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EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF

PSIDIUM GUAJAVA ON ALCOHOL-INDUCED


LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS
NASATYA KHADKA, PEMBA SHERPA AND SITAL KARKI
Emilio Aguinaldo College, 113-1117 San Marcelino St., corner Gonzales St.,
Ermita, Manila 1000, Philippines.
Tel. No.: 632.521.2710
www.eac.edu.ph
Introduction:

Guavas are plants in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae) genus Psidium

(meaning) "pomegranate" in Latin, which contains about 100 species of

tropical shrubs and small trees. They are native to Mexico, Central America,

and northern South America. Most likely naturally spreading (by means of

ocean drifting) to parts of south Asia, the Caribbean and some parts of

Africa, guavas are now cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics,

and due to growing demand they are also grown in some subtropical

regions.

Psidium species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some

Lepidoptera, mainly moths like the Ello Sphinx (Erinnyis ello),

Eupseudosoma aberrans, E. involutum, and Hypercompe icasia. Mites

like Pronematus pruni and Tydeus munstei are known to parasitize the

Apple Guava (P. guajava) and perhaps other species. The bacterium
Erwinia psidii causes rot diseases of the Apple Guava.The fruit are not

only relished by humans, but by many mammals and birds as well. The

spread of introduced guavas owes much to this fact, as animals will eat

the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Importance of the guava:

1. Guavas – particularly the leaves – have been a subject for diverse

research in chemical identity of their constituents,

pharmacological properties and history in folk medicine.

2. The bark of the guava is used as an astringent (substance is a

chemical compound that tends to shrink or constrict body

tissues).

3. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labeling of blood

constituents with technetium-99m.

Alcohol and Cancer

Cancer kills an estimated 526,000 Americans yearly, second only

to heart disease. Cancers of the lung, large bowel, and breast

are the most common in the United States. Considerable

evidence suggests a connection between heavy alcohol


consumption and increased risk for cancer, with an estimated 2

to 4 percent of all cancer cases thought to be caused either

directly or indirectly by alcohol.

Alcohol use and liver cancer

Prolonged, heavy drinking has been associated in many cases with

primary liver cancer. However, it is liver cirrhosis, whether caused by

alcohol or another factor that is thought to induce the cancer. In areas

of Africa and Asia, liver cancer afflicts 50 or more people per 100,000

per year, usually associated with cirrhosis caused by hepatitis

viruses. In the United States, liver cancer is relatively uncommon,

afflicting approximately 2 people per 100,000, but excessive alcohol

consumption is linked to as many as 36 percent of these cases by

some investigators.

Today because of the reality that modern medicines are

very prohibit in cost, medicinal plants have been considered more

and more as better alternatives.


Rationale

The study on use of guava extract on the alcohol damage


liver of rat

will be done to reduce the of death of many casualties due


to excess

use of the alcohol using the cheap medication i.e. guava


extract.

Statement of the problem

The medications for the cancer of liver are very expensive


with many

risks.

This study will attempt to

1. Make the guava extract from the entire plant.

2. Prepare the low cost herbal medicine for cure of liver

damage.

3. Evaluate the effectiveness of the guava extract on

damaged liver.

Hypothesis
The amount of guava extract to the ethyl alcohol induce liver
damage

of rat will some how cure the damaged liver.

Scope and delimitations

This particular study is centered on the subject , guava as a


medicine

plant. Other areas will likewise be included within the scope


like

formulation of the procedure as, to the steps of making the


guava

extract from the guava plant.Next scope include the use of


guava

extract for curing the alcohol damaged liver of rats.The


experiments

will be performed in the biology laboratory of EAC. The


estimated

time for the completion of the study will be about two


months.

Importance of study
The main goal of the experiment of using the guava
extract

on alcohol damaged liver of mice is to make better medicine


from the

crude drug which is designedto promote its use and


effectivity that

indeed can be of great help among the pharmacist itself and


the

physicians. Also for helping the medium and low class family
by

reducing the heavy charge of medications of the treatment


of the liver

cancer.

Key words: Ethyl alcohol, Guava extract, Histology,


Liver, Liver

enzymes, Psidium guajava

Definition of terms

Ethyl alcohol: is the intoxicating ingredient of many alcoholic


beverages.

Guava extract: the leaf or the guava jelly or the paste is called the guava

extract.
Histology: Study of the tissues.

Liver: is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a

wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and

production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver enzymes: They are- aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) and

alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT), which are known together as

transaminases; and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma-glutamyl

transferase (GGT).

Pisidium guajava: is an evergreen shrub or small tree native to


Mexico,

the Caribbean,and Central and South America. It is easily pollinated by

insects; in culture, mainly by the common honey bee, Apis mellifera.


Reference:
http://ajol.info/index.php/njps/article/view/52928/41529,http://www.liverdisease.com/liv
erenzymes_hepatitis.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver
http://www.zippy-health.com/guava-fruit-facts-go-guava-for-beautiful-skin-and-hair/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guava
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/194354/ethyl-alcohol
http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa21.htm
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1474003/