the Shang dy
nasty, which began 1766 B.C., publicly paid religious worship to
Shang Ti, confessing his offences, which were six. He had scarcely
finished his confession when the rain fell in torrents. We must add

that on this occasion the worship of Shang Ti is not related as an

innovation, but as a means of deliverance that naturally suggested
itself to a good ruler."
In the very oldest documents of the Shu King the term
Heaven is used as is our deity, implying even the conception of
a personal being. Thus we read in the Counsels of Ko-Yo:
The work [i.e., the bringing to an end] is Heaven's; but men must act for it.
From Heaven are the relationships with their several duties. From Heaven
are the [social] distinctions with their several ceremonies.
Heaven punishes the guilty.
Heaven hears and sees as our people hear and see. Heaven brightly approves
and displays its terrors as our people brightly approve and overawe. Such connex
ion is between the upper and lower (worlds).Sacred Books of the East, III., pp.

Quotations like these can be multiplied by the thousands. We

have purposely limited them to the most ancient documents in the
Shu King in order to prove that the idea of a supreme personal
deity is not of modern date. At present the worship of Shang Ti
is regarded as so holy that the emperor, as the High Priest of the
nation, is alone permitted to perform the ceremony.
Peking, the capital of China consists of three cities: the Tartar
city to the North, the Forbidden city with the imperial palaces and
parks lying within the Tartar city, and the Chinese city to the South.
In the southern part of the Chinese city is a park of about a square
mile containing the Temple of Heaven and the Altar of Heaven,

"See Williams's The Middle Kingdom, II., p. 154.

* Or better: Consummation is Heaven's, but men must work for it."
*We retain this traditional translation altar," although it is misleading since
it suggests the erroneous idea that it must be an altar such as we see in Catholic
churches or as it was used by the ancient Greeks.

which are to the Chinese the most sacred spots on earth. The
Temple of Heaven (or more correctly, the Altar of praying for
grain) is a triple marble terrace, twenty-seven feet in height, sur
rounded with marble balustrades and crowned with a temple which
rises to the height of ninety-nine feet. The three terraces and the
temple are circular. The symmetry of the proportions renders it
most beautiful; its dome imitates in shape and color the vault of
heaven, and as the round windows are shaded by blinds of blue
glass-rods strung together, the entering sun casts an azure light
upon the rich carvings and paintings in the inside. The same park
in which the Temple of Heaven stands, contains the Altar of
Heaven, which is enclosed by an outer square wall and an inner cir
cular wall; and it is here that the emperors of China at the time of
our Christmas have been in the habit, from time immemorial, of wor
shipping E. # Shang Ti, the Lord on High, or as the Emperor
Kanghi expressed himself: the true God. The Altar of Heaven
(a picture of which forms the frontispiece to the first volume of Wil
liams's Middle Kingdom) is described by Williams as follows":
It is a beautiful triple circular terrace of white marble, whose base is 210, mid
dle stage 150, and top 90 feet in width, each terrace encompassed by a richly carved
balustrade. A curious symbolism of the number three and its multiples may be
noticed in the measurements of this pile. The uppermost terrace, whose height
above the ground is about eighteen feet, is paved with marble slabs, forming nine
concentric circlesthe inner of nine stones inclosing a central piece, and around
this each receding layer consisting of a successive multiple of nine until the square
of nine (a favorite number of Chinese philosophy) is reached in the outermost row.
It is upon the single round stone in the centre of the upper plateau that the Em
peror kneels when worshipping Heaven and his ancestors at the winter solstice.
This round stone, we must remember, is the symbol of the
T'ai Kih, O, the ultimate ground of being. Williams continues:
Four flights of nine steps each lead from this elevation to the next lower stage,
where are placed tablets to the spirits of the sun, the moon, the stars, and the Year
God. On the ground at the end of the four stairways stand vessels of bronze in
which are placed the bundles of cloth and sundry animals constituting a part of the
sacrificial offerings. But of vastly greater importance than these in the matter of

1See Williams's Middle Kingdom, I., 7677, and . The Dragon, Image, and De
mon, by Du Bose, New York, 1887 (pp. 5764).

burnt-offering is the great furnace, nine feet high, faced with green porcelain, and
ascended on three of its sides by porcelain staircases. In this receptacle, erected
some hundred feet to the southeast of the altar, is consumed a burnt-offering of a
bullockentire and without blemishat the yearly ceremony. The slaughter
house of the sacrificial bullock stands east of the North Altar, at the end of an elab
orate winding passage, or cloister of seventy-two compartments, each ten feet in

Such is the religious and popular conception of Shang Ti, which

is as deeply rooted in the Chinese mind, and perhaps more deeply
than is the God-idea in the West. But just as Western philoso
phers translate the God-idea of religion into a philosophical prin
ciple, (I mention Hegel's Absolute, Schopenhauer's Will, Fichte's
Moral World-Order, Spinoza's definition of Substance, etc.,) so
the educated Chinese speak of Lao-tsz's Tao or World-Logos, of
Cheu Tsz's T'ai Kih or the ultimate ground of existence, and of Chu
Hi's Li or immaterial principle. Chu Hi touches upon the problem
of the personality of God in his expositions on the immaterial prin
ciple and primary matter. He says after quoting three passages from
the classics in which the terms Shang Ti and T'ien (the Lord on
High and Heaven) imply the idea of a personal God:
All these and such like expressions, do they imply that above the azure sky
there is a Lord and Ruler who acts thus, or is it still true that heaven has no mind,
and men only carry out their reasonings in this style? I reply, these three things
are but [expressions of] one idea; it is that the immaterial principle of [the cosmic]
order is such.'"

This seems to imply that his conception of the k'i implies per
sonality; but he adds:
The primary matter, in its evolutions hitherto, after one season of fulness has
experienced one of decay, and after a period of decline, it again flourishes; just as
if things were going on in a circle. There never was a decay without a revival."
Chinese Repository, Vol. XIII., p. 555.

There is an extensive literature on the question; for some Chris

tian missionaries have objected to the translation of Shang Ti by
God and God by Shang Ti, proposing other words in its place."

*See The Chinese Repository, Vol. XVII., pp. 1753, 57-89 (Essay on the
Term for Deity," by William J. Boone, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church);
i. pp. 105-133, 161187, 209-242, 26531o, 321354 (Chinese Term for Deity,

The controversy began with the Roman Catholic missions.

The Jesuit Ricci, an unusual missionary genius, who rendered the
Chinese government so many valuable services that he commanded
the Emperor's highest respect and unbounded confidence, had drawn
up rules for his Christian converts in which he permitted certain
Chinese rites, such as honoring the memory of Confucius and of an
cestors, justifying these acts by an explanation of their purely sec
ular significance. Ricci at the same time translated, as a matter of
course, the word God with Shang Ti, and his methods were
silently approved in Rome.
Morales, a Spanish Dominican, however, jealous of the great
success of his Jesuit brethren, denounced Ricci for pandering to
idolatry. The propaganda condemned Ricci's methods as sinful,
and Pope Innocence confirmed the sentence in 1645. The Jesuits
remonstrated and succeeded. Pope Alexander VI. issued another
decree, in which, without directly revoking his predecessor's deci
sion, he sided with Ricci's policy," in agreement with which, in 1665,
the Jesuits drew up forty-two articles. The Dominicans did not let
things rest here; Navarette, one of their order, renewed the old de
nunciations, and Bishop Maigrot, an apostolic vicar living in China,
issued a mandate in which he declared that T'ien" signified noth
ing more than the material heaven, and that the Chinese customs
and rites were idolatrous. The Jesuits applied to the Emperor of
China for an authentic explanation of the significance of the words
for God and of the Chinese rites, whereupon Kanghi the Emperor
declared (in 17oo) that T'ien meant the true God, and the ceremonies
of China were political.
But the efforts of the Jesuits to influence the Pope failed; Pope
Clement XI. confirmed the mandate of Bishop Maigrot in a bull
(published in 1703) in which the words T'ien and Shang Ti were

by Dr. W. H. Medhurst); ib. pp. 357360 ("A Few Plain Questions by a Brother
Missionary"); and ib. pp. 489 et seq., 545 et seq., and 6or et seq. (Dr. Medhurst's
Reply to Bishop Boone").
"Ricci's Divine Law" is published in an unabridged form in Kircher's China
Illustrata, 1667.

rejected as pagan, while the expression T'ien Chu, i. e. Lord of

Heaven, was approved of.
From these days the rapid decline of the Roman Catholic mis
sions in China begins. Ricci's doctrines were not countenanced in
Rome, and Maigrot's followers were persecuted by the Chinese gov

Among Protestant missionaries the Rev. Dr. Boone proposes

to translate God by Shin = Spirit," and takes the field against all
those who use the terms Shang Ti or T'ien; but he is opposed by
the majority of his colleagues, Dr. Medhurst, Sir George Staunton,
Dr. Bowring, Mr. Dotty, and Professor Legge.
Prof. James Legge has written a learned discussion on the sub
ject; adducing innumerable passages in corroboration of his views.
In his introduction to the Shu King he quotes Ti T'ung's diction
ary in defining the meaning of the word Ti. Ti Tung says:
Ti is the honorable designation of lordship and rule, therefore Heaven is
called Shang Ti; the Elementary Powers are called the five Ti; and the Son of
Heaventhat is, the Sovereignis called Ti.

Professor Legge adds:

Here then is the name Heaven, by which the idea of Supreme Power in the
absolute is vaguely expressed; and when the Chinese would speak of it by a per
sonal name, they use the terms Ti and Shang Ti;saying, I believe, what our early
fathers did, when they began to use the word God.
Ti is the name which has been employed in China for this concept for fully
five thousand years. Our word God fits naturally into every passage where the
character occurs in the old Chinese Classics. It never became with the people a
proper name like the Zeus of the Greeks. I can no more translate Ti or Shang Ti
by any other word but God than I can translate zan W. by anything else but man.'
The general belief that the Chinese are obstinately opposed to
Christianity and Christian ethics is a great error. The Chinese have
a contempt only for the dogmatism that is commonly preached to
them as Christianity. In spite of all the missionary efforts of Chris
tians, the Chinese know of Christianity as little as, or even less than,
Western nations know of Confucius, Lao-tsz', and Buddha. How

Jill, -

* The Notions of the Chinese Concerning God and Spirits, Hong Kong, 1852.

deeply the simple story of Jesus and his preachings of love and
charity can impress the Chinese mind, if it is told in a truly Chinese
way, without identifying Christianity with beef-eating or the opium
trade, can be learned from the fact that the Tai Ping revolution,
which shook the throne of the Celestial Empire, was conducted by
native Christians who could no longer stand the persecutions of the
Confucian authorities. Hung Sew Tseuen, a simple schoolmaster,
who in his youth had seen visions entrusting him with a religious
mission, read the Gospel, and, being impressed with its moral truths,
baptised himself and began to preach Christ's ethics of good-will
toward all. He was discharged and persecuted because he refused
to pay the customary worship to Confucius; but he continued to
preach until he saw himself at the head of an army that might have
overpowered the government of the Chinese Empire. While this
rebellion raged in China, the English did not even know that the
rebels were Christians. So little did they know of the affairs of the
interior of China !
Hung Sew Tseuen is described in The Chinese and General Mis
sionary Gleaner as of ordinary appearance, about five feet four
or five inches high, well built, round faced, regular featured, rather
handsome, about middle age, and gentlemanly in his manners.
Thomas Taylor Meadows, Chinese interpreter in H. M. Civil
Service, has published a detailed account of the Tai Ping revolu
tion" in his book, The Chinese and Their Rebellions, London, 1856.
He says on page 193:
My knowledge of the Chinese mind, joined to the dejected admissions that
Protestant missionaries of many years' standing occasionally made of the fruitless
ness of their labors, had convinced me that Christianity, as hardened into our sec
tarian creeds, could not possibly find converts among the Chinese, except here and
there perhaps an isolated individual. Consequently when it was once or twice ru
mored that the large body of men who were setting Imperial armies at defiance
were Christians,' I refused to give the rumor credence. It did not occur to me
that the Chinese convert, through some tracts of a Chinese convert, might either
fail to see, or (if he saw them), might spontaneously eliminate the dogmas and con
gealed forms of merely sectarian Christianity, and then by preaching simply the
great religious truth of One God, and the pure morality of Christ's Sermon on the

*See also Rev. Th. Hamberg's article in the AV. Am. Review, Vol. LXXIX., p. 158.

Mount, obtain numbers of followers among people disgusted with the idolatry and
the immorality that they and those around them were engulfed in. As we have
seen above, this was actually the case with Hung Sew Tseuen.

The Yang and Yin conception of the ancient Chinese has exer
cised a dominating influence upon all Chinese thinkers', with the
sole exception of Lao-tsz', who lived at the end of the sixth century
before Christ. Lao-tsz's # # # Tao- *:
(the Clas
sic on Reason and Virtue, that wonderful booklet on # Tao, i.e.,
the Path or Method, the Word or Reason, the Logos, that was in the
beginning and on * 7th virtue, propounding an ethics that repu
diates all self-asse'n, closely resembling the injunctions of both

Buddha and Christ), stands alone in the whole literature of China.

It is not less monistic than the doctrines of the T'ai Kih, but less
rigid, less a priori, less self-sufficient. It would have served the Chi
nese better than the Confucian philosophy.
Williams defines # tao, as follows:
A road, path, or way; . . . a principle, a doctrine, that which the mind ap
proves; used in the classics in the sense of the right path in which one ought to go
either in ruling or observing rules; rectitude or right reason; in early times, up to
500 A.D., the Buddhists called themselves tao-yan, i.e., men (seeking for) reason
[enlightenment], or intelligent men, denoting thereby their aspiration after pu-ti
(Sanskrit bodhi), intelligence; the Reason or Logos of the rationalists [the so-called
Taoists].8 . . . [As a verb tao means] to lead, to direct, to go in a designated path;
to speak, to converse.

1 On the literature of China, see Schott's Entwurf einer Beschreibung der

chinesischen Litteratur, gelesen in der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1850, and
published in the Philosophisch-Historische K7asse in 1853, pp. 293-418.

2 1'. is a combination of the three radicals to go, straight," and heart.

*The Taoists who regard themselves as followers of Lao-tsz have distorted
their master's doctrines beyond recognition. The Tao religion is best characterised
in The Book of Rewards and Punishments," translated in full only into French
by Stanislaus Julien under the title Le livre des rcompenses et des peines. Paris,
1835. See also Confucianism and Taoism, by Prof. Robert K. Douglas.

The character # tao, is composed of to go and head,

denoting marching at the head.
We are told that Confucius visited Lao-Tsz', who, being by
half a century his senior, must then have been about eighty years
old. While Confucius propounded the maxims of justice, the old
philosopher urged the principle of good-will toward every one, say
Recompense injury with kindness.
Confucius, unable to fathom Lao-tszs meaning, replied:
With what then will you recompense kindness? Recompense injury with
justice (punishment), and recompense kindness with kindness.
Lao-tsz propounds the gist of his ethics in 49 of the Tao
Teh-King, where he says:
The good I would meet with goodness. The not-good I would also meet with
goodness; for the teh (virtue) is good (throughout). The faithful I would meet with
faith. The not-faithful I would also meet with faith; (for) the teh (virtue) is good

Lao-tsz objected to the very basis of Confucian morality.

Confucius expected to make people good by teaching them pro
priety; if they were but respectful to parents and superiors, if they
brought sacrifices to the shrines of their ancestors, and observed the
appropriate rules and ceremonies, mankind would become moral.
Lao-tsz' exhibited an undisguised contempt for externalities and
ancestor-worship. He demanded purity of heart, emptiness of de
sire, and a surrender of all self-display, in imitation of the great Tao
(Reason), which serves all without seeking its own.
Sz' Ma Tsien, who lived about 16385 B.C., reports on the
authority of Chwang-tsz (about 330 B.C.) that Confucius in his
interview with Lao-tsz', showed himself overawed by reverence for
the wisdom of the ancient traditions. Lao-tsz' said:

"John Chalmer's The Speculations of the Old Philosopher, Lau-tsz', p. xviii.

*See also Douglas's Confucianism and Taoism, pp. 176 et seq.
*The original Chinese text with a German translation is published by Gabe
lentz in his Anfangsgrnde der Chinesischen Grammatik, p. 111 et seq.

Lord, of whom you speak, the men and their bones, I suppose, have alto
gether rotted away. Their words only are still extant. Moreover, if a sage find
his time, he rises; if he does not find his time, he wanders about like a P'ung plant
[which is described by the commentators to be a plant, growing on the sand and
easily carried about by the wind]. I have heard, a wise merchant hides [his treas
ures] deeply, as if [his house or safe] were empty. A sage of perfect virtue gives
himself the appearance as though [he were] simple-minded y."
Give up your proud spirit, your many wishes, your external appearance with
your exaggerated plans. These all are of no advantage to the sage's person. This
is what I have to communicate to you, sir; that is all."

Sz-Ma-Tsien continues:

Confucius went; and he said to his disciples: Of the birds I know that they
can fly, of the fishes I know that they can swim, of the beasts I know that they can
run. For the running, one makes nooses; for the swimming, one makes nets; for
the flying, one makes arrows. As to the dragon, I do not know how he rides upon
wind and clouds up to heaven. To-day I saw Lao-tsz'. Is he perhaps like the
dragon ?' "

Confucius was more congenial to his countrymen than Lao-tsz',

for he was more typically Chinese. Although his life had been an
unbroken chain of disappointments, Confucius succeeded after his
death in becoming the moral teacher of the Chinese people. His
agnostic attitude in metaphysics and religion which neither affirms
nor denies the existence of a beyond, of God, or gods, and of ghosts,
but avoids investigating the matter, his unbounded reverence for
the past, his respect for scholarship and book-learning, his ethics of
traditionalism, which implies an extreme conservatism, his exag
geration of propriety, his ceremonialism, and above all his ideal of
submission to authority have more and more become national traits
of the Chinese nation.

What a pity that the weakness of China is an exaggerated vir

tue; it is reverence run mada virtue in which America is as much
deficient as China is in excess.

It was characteristic of a typical Chinaman like Confucius that

1 Gabelentz translates }. yil by dumm. The character contains the sym

bols denoting monkey" and heart or mind." See Williams's Syllabic Diction
ary of the Chinese Language, p. 112o.

he should have admired the Yih King solely on account of its age,
because it came down to him from the sages of yore. He said:

Should a few more years be granted to me, I shall have applied fifty to study
ing the Yih and thereby could be free from erring greatly.Ln Y, VII., 16.1

We know much more about Confucius than about any other

Chinese philosopher, emperor, or saint, but it appears that he was
more of a moral teacher than a philosopher or mathematician, and
it is probable that the Yih King was to him a book with seven seals,
the unintelligibility of which fascinated him.
Having impressed upon the nation his personality, Confucius
lived on in the souls of his countrymen; and, following their mas
ter's injunction, the Chinese continued to study the Yih King
without finding the solution of its problems. Instead of avoiding
grave mistakes, they committed the gravest one : they relied upon
traditional authority and ceased to be self-dependent. Instead of
deciphering the eternal revelation of truth that surrounds us in the
living book of nature and of our individual experiences, they pon
dered over the secret meanings of the holy Yih King; and even to
day there are many among them who believe that the Yih King con
tains all the wisdom, physical, moral, and metaphysical, that can be
conceived by any of the sages of the world.
The mistake of the Chinese is natural and perhaps excusable,
for it is founded upon a profound, although misunderstood and mis
applied, reverence for the great sages who laid the cornerstone of
their civilisation. We, as outsiders, can easily appreciate the merits
and reject the errors of the fundamental principles of Chinese
thought; but not all of us are conscious of the fact that in many re
spects we too suffer from an exaggerated reverence for traditionalism.

"Such is the translation according to Dr. Riedel, which, after a comparison

with the original, I find, so far as I can judge, as literal as possible. Professor Legge
translates: If some years were added to my life, I would give fifty to," etc.
*The claim that the Yih contains all science should be interpreted in the same
sense as we might declare that logic contains all possible rules of thought, and the
multiplication-table is the essence of all possible numerical relations.


Whatever may be the solution of the mystery of the Yih King, it

is almost certain that the Chinese themselves do not understand it.

Thus in spite of the simplicity of their philosophy of permutations, as

we may briefly call the theory of constructing a world-conception
from Yang and Yin elements, all their thinking, planning, and yearn
ing is dimmed by mysticism; and the vain hope of divination fills
their minds with superstitious beliefs which makes them, on the one
hand, slavishly submissive to the various evils of life, and, on the
other hand, self-satisfied in the belief that their sages alone are in
possession of the philosophers stone. All this renders the Chinese
unfit to grasp the significance of reality, and abandons them almost
hopelessly to the mercy of their own barbarous institutions, such as
their antiquated penal laws and prison practices, extortionate taxa
tion, and the arbitrary government system, to which they patiently
Patience is a virtue which is much admired in China and highly
praised in prose and verse, as the basis of self-control, domestic
peace, and good government. We read in the famous Pih Jin Ko,
the Ode on Universal Patience:"

This song of patience universal,

Of universal patience sings.

Can one be patient, summer is not hot ;

Can one be patient, winter is not cold.

Can one be patient, poverty is yet happy;

Can one be patient, long life may yet be protracted.

With impatience, little evils change to great;

With impatience, a good nature at length becomes wolfish.

Kow Tsen tasted gall, and patiently waited for revenge;

Tan of Yen, from want of moderation, in the end was lost and perished.

Sze Tih, when spit upon in the face, patiently let it dry;
Tih Chaou, for want of patience, was a very dunce.

"See Chinese Repository, Vol. IX., p. 48, where the original Chinese is published
together with an English translation.

The benevolent endure what other men can hardly bear;

The wise submit to what others never would endure.

To repress anger and restrain the passions is the square of patience;

To wear the petticoat," and be humble, is the rule of patience.

Patience is the watchword for laying the foundation of perfection;

Patience is the watchword for forming the root of virtue.

Patience is the watchword to succeed among barbarians and savages;

Patience is the watchword to rule the violent and obstinate.

Can one bear toil and labor, one will have a superabundance:
Can one refrain from wild excess, one will be free from violent disease.

Can one forbear tattle, one will avoid slander;

Can one forbear strife and contention, one dissipates hatred and resentment

Can one submit to abuse and raillery, one shows his caliber;
Can one bend to thorough study, one accumulates learning.

Once patient, all blessings come in company;

Once patient, every woe is burnt to ashes.

The Chinese government, and with it the Chinese nation, seem

to be at present in a pitiable plight; and, indeed, their empire is
like a Colossus of brass on clay feet.
Nevertheless, there is at the foundation of the Chinese civili
sation and of the Chinese national character a nucleus of moral
worth and intellectual capabilities which may come to the front
again. To conquer China in war may be easy enough, but to com
pete with her children in the industrial persuits of peace may prove
impossible. The conqueror often succumbs to the less noisy but
more powerful virtues of the conquered. Thus Greece overcame
Rome and the Saxons Anglicised the Normans. When the walls
break down which separate China from the rest of the world so as
to give the Chinese a chance of learning from us all they can, it is
very doubtful what the result of a free competition with the Chinese
will be. Their imperturbable patience, their endurance, their stead
fast character, their pious reverence, their respect for learning,

1 This phrase means to be submissive to authority, as a wife ought to be to

her husband," being the reverse of a well-known expression in English slang.

should not be underrated. If these virtues are but turned in the

right direction and tempered by that breadth of mind which is in

dispensable for progress, the Chinese will soon recover; and nothing
is more apt to produce a national rebirth than hard times, trials,
and humiliations.

China is offered in her recent misfortunes the chance of a spir

itual rebirth. Should she avail herself of this opportunity, she
would, with her four hundred millions of inhabitants and her untold
virgin resources, at once take a prominent rank among the nations -

of the earth; and her civilisation might become strong enough to

influence and modify our own.

Altar of heaven, 50. Goethe, on rest, 27.

Great plan (Hung-fan), 16, 21, 22, 24.
Binary system of Leibnitz and the Kwa
in diagrams compared, 41. Harlez, Ch. de, 44.
Hexagrams, arranged in square and cir
Calendar (tung shu), the yih supposed cle, Io; according to Wen-Wang, 11;
significance of, 12.
to be a, 45. (Cf. t'ung shu.")
Cantor, Prof. Moritz, 42. Hiao, filial piety, 36.
Cheu Dynasty, 7, 49. Ho, Map of, 3, 5, 17; original table re
Cheu Sin, the dissolute tyrant, 8. produced, 19; dragon-horse carrying
the, 20.
Cheu Tsz's philosophy, 27, 28, 29, 30;
his diagram of the great extreme, 28. Hung-Sew-Tseuen, the originator of the
Chih, gross matter, 31. Tai-Ping rebellion, 55.
Ch'ing, truthfulness, 30.
Christian missionaries on the term Ideal, of royal perfection, according to
Shang-Ti, 5254. the great plan, 23; of Chinese moral
Christianity, the Chinese not opposed ity, submission to traditions, 2.
to, 54.
Chu-Hi, 6; his philosophy, 30-35. K'i, vitality and primary substance,
Confucius, 37, 5658. -

Conservative, the Chinese, on account Kih, the extreme, 31; t'ai kih (the great
of their script, 1. extreme), 2426, 29, 34, 41, 51.
Corea, the flag of, 36. Kwa, 4, 6; evolution from great ex
treme, 26, 3942.

Divination, 7; by stalks, 13; by the

Lacouperie, A. Terrien de, 43.
spirit tortoise, 1316.
Lao-Tze, 5657.
Douglas, Prof, R. K., 36, 56.
Legge, Prof. James, 26, 42, 46, 54.
Leibnitz, 3942.
Elements, the five, 20, 21, 22; appear Li, the immaterial principle, 3034.
in Cheu Tsz's diagram, 28.
Extreme, Kwa, evolution from great, Map of Ho, 3, 5, 17; original table re
26; the great, 35. produced, 19; dragon-horse carrying
the, 20.
Filial piety, 36, 37. McClatchie, Canon, 43.
Filials, twenty-four, 38. Meadows, Thomas Taylor, on the Tai
Fuh-Hi, 4, 26. Ping Revolution, 5556.

Milfoil, 13. Tao, Lao-Tze's, 34; the, 5657.

Moral worth of the Chinese, 61. Teh, 57.
Morrison, Dr., on the beauty of Chinese | Tortoise, 13, 15; illustration of, 20.
script, 2. T'ung shu (general treatise) Cheu-tsz's
book, 2930; the yih as a tung shu,
Nirvna, 27. 45. (Cf. Calendar.")
Trigrams, tables of Fuh-Hi and Wen
Patience, a Chinese ode on, 60. Wang, 9.
Philastre, P. L. F., 43. Tseu-Yen, on the five elements, 21.

Regis, P., the Jesuit, 42. Ultimate ground of existence (T'ai Kih,
Reverence of the Chinese for the great great extreme), 24, 25, 26, 28, 29.
sages, 59.
Riedel, Dr. Heinrich, 4447. Wen-Wang, 7.
Rckert, 35. Williams, 39.
Writing of the river Loh, 3, 17; original
Shan kwei, the spirit-tortoise, 13, 15; table reproduced, 19.
illustration, 20.
Shang-Ti, the Lord on High, 8, 4955; Yang and Yin, 3 ; on Cheu-Tsz's dia
Christian missionaries on, 5254. gram, 28, 36.
Shi, milfoil, 13. Yih, 6, 39, 42, 43, 44.
Shi tsao, divining stalks, 13. Yih-King, 7, 17.
Shu-King, quotation from, 50. Y, 4-5.
Siang, the four, 34.
Symbol, of the source of existence, dia- Zero, 27
gram, 34; of the T'ai Kih, 51.
Sz'-Ma-Tsien, 5758. Zottoli, P. Angelo, 43.

Since the first publication of this article, which appeared in 77te Monist, Vol.
VI., No. 2, in January 1896, the author has in many instances adopted other tran
scriptions of Chinese words which remain unaltered in this new edition. For the
assistance of the uninitiated reader we mention especially that the words here
spelled Chew (viz., the dynasty and Cheu Tsze), A'i (vitality or breath of life), A'i
(the extreme, or ultimate ground of existence), and Sze-Ma- 7s'ien have been tran
scribed Cho, Ch'i, Chi, and Sze-Ma-Ch'ien in the author's forthcoming translation
of Lao-Tze's 7 a.o. Zeh Azng. Further, the author would now prefer the spelling
Cho-72e to Cheu- 7sze. The words Fuh-//; and Yih are transcribed by Samuel
Wells Williams Fu-/ and /, by Sir Thomas Wade Fu-/ and Yi.





Kegan Paul, Trench, Trbner & Co., London.





NE of the most salient characteristics of modern life is its ten

dency to a cosmopolitan comprehensiveness. In the distribu
tion and exchange, whether of the material goods of commerce, or
of the richer and rarer treasures of the mind, we seem determined
to carry the circulation round the whole habitable globe, and down
through every layer of society to its lowest strata. From lucifer
matches and cheap oleographs up to the highest products of art, of
science, and of literature, there is an ever-increasing approach to
universality, so that we do not know in what remote region of the
earth we may pick up a translation of Shakespeare's plays, or
which newly enlightened band of savages may be disporting them
selves with Edison's phonograph. Our readiness to lend hardly
surpasses our willingness to borrow, and the cold mountains of
Norway furnish our theatres with the dramas of Ibsen, while Buf
falo Bill is imported from the Wild West to provide new circus at
tractions for the British public.
So deeply has the modern mind been imbued with the cos
mopolitan spirit, especially in the highest province of mental
activity, that while national schools of art and science are formed,
their attainments immediately become the common property of all,
a glad communism in which there is rivalry but not detraction,
patriotism expresses itself as the desire to have our own achieve
ments stand well in the general record, and a knowledge of the
distinctive features of each is thought necessary to a liberal educa
The wide field of fiction has been subject at least as much as
any other department to this widening influence. While our own
best novels have been translated into various languages no effort

has been spared, by translations and critical disquisitions, to make

us acquainted with the genius of fiction as it has expressed itself
in other races, and the chief masterpieces of imaginative literature
are appearing with great rapidity in English dress. From of old
we have been readers of the Decameron, Don Quixote, of the Ara
bian Nights, and of Gil Blas; but the last two decades have seen
a new impulse to this desire for universality in the almost whole
sale importation of novels from Russian, French, and German
sources. It is quite impossible to go over the names of the works,
or even of the authors pertaining to other nationalities, with which
our literature has been enriched.
It is a step further afield to attempt to explore the novel liter
ature of the Celestial Empire, but considering what a great, an
cient, and singular people the Chinese are, and that they consti
tute more than a fourth of the whole human race, we cannot claim
to be truly cosmopolitan while we leave them out. Moreover the
Flowery Kingdom holds no mean rank amongst nationalities
distinguished for literature, and very much has been done by
Western savants to bring home to us the great value of its ethical,
historical, and poetical writings. Yet so long as it possesses an ex
C tensive repertory of fiction, some of which is of a very high order
indeed, but which is almost a complete blank, even in the best in
formed and widely sympathetic Western minds, our knowledge of
this interesting people and of their bibliothecal treasures cannot be
said to be exhaustive. It surely cannot be worthy of us as students
of universal literature, to be quite ignorant of the work which so
unique a people as the Chinese have done, and the success they
have achieved in this department. Even if, as appears to be the
case in certain quarters, we have concluded on some a priort
ground that they have nothing worth talking about in this class of
writing, would it not be well to know somewhat definitely and pre
cisely why it is to be rejected ?
If such motives as these are still considered insufficient to
stimulate us to an examination of Chinese fiction there remains an
appeal to what perhaps has been in the history of our race the
strongest of all incentives to exertion and research, the religious
motive. To many it may appear an extravagant indulgence in par
adox to associate very closely such different subjects as those of
religion and fiction. Yet it is not difficult to show that in many
cases their relations are most intimate. To confine ourselves par
ticularly to things Chinese, we may say that the connexion is
very evident. If we would know, indeed, how religious doctrines

have been explained and expounded we need no help from sources

extraneous to the religious classics, but if we would understand
how religious beliefs have lived in the popular mind, and the su
pernatural conceptions with which they have through long ages
been wound up, popular fiction is the strong mirror into which we
must look. This, of course, is especially true if we wish to inter
pret not only the nucleus of truth which lies at the heart of Chi
nese religions, but also the massive nimbus of superstition by
which it has been accompanied.
Religion and fiction alike owe their strength to the power of
imagination, the mystic faculty which has peopled heaven and
earth with intelligences other than man, and has followed man him
self beyond the confines of our mortal life. So that whether we
speak of Confucianismthat most rationalistic of all the world's
great religions, so rationalistic as to almost forfeit its claim to be
considered a religion at allor of Buddhism or Taoism, in which
imagination has been allowed far less restricted play, not to men
tion other forms of faith which consist almost entirely of imaginary
conceptions, if we extend the meaning of the word religion so
as to embrace all its attendant superstitions, the field of fictitious
literature is the only one from which we can form an adequate con
ception of the way in which it has affected the national mind.
Goethe, somewhere, speaks of the poets as having brought
down the gods to men. But the poet does not write in verse.
Whether in verse or prose, let him satisfy the demand of the na
tional imagination and he may create a deity. Kuan Yn Ch'ang
is the Mars of China. He is also the hero of the national prose
epic, The History of the Three Kingdoms. It is hardly assuming too
much to say he is the god of the nation because he is the hero of
the national story. We may well doubt whether any temple would
have been built to his honor or any incense burnt at his shrine had
fiction let him alone. If Lo Kuan Chung had not immortalised
him he might long ago have been forgotten.
The Feng Shen Yen Yi has at least perpetuated, if it did not
originate, the persistent belief in a great hierarchy of supernatural
and mostly malignant beings. That peculiar mass of folk-lore
known as the fox-myths probably circulated orally or in far less
consummately elegant and less compact literary forms before the
Liao Tsai was written, but who can say that these myths would
not have died long ago if that brilliant star of superstitious liter
ature had not made them unforgetable P The Shih Yu, a book as

cribed to a Taoist priest, is the Pilgrim's Progress of Buddhism, a

rich repertory of religious myths.
These instances sufficiently indicate the close connexion be
tween popular religion and popular fiction. But what it is impor
tant for our readers to understand is that the mere study of a reli
gion in its purified form affords no sufficient key to its influence on
the national mind either for good or for evil. We cannot under
stand the concrete value of any religion until we take it as a whole
with all its imperfections on its head. Superstitions themselves
thus become an important object of study. How could we under
stand the religion of the Greeks if we left out Greek mythology
if we knew nothing of Jupiter, of Venus, of Mercury, of Bacchus,
the Gorgons, the Fates, or the nobly suffering rebel Prometheus?
There is in like manner, closely associated with Chinese religious
belief, a whole world of mythical lore. If we are quite ignorant of
this we cannot understand the national mind or its mysterious
workings. Now such literature as we propose to examine is the
one channel open to us for the study of these complex supernatural
and superstitious beliefs. If our object is to know simply what is
true in Chinese religions we may safely neglect it, but then we
cannot understand the Chinaman as he actually is. If we would
understand how his religion has moulded his mind, through what
obstructions and distortions the purer rays of truth have worked,
we shall find in the historical and mythical novels of China the
chief material of our study.
But this is not all, nor the chief part, of what is to be said. It
is at least as interesting and much more instructive to observe
the light which fiction throws upon the deep moral principles and
spiritual intuitions which religions share in common, however di
versified in external appearance and however varied their concrete
value as agencies for the regulation of life, and which in reality
give them their hold upon the reason and conscience of mankind.
Fiction testifies not less to the common truths than to the diversi
fied errors embodied in religious systems, and even to what we
may call truth held in falsehood, as it shows us what are essentially
the same spiritual instincts wearing such strange guises, that,
though intrinsically identical, they appear strange and even antag
onistic to each other, like members of the same family who, being
dressed most diversely, have come to regard dress so exclusively as
to forget their common ties of blood and feature and to treat each
other as strangers and even enemies. No religion is wholly true
and no religion wholly false. The falsest has more truth than it is

aware of, and the truest more falsehood than it will acknowledge.
Even of the pure Gospel as preached by apostolic lips it had to be
said we have this treasure in earthen vessels. There is place
here for the application of Emerson's apothegm, the highest
cannot be spoken of in words. Chinese devotees, whether Bud
dhist or Taoist, often refer to the beautiful legend of a zvu tzit
ching (a wordless classic), the idea being that of teaching so pure
and spiritual that words must inevitably warp its truth and stain
its purity. There is a common meeting ground of the creeds,
whether Christian or heathen, which the fiery polemics of every
camp alike ignore, and because they ignore it their word-contests
are too often fruitless and indecisive, depending hardly at all on the
intrinsic merits of the cause, almost entirely upon the intellectual
strength of the champion, powerless to win over opponents, strong
only to confirm each side in its own darling opinions. Why won
der that we do not reach pure truth and harmonise belief ? Our
discussions are too militant, too full of the fighting instinct which
the battle-skirted march of the race through all past ages has im
bued us with. Is it a question of civil or criminal justice P We
have a fight about it, and plaintiff and defendant contend in an
arena called a law-court. Is it a question of the wise government
of a country? We have a fight about it, and Whig and Tory, Re
publican and Democrat contend in an arena called a parliament. Is
it a question of religious teaching? We have a fight about it, and
the champions of rival creeds contend in an arena of polemical dis
cussion where confusion is greatest and feeling bitterest of all.
But it is always strife, not comprehension, victory, not edifi
cation, which is aimed at. All progress made hitherto has been
chiefly that the ring is better kept and the rules a little fairer than
they used to be. Only men of rare openness, fearless candor, and
calm, patient love, see adequately the common ground which it is
the interest of the champions to ignore, yet which has given to
their creed its credibility and is the secret source of its strength.
Even they are rather inwardly conscious of it than capable of giv
ing it adequate expression. They cannot state it in any way that
will in the least satisfy either the combatants or their several
crowds of admirers. But what thoughtful student has not at some
time had sight of the truth that the religions are all aiming du
biously and with but misty glimpses at a mark none of them ade
quately attain, that the heart of the matter, could they but think
so, is one. All lead toward the mystery which none of them solve.
All are conscious, however objectionable the manner in which they

express it, of the Divine Power that rules our lives, of hopes be
yond the grave, of a life higher than the sordid struggle for wealth
or place, all pronounce the sacred word duty and have risen to the
exalting conception of righteousness. They differ ? Yes! as much
as you please; we will not minimise their discrepancies, by virtue
of which, says the infidel, they are mutually destructive. His con
clusion is wrong simply because in these high things they agree
and their many differences are a proof of the essential truth of what
they agree in. So fierce has been the strife between them they
would have differed in everything if they could have done, as in
deed in most cases they have persuaded themselves they do.
Now nowhere is this truth more clearly illustrated than in
those delineations of life and character which presented naturally,
which unconsciously let slip, as it were, in their dramatic course,
the unauthorised and unformulated religious convictions and im
pulses of mankind. Fiction shows us, and hardly any more so
than that of China, that every creed has nourished men of ear
nest and true piety, reverencing heaven, loving men, living pure
lives and doing noble deeds. At the Parliament of Religions in
Chicago, Buddhists and Brahmans alike spoke of God in much the
same way as the Christian divines who were present. This was
probably puzzling to many not only because those systems are
only thought of by great numbers as mere idolatries, but because
with more reason the most accomplished scholars have reduced
the first to Atheism and the second to Pantheism. Perhaps we are
right in saying that theoretically they are such, yet practice tri
umphs over theory, and the speakers were not conscious hypo
crites. They were instinctively aware that what we reverence as
God is in substance what they reverence. Fiction, saturated by
the ideas of these schools, exhibits the same peculiarities. -

Or to deal with religious conceptions of a more dubious char

acter, Christianity has been peculiarly stamped by the spirit of
chivalry, to which, perhaps, is due the elevation of woman of
which it claims the merit. In Roman Catholicism this tendency
has reached exaggerated expression in the worship of the Virgin.
We see how natural this is when we consider that Buddhism has
its Kuan Yin and Taoism its T'ien Hou Mang, both female imper
sonations of divinity, and in the pages of many a novelist we find
these goddesses appealed to from precisely the same motives and
for much the same objects as Mary would be in English novels
depicting life and manners amongst Roman Catholics. We may
be sure that while in each case the form which this natural feeling

has taken is erroneous and super-stitious, there is some truth be

hind craving in vain for right expression.
Again, nothing is more noticeable on a comparison of religions
than that, while all have their sacred books, a formal doctrine of
inspiration is peculiar to the Bible and the Koran. Yet no fact is
worthy of more attention than that which fiction abundantly illus
trates that in practice all treat their classics precisely as if they
were inspired, reverencing them beyond all limits, so that paper
and ink and the very errors in typography become sacred, quoting
them as of final authority in controversy and regarding them as the
summary of all truth. If you ask a Confucianist, Are the Four
Books inspired? he will first be bewildered by the question, hav
ing never thought of them in that light. Your meaning having been
more fully explained to him, he will probably say, No. But in
the result he will treat them with the same pious reverence and
surrender with which you treat your Bible, if not even with more.
For him they are practically inspired. It is a beautiful and true
instinct of our humanity which cannot be eradicated by logic to
hold in pious love the text-book of our religious teaching whatever
it may be and the light literature which is the very opposite of the
sacred books was the fullest testimony to the constancy of the sen
Instances might be multiplied, but we have adduced enough
to show how much light fictitious literature can throw upon the
religious beliefs of those among whom it has sprung up; the
weight of its testimony supporting the conclusion that just as our
common humanity has shown strange diversity in different ages,
with differing climes, under differing physical and social condi
tions; in laws, in customs, in dress, in external manners and cere
monies; yet is wondrously one at heart; so the strange and often
wild and grotesque expression of those verities of the soul which
we name religion hinders not that the spring and secret of their
power has been alike, that it has been, though with varying dim
ness or clearness of insight, as the generations have kept their
watch through the night of history, a true hope and vision of eter
nal things.
The tone in which the novel literature of China has been
spoken of by Western scholars has for different reasons been
almost invariably a tone of disparagement. Men who have taken
pains to read but a strictly limited quantity, have not hesitated to
pronounce it crude, puerile, and grossly impure. Like Browning's
poems, it has been taken in quite homeopathic doses administered

at long intervals, yet has been pronounced nauseous as the drugs

of the allopath. Those wonderful beings, a sort of Arhats or Ma
hatmas in literature, whose sacred function it is to reveal to com
mon mortals the profound esoteric mysteries of Eastern bibli
ography, we mean the sinologues, intent as they are on the ancient
and the heavy, would no doubt feel insulted if asked to take inter
est in anything so trifling as a mere novel. This whole field they
pass by with the sublime unconsciousness of superior beings to
whom such paltry matters are trifles light as air. Rarely in
deed has a voice been heard in approval. The one solitary testi
mony of any warmth which we have been able to find after much
hunting is this of Remusat, which we take from the Middle King
dom. In the midst of much respecting the defects and shortcom
ings of Chinese novels, he compares them (as a body, we suppose)
to Richardson, and says: The authors render their characters
interesting and natural by reiterated strokes of the pencil which
finally produce a high degree of illusion. The interest in their
pages arose precisely in proportion to the stage of my progress;
and in approaching to the termination I found myself about to part
with some agreeable people, just as I had duly learned to relish
their society. We give this with misgiving. It reads to us very
like the faint praise that damns. In fact China yet lacks that
Western mind which has enough sympathy with this very large
department of her literature to become in any degree its interpre
ter to the novel-loving Occident. Even Mr. Giles, the translator
of the Liao-Tsia, the author of Gems of Chinese Literature, with his
open sense and warm appreciation of all things Celestial, even Mr.
Giles (we really beg his pardon if we take his name in vain) that
Goliath champion of Chinese literature against the world, that
Philistinic blasphemer of the Western Israel, clerical and lay, has
held in such light esteem this field of fiction, as in a book, pro
fessedly illustrating the belles lettres of China, to write of the Yuan
the Mongol dynasty, which produced its great masterpieces, the
San uo 7zu, the Shui Hu, the Shih Hsiang, the P'i Pa Chi, and
the Hsi Yu, that the imaginative power became visibly weaker,
to decline later on to a still lower level of rule-and-line medioc
rity. Yet we hope to show our readers that the Chinese have an
enormous quantity (it is so hopelessly scattered and buried that we
can hardly call it a collection) of prose imaginative writing, the
great bulk of it by no means despicable, and some portions of it of
a very high order of merit, which does not yield in interest or in
literary finish, though perhaps it does in imaginative force, to the

best Western fiction; and which furnishes a mirror of Chinese life,

household customs, ideals of character and superstitious folklore
to be found nowhere else.
The feature to which we will first call attention is the extent of
the field to be gone over by an investigator of Chinese fiction.
This is a matter on which it is too possible to be under a great
delusion. China is a country in which there is nothing ready to
your hand. Her literary productions are in a hopeless state of con
fusion, and no one knows what treasures of imagination may be
buried under mountains of comparative rubbish. You cannot look
at the end of a book and see advertisements of hundreds of others
of its class. You cannot send for publishers' lists and pick them out
at your ease. You cannot take up a history of literature and find
them chronologically arranged. China has had great critics, but
none who have dealt comprehensively with her literature. The
Taine of the Flowery Kingdom has not yet appeared. An in
quiry into the works of fiction she possesses is beset by difficulties
which can only be likened to the fabulous search of Hsuen
Tsang for the Buddhist canons. You must go on faith that they
exist, that they are precious, and that they may be had by un
daunted seeking : but it is a long way to fetch them, you have the
vaguest possible idea where to look, and there are untold difficul
ties to be surmounted in the quest.
Your first impression is that you are in for a nice, neat, com
pact little thing, though you have a very ugly feeling of being in
most disreputable company. The attitude of the ordinary Confu
cian teacher toward the fictitious writings of his ancestors is a
charming study in masculine prudery. It is really a high-class arti
cle in the way of sentiment. It is such a lovely mixture of intel
lectual superiority, moral reprobation, fastidious delicacy, and
hypocritical purity, as nearly withers you up. You are thoroughly
ashamed of having supposed it possible that he ever was so weak
as to betray the faintest interest in such low, trivial things. He is
nearly as much scandalised as though you should make bold to ask
him does he love his wife. Nothing can equal it except the avidity
with which he will read novels on the sly. If you muster courage
to go through this first stage and to be persevering in your inqui
ries, you will find that this highly proper individual knows more
about novels than is consistent with his virtuous professions. He
can if he likes give you a very fair outline of the History of the
Three Kingdoms, and the names of its noted characters, though
they amount to some seven hundred. He can detail no small num

ber of the yarns in the History of the Contending States, give you the
plot of the Western Rooms, incidents from the Dream of the Red
Chamber, tales from the Diversions of a Studio, and the myths of the
fabulous Western Expedition, and he at least knows the name of
the Tale of the Guitar. You draw these things from him reluct
antly, he evidently believing that it is much to his discredit to
know anything about them. But there he comes to a sudden stop.
You ask if these comprise the whole or the main works of fiction.
By no means, and he perhaps vaguely remembers the names of
five or six others, some of which you must on no account read.
You try another teacher, and another, and still another with the
same result. But just as you are about to conclude that these
are all that are worth notice, and that you have a manageable
quantity to deal with, a sentence in the preface of a book or a stray
observation sets you on a new track, you find that there are more
and yet more books that no one you have met with has ever read,
that no literary guide ever mentions, the names of which most peo
ple are ignorant of ; and by dint of following a hint here and pur
suing a clue there, you realise that you are in a trackless wilder
ness of unknown extent and of unexplored growth. There is no
one publishing centre in China that corresponds to London: its
Paternoster Row is distributed loosely through the Empire, but
a very forest of timber must be tumbling about in lumber-rooms in
the shape of wood blocks on which novels are stereotyped. So that
we must dismiss from our minds the idea that Chinese fiction is a
very limited quantity. There is any amount if you can get at it,
but, bless us, it is like rummaging in an old second-hand book shop.
The owner turns you in, bidding you pick out what you like, you se
lect this and that from the dusty, piled-up heaps, but finally leave
in disgust, unable to cope with the confusion, yet covetously longing
to know all that's there. The quantity in existence may be inferred
from a single fact. Chinese fiction, like Roman Catholic theology,
has an Index Expurgatorius. In Wylie's AVotes on Chinese Litera
ture the list of prohibited novels published by this censorate con
tains the names of one hundred and thirty-seven different works.
If such be the mere parings, the excrementitia of their novel
literature, what must be the bulk of the whole body? A great deal
of it is worthless enough, imitations are numerous, every really
clever and popular novel has been plagiarised to satiety, but how
much there is that has real merit it is impossible to say. A cer
tain number of these books are known as works of genius. We
have got as far as ten of these in our researches, which we think is


(From an illustrated edition of San uo Yen Yi.)

all, but are by no means certain. We give a list of fourteen of the

most famous of Chinese novels, the names of which for conveni
ence we have put into English, as follows:
1. History of the Three Kingdoms.
Annals of the Water-marshes.
The Western Excursion.
The Tale of the Western Room.
The Tale of the Guitar.
The Dream of the Red Chamber.
Diversions of a Studio.
The Contending States of the Eastern Chou.
Seeking a Match.
I O.The Pear of Precious Beauty.
11. The Jade Sceptre.
12. Story of P'ing San and Leng Yen.
13. Exorcising the Devils.
14. History of the Apotheosis of Spirits.
These are all novels fairly well known, written with consider
able force of imagination and literary skill. We shall not be able to
deal at large with them all, but propose, for want of a better judge,
to act as literary taster to our readers and try to give them an idea
of the principal ones, what they are about, their various excel
lencies of style, and what are the chief characteristics of Chinese
fiction, these being taken as the samples and criteria of judg
ment P

As an instance of the sentiment of Chinese poetry, we select a

poem entitled The Maiden and the Flowers, which is taken
from the novel The Dream of the Red Chamber:

Flowers fading, flying, fly and fill the sky,

Colors melt and fragrance fails,who pities when they die?
Flossy festoons dance around the sweet spring arbor sides,
To th' embroidered screen soft down-heads fasten clingingly.

From her room a maiden issues pitying much the waning spring,
Full of sorrow past expression for the beauty taking wing;
Through the broidered screen she passes with her flower hoe in hand,
Stepping lightly 'mongst the blossoms, lest she trample anything.
Willow Floss and elm-tree scales unconscious fragrance pour,
Unregarded peach and plum-bloom hover light the wind before;
Peach and plum may bloom anew as next year's spring comes round,
But next year, alas! she knows not who will stand within the door.
1 A translation of a poem from the Chinese novel The Dream of the Red Chamber.


(From the San uo Yen Yi.)

Fragrant nests are all completed; 'tis the third moon's date.
'Neath the bridge the twittering swallows now have ceased to mate.
Though next year new flowers may bloom for plundering birds to peck,
Maiden gone and bridge deserted, nests may hang disconsolate.
Of the year the days are numbered just three hundred and three score;
Full they are of fierce annoyance cutting winds and keen frost hoar.
Glowing charms and fresh young beauty cannot last for long,
Swift as morn they ripple past us to be found no more.

Blowing flowers by all are seen, but falling disappear;

Sorely grieved the maiden buries what she held most dear;
Hoe in hand before the steps she scatters secret drops,
Drops that mark the naked boughs with trace of many a tear.
Cuckoo notes have silent grown and twilight comes apace,
Hoe in hand through double doors her steps she must retrace.
Bright the lamp gleams on the wall where now she turns to sleep,
Chill her couch and cold the rain-drops beating on her window-case.

Sad she muses: What deep feeling strikes with double smart
Half of pity half resentment through my aching heart 2
Pity spring should come so sudden, with resentment for its flight,
Come so silent without warning and so soundlessly depart.

Yester eve without the porch I heard a piteous strain,

'Twas the souls of birds and flowers departing as in pain;
Souls of birds and souls of flowers cannot be detained;
Birds are hushed and flowers in blushes all too swiftly wane.

Would that from my ribbed sides a pair of wings might spring

That to heaven's height with the flowers I my flight might wing.
Yet on heaven's height
Where to find their gathering 2
No! 'twere better the fair form embroidered shroud should wrap,
Gaiety be mounded o'er with fresh earth for a lap;
That which cleanly entered life as cleanlily depart,
Not abandoned to the gutter or defiled with foul mishap.

Poor dead flowers! I buried you to-day within earth's breast,

Not divining when my body must be laid to rest;
I, who buried flowers for pity, men would laugh to scorn:
Soon the mourner, as the flowers, to the grave must be addressed.

Thus the Spring must waste away, thus the flowers are gone;
Nature's hues and human beauty perish one by one;
One brief morning's dream of Spring and beauty hastens to old age;
Falling flowers and dying mortals pass alike to the unknown.

One interesting fact about Chinese fiction should not be omit

ted. It came to us almost as a shock of surprise that all this
branch of literature is comparatively modern. There are many dif


A. D., 221685. See p. 20. (From the San Auo Yen Yi.)

ficulties connected with dates and authorship, but it seems certain

that most if not all the books we have enumerated have been writ
ten within the last three dynasties. Of course the events related
in the semi-historic novels belong to the distant past, the mighty
actors and the stirring scenes of the Chou and the Han and
the pious pilgrimages of the Tang dynasties. But we have not
been able to trace the authorship of any novel to an earlier age
than the times of the Mongols. There seems no doubt that the
great masterpiece, the San Kuo Tzu, was produced at this time.
This was China's golden age of fiction, but the production extended
on through the Ming and into the present dynasty, to which the
Hung Lou Meng and the Liao Tsai belong. The vast mass of fic
tion is later than Kang Hsi and is being added to at the present
time. This is a refreshing change. In reading Chinese books,
ethics, poetry, history, it is so difficult to escape the belief that
everything is a millennium old.
Let us commence our review with the work just referred to,
the San Kuo Tzu or History of the Three Kingdoms, a novel of
novels, which if it were the only work of fiction that the Chinese
had ever produced, it would be impossible to deny their claim to
be an imaginative people. It is of fine proportions, one hundred
and twenty long chapters, the reputed author Lo Kuan Chung, a
great genius gone down to oblivion with nothing left us but a name
and this product of his pen. The story is semi-historical, that is
about as historical as the Waverley novels, with which it may be
compared, and the events cover nearly a century of time. As Shake
speare borrowed his historical facts from Hollingshead, so this
author is indebted to an earlier but very dull work by Ch'en Hsou.
Williams, in the Middle Kingdom, confuses the two. The work has
been embellished with very racy notes from the pen of Mao Sheng
San, a brilliant littrateur, and to these again are added most ex
tensive introductions to each several chapter by Chin Sheng T'an,
as much a prince among literary critics as Chu Shi was a prince
of commentators. These two great writers and scholars have
agreed to set the stamp of their approval on the work. Their
names take the place of the author's on the title page. Thus in
reading text or notes or introductory passages you are amongst the
best models of Chinese style. If asked what book in Chinese fur
nished the best example of the power of the Chinese language we
should say the San Kuo Tzu. For simplicity, force, and fertility of
imagination, it is unsurpassed in any language. The author has
done his work with inimitable skill. While his diction is charged
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(From the San Kuo Wen Yi.)

with the richest metaphor it is chosen so simply that in spite of his

use of Wenli particles the Chinese characterise it as a book in
the Mandarin dialect. He has interspersed it with numerous
rhymes of no very high order, more stilted and less poetic than
the prose, but serving admirably the double purpose of mnemonics
to assist the memory and morals to apply the lessons. He is a
writer brilliant and perspicuous as Macaulay, simple as John
Let us try to interest our readers in him by offering, with
apologies for its clumsiness, a prose translation of the little poem
with which he introduces himself:

The ceaseless stream of time, how its waters roll ever eastward.
The gifted and the brave are engulfed in its curling wave;
And right and wrong, and success and defeat, are gone with a turn of the head.
While as of old the green hills remain,
In a trice the sun reddens to even.

We old men, white-headed, at leisure; we spend our days as fishers and fuel
gatherers on our little isle in the stream.
We regard only the Autumn moon and the breezes of Spring.
With a pot of common wine we gleefully meet together,
And the past and the present, with all their concerns, are but food for a pleasant

The story opens with the fall of the Han dynasty. At the
accession of the Emperor Ling disorders break out at court, and
gloomy omen's presage distress. The scene passes to the neigh
borhood of P'ing Yuen in Shantung, where three mysterious broth
ers, possessors of magic powers, appear at the head of rebel hordes
who gather in strength myriadfold. The monarch is feeble, his
empire is ruled by eunuchs, but speeding through the kingdom are
requisitions for volunteers to arm and oppose the Yellow Cap
rebels. The spirit of loyalty is awakened, and now the heroes of
the story, the three immortal brothers, appear on the scene. Liu
Pei is of royal lineage but poor and unknown. He is twenty-eight
years of age as he stands sighing before the placard summoning
loyal subjects to battle, and Ch'ang Fei's abrupt greeting falls on
his ears: If a big fellow like you will not help his country, why
do you sigh so deeply? They adjourn to an inn, and while at their
wine Kuan Yuin Ch'ang enters wheeling a barrow. He joins their
conference and they declare their purpose to risk their all in up
holding the house of Han. Liu Pei is a dealer in shoes and plaiter
of mats, Kuan Yuin Ch'ang a refugee, Ch'ang Fei a seller of wine
and a butcher of pigs. The famous Covenant of the Peach Or
See p. 20. (From the San Kuo Yen Yi.)

chard is conceived in the happiest spirit of romance and forms one

of the most striking of the many episodes with which the book

Let us take a short passage, once more with apologies for the
translation; and here first our readers shall have a picture of a
Chinese hero:

He stood nine feet in height and his beard was two feet long. His face was
like a heavy date, and his lips as rouge. With eyes like the red phoenix and brows
where silk-worms might nestle: stern and lofty was his countenance, and his bear
ing awful and menacing."
This is the original of the countless images scattered all over
China. You see one every time you enter a Kuan Ti temple, for
this man is the Mars of China.
But now for the covenant. The peaches, he is careful to tell
us, are in full bloom.
Next day in the peach orchard they prepared a black ox and a white horse
for sacrifice, with all other things needful, and the three men burnt incense, and
after repeated obeisances pronounced their oath, which read: Liu Pei, Kuan Yu,
and Ch'ang Fei, though of different families, yet as we have joined in brotherhood
with heart and strength to succor distress and support the weak, to show loyalty to
the Kingdom and to secure peace to the common people, care not to have been
born at the same time, we would only that we might die together. May Imperial
Heaven and our Royal Mother Earth search truly our hearts, and him who proves
traitor to the vow or forgets this grace may Heaven and men combine to slay."
The oath ended, they did obeisance to Hsuen Te as elder
brother, to Kuan Yu as next in rank, and to Ch'ang Fei as
Then when they had finished their sacrifice to heaven, they
slew another ox, brought on the wine, and gathered the braves of
their district, more than three hundred in number, to the peach
orchard, where they drank to intoxication.
Next morning they are up betimes and off to the front of battle.
With true epic instinct and with a fire and force of spirit, to which
all material is plastic, the author proceeds to unroll the panorama
of events. Tung Cho's usurpation and the wiles of the maiden
Tiao Ch'an, Lu Pu's masculine beauty and invincible skill in bat
tle, Ts'ao Ts'ao, matchless in guile, kingly in statecraft, and his
path in warfare untraceable, Sun Chien strong and inexpugnable,
the piteous state of the fugitive child-prince : on through treachery
and bloodshed and ambuscade, the ceaseless shock of spears and
ring of bucklers, with the twang of strong bow-strings and the hiss
of poison-tipped arrows. Slowly and dubiously the three brothers
with their small band rise to power, till the unfathomable Chu Ko


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See p 20. (From the San Kuo Yen Yi.)

Liang is wooed from his retreat to become the Moltke of a rude

wild age, and, espousing their side, unites magical resources with
military strategy to make their cause victorious. He can call the
rain and whistle the wind and shape wonderful automata that serve
as battle steeds. He can read the secrets of men's breasts and
fathom even Ts'ao Ts'ao's plans. All over the land the turmoil
sweeps, the tide of battle rolling now east, now west, and now
south, as Chu Ko goes to subdue the Man Tzu. A scene of wild
confusion, change, and strife; battle everywhere; in palace and
camp, in valley defiles, among mountain fastnesses, on land, on
water, among the countless boats of Wu. And through it all the
one golden thread of loyalty, the argument which gives unity to
the story, is never lost sight of, and through it all the mighty
three, true as steel in triumph and reverse, hold on their steadfast
way. At last the storm sinks through sheer exhaustion and ends,
not in complete victory, for Kuan Yuin Ch'ang has been trepanned
in battle and put to death by Sun Chien, and Chu Ko Liang's vic
torious career has been checked by Ssu Ma Yi. But Hsuen Te is
king of Shu, and a settled compromise is reached in the formation
of the Three Kingdoms.
This writer is great. He loves his characters, they are living
and distinct, each has his individuality and separate portraiture,
Ts'ao Ts'ao, subtle, treacherous; Kuan Yuin Ch'ang, brave, gen
erous; Ch'ang Fei, rash, coarse, but true; Hsuen Te, thoughtful,
kingly; they are men; loving, hating, striving, boastful, magnan
imous, often doing generous deeds, always their hearts throbbing
with strong human passion. Then how he has contrived to image
all the life and all the manners of the age, so that the China of by
gone days glows on his pages, so that as his witty commentator
says of the San Kuo Tzu that it is Wu shuo puyu"Nothing
that it has not got. How fond he is of incidents and genealogies,
with what loving tenderness or reiterated mention he dwells on this
and on that. Hsia Hou Tun swallowing his own eye, Yu Chis
priestcraft, Hua To's magic in surgery, Kung M'ing's harp, Yun
Ch'ang's sword, Lu Pu's spear, and the famous horse Red Hare,
that would go a thousand li in a day and cross water and mount
hills as though on even ground.
The San Kuo Tzu may be characterised in one comparison. It
is the Iliad of China. This was first pointed out by Sir John
Davis. Many of the qualities of old Homer are in it, consummate
dramatic art (which alone redeems the Greek epic from insuffer
able dulness), supreme love of battle, extravagant admiration of


DYNASTY. See p. 20. (From the San Ruo Yen Yi.)

bravery and feats of arms, wide and universal sympathy which

puts him in touch with all his characters, fondness for detail, and
copiousness, which leads him to pour into it the most miscellan
eous facts, lists, names; skill in blending the supernatural with the
ordinary course of events (for the San Kuo Tzu has its machinery
as much as the Iliad), consuming patriotism that makes everything
interesting which affects his country. It scarcely yields to the Iliad
in fire and spirit and descriptive power. Like the Iliad, it makes
its heroes utter bragging speeches on the battle-field and do single
handed deeds of derring-do. Like the Iliad, it mingles strategy
with force and makes the sage the companion of the hero. Like
the Iliad, it is the darling of a nations heart because it has best
imaged forth what they most love and admire. For it is immensely
popular in China. Your 'rikisha coolie, if you are lucky in him,
can probably tell you more of this book than I can. It is drawn
upon copiously for the rude plays which the people passionately
love, its incidents are repeated in endless recitals in the tea-shops,
its heroes are glorified in the national imagination, one was a king,
another is still a god, and the burning passion of a nations life has
poured itself into this tale of a glorious past. Strangely enough,
not its author, but its lively annotator, like Homer, was blind. We
will part with it with one other specimen, Kuan Kung's first great
The champion, Hua Shiung, is vaunting in front of the army,
and the princes are deliberating in the tent whom they shall send
against him. He has just slain two bold heroes opposed to him
and their hearts sink with misgiving.
The general, Shao, said Alas my chief generals, Yen Liang
and Wen Chou, have not yet come. If only we had a man here we
need not fear Hua Shiung...
Before he had finished speaking from below the step which led
into the tent a loud voice called out, I will go, will cut off Hua
Shiung's head and present it before your tent.
They all looked at him and saw a man who stood nine feet in
height, with a beard two feet long. His face was like a heavy
date and his lips as rouge. With eyes like the red phoenix and
brows where silkworms might nestle. Stern and lofty was his
countenance, and his bearing awful and menacing.
Mark this. Precisely the same description as you have had
before. Pope has a long passage in the introduction to his Homer
in which he defends his constant practice of repeating his epithets.
Here we have just the same trick. It is a remnant of oral epics. If
Ts'Ao-Ts'Ao, THE VILLAIN of THE San Auo Yen Yi. His SoN BECAME
RULER of THE Second of THE THREE KINGDoMs. See p. 22.
(From the San Auo Yen Yi.)

the matter is something which takes hold of the imagination the

people like to hear it repeated, as children love to hear the story
over again. There is just one addition:
His voice was like a great bell, and as he stood before the
tent Shao asked :
Who is this?
Kung Sun Tsan said, This is Liu Shuen Te's brother,
Kuan Yu.
Shao asked, What rank does he hold P
Tsan replied, He follows Hsuen Te as a mounted bow
Then Yuen Shu cried angrily from the tent, Do you wish to
flout our princes with the want of a general? How is it that a com
mon bowman dares to talk nonsense in this presence P
But Ts'ao Ts'ao hurriedly stopped him saying: He must be
a brave man to speak so boldly, and methinks you would do well
to try him. If he does not succeed it will be time enough to re
buke him.
But, Yuen Shao objected, if we send a mere bowman to
fight Hua Shiung will laugh at us.
Ts'ao Ts'ao replied, This man's appearance and bearing are
uncommon. How should Hua Shiung know that he is only a bow
man P
If I do not conquer let me be beheaded myself, said Kuan
Upon this Ts'ao Ts'ao heated a cup of wine to give him as he
mounted his horse. Pour out the wine, said Kuan Yu, I go
before I drink and be back directly.
He left the tent, took his sword, flew on to his horse, and the
princes heard without the gate the thundering sound of drums and
the clamorous shouts rising, as though the heaven was moved, as
though the earth had fallen in; it was like the shaking of lofty
peaks and the downfall of mountains. They all trembled with
alarm, but before they could inquire what was the matter, the
tinkling bells jingled as the horse came back into the ranks, and
Yun Ch'ang appeared with the head of Hua Shiung and threw it
on the ground.
And his wine was still warm.
He had done it in the time which it took the cup of wine,
poured out before he started, to be cool enough to drink.
This is genius, the sparing touch of a master's hand. Do not
misunderstand the comparison we made to the Iliad. We cannot

HUA-T'o, THE FAMoUs SURGEON . See p. 22. (From the San Auo Yen Yi.)

pretend to the knowledge of the subject and the critical capacity

which would enable us to compare Lo Kuan Chung's book with
Homer's and adjudge their respective merits, nor could our read
ers so divest themselves of preconceived ideas as to take the Iliad
in one hand and this in the other and give an unbiased judgment.
Here is none of the fineness and delicacy of the old Greek spirit,
and it is in prose, not verse. Yet it must be remembered that this
prose, like all the best writings of the Chinese, notably the four
books, is most rhythmic, and maugre its prose style it is virtually
an epic. Where it should stand in the list we will not venture
to say, but it is the work of a most gifted artist, and whether we
s recognise the fact or not, it deserves as much to be ranked with the
world's great books (perhaps in the humblest place) as the Iliad,
the AEneid, the Jerusalem, the Orlando Furioso, the Niebelungen
Lied, or the Paradise Lost.
This novel is typical of a whole class, the historical novel.
The two others we have on our list of this kind are the Annals of
the Water Marshes and the Contending States of the Eastern Chou.
Of these we shall have no room for extended illustrations.
Take the latter one first. The Chinese regard it as something
like authentic history. It is not a book for conscientious reading.
The parts of it which alone can pretend to be serious history con
stitute such a crowd of names of persons, names of places, and
dates, which with an elaborate show of order are jumbled into a
hopeless state of confusion, that if your intellect withstands the
strain, you are assured against a lunatic asylum for the rest of your
days. But having in mind the delicacy of the cerebral organisa
tion in man, we would not advise our readers to risk it. You are
familiar with the confusion which arises in the unstudious mind
from reading the book of Chronicles, and finding the events and
dates of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel recorded contempo
raneously. The writer hops to and fro from Israel to Judah with
an alacrity which you cannot imitate, and you find yourself every
now and then in Israel when you ought to be in Judah, hobnob
bing with Jehosophat when you ought to be walking with Ahab in
Naboth's vineyard. But that is lucidity itself compared with this.
This is as though a man should undertake to write the history of
the Saxon Heptarchy, carrying the whole seven kingdoms along
on his back in one continuous narrative, and keeping the other six
in your mind as he speaks of each one. Only, guessing at it, we
should think there are thirty or forty of them instead of seven.
The sole redeeming merit of the book is its lies. The author him

self, or else one of his editors, warns you what to expect. In the
introduction to the work he tells you that all other light litera
ature, such as the Shui Hu, the Shih Yu, and the Feng Shen Yen
Yi, are a pack of falsehoods, the San Kuo Tzu alone having a meas
ure of truth in it, but the Lieh Kuo is different, being true in every
detail and in every sentence, that as he is unable to record the
whole truth, where should he have the time to add make-ups, and
though on this account it is less readable, yet its thoroughly relia
ble character is its recommendation. Sancta Simplicitas. And
then we have amongst court chronicles and battle scenes, unillum
ined by a spark of fire or life, such an endless series of absurd and
superstitious legends as were never launched on the world before
or since. They are all detailed in a tone of pious severity, but that
does not hinder them from being so extravagant, miraculous, and
scandalous, that Herodotus would blush to own them. It is the
most magnificent collection of historic yarns which China, as pro
lific in these as it is in proverbs, can boast. These, and these
alone, if you skip judiciously, make the book readable.
In the Annals of the Water Marshes we come back to a book
much like the Three Kingdoms but of a lower strain. It contains
less history and more personal narrative. Its style is phenomenal.
Coarse, direct, graphic, intense, each word is like a fierce stroke
from a graver's tool. If you have any notion that Mandarin Chi
nese is unexpressive, read this book. Here is the rude strength of
the mountain quarryman, who cleaves deep into the heart of the
rock; wild, fierce, sincere, Dante himself is not more terse and
vivid. In the one quality of power, rugged, relentless, gloomy,
like a storm-beat precipice, there is no book in Chinese to equal it,
and no book in any language to surpass it. It is all pictures, struck
with sharp, rough, but masterful strokes, and all the pictures are
silhouettes. -

In one respect this book is the very opposite of the Three

Aingdoms. That rings all through with the clarion-tone of loyalty;
this echoes only the harsh and menacing tone of rebellion. It rep
resents the sinister side of the shield, discontented China. Its plot
is laid in the time of Hui Tsung, one of the Sung emperors, and it
is occupied in detailing the exploits of one hundred and eight fa
mous outlaws whose stronghold was Liang San amongst the Water
Marshes. The stern, implacable demand of the undaunted rebel
spirit for a justice which the law is too feeble and too corrupt to
give, is enforced with terrible emphasis, and, as in Victor Hugo's
Les Misrables, or Schiller's Robbers, we get a deep insight into

cruelties and oppressions done in an age when right is defenceless

and authority takes the side of the wrong-doer. This book illus
trates one somewhat repulsive side of Chinese humor. The fact is
not generally known in the Western World, but nearly every one
who has been long resident in China is aware that he is known
among the natives around him by a name which he neither derived
from his parents nor received at the baptismal font, one quite un
classical and generally not flattering. You can usually get to know
other people's but not your own. Nobody can nickname like the
Chinese. Their genius in this direction is preternatural. In this
novel we have a fine display of it. The Little Whirlwind,
Jade Unicorn, The Leopard-Headed, The Devil's Neigh
bor, Hail-Fire, and The Black Whirlwind, are but a few of
them. The book is the work of a powerful mind, though it is hung
over with menace and gloom. Unscrupulous, defiant, stern as the
fates, but true in covenant and brave in conflict, these men and
women are not of the smiling, temperate, human sort; they are
terrible; beings of the cave and the mountain den. On account of
its subject the book is a forbidden one, but in China that is no hin
drance to your getting it if you want to.
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But now let us give our readers a change. We are tempted

here to let a bit of our secret peep out and tell them at once that
Chinese fiction broadly divides itself in our mind into a three-fold
classification; the historic, the mythic, and the sentimental. His
tory, under the potent spell of that mighty magician, the imagina
tive faculty, shades off on the spiritual side into the formless region
of myth, where man vainly tries to express the mysterious and in
expressible side of his nature, and on the other side melts into
the sentimental, where he finds happy play for its human side.
Now of the mythical novels we have four specimens on our
listThe Exorcising of the Devils, Diversions of a Studio, The
Apotheosis of Spirits, and The Western Excursion. This is a very
important branch of Chinese fiction and is the fountain-head to
which you must go if you would explore the folk-lore of the East.
And it is only by knowing this that you can get at the roots of
that inextricably twisted jungle-forest of superstition which chokes
and shadows the Chinese mind. The Exorcising of the Devils is
a kind of /ack the Giant Killer allegory. The Diversions of a Stu
dio is a collection of short stories, something in the line of the
Arabian Nights, where magical transformations and scenes of glit
tering enchantment abound, but all on the hypothesis that foxes

constitute an intermediate order of being between the human and

the demoniac, and that they assume at will the form of beautiful
men and women. Their appearances are always sudden, like that
of fairies, and, like fairies, they come with rich gifts, but inter
course with them is baneful. The book is exquisitely written in
the most refined classic style, but as there is a translation we will
say no more about it. About the third one we will say nothing at
all, because we have not read it. We will take the Shih Yu, The
Western Excursion, as our type of the mythical novel.
Every one knows of the journey of Shuen Tsang to India to
seek the Buddhist Canons. It was a journey full of danger, hard
ship and marvel. The author of our story is said to have made a
similar journey in Mongol times. However that may be, he has
used Shuen Tsang's pilgrimage as the foundation on which to build
a superstructure containing all the most noted myths of Buddhist
and Taoist beliefs. It is at the same time an extended allegory of
a very subtle character, running into spiritual meanings of the first
and second and even the third degree. Shuen Tsang is supposed
to be the brother of one of the T'ang emperors who had become a
priest, and who made a pious vow to perform the journey to India
and fetch the holy books. But as there are always difficulties in
the good man's path, he soon finds that this is no holiday excur
sion, but quite another guess matter. As soon as he begins to turn
his steps westward his way is obstructed by the most unexampled
hindrances. There are giants that want to eat him up and sorcer
esses that would fain betray him. He is put to it most sorely, for
all the nether regions seem astir to prevent his progress. But on
the other hand the celestial powers are propitious, and by dint of
giving him some most marvellous travelling companions, and fre
quent interferences from the goddess of mercy herself, he is kept
scatheless. Even the imperial sovereign of the skies, the great Yu
Huang, is deeply interested in these bustling affairs. The first
thing he knows he is caught up and swept off on the wings of a
whirlwind by a beautiful enchantress who would have him as the
companion of her bower, and his protectors have the most unheard
of trouble to get him out of her clutches. He finds a betrayed
maiden weeping sore in the forest, buried up to her waist in the
earth, rescues her by the aid of his travelling companion, and takes
her with him to the nearest monastery, full of pity for her distress.
But this lovely maiden is a complete fraud, as like Armida in fact
as you can expect any one woman to be like another. Sun Shing
Che, his right-hand man, is at his prayers at midnight, when she

steals on him and assails him with the most seductive arts. But he
is a deep, suspicious customer, and has been all along persuaded
that there is something wrong with her. He is not to be cajoled,
but in the twinkling of an eye he finds her transformed into an Am
azon of fearful might, vomiting smoke and fire, and wielding a
magic sword of preternatural sharpness. In fact, you soon begin
0. to see that this is a Pilgrim's Progress and a Faerie Queene all
in one.
This Sun Shing Che is himself a most wonderful being. The
author has so far anticipated the Darwinian theory, or rather
Bishop Wilberforce's jocular description of it, as to derive his ori
gin from a monkey. He has been immortalised by the gods, and
in virtue of necromatic study, is gifted with extraordinary powers
of levitation, by means of which, like Puck, he can put a girdle
round about the earth in forty minutes. He has another trifling
accomplishment in the way of being able to transform himself at
will into the form and faculty of any member of the animal or in
sect kingdom. He has had escapades in the heavenly regions, such
as stealing the golden peaches of Paradise, and letting loose the
steeds of the immortals. A burly, humorous, infinitely mischiev
ous kind of Puck. He is a champion to one's mind, wielding an
iron staff with golden bands, which he got out of the sea-dragons
cave under the ocean, which was several thousand catties in weight
originally, but which he judiciously reduced by a few hundred cat
ties, so as to make it handy. When he finds it inconvenient to
carry, it can be diminished to the magnitude of a needle, which he
sticks in his ear. With a travelling companion like this and two or
three others, notably one who fights with a rake, the devout pil
grim has a good prospect of getting through.
Many, however, are the risks they run, and most various the
inducements held out to them to abandon the object of their pil
grimage. Here is a specimen of their adventures.
They are treading their way westwards through green hills and
shining waters, where they behold an endless luxuriance of vegeta
tion, and where flowers of every hue abound. But the way is long
and evening draws on apace, so the chief pilgrim puts the some
what human inquiry, Where shall we go to rest for the night?
The reply of Shing Che is in the most approved style of pious de
votion, but not comforting to flesh and blood:
My father, he who has left home and become a priest must
dine on the wind and lodge in the water, lie down under the moon

and sleep in the frost; everywhere is his home, why then ask
where shall we rest?
This is all very well for our lightsome Puck, but Pa Chieh,
who is the burden-bearer and carries the pilgrim's baggage, which
is not inconsiderable, regards the division of labor as unequal; and
at any rate would like some more matter-of-fact arrangement for
the night. At a blow from Sun Shing Che's staff Shuen Tsang's
horse has started forward at a great pace, so that from the brow of
a hill Shuen Tsang espies in the distance a grove of cypress trees,
beneath the shade of which is a large enclosure, which they decide
to make for as a place of rest. On approaching it they find that it
is all that heart could desire, in fact a spacious establishment of
some magnificence, as near a palace as they can expect to come at
in those regions. As there is no sign of inhabitants, Shing Che
makes his way inside, and finds that it offers very attractive quar
ters. While he is looking round on black varnished tables and
gilded pillars a large scroll meets his eye on which the motto is
certainly inviting: Gentle willows hung with floss, and on the
bridge the level sun at eve. In snowy flakes the scattered bloom
has filled the court with spring.
While he is examining this, a lady about middle life, but of
very charming appearance and bearing, steps into the court from
an inner room with the inquiry, Who is it that has ventured to
intrude upon the household of a widow P In truth according to
Eastern etiquette he is in an embarrassing situation. But the lady
is most affable, and as he explains their condition, cordially invites
them in to rest for the night. They all enter, and Pa Chieh, who
is by no means beyond human infirmities, casts more than one sly
glance at the lady, whose attractions are thus described in rhyme:
The clouds of hair upon her brow aslant like phoenix wings,
And set with many a precious pearl her pendant earrings.
No artifice of paint' she needs her natural charms to aid,
Yet gay and winsome is she still as any youngest maid.

The natural way of opening acquaintance is by describing their

respective circumstances, and on her part the widow lady tells
them that she has been left in possession of riches in abundance,
her husband's parents having died as well as her husband, leaving
her in charge of three beautiful daughters with three very pretty
namesTruth, Love, and Pity. There is nothing like a Chinese
novel for a surprise, and our private opinion is that the holy pil
grims were taken at a disadvantage of an unwarrantable kind,
when the lovely widow made a plump proposal to them, not simply

on her own behalf, but also on the part of her daughters three, and
in a very business-like way pointed out the advantages the four
pilgrims would derive from a quadruple marriage, which would se
cure to each of them a charming wife and store of wealth for the
rest of their days. In fact, in her view they cannot do better than
finish their journey here and be happy ever afterwards. Induce
ments are manifold. She has mountain lands for trees and fruit,
and broad fields for grain, and flooded fields for rice, and of each
kind more than five thousand acres. She has horses and oxen,
pigs and sheep beyond all count, and farmsteads some sixty or sev
enty, on her vast domain. The grain of a dozen years is rotting in
her granaries for want of eating, and mountains of silks and satins
are being moth-eaten for want of wear. As for silver and gold, if
the four pilgrims should turn prodigals they could not contrive to
spend it in a lifetime. Prosperous Job himself was but a portion
less beggar compared with her. To say nothing of herself and her
lovely daughters, and though she is becomingly modest about her
own attractions, they are not only the most surpassingly beautiful
but the most completely accomplished of living maidens.
All this Shuen Tsang hears unmoved except by anger, not sus
pecting her guile but enraged that she should so tempt him from
his heavenly purpose. Then ensues a contest between the lady
and himself, of which we had hoped to offer our readers a transla
tion, but no ingenuity we can command will avail to twist it into
presentable English verse. The respective advantages of a life of
worldly ease and of celibate devotion are sung by the two cham
pions, and at the conclusion of the wordy contest the lady, finding
her persuasions futile, angrily retires, slamming the door on them
and leaving them seated in the hall disconsolate and unprovided
for. During this scene the covetous Pa Chieh has taken another
view of the situation. He would have been glad to close with the
widow's terms, but seeing that may not be, he steals round to the
back and secures a private interview, in which he seeks to arrange
a marriage on his own account. Certain difficulties arise, mainly
on account of his lack of masculine attractions, for as Sun Shing
Che wears a monkey's form, so he wears a pig's, and his long face
and big ears are objectionable. But the lady is not altogether un
compliant. She is at once so far mollified as to provide for the en
tertainment of the travellers, and in the meantime, through the
prescience of Sun Shing Che, Pa Chieh's clandestine interview is
made known to his chief. They thereupon, after sundry passages
between them, insist upon his retiring within the household in the

character of a son-in-law, the other three remaining merely as

guests in the guest-chamber.
But now a new difficulty of a knotty kind starts up. The
widow is apparently willing to give him one of her three daughters
to wife, but for the life of her cannot decide which is to be the fa
vored one. If she weds him to Truth, Love will feel neglected,
and if to Love or to Pity, Truth will naturally feel aggrieved. In
this dilemma, or rather trilemma, a very cunning expedient occurs
to her. She proposes to blindfold him with a handkerchief and then
turn the three girls in on him and let him have whichever he can
catch. Perhaps it was a supreme proof of courage, though not of
discretion, for Pa Chieh is quite willing to do wittingly what many
a man has had to do in real life unwittinglyplay at blind man's
buff for a wife. Yet as all three were consummately beautiful and
accomplished, his chances could not be said to be so bad.
But alas ! this was only another of those best laid schemes
destined to gang a glee. The bandage was tied over his eyes,
he found himself groping in darkness, the tinkling sound of female
trinkets was all around him, the odor of musk was in his nostrils,
like fairy forms they fluttered about him, but he could no more
grasp one than he could clutch a shadow. Right and left, to and
fro, he groped and fumbled. More female forms than he could
count were round him, but in vain he thought to hold one. One
way and another he ran till he was too giddy to stand, and could
only stumble helplessly about. Eastward it was a pillar he em
braced, westward he ran against a wooden partition, forwards
against the leaves of the door, backwards into the wall, bumping
and banging, head and heels, until with swollen tongue and bruised
head, he could only sit down panting.
Thus reduced to a state of mingled exhaustion and imbecility,
he was fain to seek a parley, for, as he expressed it, they were
much too slippery for him. Then his mother-in-law by anticipa
tion unloosed his bandage and gently broke to him the intelligence
that it was not their slipperiness but their extreme modesty which
had prevented a capture, each of them being generously wishful to
forego her claims in favor of one of her sisters. In fine, it was the
old story, so true also in real life, that a lady is extremely difficult
to catch when she is unwilling to be caught. Upon this he be
comes very importunate and urges his suit in a most indiscriminate
fashion for either one of her daughters, or for the mother herself
or for all three or all four. This is beyond all conscience, but as
an escape from their perplexity, the widow proposes a new crite

rion of choice. Each of her daughters wears a certain garment, an

inner vest, embroidered in jewels and gold. He is to be allowed to

*| \\


(From an illustrated edition of the Shih Yu.)
try on one of these, and, in case he can get it on, he is to marry
the lady who owns it. He consents, only modestly stipulating that

he shall have a try with all three and succeed according to his de
serts. There is no difficulty as to size, for, as most people know,
all garments whatever in China would be roomy enough for Go
liath. The good lady brings one in and he finds that one enough,
for no sooner has he got it on, just as he is tying the cord round
his waist, than it transforms itself to strong bands of rope wound
round every limb. He rolls over in excruciating pain, and as he
does so the curtain of enchantment falls and the beauties and the
palace disappear.
Next morning his three companions wake up, also to find the
scene changed. As the east shone white they opened their eyes
and raised their heads, only to see that the great mansion and lofty
hall, the carved beams and ornamental pillars had all disappeared,
and they had been sleeping all night on the ground under the
cypress grove.
But where was their errant companion, the eager bridegroom
of the adventure ? After a short search he was found bound fast to
a tree and yelling with pain. They cut him down bruised and
crestfallen, to pursue the journey sadder but wiser, and subject to
many a gibe from his mischievous companions.
Or as a specimen of the marvellous play of imagination which
this book affords, take the episode of the burning mountain. The
pilgrims find it getting hotter and hotter as they proceed, and on
resting for the night at a village by the roadside are told that they
can go no further in that direction, as there is an enormous moun
tain in their path all on fire which reduces the whole region to
sterility and which they can neither cross nor get round. Our
active lieutenant and man of all work, by the simple expedient of
questioning a vendor of pulse at the door, learns that the only way
to deal with this obstacle is to obtain the loan of a certain palm
leaf fan, made of iron, which will put the fire out. It is in the
hands of the iron-fan fairy, who dwells in a palm-leaf cave on a
mountain called Tsui Yun San, Beautiful Cloud Mountain. It is
fifteen hundred li away. That is of no consequence, says Wu
Shing Che, and before you can wink he was there. But he finds it
no such simple matter. This fairy, called also Lo Sah, is wife to
the ox-demon king, and a female of an uncertain disposition. Be
sides, while she is a sort of aunt to our doughty adventurer, he
suddenly recollects that she has an ancient grudge against him,
and it is more than likely that she will not put this indispensable
fan at his disposal. However, he goes on the principle that faint
heart never won fair lady, and puts a good face on the matter.



(From an illustrated edition of the Shih Yu.)

The old lady is distinctly pugilistic, and they turn to with sword
and staff and have a royal battle there on the mountain. Sun
Shing is likely to get the better of her, but she lends him the use
of the fan in a sense he did not anticipate. She gives it one wave,
and to his amazement he is blown on the breath of a hyperborean
hurricane, against which he is helpless, and alights only by hold
ing hard on to a rock by both hands, fifty thousand li away, being
lucky to stop at that. Here he is helped by a friend, who gives
him a pill which he is to swallow, and then he can stand comfort
ably in the strongest wind that ever blew. Away he hies back, and
this time the fan waves in vain. Then the old woman retires in
side and slams the door on him. He turns into a bee, flies through
a crack of the door, and after a most surprising battle gets the fan
and makes off with it like lightning.
So now he will succeed, he thinks, and he will show his com
panions how it is done. They go as far toward the mountain as
they can for the heat and flame. Then Shing Che raised the fan,
and advancing near to the fire waved it with all his might. At the
first wave the blazing fire of the hill burst forth with intense heat.
At the second wave it increased a hundred-fold. He tried a third,
and the flame rose at least ten thousand feet high and singed all
the hair off his legs before he could get back to Shuen Tsang. He
cried out, Back! Back! Fire ! Fire ! Shuen Tsang mounted his
horse, and they all had to run for their lives.
Here's a pretty kettle of fish. The old aunty has played him a
jade's trick. She has cunningly given him the wrong fan. We
have no time to follow it in detail. Amongst other things, he
learns, for there is deep symbolism here, that this fire-flaming
mountain was kindled by himself, goodness knows how long ago.
But he is not to be beaten. He personates the old lady's husband,
who is playing truant with a younger fair, and goes through a very
sentimental scene with her in this character, not, however, passing
the bounds of propriety, if you remember the maxim, All's fair in
love and war. By this treacherous device he worms the secret out
of her, and finds that the right fan, the genuine article, is a little
thing, the size of an apricot leaf, but which can be magnified by
touching a point in its stalk into twelve feet long. This he gets
and again makes off. However, the ox-demon king is on his track,
and as personification is a game at which two can play, he appears
in the guise of Sun Shing's companion offering to carry the fan,
which, that worthy having magnified, he does not know how to
minimize, and on its being handed to him makes away back to the

cave with it. Now Sun Shing's blood is up, and after a tremon
dous fight he gets final possession of it, and is once more before




(From an illustrated edition of the Shih Yu.)
the mountain with his companions. In the meantime the ma
chinery is invoked, various celestial beings are on the scene wait

ing for the all-important event, and after due ceremonial he

took the fan, swung it one wave with all his might, and that fiery
flaming mountain slowly settled to rest, and the blaze went out.
Shing Che, greatly pleased, fanned one more stroke, and softly
sighing winds began to move; at the third wave over the whole
heavens the clouds gathered dense, and the gentle rain fell thick
and pattering.
Scandinavian legends and Thor's journey to Jotunland cannot
surpass this.
We have now only the sentimental novels to deal with. Of
these there are seven on our list, but their characteristics must be
summarised. The best known amongst them, either to foreigners **
or natives, is the Dream of the Red Loft. We are not ourselves
enamored of it; there are some pretty sentimental songs in it, but
a weary lot of tiresome repetition of trivial details. Its recom
mendation to foreigners is that it is full of conversations in first
rate Pekinese; but if aristocratic life in China is anything like this
picture of itdressy, vain, empty, proud, idle, sentimental, licen
tiousit is a wretched existence.
Seeking a Match is a very surprising story, and affords the most
graphic representation of the wiles and tricks of the unscrupulous
Celestial to be found anywhere. The Western Room and the Guitar
are the work of great artists. They are called novels, but are
dramas of the operatic kind, the dialogue only being prose.
By a sentimental novel we understand one the subject of
which is love, but as the marriage laws in China differ from those
in England, our notions on this head get a rude shock. In a cer
tain sense the Chinese novelist may be said to enjoy a great advan
tage over his brother artist of the West. When, for instance, as in
one of these stories, a remarkably smart Chinese girl who is sued by
an unwelcome lover, has cleverly contrived to juggle the engage
ment document, which a treacherous uncle has compelled her to
write, and to put in the name and age of her cousin, who is plain
looking, to take her place on the wedding day, so that the unwel
come suitor is successfully married to another girl; you would
expect that to be the end of the matter, and that the author had
nothing for it but to bring in the right bridegroom, marry the hero
ine according to her heart's wish, and make them happy ever
afterwards. But the Celestial novelist is in no such straits, be
cause the villain of the piece, though a good deal disgusted at
being so tricked, need not in the least change his purpose. Hav
ing one wife, in a country where there are no laws against bigamy,

does not preclude his having another, and thus his author is at full<