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GUA DIDCTICA DEL DOCENTE

INCLUYE TEXTO DEL ESTUDIANTE

Jolanta Polk Reyes

EDICIN ESPECIAL PARA EL MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN


PROHIBIDA SU COMERCIALIZACIN AO 2011
Ingls

GUA DIDCTICA DEL DOCENTE - INCLUYE TEXTO DEL ESTUDIANTE

Jolanta Polk Reyes


2011 Ediciones Cal y Canto

Original text Jolanta Polk Reyes
Teaching English as a Foreign Language,
Dublin, Ireland.
Teacher training, translation and English Literature,
University of Silesia, Poland.

Original illustrations Ediciones Cal y Canto



Design Ediciones Cal y Canto

General Publisher Jorge Muoz Rau.
Publisher Alicia Manonellas Balladares.
Assistant Publisher Gloria Caro Opazo.
Ly-Sen Lam Daz.
Designed by Mara Jess Moreno Guldman.
Cover designed by Mara Jess Moreno Guldman.
Layout by Cristina Seplveda Aravena.
Proofreading Kevin Towl.
Illustrations Venus Astudillo Vera.
General Production Cecilia Muoz Rau.
Production Assistant Lorena Briceo Gonzlez.
Recording Producer Rodrigo Gonzlez Daz.
Photos Banco de Fotos Ediciones Cal y Canto.

ISBN: 978-956-8623-96-8
N de Inscripcin: 197.518

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in Chile
CONTENTS

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
The students book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Book methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Learning Progress Maps as support material for teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
The Internet in the language classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Classroom management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
The teachers book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Classroom language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Suggested Year Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

UNIT 1: ADVICE AND SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

UNIT 2: TWO OF THE ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

UNIT 3: PROFESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

UNIT 4: BEING ACTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92


Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

UNIT 5: CREATIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112


Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

UNIT 6: AT WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Thematic bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148


Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

3
PLAN OF THE BOOK
UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3

READING READING READING


Letters to Aunt Anne Earth Preparing a CV
(personal letters) .......................8 (ONEMI statistics report).........28 (article, tips, model CV)..........48

WRITING WRITING WRITING


Write a letter Write a school Write own CV ..........................53
giving advice ...........................13 earthquake plan......................33

LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING


Embarrassing Moments Water Professional Services
(TV interview).........................14 (TV programme).....................35 (advertisement) ......................55

SPEAKING SPEAKING SPEAKING


Participate in a role Work in groups and Role play a job
play describing describe some pictures interview .................................57
own experiences .....................17 in detail....................................37

GRAMMAR GRAMMAR GRAMMAR


Linking words..........................11 The First Conditional ...............30 Modal verbs should,
The First Conditional ...............16 Connectors of condition..........36 might, might want to......52 / 56

TEST YOUR TEST YOUR TEST YOUR


KNOWLEDGE........................22 KNOWLEDGE........................42 KNOWLEDGE........................62

4 PLAN OF THE BOOK


UNIT 4 UNIT 5 UNIT 6

READING READING READING


Travelling by air Brillant Simplicity Volunteering
(article) ....................................68 (article)..........................92 94 (website, e-mail,
magazine article, forms) ......116
WRITING WRITING
Write an itinerary for Write instructions to WRITING
a two-day trip.........................75 use a simple machine.............99 Write a composition .............123

LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING


A Quiz Show - Volcanoes A Bit of Genius Job Application
(radio programme) .................76 (TV programme)...................100 (interview)............................124

SPEAKING SPEAKING SPEAKING


Participate in the Definition, description Introduce yourself
role play of a quiz show..........81 and instructions to at an interview......................129
use a machine.......................105

GRAMMAR GRAMMAR GRAMMAR


Adverbial and prepositional Relative phrases ...........97 / 103 The Present Perfect
phrases............................73 / 79 Continuous.................121 / 127

TEST YOUR TEST YOUR TEST YOUR


KNOWLEDGE........................86 KNOWLEDGE .....................110 KNOWLEDGE .....................134

PLAN OF THE BOOK 5


INTRODUCTION

A message from the author

Global English has been developed and written involving students in real-world tasks and linking new
taking into account the patterns and activities most information to prior knowledge requires effective
relevant to the effective learning processes suitable for communication and collaboration among teachers,
11th grade students. students, and others. Indeed, it is through dialogue
and interaction that curriculum objectives come alive.
What was taken into consideration most was how to Collaborative learning affords students enormous
keep students interest in the contents of the book, i.e. advantages not available from more traditional
subjects and themes of special relevance and attraction instruction because a group - whether it be the whole
to young people of this age group. One of the constant class or a learning group within the class - can
criticisms aimed at our youngsters is their apparent lack accomplish meaningful learning and solve problems
of interest in contingent issues - we firmly disagree with better than any individual can alone.
this idea. There is certain disenchantment with the
frivolity of the globalised world, but time and time The majority of the listening and reading texts have
again the younger generation has shown that they are been taken from authentic sources. Where this was not
interested in what goes on around them. possible, they were specially written trying to make
them as real as possible.
That is why the units in the book have been developed
around key issues that have proved of certain interest Finally, the purpose of the book, apart from providing
to our students. learning contents, is to offer fun and diversion in the
sometimes dry and arduous knowledge acquisition
In other words, to quote M.B. Tinzmann, B.F. Jones, T.F. process. All our cartoons are original and the result of
Fennimore, J. Bakker, C. Fine, and J. Pierce, 1990: It is many hours of thinking.
primarily through dialogue and examining different
perspectives that students become knowledgeable, We hope that both students and teachers will enjoy
strategic, self-determined, and empathetic. Moreover, Global English and use it to its maximum extent.

The Author

6 INTRODUCTION
THE STUDENTS BOOK

Global English consists of six units. The Reading tasks focus students attention, and teach
Unit 1: Advice and Support. them to look for specific information, locate clues and
Unit 2: Two of the Elements. separate essential from non-essential information.
Unit 3: Professions.
The After you Read tasks connect the text with the
Unit 4: Being Active.
students own reality, give practice on specific
Unit 5: Creativity.
grammar points and provide opportunities for
Unit 6: At Work.
oral and written expression.
Each unit has been divided into two lessons of
Listening
gradually increasing complexity and level of
The tasks to develop these skills in Global English
difficulty, both of them with before, while and after
help students to learn strategies that will improve
reading or listening activities. Each unit contains
their understanding of spoken messages.
the following sections:
The methodology adopts a three-phase approach
Introduction
with before, while and after listening tasks, to
There is an attractive, motivating photo that
provide a setting, motivation and linguistic
illustrates the main topic of the unit and
preparation, as well as activate previous knowledge,
accompanies the learning objectives of the unit,
focus students attention on specific tasks and
also presented on the same page.
reduce anxiety produced by unknown messages.
How ready are you for this unit?
Writing and speaking
Short activities that have a double purpose: to
The development of these two skills is carefully
motivate and create interest, and to evaluate how
guided and always based on the content of a text,
much students already know about the contents
making use of a variety of activities and strategies.
to be covered.
In each Reading lesson there is a section called
Reading
APPLICATION TASK - WRITING, in which students
When students have a purpose for reading, they can
are asked to develop a writing text imitating what
adopt different reading strategies to suit different
they have read in the lesson and following clear
types of texts and different reasons for reading. For
steps and instructions. In the Listening lessons
example, students may need to skim one type of
there is an APPLICATION TASK - SPEAKING, where
text to identify the main points it covers, but scan
students participate in a speaking activity
another text to locate specific information.
imitating models and following clear instructions.
The Before you Read activities motivate students
Additionally, there are JUST FOR FUN activities to
to read and encourage them to predict and
stimulate students development and self-study
anticipate information. They are necessary for
skills. An important component of this section is
reading skills development.
the CHILEAN CONNECTION, which explicitly relates
Making predictions is a core strategy for reading the topic of the unit to the Chilean context. This
comprehension. Proficient readers constantly part of the book is owned by the students and the
attempt to read ahead of an author - picking up role of the teacher is simply to guide and answer
clues and predicting what might unfold. questions but not to intervene, reward or punish
Predictions are a category of inference: when we for exercises either done or not completed.
predict, we are going beyond what is explicitly
The three following parts of the book respond to
stated to anticipate what, where, why, how, who, if.
Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain. Namely,
Developing students abilities to make reasonable
there is no complete learning process without
predictions helps to sharpen their inferential
consolidation activities (CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES),
thinking. Make sure that you tell students that
testing activities (TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE) and self-
their various predictions, though thoughtful and
evaluation activities (SELF-EVALUATION).
well-founded, may still turn out to be incorrect.

THE STUDENTS BOOK 7


American v/s British English They let both teachers and students find out
Special boxes will show students the differences where they are still lacking.
between American and British English both in They help to correct errors and reinforce
writing and in pronunciation. Students are strengths.
frequently confused with the different spelling or
They provide an attractive and entertaining
pronunciation and the idea of this explanation is
setting for the contents of the unit.
to show them that both ways are perfectly
acceptable. Make it clear to students that they can Formal evaluation - Test your Knowledge
use either way (spelling and pronunciation) but This part of the book provides the teacher with
that they must stick to one way only throughout the necessary elements to formally evaluate the
their oral or written production. students learning process. There is a strong need
not only for the adequate marking of students
Did you know that ?
acquired knowledge but most importantly for
The aim of this section is to provide more
determining the shortfalls and stumbling blocks
information on the main topic of the lesson and
on the road to consolidated knowledge.
interest students in finding more information on
Therefore, the teacher should not consider this
their own. Throughout the book students and
part as exclusively the rewarding / punishing tool
teachers will also find website-based resources to
for acquired / not acquired knowledge, but rather
expand their knowledge of specific subjects.
as the basis for establishing reinforcement
Exploitation of these resources is important as
procedures and techniques.
self-study is already part of many school
improvement approaches and when students Minitest
realise their efforts are seen and recognised, they In every lesson there is a short testing activity
usually become more committed to - and which students must carry out within a time limit
interested in - improving their work. and for which they must assign themselves
points. The teacher is strongly advised to
Language Notes
encourage students to analyse their performance,
They encourage students to identify
identify weaknesses and strengths and consider
characteristics of a grammar point that has
steps to improve.
appeared in the reading or listening texts, provide
examples and help students to deduce some Self-evaluation
general rules. There is a final Self-evaluation section at the end
of each unit, divided into two parts. The first part
Learning tip
helps students to assign themselves marks in the
This is an additional tool we have provided to
final test of the unit (TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE).
make learning more accessible and contents
The second part provides the students with
easier to understand. Learning tips can be done
feedback on how much they have learnt, putting
by students on their own or you can analyse them
them in a position to make an assessment of their
with the whole class.
whole work. Learners, by getting involved with
@ Web sites evaluation, come face to face with their learning
Web sites are suggested resources to gather problems and consciously try to tackle them. Self-
information on various topics or prepare for a evaluation requires students to be more aware of
presentation. They provide a good opportunity the changes they are experiencing, motivates
for the students independent work. them to form a realistic and honest perception of
their own work and to try to take responsible
Consolidation activities
steps to solve their problems. Self-evaluation
They play an important role in the learning
enables students to become independent
process because:
learners as well as independent thinkers.

8 THE STUDENTS BOOK


BOOK METHODOLOGY

Task-based learning Working in groups develops several very important


Global English helps students to develop language skills including collaboration, error correction and
and learning skills to carry out sequences of tasks. respect for other peoples opinions. In addition to
completing the task at hand, you could ask students
Some advantages of task-based learning: to evaluate how well they worked as a group after
Increased motivation, as learners become each group exercise using this simple instrument.
personally involved. Our Effectiveness as a Group
All four skills, reading, writing, listening and Evaluation scale: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
speaking are integrated. Low High
Autonomous learning is promoted as learners
become more responsible for their own learning. a. Members of the group felt free to state their real
opinions. _______________
There are learning outcomes: learners have an end
product. b. The group defined its task. _______________
The tasks are authentic and therefore the c. All members accepted the responsibility for the
language input is more authentic. outcome. _______________
Interpersonal relations are developed through d. All members of the group were productive.
working in pairs or groups. _______________
There is always a break from routine and the e. All members of the group feel positive about the
chance to do something different. work done. _______________
f. All members were respectful at all times.
Collaborative work _______________
Students work in teams to explore real-world (Based on Small-Group Discussion.
problems and create presentations to share what Raymond Stopper. Xlibris, 2004, pp. 299-303)
they have learnt. This approach has many benefits
for students, including: Learner training
deeper knowledge of subject matter; This concept has to do with developing students
increased self-direction and motivation; awareness of how they learn and how they develop
their learning strategies so that they become more
improved research and problem-solving skills. effective and independent learners. Teachers should
constantly encourage students to analyse their
Additionally, it gives the teacher the grounds for
learning process, making them think about their
evaluating what students have learnt and how they
learning, what problems they have and how they
apply that knowledge to real-life situations, and an
could improve their performance so that they can
excellent opportunity to observe these
take the appropriate steps to optimise their learning.
components of group / team dynamics:
the natural forces at play who is the leader, who Mixed ability
lags behind, who needs encouragement or Global English caters for mixed-ability classes in a
pulling back. variety of ways. The teacher needs to develop
real group / team behaviour (cooperation, respect, techniques which allow students of all levels to
support, encouragement, responsibility). benefit from the lesson. Individual feedback is
need for interventions to make the effect of those advisable in any class, but in a mixed-ability class, this
dynamics more positive. attention to detail can increase student satisfaction.
The teacher should always try to make some mental,
if not written, notes about each student in such
classes. As the course progresses and opportunities

BOOK METHODOLOGY 9
arise, the teacher should congratulate individual Tactile learners. They like board and card games,
students on their improvements and make tactful demonstrations, projects, role plays, etc. While-
suggestions on areas to work on. A few sentences listening/reading activities are motivating for them.
during general monitoring are better than nothing. For example, students can be asked to fill in a table
These details show that the teacher is aware of the while listening to a talk, or to label a diagram while
individual needs of students. reading.

Additionally, each lesson in Global English offers at Global English has considered these important facts
least one activity that can be done by fast learners, and it comprises different kinds of activities to suit
while the rest of the class is finishing a task. the students needs in a class.

Discussions Vocabulary
Any pair or group discussion is aimed at stimulating The active vocabulary in each unit is the vocabulary
free expression among students. The teacher the students need to carry out the tasks. There is
should avoid interrupting or correcting at that very development of students passive vocabulary
same moment, as it inhibits their free expression. through a rich variety of lexis in the texts. There are
When correcting, avoid words such as: wrong, specific vocabulary sections and practice activities.
incorrect, or bad. Use instead expressions such as: Students should be trained to develop effective
How about? Why dont you ? strategies for learning vocabulary and for keeping
clear vocabulary records. There should be
Games systematic use of a vocabulary column on one side
A teacher should bear in mind that games are of the board in which any words or phrases that
important while teaching a foreign language because crop up during the lesson can be recorded. At the
they are motivating and help students to sustain the end, students can copy these, with an example,
effort of learning. However, games are the means and picture or translation in their notebooks.
not the end - they are simply a way of making
learning more entertaining, so never treat games as When especially difficult words appear in a text or
time-fillers or something students should do when in an activity, their meaning is given in a glossary
you are stuck for ideas. Each game should have a section at the bottom of the page.
purpose, with teacher supervision and sometimes
prior preparation. Grammar
Global English deals with grammar with the purpose
Learning styles of making it more meaningful and useful for students.
Research and teaching experience have shown that Structures that are essential for the understanding of
students are better motivated and learn more when oral or written texts are presented and practised in a
their different intelligences and learning styles are very controlled way. The learning of the structures is
taken into account in the teaching and learning not an aim in itself, but it is important for the reading
process. As there are different personalities, there or listening comprehension task(s).
are also different learning styles in a classroom.
In order to activate students language awareness,
Visual learners. These students need to see things
the course highlights some morphosyntactic
in the class. For example, wall displays, posters,
elements such as:
realia, flash cards, graphic organisers, etc.
Auditory learners. They learn better by listening to Cognates
audio recordings and videos and songs. They like Cognates are words in different languages related
working in pairs and small groups. to the same root, for example, education (English),
Kinesthetic learners. They learn through physical educacin (Spanish).
activities, competitions, board games, role plays, etc.

10 BOOK METHODOLOGY
The different lessons in Global English provide students Adverb + adjective: utterly amazed / completely
with a question to help them notice and recognise useless.
cognates. The teacher should encourage students to Adverb + adjective + noun: totally unacceptable
find the cognates whenever they face a new text. behaviour.
Adjective + preposition: guilty of / blamed for /
False Cognates
happy about.
Students might get confused because there are
Noun + noun: pay packet / window frame.
several words in Spanish that are similar in English,
but have a different meaning.
Prefixes and suffixes
Here are a few examples of false cognates: A word can consist of three parts: the root, a prefix,
and a suffix. The root is the part of the word that
Actually = en realidad, not actualmente (at present,
contains the basic meaning, or definition of the
currently).
word. The prefix is a word element placed in front
Embarrassed = avergonzado/a, not embarazada of the root, which changes the words meaning or
(pregnant). makes a new word. A suffix is a word element
Realise = darse cuenta, not realizar (carry out, fulfill). placed after the root, which changes the words
Approve = aprobar = agree with something, not meaning as well as its function.
aprobar un examen (pass an exam).
Lecture = conferencia = a talk about a topic, not Common Prefixes
lectura (reading). Prefix Meaning Example
Try = tratar de hacer algo, not tratarse de (be about) pre- before preview
or tratar con (deal with).
un- not untidy
Politics = la poltica, not los polticos (politicians)
dis- not dishonest
Library = biblioteca, not librera (bookstore)
re- again reactivate
Familiar = estar familiarizado con, not familiar (relative)
mis- not misunderstand
Parents = padres, father and mother, not parientes
im- not impossible
(relatives).
bi- two bicycle
Collocations de- not decaffeinated
When words are used together regularly, rules are
formed about their use not for grammatical
reasons, but because of the association. Black and Common Suffixes
white appear in that order because of collocation; Suffixes Meaning Example
they are always in that order and to put them the -er doer teacher
other way around seems wrong. For the same -able able imaginable
reason we can make mistakes when doing a test.
-ous full of joyous
Some common collocations in English are: -ness state of being happiness
Verb + noun: throw a party / accept responsibility. -ful full of wonderful
Adjective + noun: square meal / grim -ly or -y like heavenly
determination. -ment state of agreement
Verb + adjective + noun: take vigorous exercise /
make steady progress.
Adverb + verb: strongly suggest / barely see.

BOOK METHODOLOGY 11
LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING11

What we have in common makes us human. Our Education. The Maps can be used in day to day
differences make us individuals. In a classroom where classroom work to establish the students position,
there is very little or no differentiated teaching, only their differences and their learning needs. Once this
the similarities among students seem to be the focus reflection and awareness task is done, it is possible
of attention. In a differentiated class, the common to design a variety of teaching strategies to cater for
areas are acknowledged and exploited, and the the students needs.
differences among students also become important
elements in the teaching learning process. Learning progression and diversity
Carol Ann Tomlinson12 Childrens learning as shown every day in the
teaching process - shows progressive development
The Chilean Ministry of Education has presented as they move up from one level to the next. Older
the community with a new curricular tool, the students generally know more about a subject and
Learning Progress Maps. It is possible that the show more complex cognitive abilities than
teachers may have a lot of information about them, younger students; when comparing abilities and
from different and probably more complete sources knowledge of a student in 4th Year of Secondary
than those provided here. Education with those of a student in 1st. Year of
13. Primary Education, it can easily be noticed that the
This brief and concise document does not intend
former is much more competent than the latter in
to be exhaustive nor replace any of those sources. It
all the learning areas. Between these two students,
only intends to present the Maps in a particularly
who represent the extreme levels of achievement
specific context, that of a very specific training in
during the school cycle, it is possible to distinguish
evaluation for learning, as in that area they can be
several intermediate stages.
very useful in the different steps of that training.
On the other hand, children in a particular level
This is a brief introduction to the Maps that
make use of different abilities to understand the
considers the inclusion principle that guides them,
same topic, and have different ways to explain what
the way in which they are presented, an example
they understand. There is progression not only from
and some details to understand their pedagogical
one level to the next; it is normal that in the same
and evaluative usefulness. Rather than theoretical
class the students are at different levels and show
or conceptual details, special importance is given to
different degrees of understanding and
the elements that facilitate their use by teachers.
achievement of the required abilities.
Introduction However, not all students progress in the expected
The Learning Progress Maps have been developed direction. Inadequate attention to differences can
to show teachers, students and parents the way in produce delay in the students learning. This delay, in
which learning progresses throughout school life, turn, has a cumulative effect, it tends to increase in
and especially the expected direction for each of the upper levels, and when this happens, its effects
the areas of the curriculum. They are neither a new are more difficult to revert. Therefore, it is important
curriculum nor a curricular alternative; they are to clearly understand the state of students learning.
based on the existing Curricular Framework. Their
objective is to describe the types of learning The Learning Progress Maps are a support
promoted by the Fundamental Objectives and the instrument to diagnose achievement and differences
Obligatory Minimum Contents, and to indicate the among students to help them to move on in their
characteristics of their development from 5th Year of school work according to the expected outcomes
Primary Education to 4th Year of Secondary promoted by the national curriculum; they offer
common criteria and language to observe learning.
11 Document prepared by the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, Ministry of Education, Chile, 2007.
12 Tomlinson, Carol Ann, Estrategias para Trabajar con la Diversidad en el Aula, Editorial Paids, Madrid, 2005.
13 The full Maps are published in the web site of the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl.

12 LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING


Evaluation for Learning in Practice The concept of learning underlying this model is
It is important to distinguish Evaluation for Learning another distinctive feature. Todays approach to
as a particular model that is different from the learning suggests that, eventually, it is the students
traditional interpretations of evaluation. Here is a themselves who are responsible for their own
summary of its main characteristics. learning (nobody can learn for them). Consequently,
Evaluation for Learning must necessarily involve the
In this conception, evaluation:
students in the evaluation process so as to provide
is considered an intrinsic part of teaching and information on their performance and guide their
learning. efforts to improve. An important part of this
requires that teachers share with their students information is the feedback the teacher gives the
the learning achievements expected from them. students, but another part must be the result of the
helps students to know and identify the standards direct participation of the students in this process
they must reach. through self-evaluation. In the context of promoting
involves students in their own evaluation. life-time learning, it is more and more important to
develop in the students the capacity to know how
provides feedback that tells students what they have
much they have learnt and the ability to guide and
to do, step by step, to improve their performance.
manage their own learning.
assumes that every student can improve his / her
performance. So, what actually happens in the classroom when
involves both teachers and students in the analysis evaluation is used to improve learning?
and reflection on the data provided by the
evaluation. To begin with the more obvious aspects, the
teachers are involved in the collection of
This model contrasts with the type of evaluation that, information about their students learning and
in practice, means adding evaluation procedures or motivate them to revise their work critically and
tests at the end of the programmed units of work. constructively.
These procedures or tests are separable and
independent from the teaching of the unit. The The methods to obtain information about the
feedback is to get a mark. Although, according to learning are well known. These are the most
this model, evaluation is a teachers issue (the State, frequently used.
for example, does not get involved), it tends to have To observe the students and listen to them when
a summative rather than formative objective. they reason and describe their work.
To ask students open questions, inviting them to
However, the term formative can have several explore their ideas and reasoning.
interpretations: very often it only means that
To propose ideas that require students to use
evaluation is frequent in a period of time and has
certain abilities or to apply ideas.
been planned together with the teaching. In this
sense, formative evaluation does not necessarily To ask students to communicate their ideas not
consider all the features identified as characteristic only in writing, but also through drawings, artifacts,
of Evaluation for Learning. Evaluation can be actions, dramatisations and concept maps.
formative because it helps the teacher to identify To discuss key words and analyse how they must
areas where more explanation or training are be used.
needed. From the point of view of the students,
their final mark and the comments written on the Of course, teachers can collect this information
margins of their work, although they may signal through the methods identified above, and then use
their weak and strong points, they do not give them it to improve learning. The use of this information
clues as to how to progress towards the requires that teachers and students make decisions
achievement of more and better learning. and act: they must decide on the next steps in the

LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING 13


learning process and help students to get started. It The key dimensions of learning from the point of
is of the utmost importance to remember that it is view of the learning area and the learning level of
the students who must do the walking; the students constitute the criteria used for the
consequently, the students who are more involved evaluation of learning.
in the process will better understand how to extend The criteria must be shared with the students so
and improve their learning. A plan that involves the that they know and understand them, and for
students in the judgement of their own work them to direct their work accordingly.
instead of being passive to face the judgement of
Self-evaluation and peer-evaluation must be done
teachers has higher probabilities of raising
using pre-established criteria. If this does not
learning and achievement standards.
happen their validity will be questionable, because
different individuals naturally evaluate according
This is a different conception of feedback. The
to their own personal criteria.
food the teacher offers is a portrait of the
objective to reach, of the standard or goal towards It must be remembered that evaluation
which the student must aim and which, in this way, necessarily involves value judgements. This
constitutes a point of comparison for his / her work. happens when a teacher assigns a numerical
The role of the teacher and what constitutes the qualification to a students test, and also when
core of teaching is to provide the students with concepts are used, for example poor or
the skills and strategies required to take the steps excellent to indicate a students level of
they need to improve their own learning. achievement at a certain moment.
The teacher must take responsibility for the
Key Principles of Evaluation for Learning evaluation instruments he / she develops and uses
Evaluation is a process that allows the recollection with the students; this means that he / she must
of evidence on the learning achieved by the make sure that they really let him / her collect
students at a given moment. The object of the information about the learning outcomes defined
evaluation is the work produced by the student, in the pre-established evaluation criteria.
never the student.

What Learning Progress Maps are and what they are not

What MPAs are What MPAs are not


They are materials for each area of the curriculum that describe the They do not state that learning is linear (a sum of specific learnings)
usual road followed by students in their learning. They assume that nor do they propose an exact description of the learning progress
progress is the result of maturity and exposure to learning that all students experience.
opportunities in specific stages of school life.
They express knowledge and abilities, that is to say, the They are not an expression of all the knowledge and abilities the
competences that students typically reach at certain moments of students can achieve in a specific level.
their school life.
They indicate what we value as learning goals and the sequence in They are not a new curriculum and they do not assume that all the
which they are achieved; they provide a framework to monitor students in the same class should be in the same level of learning.
progress and communicate results.
They are presented as concrete descriptions of learning and offer They are not checklists for test correction.
examples of possible achievements in each level.
They provide a guiding framework for teaching: they let users They are not an instrument to classify students and they do not
elaborate evaluation tasks that will indicate the level of each support a specific teaching model to achieve learning.
student, and organise teaching strategies accordingly.

14 LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING


How many MPAs have been prepared? The Reading Map emphasises the importance of
Each area of the curriculum has sub-divisions that working with authentic texts as early as possible;
represent topics or abilities that must be developed their degree of complexity increases as students
during school life. A Map has been designed for move from one level to the next. By the end of their
each of them. secondary school education students should be
able to read authentic texts of intermediate
English complexity, which implies beginning their learning
Our countrys active participation in different areas using simple authentic texts.
of international life, together with the changes
The Reading Map does not reject the use of the
produced by globalisation, make the learning of
mother tongue as a resource to monitor learning
English essential to successfully face the demands
when the situation requires that the students show
of society in the 21st century.
evidence of comprehension and interpretation rather
Learning English is a challenging and attractive than oral production. It is a well-known fact that
activity at any age, but particularly for young students of a foreign language can understand much
people who see it as a tool to access information more than they can express orally or in writing. For
and technology and as a means of communication this reason, the answers to the tasks presented as
with other realities and cultures. Learning English, examples in the Map are in Spanish. This does not
or any other foreign language, contributes to the mean that the students are not allowed to express
understanding of the mother tongue, and at the comprehension in English or that there is an
same time it widens the opportunities to access intention to work these abilities separately.
information in other areas of study.
In the following pages you will find an excerpt of
Presentation of the Maps the Reading Progress Map. It begins with a brief
The Maps are organised in seven levels that cover presentation of all the levels. Then, each level is
students learning life from 1st Year of Primary presented in detail, with its description and some
Education to 4th Year of Secondary Education. Each examples of performance that illustrate how that
level describes the expected learning outcome for level of learning can be recognised.
two school years. For example, level 1 corresponds
Reading Progress Map
approximately to 1st and 2nd Year of Primary
Education, level 2 to the next two years, and so on. The aim of the English curriculum is to get students
The last level (7) describes a student whose to use and apply the language in different tasks that
outcome when finishing school is outstanding. imply they can understand oral and written texts,
and solve simple communicative situations orally or
All this information and the complete maps can be in writing. From this point of view, four English
found on the web site of the Unidad de Currculum Learning Maps have been designed, around the
y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl. following linguistic abilities:
Reading
Relevant aspects of the Reading Map
Listening
In concordance with the curricular emphasis aimed
Written Expression
at the development of the abilities and the use of
language with the purpose of acquiring information Oral Expression
and gaining access to other cultures and
The Maps of English have been designed using the
technological advances, grammar is not the focus of
international standards of the Common European
attention of the Reading Map. Its role as facilitator
Framework (CEF) for teaching, learning and
of understanding and communication is
evaluating languages, and those of the Association
acknowledged, but the role of grammar will
of Language Testers of Europe (ALTE). CEF level A2
become more evident in the Writing Map.

LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING 15


and ALTE 1 (Waystage User) are associated to level b. Reading abilities. This dimension includes the
4, which describes the expected learning achieved students capacity to extract specific information,
by the majority of the students by the end of 8th. to infer information and to show global
Year of Primary Education; level B1 and ALTE 2 comprehension of what they have read. The Map
(Threshold user) are associated to level 6, which describes how these reading abilities become
describes the expected learning achieved by the more complex from one level to the next, also in
majority of students by the end of 4th Year of relationship with the increasing complexity of
Secondary Education. the texts read.

To describe progress in reading comprehension, the In the light of these dimensions, the Map describes
Reading Map is organised around two dimensions: a students reading comprehension progress, from
the ability to identify some highlighted information,
a. Text-types. In this dimension the progression is to make simple inferences and state the main topic
given by the complexity of the topics the of a very short, simple text (in level 3), to end up
students read about and the complexity of the being able to reach a higher level of inference and a
language used in the texts. There is progression deeper understanding of linguistically and
from concrete to abstract topics, and from conceptually more complex texts (level 6).
language expressed in simple sentences to
language expressed in compound sentences of
intermediate complexity.

Reading Progress Map

Level 7 Identifies explicit and implicit messages and incorporates knowledge of the topic and of the English language to build up
(Outstanding) the main meaning. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and medium complexity structural patterns and are
related to personal interest topics.
Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from distractors. Infers ideas and identifies messages, points of view,
Level 6 attitudes to build up the main meaning of the text. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and medium
complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics.
Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from other similar information. Infers suggested messages or ideas and
Level 5 identifies main ideas, stating supporting data. Understands texts that include simple structural patterns and medium
complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics.
Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from secondary information. Makes simple inferences relating ideas or
information, and identifies with some detail the main idea(s) explicitly stated, relating information found in different
Level 4
sections of the text. Understands brief texts that include simple structural patterns and are related to well-known concrete
topics.
Identifies explicit information that is highlighted. Infers information and identifies one main idea using information
Level 3 explicitly stated in the text. Understands very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short sentences
and are related to concrete topics of the students immediate environment.
Identifies words and short sentences stated in very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short
Initial level
sentences and are related to concrete topics of the students immediate environment.
In our teaching proposal for 3rd and 4th Year of Secondary Education, evaluation is conceived from the following level:
Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from distractors. Infers subtly suggested ideas and identifies messages,
Level 6 points of view, attitudes to build up the main meaning of the text. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and
medium complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics.

16 LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING


How can one recognise this level of learning? a. Types of texts. It refers to the students
Examples of performance. capacity to write a variety of texts of increasing
complexity in terms of topic and purpose. The
When a student has reached this level, he / she topics grow from very concrete and close in the
can do the following activities: lower levels to less concrete and more varied
compare information to identify relevant data in topics in the higher levels of the Map.
the text;
This is what the purposes consider:
identify in the text words or sentences that
reflect an opinion or an attitude; give instructions or indications. For example, a
message or the steps to carry out a task;
identify and organise the main ideas to state the
main meaning; describe. For example, people, objects and
places;
contrast information from the text to identify
opinions and messages that are not obvious; narrate. For example, daily situations and
special events.
identify words and expressions that provide
coherence to the text;
These purposes are expressed in texts of highly
identify words that can have different meanings practical use, for example, messages, postcards,
according to the context (polisemia); recipes, faxes, e-mails, personals letters,
identify a variety of terms for the same concept. business letters or letters for educational
For example: big, huge, enormous. purposes, a short curriculum vitae, a
composition.
Written Expression Progress Map
The Written Expression Progress Maps describe b. Mastery of the language. It considers the
the development of skills and knowledge the following skills:
students display when they write in English. This communicate, in writing, increasingly more
activity is understood as the students complex information, which goes from the
competence to solve, in writing, simple inclusion of general information to the ability
communicative situations which are personally to incorporate details and complementary
relevant and have clearly defined purposes. information.
Use formal aspects of the language. This
According to the curricular framework, writing in means to show increasing mastery of:
English is a process that begins in 5th Year of Primary
- the thematic vocabulary in terms of quantity
Education, when the students have already
and pertinence;
developed this competence in their mother
tongue. Therefore, in this process of expressing - the morpho-syntactic elements needed for
themselves in English in writing, the students communication.
transfer to this new domain what they learnt
during their literacy process in Spanish. Writing in Progress in the use of morpho-syntactic
another language is a complex and slow elements is described from the students
progressive construction process that is capacity to write very simple texts using chunks
developed along an extended period of time. In of language, and the writing of texts with very
this Map, the progress of this competence is simple grammatical structures that include the
described considering two dimensions: the types verb forms first learnt by students. As from level
of texts the students can write and the mastery of 5 the students use simple structures that
the foreign language the students display when include some sequence markers and the
writing texts. combination of some verb tenses. In level 6, the
students can incorporate grammatical

LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING 17


structures of medium complexity to their detailed presentation of each level, with its
writing, such as markers that indicate a clear description and some examples of
organisation of introduction, development and performance that illustrate how this level of
closing, and the combination of more complex learning can be recognised.
verb tenses.
All this information and the complete maps
Here is part of a presentation of the Written can be found in the web site of the Unidad de
Expression Progress Maps, with a brief Currculum y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-
presentation of all the levels, and then a mineduc.cl.

Level 7 Writes texts related to familiar or personal interest topics, with narrative, descriptive and instructive purposes. Organises
Outstanding sentences around a specific topic, incorporating complementary information. Uses simple and complex grammatical
structures and connectors according to the communicative purpose; includes generally accurate vocabulary.
Writes short texts related to familiar topics, with narrative and descriptive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific
Level 6 topic, incorporating complementary information. Uses simple grammatical structures, adds some fairly complex elements,
uses connectors according to the communicative purpose and varied and appropriate vocabulary.
Writes short texts related to familiar topics, with narrative and descriptive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific
Level 5
topic, incorporating relevant details; uses connectors according to the communicative purpose and some varied vocabulary.
Writes very short texts related to concrete familiar topics, with descriptive and instructive purposes. Organises sentences
Level 4
around a specific topic, uses very simple grammatical structures, some connectors and frequent thematic vocabulary.
Writes very short texts related to concrete topics of his / her immediate environment, with descriptive and instructive purposes.
Level 3
Uses set phrases and sentences, some very simple grammatical structures and very frequent thematic vocabulary.
In our teaching proposal for 3rd and 4th Year of Secondary Education, evaluation is conceived from the following level:
Writes short texts related to familiar topics, with narrative and descriptive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific
Level 6 topic, incorporating complementary information. Uses simple grammatical structures, adds some fairly complex elements,
uses connectors according to the communicative purpose and varied and appropriate vocabulary.

18 LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING


THE INTERNET IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

Nowadays, in the era of the information How does the Internet help the teacher?
revolution and the widespread use of the Internet Teachers can gather information about different
in almost all spheres of life, it seems that using and varied topics: facts, figures, and formulas;
computer technology in the teaching process is book reviews; historical archives; authors;
more and more accepted and widespread. collaborative projects; lesson plans.
E-mails, for example, can serve the goals of the
The Internet can serve as a teaching medium, a
teacher reinforcing structures and lexis,
rich resource of materials of any kind (texts,
enlarging students knowledge of the world and
pictures, sounds, music and films), and teachers
practising the conventions of writing.
may use these as a basis for their lessons instead
of texts from the course book only. In this way, Teachers can easily find opportunities for
Internet-assisted lessons may supplement professional development through up-to-date
teaching by adding an additional dimension to resources and seminars.
the classroom. Students can use Web resources to
gather information on various topics or prepare to How can we collect and analyse information?
present a project. The use of the Internet allows students to practise
and develop Web searching techniques, as well as
The Internet gives great possibilities for students analyse and critically evaluate online sources. It is
individual work, allowing them to work at their important to make sure that students not only
own pace, on the materials they choose search for and find required information, but also
themselves, giving them variety and choice and understand the materials and use their own words
offering an attractive and interactive learning to paraphrase the websites. In this way, students
environment. This is largely achieved by the use of need to use all their learning skills and favourite
communication tools such as e-mail, chat or techniques to collect, organise and present the
discussion groups. Due to these widely accessible information found on the Web. Web searches help
and inexpensive tools, any student can students to develop analysis and synthesis skills, as
communicate with people from different parts of well as stimulate them to think critically.
the world.
Students should be taught how to evaluate sources
How useful is the Internet in the classroom? and discriminate between good and bad ones, and
Students do online reading, listening, writing or they should be given constant guidance so that they
speaking activities and thus improve their skills. are not overwhelmed by a multitude of resources.
Students encounter grammatical structures in
How can we develop Internet-safe lessons?
real contexts.
Never start lessons by having students use
The potential of communication tools may be
search engines on their own.
exploited through e-mail, chat, discussion
groups, videoconferencing; activities demanding Ask students to find very specific information,
collaboration can be developed. not just surf.
Internet-assisted instruction fosters learner Always ask students to write down the URLs of the
independence. sites they use for reports in a bibliographical format.
Individual students find partners and can write Do not send the entire class to the same site at
e-mail letters to them. the same time.
Collaborative work between schools can be When possible, try to preview sites before
developed. students visit them.
URLs of web sites change all the time, so try the
links yourself first.

THE INTERNET IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM 19


Hypertext Websites made available to students and
HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities teachers:
http://www.link2english.com
This is a set of multimedia resources developed (Mary Glasgow Magazines)
from the printed text.
http://www.onestopenglish.com
It roughly follows the same structure as the printed (MacMillan\Heinemann)
text, with the same contents, but pays more
attention to the while-reading and listening http://www.holidays.net
activities, providing opportunities for practising (a website devoted to information about various
pronunciation, speaking and writing as well. celebrations and religious holidays)
It includes a variety of elements that allow the http://www.geocities.com
students and / or the teachers to make use of the (pages with information about various countries)
resources, following a dynamic reading that http://www.members.tripod.com/~towerofenglish
combines static and moving images, music and http://esl.about.com
sound. It strongly encourages students (part of the About.com portal, devoted to ESL
autonomous work and gives them access to problems and activities)
different spheres of learning.
http://www.eslcafe.com
The activities have the following characteristics: http://www.longman-elt.com
they complement the contents and activities in (Pearson Education)
the printed text and have a clear didactic purpose; http://www.enciclopediasm.com/youandinternet.asp
they can be used for further practice, and also Some advice on how to use the Internet with your
with evaluation purposes (there are diagnostic students (Spanish)
and final tests per unit); http://www.cln.org/int_projects.html
they develop the same contents and expected The sites here will aid teachers who are looking for
learning, but in different contexts; Internet projects for their classes
they are interactive, requiring actions that are
consistent with a digital tool, and are meant to
develop different abilities of varied levels of
complexity;
they provide feedback and correct answers when
required;
they allow the student to make mistakes and try
again.
To make sure that this tool is thoroughly taken
advantage of, the Students Book presents an icon
that clearly and explicitly shows the connection
with the hypertext. At the same time, the
hypertext also clearly shows the relationship with
the printed text.

20 THE INTERNET IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM


CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Classroom management has to do with methods Discipline


used by the teacher in order to establish One of the reasons for bad discipline is usually a
harmonious class organisation and discipline. The students inability to cope with the tasks. The noisiest
following components play an important role in the students will demonstrate their frustration by means
achievement of these goals. of loud outbursts and disruptive behaviour, while the
rest of the class may remain passive.
The teacher
A classroom where learning takes place is a To avoid discipline problems, these preventative
pleasant environment; the teacher is enthusiastic strategies are suggested:
and active and encourages student participation. careful planning. When a class is carefully planned
students realise there is a feeling of purpose which
In most cases the teacher is the only direct contact keeps their attention on the task in hand;
the students have with English. It is therefore
clear instructions. Instructions in a class are crucial.
important that she / he tries to communicate with
They must be given very clearly and assertively so
the students in English as much and as often as
that students know exactly what to do.
possible. Some students may not be used to this,
and teachers should explain, in Spanish, that they
The English class
may find it difficult to understand at first, but it will
gradually get easier. Teachers can also use gestures The main objective of the English class in Global
or mime to help understanding. Instructions for English is the development of reading and listening
activities should be given as clearly and as simply as comprehension skills, while the productive skills
possible, through demonstration and examples. If it have a secondary role, so the teacher may allow
is clear that many students have not understood, students to use Spanish to show understanding of
the teacher can ask a stronger student to translate some of the reading and listening texts. Students
for the class. must be encouraged to use English whenever
possible, and the teacher must provide patterns
The students and clear examples for them to follow.
Teenage students are going through a difficult
Large classes
process of development in their lives, so the teacher
might face discipline problems, disruptive Large mixed-ability classes have to be faced every
behaviour, or unwillingness on the students part to day by teachers, who instinctively feel that they
do the different tasks they are assigned. The topics could do a better job in a smaller class. Grouping is
in Global English have been carefully selected since one technique that has been used to reduce the
it is known that the choice of an appealing content negative effects of large classes.
for adolescents has an essential influence over
When the class is divided into smaller units, many
success or failure.
learning activities can be undertaken that would
The responsibility for building a positive learning not otherwise be feasible in a large class,
atmosphere lies not only in the good relationship particularly those of a communicative nature.
the teacher and her / his students develop, but also
All this implies a different role for the teacher. The
in the one the students have among themselves.
teacher must not become less active in the
Global English helps the teacher in this task through
classroom, but rather less the centre of activity. A
a number of carefully designed exercises, very clear
teacher who is monitoring, encouraging, and
tasks, and opportunities for the students to check
participating in different classroom groups will be
and evaluate their own work.
even more active than the traditional teacher. The
teachers role is crucial in determining the rate of

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 21
language acquisition and learning in the classroom. An important part of making a class interesting
By re-organising the classroom to allow more and lively is through directly engaging the
opportunities for communicative interactions and students by name and on a personal level and also
activities, students will be in a better position to sharing personal experiences with them.
acquire the foreign language. Start every lesson in a way that focuses everyones
attention. This creates expectation and prepares
Pairwork and groupwork students for what is to come. For example, with
As stated before, one of the ways of giving students books closed, write the topic of the lesson on the
the time they require to practise the language in board and ask some questions about it, show a
the classroom is by dividing the class into groups or poster / picture related to the lesson, ask who can
pairs. Grouping helps teachers to individualise or remember what they did in the previous class, etc.
match their teaching to individual learners. In Students should not open their books until
implementing grouping, several aspects should be everyone is paying attention.
taken into account, such as the teaching context,
End an activity before students get bored with it.
the teaching content and the individual learner.
Equally, do not hurry the students or end the
Grouping provides opportunities for peer activity too soon if they are obviously enjoying it.
interpretation and sharing of experiences and Ask students their opinion.
insights. It may also help a teacher to accommodate Do not assume that if one student says they
learner differences by varying student roles and understand, everyone else does.
varying the types of student involvement. Thus, Ask (elicit) rather than tell. Students get bored of
teachers should think of grouping as a way to listening to the teacher explaining. Someone in
appreciate all the unique individuals that they may the class will probably know the answer.
find in a classroom.
Do not ask students to explain difficult things,
Teachers must bear in mind that this type of work such as definitions of words in English.
encourages students to share their skills and Do not interrupt students during pair / group
knowledge, and learn from each other. It also speaking activities to correct their English. It is
increases students involvement and active better to note the main, common mistakes, put
participation, and develops positive attitudes. It is them on the board and correct them with the
important to share with the students the importance class at the end.
of these activities, which will give them an Do not insist on 100% accuracy all the time.
opportunity to learn the social and communicative Mistakes are a normal part of the learning process,
skills required to work with other people. The teacher and a valuable source of information for the
should take an active role in group and pair teacher.
formation, so that the students do not always work Give praise and encouragement, especially to the
with the same people, to take full advantage of the weaker students. Write positive comments on their
variety of learning styles and abilities. Students work. Let them know what they are doing well, as
should assume different roles each time (coordinator, well as what they need to improve.
secretary, researcher, presenter, artist, etc).
Remember that you are the main motivator in the
Some basic teaching reminders classroom!
Teachers should prepare the lesson beforehand Make use of alternative assessment and evaluation
given that thorough prior preparation allows them strategies, for example:
to develop some useful ideas. It is their chance to - Make use of recordings of formal and informal
make the class entertaining and to involve oral language experiences (May I go to the
students in the learning process. bathroom; Excuse me How do you say ?,

22 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
etc.) and then assess these according to pre- - Have students write in journals.
determined criteria which are based upon - Share with students during the writing and
student needs and curriculum objectives. reading processes, and observe them during
- Use checklists as concise methods of collecting peer activities.
information, and rating scales or rubrics to - Involve students in developing some or all of
assess student achievement. the evaluation criteria whenever it will be
- Interview students to determine what they beneficial to do so.
believe they do well or areas in which they (From: Assessment and Evaluation by Spandel & Stiggins, 1990 and
need to improve. Stiggins, R. (1995). Creating sound classroom assessments. (Available
from Assessment Training Institute, 503 W. 2nd Avenue, Suite 300,
- Have students keep portfolios of their writing Portland, OR 97204, http://www.assessmentist.com/products.html)
tasks, and language abilities checklists and
records. Teachers are advised to consider this diagram
- Keep records of students reading and writing when planning the use of resources throughout
activities and experiences. the book.

Gestures, Pictures, Written


signs, picturesque videos, posters, symbols and notes
language slides

The visible
teacher uses:

Colourful and Flow charts, Markers,


attractive extra diagrams, rubrics, stickers, coloured
material graphs paper

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 23
THE TEACHERS BOOK

This component includes: avoid interrupting students when they are doing
An introduction with a description of the course oral communication activities; make note of the
and the course components, the methodology common mistakes and then correct with the whole
used and suggestions for classroom management. class at the end of the activity.
Background notes for the teacher related to the
CD
information content of the different texts.
The CD includes all the material for the listening
Detailed teaching notes for every unit.
tasks, including Pronunciation, Listening and
Answers for all the tasks in the Students Book and Listening test material. We have included a variety
for all the tests. of accents: British, American, Canadian, Irish,
The transcript of the recording. Scottish, Indian, Chilean, French, Russian, among
One additional photocopiable test per unit. others, to expose students to different ways of
speaking English.
Choice of tasks
Classroom language
The book includes a great number of varied
activities. The teacher should choose the ones The Teachers Book offers a selection of useful
which are more appropriate for his / her group, language that the teacher can use in different
depending on their general level. The important situations, with different purposes with the
thing for the teacher to bear in mind is the final students. Some of them provide examples for
objective of each unit, and how the different students to imitate and others are expressions the
students are advancing towards it. teacher can use and students need to identify and
recognise. All of them are recorded in the first nine
There are activities for fast learners - exercises for tracks of the CD.
those students that have started to become
independent users of Global English, and have Idiomatic expressions
developed the capacity to work quicker and on When idiomatic expressions appear in the texts or
their own. The teachers role here is to offer more in the activities, they are explained, defined and an
instances to those students who instinctively feel example is given. Idioms or idiomatic expressions
the need to actively apply the language they have are those that cannot be immediately understood
been practising during the lesson. The teacher does by analysing the literal meaning of their
not need to correct or become involved unless components; literal translation will sound odd. This
students directly appeal to him / her to do so. section will help teachers to include them naturally
in different exercises.
There are ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES which the
teacher can use if there is enough time or if the Bibliography
students require further practice, and OPTIONAL Both the Teachers Book and the Students Book
ACTIVITIES, which generally offer a break from the offer suggestions of materials that can be used for
routine, a moment to relax or have a bit of fun while reference. Some of these materials can be found in
practising the language. the Centro de Recursos de Aprendizaje (CRA) in each
school.
Information and extra practice is suggested when
there is a chance that students will make a mistake, Thematic bibliography
in grammar, vocabulary or pronunciation.
List of books where the teacher can find further
information on the contents of the book, organised
Remember that the teacher must be very careful as
by skill: reading, listening, speaking and writing.
to when and how to correct errors; for example

24 THE TEACHERS BOOK


CLASSROOM LANGUAGE

Greetings 1 The time 7


Good morning. / Good afternoon. / Hello. / Hi. A: Whats the time? / What time is it?
Good bye. / See you tomorrow. / See you later. B: Its one oclock. / Its two oclock. / Its three
Have a nice weekend. / Enjoy your holiday. oclock. / Its ten oclock. / Its twelve oclock.
A: Whats the time? / What time is it?
Moods and feelings 2 B: Its quarter past nine. / Its half past ten. / Its five
A: How are you today? past eleven. / Its ten past twelve. / Its twenty
B: Im fine. / Im great. / OK. / Very well, thank you. / past one. / Its twenty five past two.
Im not very well. / I have a problem. / Im feeling A: Whats the time? / What time is it?
down. / Im sad. B: Its quarter to eight. / Its twenty five to nine. / Its
twenty to ten. / Its ten to three. / Its five to four.
Asking for clarification 3
Some commands and instructions 8
Can you repeat that, please?
Can you say that again, please? Answer the questions. Look up these words in
Sorry? Im afraid I didnt understand. Be quiet. the dictionary.
Check your answers. Make a list.
Can you help me with this exercise, please?
Check your predictions. Make some notes.
Close the door. Match the pictures.
Encouragement 4 Come to the board. Name three activities.
Well done! / Good! / Excellent! / Good work! / Compare your answers. Open your books.
Congratulations! Complete the Pay attention, please.
Do it more carefully. / Say it again. / Try to correct paragraph. Put the pictures in
that, please. Copy the instructions. order.
Not too bad. / Youll do better next time. / Keep Discuss the ideas in Read the instructions.
trying! your group. Select the correct
Do exercise 1. answer.
Do not write in your Silence, please.
The date 5
book. Sit down.
A: What day is it today? Fill in the blanks. Stand up.
B: Its Monday. / Its Tuesday. / Its Wednesday. / Its Find examples in the Talk to your partner.
Thursday. / Its Friday. / Its Saturday. / Its Sunday. text. Thats all for today,
A: Whats the date today? Find the cognates in thank you.
B: Its (Monday) March 9th. / Its (Monday) 9th March. the text. Work in groups of four.
Listen to the recording. Work with your partner.
Look at the pictures. Write the sentences.
The weather 6
A: Whats the weather like today?
B: Its sunny. / Its cloudy. / Its hot. / Its cold. / Its Turn taking and permission 9
nice and warm. / Its nice and cool. / Its raining. / Can I talk to you after the class?
Its snowing. Excuse me, can I say something?
Excuse me; can I leave the room for a minute?
May I go to the bathroom?
Its your turn.
Sorry, its my turn.

CLASSROOM LANGUAGE 25
SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

Unit Expected Learning Activities Resources

Unit 1. Students show general and specific 6. 7. 8. page 8 Illustrations


ADVICE AND SUPPORT comprehension of different types of 9. 10. page 9 Pictures
Topics: Teen issues reading and listening texts. 5. 6. 7. 8. Track 12, page 15
Pages: 6 - 25
Time: 18 hours

Students complete texts using key 11. 12. page 12


vocabulary and linking words.
Students write a letter of advice. 17. page 13
Students imitate spoken models and role 14. Track 10, page 12
play dialogues. 15. page 12
Students describe own experiences. 13. page 17

Unit 2. Students show general and specific 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. page 30 Pictures


TWO OF THE ELEMENTS comprehension in different types of 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Track 18, page 35 Diagrams
Topics: Earth and Water reading and listening texts. Charts
Pages: 26 - 46
Time: 18 hours

Students complete sentences using the 9. page 31


First Conditional and key vocabulary. 12. page 37
Students complete a security warning 10. page 31
with recommendations.
Students write a school earthquake plan. 14. page 33
Students discuss their own and their 13. page 32
schools earthquake plan. 15. page 33
Students describe a process. 10. page 36
Students describe pictures in detail. 14. page 37

26 SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING


Indicators of Evaluation
Activities Page
How ready are you for this unit?: Students activate their previous knowledge of the topic 1. 2. 3. 7
and related vocabulary to establish a starting point.
Minitest: Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points 16 13
and analyse their performance. 18 17
Test your Knowledge 1. 2. 3. 22
Reading: Students summarise information. Students discriminate between correct and
incorrect information.
Listening: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and 4. 5. 6. 7. Track 14 23
incorrect information.
Language: Students use linking words and the First Conditional. 8. 9. 24
Writing: Students complete a letter. 11 24
Speaking: Students role play a dialogue expressing opinions. 10 24
Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the whole unit. Quiz 25
Extra Test (Teachers book) (Teachers book) (Teachers book)
Reading: Students find and match specific information. Students discriminate between 1. 48
correct and incorrect information. 2. 3. 49
Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. 4. 5. Track 15 49
Language: Students use intensifiers and the modal verb might. 6. 7. 49
Writing: Students write a letter of advice. 9. 50
Speaking: Students ask for and give advice. 8. 50

How ready are you for this unit?: Students activate their previous knowledge of the topic 1. 2. 27
and related vocabulary to establish a starting point.
Minitest: Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points 12 32
and analyse their performance. 13 37
Test your Knowledge
Reading: Students summarise and match information. Students discriminate between 1. 2. 3. 4. 43
correct and incorrect information.
Listening: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and 7. 8. 9. Track 20 44
incorrect information.
Language: Students use the First Conditional (continued) and connectors of condition. 5. 6. 44
Writing: Students change an e-mail report into a letter. 11. 44
Speaking: Students role play a dialogue expressing opinions. 10. 44
Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the whole unit. Quiz 45
Extra Test (Teachers book) (Teachers book) (Teachers book)
Reading: Students find specific information. Students find synonymous words and 1. 2. 3 70
expressions. Students find and correct false information.
Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find 4. 5. Track 21 70
specific information.
Language: Students use the First Conditional (continued) and connectors of condition. 6. 7. 71
Writing: Students write an action plan. 9. 71
Speaking: Students discuss hypothetical situations. 8. 71

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING 27


Unit Expected Learning Activities Resources

Unit 3. PROFESSIONS Students show general and specific 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. page 49 Illustrations


Topics: Professional conduct comprehension of different types of 6. 7. 8. 9. Track 24, page 55 Pictures
and job applications reading and listening texts. Diagrams
Pages: 46 - 65 Calling cards
Time: 18 hours Charts

Students complete sentences using key 10. page 49


vocabulary.
Students give recommendations. 12. page 52. 11. page 56
Students write their own CV. 15. page 53
Students role play a conversation. 11. Track 22, page 52
12. Track 25, page 56
Students play a guessing game. 14. page 53
Students give recommendations. 11. page 56
Students role play a job interview. 14. page 57

Unit 4. BEING ACTIVE Students find or infer specific information 5. 6. 7. 8. page 69 Pictures
Topics: Sports and physical in different types of reading and listening 9. 10. 11. page 72 Games
activity texts. 7. 8. Track 30, page 77 Diagrams
Pages: 66 - 89 9. 10. 11. 12. Track 30, page 78 Charts
Time: 18 hours Students write questions 14. page 74
from visual clues. 15. page 79
Students write an itinerary. 17. page 75
Students role play dialogues 16. Track 28, page 74
17. Track 31, page 80
Students role play a quiz show. 19. page 81
14. page 78
20. page 81

28 SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING


Indicators of Evaluation
Activities Page
How ready are you for this unit?: Students activate their previous knowledge of the topic 1.2.3. 47
and related vocabulary to establish a starting point.
Minitest: Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points 13 53
and analyse their performance. 13 57
Test your Knowledge
Reading: Students find general and specific information. 1. 2. 63
Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find 3. 4. 5. 63
specific information. Track 26
Language: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students match 6. 9. 64
parts of sentences.
Writing: Students write a job advertisement. 9. 64
Speaking: Students describe problems and offer advice. 8. 64
Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the whole unit. Quiz 65
Extra Test (Teachers book) (Teachers book) (Teachers book)
Reading: Students find and match specific information. Students find and classify information. 1. 2. 89
Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students identify 3. 4. 5. Track 27 89
sequence of information.
Language: Students give advice and recommendations 6. 7. 90
Writing: Students write a cover letter for their CV. 9. 90
Speaking: Students ask for and give recommendations to write a CV. 8. 90
How ready are you for this unit?: Students activate their previous knowledge of the topic 1. 2. 3. 67
and related vocabulary to establish a starting point.
Minitest: Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points 15 74
and analyse their performance. 18 80
Test your Knowledge
Reading: Students identify topic. Find, match and locate specific information 1. 2. 3. 4. 87
Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find 5. 6. 7. 8. Track 32 87
and match specific information.
Language: Students write questions corresponding to adverbial phrases. Students complete 9. 10. 88
sentences with prepositional phrases.
Writing: Students write an itinerary. 12. 88
Speaking: Students talk about favourite activities. 11. 88
Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the whole unit. Quiz 89
Extra Test (Teachers book) (Teachers book) (Teachers book)
Reading: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and 1. 2. 3 110
incorrect information.
Listening: Students identify type of text. Students put information in order. Students 4. 5. 6. Track 33 110
discriminate between correct and incorrect information.
Language: Students complete sentences with adverbial phrases. Students match phrases 7. 8. 111
with prepositional phrases.
Writing: Students write a post describing an activity. 10. 111
Speaking: Students exchange information about their holiday. 9. 111

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING 29


Unit Expected Learning Activities Resources

Unit 5. CREATIVITY Students show general and specific 5. 6. 7. 8. page 93 Pictures


Topics: Creations and young comprehension of different types of 9. 10. page 96 Charts
new inventors reading and listening texts. 5. 6. 7. 8. Track 36, page 101 Puzzles
Pages: 90 - 113 9. 10. Track 36, page 102 Factfiles
Time: 18 hours Diagrams
Students write instructions for a machine. 17. page 99
Students complete a biography. 12. page 103
Students complete sentences and 13. page 103
definitions with relative pronouns and 14. page 104
adverbs.
Students role play conversations. 15. Track 34, page 98
16. Track 37, page 104
Students provide a definition, a 18. page 105
description and a set of instructions.

Unit 6. AT WORK Students show general and specific 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. page 117 Illustrations
Topics: Volunteering jobs comprehension of different types of 10. 11. 12. 13. page 118 Pictures
Pages: 114 - 137 reading and listening texts. 7. 8. 9. Track 42, page 125 Diagrams
Time: 18 hours 10. 11. 12. 13 Track 42,
page 126
Students write sentences from clues. 14. page 121
Students write about personal 19. page 123
experiences.
Students complete a job interview. 14. page 127
Students say what people have been 15. page 122
doing from visual clues.
Students role play dialogues. 16. Track 40, page 122
Students role play a job interview. 16. Track 43, page 128
19. page 129
Students talk about jobs from visual clues. 17. page 128
Students introduce themselves at an 20. page 129
interview.

30 SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING


Indicators of Evaluation
Activities Page
How ready are you for this unit?: Students activate their previous knowledge of the topic 1. 2. 91
and related vocabulary to establish a starting point.
Minitest: Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points 16 98
and analyse their performance. 17 105
Test your Knowledge
Reading: Students find and classify information. Students discriminate between correct and 1. 2. 3. 111
incorrect information. Students match information.
Listening: Students find general information. Students discriminate between correct and 4. 5. 6. Track 38 111
incorrect information. Students find specific information.
Language: Students match phrases using relative adverbs. Students join sentences using 7. 8.
relative pronouns. 112
Writing: Students prepare an interview with an inventor. 10. 112
Speaking: Students provide instructions to use a device. 9. 112
Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the whole unit. Quiz 113
Extra Test (Teachers book) (Teachers book) (Teachers book)
Reading: Students identify type of text. Students find specific information. Students 1. 2. 3. 128
discriminate between correct and incorrect information.
Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students locate 4. 5. 6. Track 39 128
information. 129
Language: Students complete sentences using relative adverbs and relative pronouns. 7. 8. 129
Writing: Students write a paragraph about an invention or a machine. 10. 129
Speaking: Students talk about simple machines in their lives. 9. 129
How ready are you for this unit?: Students activate their previous knowledge of the topic 1. 2. 3. 115
and related vocabulary to establish a starting point.
Minitest: Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points 18 123
and analyse their performance. 18 128
Test your Knowledge
Reading: Students summarise information. Students discriminate between correct and 1. 2. 3. 135
incorrect information.
Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. 4. 5. Track 44 135
Language: Students complete sentences using the Present Perfect Continuous. Students 6. 7. 135
complete sentences with for or since.
Writing: Students complete a job application form and write an application letter. 9. 136
Speaking: Students describe pictures showing a job interview situation. 8. 136
Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the whole unit. Quiz 137
Extra Test (Teachers book) (Teachers book) (Teachers book)
Reading: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and 1. 2. 3 146
incorrect information.
Listening: Students identify type of text. Students put information in order. Students 4. 5. 6. 7. Track 45 146
discriminate between correct and incorrect information.
Language: Students complete sentences using the Present Perfect Continuous. Students 8. 9. 147
complete sentences with for or since.
Writing: Students write a job application letter. 11. 147
Speaking: Students role play a job interview. 10. 147

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING 31


UNIT 1 ADVICE AND SUPPORT

In this unit you will learn to: You will also learn:
READING: get general and specific information from a text / infer the meaning of GRAMMAR: linking words / the First Conditional.
key lexical items. VOCABULARY: words related to personal letters and
LISTENING: identify the speakers / identify means of communication / use previous embarrassing situations.
knowledge to identify oral expressions.
ORAL
PRODUCTION: imitate sounds and intonation patterns / participate in guided dialogues. You will use the following text types:
WRITTEN READING: teenagers letters.
PRODUCTION: synthesise ideas to complete paragraphs / write letters LISTENING: a television interview.
FUNCTIONS: express opinions / ask for and give advice / ask for and make
suggestions.

You will pay special attention to these values:


The importance of teen issues.
The acceptance of and respect for different opinions.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS


If available, use of complementary material such as English language newspapers and magazines with an
agony aunt section. Personal letters in English and Spanish, postcards, e-mails, etc. A good online
source is www.teenmag.com and www.seventeen.com . For comparison, you can use Chilean teen
magazines so that your students can compare and see if the issues that worry / interest them are the
same that worry / interest their foreign peers.
Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries,
definitions, printed handouts, library material, notes.

32 UNIT 1
PAGE 6 2 Ask students to read the examples and then
INTRODUCTION think about what they do when they need
Invite the students to examine and describe the advice. They can list the possible sources of
photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. advice and support individually or in pairs. Give
Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of them 2 or 3 minutes to write their lists of
the unit and make comments on the things they possibilities. In this exercise there are no correct
already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. or incorrect answers. Students assign
Draw students attention to the values that will be paid themselves points according to the number of
more attention to, and ask them to anticipate what possible alternatives they list. (from 0 to 4).
issues will be discussed in connection with them. Possible answers
PAGE 7 I read self-help books and articles. I ask a
psychologist. I talk to my parents. I talk to
HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? someone in my family. I talk to a teacher. I
Explain to students that this page of each unit will phone a radio programme. I visit a fortune
contain activities meant to identify and activate teller. I dont ask for help and support.
their previous knowledge of the topic and related
vocabulary to establish the starting point for the 3 Tell students to work in small groups and
activities that will follow. They will also help to describe the four pictures, paying attention to
detect weaknesses that will require extra work and details. What are the people wearing? What are
support and to contextualise the contents that will their facial expressions? If students need
be developed and present cognitive challenges. vocabulary, provide lists (clothes, adjectives,
Although all the activities have been assigned surroundings, etc) and then ask them to describe
points, the results do not indicate success or failure, the pictures. Ask students to read the four
but help to identify the issues mentioned in the statements and match them with the pictures.
previous paragraph. Answers
Give students time to form groups and discuss the a. Picture 4. b. Picture 3. c. Picture 1. d. Picture 2.
exercises that have to be done in groups, and
encourage them to reflect and be honest to do 4 Ask students to read the comments again and
those that require individual responses. decide what they express: a suggestion, a
Talk to students about situations where they personal opinion, certainty? They should assign
generally ask for or offer advice. When they offer themselves 1 point for each correct answer.
advice, is it generally from a personal point of view Encourage students to work out their score and
or do they use other peoples experiences? Which read what it indicates. Give help to those
expressions would they use to offer personal students who get low scores and praise those
opinions about a situation? Help with these who seem to be better prepared for the contents
prompts: of the unit. Make notes of any useful information
In my view I believe If you ask me about what students already know that you can
I think In my opinion Personally speaking use later when developing the lessons.
1 Ask students to read statements a. h. and rank PAGE 8
them from least to most serious, individually LESSON 1 - READING
first and then they can compare in their groups. LETTERS TO AUNT ANNE
Give them four or five minutes to complete the BEFORE YOU READ
activity. Tell them to assign themselves points Tell students to check the learning abilities they will
according to these criteria: develop with each of the activities and comment on
4 points: managed to rank all the issues. their expectations and interests.
3 points: managed to rank 6 or 7of the 8 issues. If possible, bring some English language magazines or
2 points: managed to rank 4 or 5 of the 8 issues. newspapers with readers letters. If not, bring Spanish
1 point: managed to rank 2 or 3 of the 8 issues. language newspapers and magazines to show students
0 point: no ranking done. the section where readers letters normally appear.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 33


1 (Learning ability: to connect topic and personal
experiences).
Ask students if they write letters (or e-mails). Who
to? Why? Is letter writing in general a skill they
think they will need in the future? What for? Ask
them to list reasons why people write letters to
newspapers. Tell students to work in small groups,
read the statements in the exercise and decide
which ones they most agree / disagree with.
Answers
Will vary.

Did you know that...


See page 8 of the Introduction.
2 (Learning ability: to make predictions).
If available, read a few titles of letters to an 3 (Learning ability: to identify cognates).
agony aunt from an original source (magazine, See notes on cognates on page 10 of the
newspaper, online magazine, etc.). Ask students Introduction.
to read the four titles (a. d.). Do they Tell students to work in pairs and read the
understand them? What do they think the words, first silently and then aloud, to identify
letters might be about? Brainstorm ideas and the cognates.
jot them down on the whiteboard for later
discussion. Ask them to try and predict which Answers
letter corresponds to which title. Do not check blouse blusa; habits hbitos; physical
students answers at this point. fsico; pickles picles; recently - recientemente,
recommend recomendar; style estilo;
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY terrible terrible.
The Prediction Wheel
You can go through all the prediction steps with Remind students of the existence of false
another simple text chosen by you. cognates, and tell them there are two of them
Step 1 - Ask students to predict what the text will on this page. Can they find them? (advice,
be about paying attention to the title, pictures you parents). What words in Spanish could they be
have included, previous knowledge (for example, if confused with? (aviso, parientes) What do they
the text is about a specific region of the country), really mean? (consejo, padres).
vocabulary you have provided. Ask them to make at This could also be a good opportunity to let
least two predictions (What do you think it will be students know that the noun advice is
about? Who do you think the protagonists will be?). uncountable in English, so we do not say an
Step 2 - Students read the text and find evidence to advice and it does not take a plural form. If we
confirm their predictions. Follow the instructions in want to express that it is a singular noun, we say
the wheel. a piece of advice.
Step 3 - After validating, checking, or abandoning /
correcting their predictions, students write a
summary of the text.
Source: FOR-PDs Reading Strategy of the Month,
by Dr. Vicky Zygouris-Coe & Catherine Glass (2004)

34 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

4 (Learning ability: to revise meaning of key 5 (Learning ability: to identify meaning and
expressions). function of key words).
Time expressions are used to indicate the time Invite students to find the words in bold in the
at / during which an action takes place. text and identify what they do in the sentences
Common time expressions include: (their function). General answers are acceptable.
Present forms: every day, on Fridays, at the You can ask all the students to have a quick look
moment, now, always, usually, sometimes (for at the four letters to find and explain the
present habits and routines). function of the words in bold, or you can divide
Past forms: when I was ..., last week / month / the class into four groups and assign one letter
year, etc., yesterday, two weeks / years / months to each group. Check answers orally.
ago, etc. Answers
Future forms: next week / month / year, Letter I: so = as es que result; however = sin
tomorrow, by the end of the week, next year, embargo contrast.
etc., in two weeks / four months time, etc. Letter II: although = aunque contrast;
You can find more information and exercises on because = porque reason;
time expressions / adverbs of frequency at besides = adems something additional.
http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/bl_timeexpress1.htm Letter III: however = sin embargo contrast;
and http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/blgrquiz_time.htm because = porque reason.
Read the example and then elicit a few more Letter IV: because = porque reason; so = as
time expressions from the class, asking students es que result.
to provide example sentences or their Spanish
equivalents. Tell them that the expressions can WHILE YOU READ
indicate when something happens or The letters for this section were adapted from
happened, and also the frequency with which letters written to Seventeen Magazine for British
an action takes place. You can ask all the Teenagers (hardcopy issues). You can access
students to have a quick look at the four letters Seventeen online at www.seventeen.com
to find time expressions, or you can divide the Remind students to check the learning abilities they
class into four groups and assign one letter to will develop with each of the activities and
each group. Check answers orally. comment on their expectations and interests.

Answers 6 (Learning ability: to synthesise and match


Letter I: At the beginning of / Since then / information).
several times a week / at the weekend / a few Students read letters I IV on page 9. Give
weeks ago / now. them enough time to read the letters quickly,
Letter II: Since / always / Last year / for only with the purpose of checking their
Christmas / at first / a few hours a day / after a predictions in Exercise 2. Check answers orally.
few weeks / 10 hours a day / the whole night.
Answers
Letter III: Until some time ago / twice a week /
Letter I d. Friendship or love?.
every time / in the last few weeks.
Letter II a. Computer addiction.
Letter IV: Until last year.
Letter III c. Too much food when
depressed.
Letter IV b. My parents dont get my style.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 35


7 (Learning abilities: to identify writer / to find 3. Think aloud to model the mental processes you
use when you read. Make the students justify
supporting information).
their answers and talk about their thinking
Students must be able to find various types of
processes as they answer the questions. Point
information from a text. It can be specific or
out that our conclusion that the people are
general, mood and tone of a text, or explicit and
moving is not directly stated in the words, but
implicit information.
based on our experiences we can feel confident
Explicit information is clearly stated in a text. For
that our inference is correct.
example: His face showed sadness.
Implicit information must be inferred from the 8 (Learning ability: to find specific information).
text by the context. For example: Tears ran down Tell students to read the questions carefully first
his face. The information we can infer from the and then read each letter to find the required
previous sentences is that he was sad. In this information. Students can work individually,
exercise students have to find implicit finding the answers to all the questions, or in
information that would indicate the gender of small groups, distributing the questions and
the writers of the letters. Readers can think then sharing the answers. If necessary, explain
inferentially when they connect their the meaning of the word binge (letter III) = to
background of information, ideas, and eat or drink too much, especially without being
experiences with the text. able to control yourself. Check their answers
To infer as we read is to go beyond literal orally, asking different students to ask the
interpretation and to open a world of meaning questions to different classmates.
deeply connected to our lives.
Answers
Ellin Keene, Author of Mosaic of Thought - Teaching Comprehension in
a Readers Workshop (Paperback), available from www.Amazon.com a. They do homework together, they visit each
other, they go to the cinema or to parties
Answers
together.
Letter I was written by a girl. She refers to a
b. Six or even ten hours a day.
boy she likes.
c. She went to the gym twice a week, she got
Letter II was written by a boy. He says: unlike
good and bad grades at school, she loves
other boys my age.
going to the mall with her friends to shop
Letter III was written by a girl. She refers to a
for clothes.
school skirt she wears.
d. She wears baggy trousers, heavy boots and
Letter IV was written by a girl. She refers to the
sweatshirts.
clothes she wears.
PAGE 10
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
1. Explain the strategy of inferring / reading 9 (Learning ability: to match information).
between the lines using short scenarios, riddles, Students read the four answers provided
or charades that require students to add up (a. d.) and match them with the original
clues and reach a conclusion. letters (I IV). You can ask all the students to
Example: You get home from school and you see match the four letters and the answers, or you
a big truck in your neighbours driveway. The front can divide the class into four groups and assign
door of the house is propped open and someone is one answer to each group to find the letter it
carrying a table to the truck. corresponds to. Check answers orally.
2. Demonstrate how to apply the strategy
successfully. This can be a fun way to introduce Answers
what inference means by asking students a. Letter III. b. Letter I.
questions such as, What is happening? What are c. Letter II. d. Letter IV.
the neighbours doing? How do you know that?

36 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

10 (Learning ability: to discriminate between PAGE 11


correct and incorrect information). AFTER YOU READ
Let students know that there are two incorrect Remind students to check the learning abilities they
statements for each letter. Their task is to will develop with each of the activities and
identify the incorrect information and correct it. comment on their expectations and interests.
You can ask all students to read all the
statements and correct them, or you can divide 11 (Learning ability: to consolidate a language item).
the class into four groups and assign one letter Invite students to have a quick look at Annes
(I IV) with its corresponding false statements answers in Exercise 9 again, paying special
to each. Check answers on the board, asking attention to the expressions in bold. Tell them
students to first underline the incorrect to read and complete the sentences individually
information and then correct it. and then to compare with a partner. Check their
If necessary, explain that the expression to be answers orally.
keen on something means to be very interested Answers
(= ser aficionado a algo). a. I think you should ask for help if you have a
Answers problem.
a. i. The writer of letter I doesnt see this boy b. I believe you have two options: you can start
very often. studying now or be prepared to fail the exam.
The writer of letter I sees this boy very often. c. The best way to finish sooner is to work harder.
ii. The writer of letter I is not interested in this d. I would recommend you talk to your teacher
boy. immediately.
The writer of letter I is interested in this boy. e. How about a little present like a flower or a
b. i. The writer of letter II is very keen on sports. card?
The writer of letter II has never been good f. The only way you can find out the truth is
at physical exercise. asking your friend directly.
ii. The writer of letter II goes out very often. g. Why dont you organise an outing for this
The writer of letter II has stopped going out. weekend?
c. i. The writer of letter III was a very unusual
person until some time ago.
The writer of letter III was a normal 16-year old. Language Note Linking words
ii. The writer of Letter III feels happy when
This section deals with linking words (conjunctions).
she eats things from the fridge.
The information in this section will help students join
The writer of Letter III feels terrible when shorter sentences into longer ones. This is frequently
she eats things from the fridge. done when writing. Invite different students to write on
d. i. The writer of letter IV wears clothes her the board more examples they can find in the letters.
parents like. More useful information on linking words can be
The writer of letter IV wears clothes her found at http:
parents hate. //www.english-at-home.com/grammar/linking-words
ii. The writer of letter IV doesnt love her
parents very much.
The writer of letter IV loves her parents
very much.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 37


Answers PAGE 12
2. Other sentences with linking words in the letters:
I. He was shy and didnt feel happy so I 12 (Learning ability: to apply a language point).
talked to him. Refer students to the Language Note. Tell them
We do homework together and visit each to read the words in the box and the sentences
other and at the weekend we go to the (a. d.) and to try and relate them to the
cinema, but a few weeks ago I noticed that pictures on the left (1 4). Check orally.
my feelings for him were changing. Answers
II. Although at first I used it only a few hours a a. although Picture 3. b. because Picture 4.
day, after a few weeks things got out of hand. c. besides Picture 1. d. so Picture 2.
I started chatting with people from
other cities and now I chat 6 or even 10 13 (Learning ability: to identify text organisation).
hours a day. If necessary, revise this information about the
I have stopped going out because I spend different parts of a letter with the class.
all my free time chatting and surfing. Address: put your address at the top of your
III. I was a normal 16-year old with common letter, so that the reader will know where to
interests and regular social habits. send their reply.
I get good and bad grades at school just Date: put the date on which the letter was written
like any other kid and I love going to the in the format Month - Day - Year. (June 15, 2012).
mall with my friends. However, I have Inside address: it is only required for a business
recently noticed that when I get sad or letter and will include the address of the person
depressed I start eating. And when it you are writing to along with the name of the
happens, I eat anything that I can find recipient, their title and company name. If you
chocolate, bread, crisps, fruit and even are not sure who the letter should be addressed
pickles and cold meat! to either leave it blank or try to put in a title, for
I feel terrible every time I binge and then I example, Director of Human Resources.
get even more depressed. And in the last The greeting: it will address the person that the
few weeks Ive noticed that it happens more letter is being sent to. This is usually completed
and more often. And because I eat so in the form of Dear Anne or Hey Anne, for less
much, my dresses and my school skirt dont formal letters.
fit me any more. The introductory paragraph: it is the first
IV. I dressed in the clothes my mother bought paragraph and will generally outline the
for me but then I started wearing baggy purpose of the letter, the reason why the letter
trousers, heavy boots and sweatshirts. is being sent. This can deal with any issues that
I also decided to cut my hair really short are outstanding and is used to set the tone for
and my dad nearly got a fit! the rest of the letter. In this first paragraph, the
My father says I cant because Im not summary of the letter can be found and the
wearing the proper clothes! intentions which will be displayed through the
Im a good student and I usually obey my rest of the letter should be outlined. From this
parents but I feel that they surely dont introductory paragraph the recipient should be
understand my style. able to note the tone of the letter.
The body: it will expand upon the introductory
Draw students attention to the Internet sites paragraph and the writer can extend their
where they can find more information and exercises thoughts and feelings further. The body of the
on connectors. Encourage them to use the site on letter can be anywhere from multiple pages for
their own, but to share information with you and personal letters, to one page or two pages for
with their classmates. most business letters and other types of proposals.

38 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

The closing: here the writer will finish any


15 (Learning ability: to role play a dialogue).
thoughts that have been mentioned. The
One of the main motivations to encourage pair
closing of the letter comes in various forms
work in the English language classroom is to
from Yours truly, for the people who are
increase the opportunities learners have to use
familiar with one another, to a traditional
English. Through pair work, learners revise what
Sincerely which is a versatile closing that can
they have understood after reading the text.
be used in a variety of letters and situations.
This allows them to compare answers and
Signature: Your name as you usually write it. It
clarify problems together, using English.
can be just your first name, your full name or
Students get into pairs, read two other
your nickname.
problems mentioned by other teenagers and
Source: http://www.letterwritingguide.com/howtowritealetter.htm
choose one of them. They role play the situation
Help students to notice that this is a more stating the problem and giving advice in front
complete version of Annes letters in Exercise 9, of the class. They use expressions to make
and if necessary, guide them so that they can suggestions and offer advice provided in Annes
identify the different parts. Check answers orally. answers in Exercise 9, page 10.
Answers Draw students attention to the American v/s
a. i. b. iii. c. vi. d. ii. e. iv. f. v. British English box, and help them to notice that
only one spelling is acceptable in American
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY English, while British English uses both.
You can ask fast learners to choose a letter from page Students can find more examples of differences
9 or one of Annes answers and complete it in their between American and British English at
notebooks with the missing parts of a complete letter. http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm
14 10 (Learning ability: to imitate a spoken model). PAGE 13
Remind students that correct pronunciation of
English is much more than imitating only 16 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning).
specific sounds. They must pay attention to This minitest allows students to evaluate their
pauses, the intonation of the voice and performance in the grammar aspect of the
patterns of emphasis. No matter how vast the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a
students vocabulary is and how well they use continuous process throughout the book. Read
grammar structures - if they dont use correct the instructions aloud, make sure that all the
pronunciation it may be very difficult for students understand them clearly and set a
listeners to understand what they say. time limit to complete the task. Check answers
Play the recording once or twice with pauses, and help students to work out their scores. You
for students to repeat. Then give them some may ask students to keep track of their progress
time to practise the dialogue in pairs and invite and then evaluate their overall performance in
them to role play it in their groups. the Minitests after two or three units.

10 Answers
TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE
because and but though however but
Marianne speaks with an English accent and Tom with an
American accent. 17 APPLICATION TASK WRITING (Learning
Marianne: Im still unsure what to study in college. ability: to write a text).
Tom: I think you should study something you really Considering that this is the first application task,
guide students very carefully, first to form the
like and are good at, for example tourism or
groups and distribute tasks and roles, and then to
cooking. But mainly, follow your heart. read the instructions and follow them step by step.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 39


Help and correct students work while walking
18 (Learning ability: to reflect on the contents of
among the groups and encourage them to
the lesson and relate them to personal
evaluate each step of the task.
experiences).
Make sure students understand the importance
This is a roundup exercise where students are
of cooperative work, respect each others
asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the
opinions, and do the work they have committed
lesson, in terms of abilities, content, grammar and
themselves to do.
vocabulary and also encourages them to express
At the moment of evaluating their own letters,
their opinions concerning important values
encourage them to be honest.
explicitly or implicitly stated in the texts and
When they exchange letters, highlight the
activities. Refer students again to the first exercise
importance of respecting everyones work and
in the unit, encourage them to share answers in
offering positive comments.
their groups and / or with the whole class and
Draw students attention to the American v/s
motivate them to substantiate their answers.
British English box, and help them to notice that
only one spelling is acceptable in American OPTIONAL ACTIVITY
English, while British English uses both. You can do this activity at any time during the
Students can find more examples of differences AFTER YOU READ activities when you feel the
between American and British English at students need a change, or a little break.
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm Divide your class into groups of six students.
Make as many copies of the letters on page 9 as
ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENT
there are groups. (you will need one letter per
You can design your own writing assignment /
group)
application task as homework or extra test. Although
Cut up the letters into 6 chunks not necessarily
the book has been written thinking of a wide range
paragraphs and put all the pieces inside an
of students, there might be situations where you may
envelope.
feel that an application task is not localised enough.
Pass an envelope to each group and tell them to
Feel free to design your own task and ask yourself
reconstruct the letters in the correct order, without
these questions when preparing them.
looking at the book.
1. Is the general subject target-specific, is it really The winner is the first group to get their letter in
directed at my students? the correct order.
2. Do students have enough opportunity to use the
PAGE 14
language learnt in the lesson? For example, if the
LESSON 2 LISTENING
subject of the unit was letters and the grammar
EMBARRASSING MOMENTS
content the First Conditional have I
incorporated these into the task? Remind students to check the learning abilities they
3. Is the task clearly defined? Do my students will develop with each of the activities and
understand what I want from them? comment on their expectations and interests.
4. What kind of knowledge is the task putting into BEFORE YOU LISTEN
practice? Have I covered it before, in previous 1 (Learning ability: to connect topic and previous
lessons? experiences).
5. Does the topic invite students to use wide and Draw students attention to the name of the
varied vocabulary? For example, a task telling lesson, and make sure they realise the word
students to describe a flower might not be embarrassing is a false cognate; it does not
demanding enough and students would not mean embarrado or embarazada, but
have the chance to use a varied vocabulary. embarazoso, vergonzoso. Encourage them to
6. Does the task elicit sentences, ideally connected, deduce the meaning of the words embarrassed
and not just lists of words? (avergonzado), y embarrassment (vergenza).

40 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

Students read the three statements in their You can let your students know that the word
group. They check vocabulary (explain if breath / bre / is the noun (= aliento, respiracin)
necessary or refer to a dictionary) then discuss and the verb is breathe / bri / (= respirar).
which ones they most agree / disagree with. Tell This is also a good opportunity to revise the
them they do not need to agree on the important difference between English vowels
statements; however, through discussion, they /  / as in hang and /  / as in hung.
should try to reach consensus. Other examples:
// // // //
2 (Learning abilities: to express opinions and bag bug mam mum
make predictions). cat cut Nat nut
Students read the title of the lesson and Dan done Patty putty
comment on what an embarrassing moment fan fun rat rut
might be. They should feel free to share gas gus tag tug
experiences and embarrassing moments, but ham hum
remind them to be respectful of their partners
when making comments. TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION 11
3 (Learning abilities: to infer topic from visuals / to anyone breath daring crush - garlic
make predictions). hang up / hung up - pick up sleepover.
In groups, students describe and discuss the
pictures. Ask them to provide as much detail as Note that the word crush is used here with the
possible. Encourage them to ask each other meaning of loved one (teenage talk).
questions and offer explanations. Ask them PAGE 15
which situations they think will be presented in
the recorded text. Tell them to think about the WHILE YOU LISTEN
clues (title, pictures, etc.) and what they already Remind students to check the learning abilities they
know (vocabulary, previous discussion, topic, will develop with each of the activities and
etc.). Do not check their answers at this point. comment on their expectations and interests.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY 5 12 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


You can ask fast learners or keener students to write Refer students back to the pictures in Exercise 3,
a description of one of the pictures. Check for errors the situations they represent and the
and spelling. predictions they made. Play the recording once
and ask students to check their predictions.
4 11 (Learning abilities: to find meaning of
Answers
words / to match written and spoken
Pictures 1 and 4.
language / to practise pronunciation).
Tell the students that these key words will 12 (Learning ability: to identify speakers).
6
appear in the listening texts, and that it is
Read the sentences aloud. Play the recording
important that they know their meaning and
once or twice again. Students identify the
what they sound like. Go through the words
speakers. Check answers orally.
with them, and draw their attention to the verb
hang up / hung up, which includes both the Answers
infinitive and the past forms. Give them a few a. Presenter.
minutes to check meanings in dictionaries, and b. Belinda.
then play the recording. First they only listen to c. Belinda.
the words, and then they listen and repeat. d. Presenter.
e. Peter.
f. Peter.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 41


7 12 (Learning ability: to discriminate between Presenter: So you refused to do it.
correct and incorrect information). Belinda: Well, I thought, Its all right. If we stay at home
This is an activity to improve fine listening skills I wont meet anyone else tonight. Big mistake.
and help students to discriminate between Presenter: Why?
sounds / words. Read the sentences with both Belinda: Soon after we got home, the doorbell rang and
alternatives aloud and then play the recording it was my crush, who wanted to tell me that he
once or twice again. Check answers orally.
liked me. When he tried to kiss me I told him to
Answers hold on, and I raced upstairs to brush my teeth.
a. me / anyone. b. home / tonight. Presenter: Problem solved, then.
c. kiss / hold on. d. sister / beautiful. e. as / stairs.
Belinda: No! When I came back down he was sitting with my
8 12 (Learning ability: to find specific information). friends, laughing at the story of my garlic breath.
Ask students to read the questions and then Presenter: Thank you for sharing your most embarrassing
play the recording again for them to answer. Tell moment with us, Belinda. And now Peter is ready
them to compare answers with a partner and to talk to us. What happened to you, Peter?
then check orally. You can then ask them to write Peter: My sister has the most beautiful friends, and last
the questions and answers in their notebooks. Friday they had a study group in my house and I
Answers thought: If my best friend comes over we will be
a. Her crush. / A boy / A boy she likes. the only boys with this group of beautiful girls.
b. She had bad breath because she had eaten Presenter: Did you tell your sister about this?
pizza with a lot of garlic. Peter: No, but I called my friend, and as soon as I heard
c. How beautiful his sisters friends were / That him pick up, I started talking about how my
his sisters friends were beautiful. sisters beautiful friends were over and how
d. Because the girls were listening to him. much I liked one of them.
Presenter: Nothing embarrassing about that.
12 Peter: No, but as I hung up, I looked down the stairs
TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING
EMBARRASSING MOMENTS and saw my sister and her friends listening to
the phone on speaker! I was so embarrassed!
The presenter speaks with an English accent. Belinda speaks with
an Australian accent. Peter speaks with an American accent. AFTER YOU LISTEN
Presenter: Welcome to If it happens to me, it can happen Remind students to check the learning abilities they
to anyone. In todays conversation, Belinda and will develop with each of the activities and
Peter will tell us about their most embarrassing comment on their expectations and interests.
moments. If you have similar experiences, call us 9 (Learning ability: to complete summaries).
and tell us about them. Belinda, what is your Ask students to work in groups and use the
embarrassing experience? information they collected while listening to the
Belinda: Last week, my friends and I were walking recording to complete the sentences that
around town playing Truth or Dare before our summarise the anecdotes.
sleepover. As we passed the pizza shop, my
friends said: If you are brave and daring, you
will eat a piece of pizza with a lot of garlic.
Presenter: Do you like garlic?
Belinda: No! I hate garlic. If you eat just a little, youll
have bad breath for two days!

42 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

Answers 10 (Learning ability: to consolidate a grammar


a. Belinda was walking around town with her point / to compare cultures).
friends, who dared her to eat pizza with a lot Refer students to the Language Note before
of garlic, which gave her bad breath. doing the exercise. Write the example on the
When the boy she likes tried to kiss her she board using the colour code in the Language
had to run to brush her teeth, but her friends Note. Let students know that all the sentences
told the boy about her bad breath! must be completed with the First Conditional.
b. Peters sister has a lot of beautiful friends, Take this opportunity to help students compare
and when they came to study at his house British and Chilean superstitions. Most of them
he phoned his friend to invite him over and are the same in both cultures, except for the
tell him how much he liked one of them. black cat, which in Chile is considered bad luck.
When he hung up he realised all the girls You can encourage them to find out about
were listening to his conversation on the British superstitions at any of these sites:
other phone! http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/
Draw students attention to the American v/s customs/questions/superstitions.htm
British English box, and help them to notice that http://www.historic-
only one spelling is acceptable in American uk.com/CultureUK/Superstitions.htm
English, while British English uses both. Answers
Students can find more examples of differences a. If a black cat walks towards you, you will
between American and British English at have good fortune.
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm b. If someone is sweeping the floor and sweeps
PAGE 16 over your feet, youll never get married.
c. If you blow out all the candles on your
birthday cake at the first puff, the wish you
make will come true.
Language Note The First Conditional
d. If your right hand starts to itch, you will come
For more information on this section see page 8 into money in the near future.
of the Introduction.
This section introduces the First Conditional and its OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - GAME
uses. More information on the First Conditional plus Form groups of four or six students.
extra exercises can be found at Give the groups some time to think of or find
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/StudyZone/330/gra other superstitions that they could express using
mmar/1cond.htm the First Conditional. Tell them to find two or three,
which they should write in their notebooks using
Answers Point 4 the First Conditional. (alternatively, you can write
If you eat just a little, you will have bad breath the superstitions below on pieces of paper and
for two days! give one to each group).
Each group must choose one of their superstitions
and get ready to present it through mimicry to the
class or to another group.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 43


Possible superstitions to present through mimicry: PAGE 17
If you touch wood you will make something
come true / you will prevent something from 12 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning).
coming true. See notes on this section on page 8 of the
If you find a four-leafed clover you will be very lucky. Introduction.
If you cut your hair when the moon is waxing it This minitest allows students to evaluate their
will grow faster. performance in the grammar aspect of the
If you open an umbrella indoors you will have lesson and also to consider evaluation as a
bad luck. continuous process throughout the book. Read
If you drop a table knife you will receive a male visitor; the instructions aloud, make sure that all the
if you drop a fork you will receive a female visitor. students understand them clearly and set a
time limit to complete the task. Help students
11 13 (Learning abilities: to imitate a spoken
to check their answers and work out their
model / to ask and answer questions).
scores. You may ask students to keep track of
This exercise combines listening to imitate a
their progress and then evaluate their overall
spoken model and consolidation of the First
performance in the Minitests after two or three
Conditional. First, play the recording for
units.
students to repeat the questions and then give
them a few minutes to copy and answer the Answers
questions in their notebooks. Encourage them Students own ideas, but ask some of them to
to practise the short dialogues in pairs and write their answers on the board and help
invite some of them to role play them in front of them to notice the correct use of verb tenses.
the class.
13 APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY (Learning ability: to role play a television
You can play the recording again, with pauses, and programme).
ask keener learners to answer the questions as if See notes on this section on page 9 of the
they were talking to the person in the recording. Introduction.
TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE 13 If necessary, begin by playing the recording of
the listening section again, for students to
The girl speaks with an American accent and the boy speaks remember the style, the intonation and the
with an English accent. atmosphere of the programme.
a. What will you do if it is sunny at the weekend? Help students to form the groups and distribute
b. What will you eat tomorrow morning if there is no bread the roles presenters and participants.
for breakfast? Go through the instructions with the class and
make sure everyone understands what they
c. What will your mother say if you get a bad mark in the test?
have to do.
d. What will you tell your friend when you see him or her? All the presenters can get together to prepare
e. If Maroon Five come to Santiago will you go to see them? the presentation of the participants and the
questions they can ask them, while the
Draw students attention to the American v/s
participants work in pairs to prepare the
British English box, and help them to notice the
description of an embarrassing moment.
slightly different spelling of the word. You can
Depending on the type of students you have,
ask faster / keener students to remember other
you can invite them to present their role plays
examples, like color / colour, favour / favour,
to other groups or to the whole class.
honor / honour, etc.
Give the groups a few minutes to evaluate their
Students can find more examples of differences
performance using the points suggested, and
between American and British English at
invite them to share their conclusions with
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm
other groups or with the whole class.
44 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

Draw students attention to the American v/s Answers


British English box, and help them to notice the a. (a.) Ill answer it again.
different spelling of the word. Notice that British (b.) Are only going to flirt.
English uses the American spelling program (c.) person you want to be.
when referring to computer programs. (d.) flirt with her boyfriend?
Students can find more examples of differences (e.) not harmless fun.
between American and British English at (f.) What will happen.
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm (g.) he dumps his girlfriend.
(h.) if you keep chatting with him.
14 (Learning ability: to write a text). b. i. She is beginning to chat and flirt with
In this exercise students apply what they have her friends boyfriend.
learnt in the whole unit to produce a written ii. She should stop chatting with him, she
text following the model letters they saw in the should think about the kind of person
reading lesson. They can choose one of the and friend she wants to be.
embarrassing moments described in Exercise 13
by their classmates, or one of the situations in 2 Students apply the First Conditional.
the pictures. Make sure that when checking the
letter you consider language errors, coherence Possible answers
and the application of the letter structure learnt Picture 1: If a bird collides with a plane there
in Lesson 1 of this unit. will be an accident.
Picture 2: She will hurt herself if she is not
15 (Learning ability: to reflect on the contents of more careful / if she falls down.
the lesson and relate them to personal Picture 3: The shark will bite him if he swims
experiences). near it.
Students are asked to reflect on what they have
discussed in the lesson and decide if what they 3 You can use the Prediction Wheel on page 34 of
have done has influenced their opinions. Ask this book with this text.
them to read and answer the questions, Answers
substantiating their answers. Pay special a. The correct order of the pictures is:
attention to questions b. and c., which deal with 4-2-8-7-3-5-1-6
the OFTs that have to do with the ethical area. b. i. Bailey went very quiet and there was a
PAGES 18 - 19 tumour in his tummy.
CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES ii. The vet kept pulling things out of
Baileys tummy: two gloves, one hand
See notes on this section on page 8 of the towel and five socks.
Introduction. iii. Yes, he is, but he keeps eating things.
1 This activity concentrates more on the content PAGES 20 - 21
than on the format of the letter. JUST FOR FUN
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY See notes on this section on page 7 of the
You can ask faster students to copy and complete Introduction. Remind students that they should do
the letter in their notebooks, adding the missing the activities on their own, without much
elements of a complete letter. intervention from you, but help and support when
necessary.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 45


Answers c. Several hours of swimming before an
1. a. Any five of these: finger, mouth, thumb, exam will get rid of excess of energy and
arm, legs, knees, head, throat. will leave nothing for the exam.
b. Fence, floor, bedroom. d. Its good to talk to someone about being
c. Sofa, wardrobe, cupboard. nervous.
d. Hamster, turtle, goldfish. 7. a. A university teacher is talking to first
2. Paragraph I Picture 5. year students.
Paragraph II Picture 8. b. Deep breathing.
Paragraph III Picture 4.
Paragraph IV Picture 2. TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - TAKING AN EXAM 14
Paragraph V Picture 7.
Paragraph VI Picture 3. The teacher speaks with an Indian accent.
Paragraph VII Picture 1. University
Paragraph VIII Picture 6. Teacher: You have asked me how to prepare for your first
PAGE 21 university exam.
CHILEAN CONNECTION Well, as I said before, its quite different to any
tests you took at school, but there are some
Let students read the section on their own and then
general suggestions that you could follow.
comment it in their groups. Promote comparison
between the foreign and the Chilean contexts
For example, if you drink too much coffee, tea and
encountered in this short text and in the unit, making fizzy drinks before the exam, it will increase your
sure students give each one its own value. Encourage nervousness. I suggest that you drink a glass of
students to describe their own embarrassing milk or maybe some orange juice instead. You
experiences during Independence Day celebrations. should also eat healthily and at regular times and
PAGES 22 - 24 your brain will benefit from good nutrition.
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Some of you ask if it is a good idea to do physical
activity before the exam to get rid of excess energy.
Answers Umm, it depends. If you do some very strenuous
READING SEEKING SUPPORT activity just before the exam, for example several
1. Letter I c. Tough life decision. hours of swimming or running a marathon, you
Letter II b. Difficult family situation. will get rid of the excess energy and have nothing
2. a. talk. b. alone. c. grateful. d. united. left for your exam, but if you do some mild activity
e. argue. f. upset.
such as walking in the park or even some dancing,
3. a. Because they are having problems at
you will benefit from it. If you are very tense just
work and they are not very young.
b. He doesnt have any brothers or sisters. before the exam you can practise relaxation
He is an only child. techniques. For example, you can clench or
c. She says her family was a loving one and unclench your fists or you can buy yourself a
that they used to do things together. squeezing ball instead. You can also practise deep
d. About six months ago. breathing to get oxygen to the brain.
LISTENING TAKING AN EXAM 14 One of the most important things is to believe in
4. c., f. yourself. If you prepare for the exams properly you
5. a. brain. b. excess. c. eat. d. properly. will do fine, meaning that there is no need to
6. a. A university exam is quite different from worry excessively.
a school exam. And finally, if you are still nervous, tell someone
b. Fizzy drinks increase nervousness. it always helps to get some moral support.

46 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

LANGUAGE PAGE 25
8. (a.) because. (b.) therefore. (c.) However. SELF EVALUATION
(d.) and. (e.) although. See notes on this section on page 8 of the
9. a. go - will see. b. get - will buy. c. will get Introduction.
eat. d. can help ask. e. asks - will tell. As this is the first time students will be doing this
SPEAKING section, go through the different parts with them.
10.Assign one point for each correct Help them to notice that there are two main parts:
expression placed in the blanks. YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL
Im not sure - your opinion - if you ask me - PERFORMANCE.
not certain - I can see from my point of view For YOUR TEST RESULTS they have to work out their
Assign points to the role play according to score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read
these criteria: their results and reflect on them. Help them to think
Student can role play the dialogue with a of what they can do to improve results, solve
minimum of hesitation and good problems, give or get help, etc.
pronunciation. 5 - 6 pts. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection
Student can role play the dialogue, but on their involvement with the main OFTs discussed
he / she hesitates and makes some in the lessons and invites them to think about their
pronunciation mistakes. 3 - 4 pts. learning strategies and attitudes.
Student cannot role play the dialogue;
he / she hesitates a lot and makes a lot of
pronunciation mistakes. 1 - 2 pts.
WRITING
11.The students use their own ideas and
opinions to complete the letter. Assign
points according to these criteria:
Student writes appropriate information in the
corresponding parts of the letter (address,
greeting, closing) and fills in the blanks
coherently, without spelling mistakes.10 - 12 pts.
Student writes appropriate information in
most of the corresponding parts of the letter
(address, greeting, closing) and fills in most
of the blanks coherently, with a few
spelling mistakes. 7 - 9 pts.
Student does not write appropriate
information in the corresponding parts of
the letter (address, greeting, closing) and
does not fill in half of the blanks coherently,
with some spelling mistakes. 4 - 6 pts.
Student does not write appropriate
information in the corresponding
parts of the letter (address, greeting,
closing) and does not fill in the blanks
coherently. 1 - 3 pts.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 47


EXTRA TEST UNIT 1

READING ANNES Dear Teen,


ANSWER Its really sad that these days we
measure how bright a person
by his or her class grades. I kno is
w it must be tough for you, bu
is definitely not worth worrying t it
so much.
Being young is a beautiful gift
and to be cherished. Dont thr
it away at any cost. Your prob ow
lem as you call it seems
(a.) _________________ right
now, but believe me - good
marks are not the only things
that matter. There are many mo
(b.) _________________ thing re
s in life such as what kind of
person you (c.) ____________
_____; you have to be bright fro
within. Also remember that ma m
ny of the really successful
people in life didnt have a col
lege degree. I am not minimisin
the importance of a college edu g
cation - I am just telling you to
perk up. Study well, but relax.
As for your classmates teasing
you, I am (d.) _______________
it is because they dont know _
you well enough. Show a positi
attitude and be confident. Do ve
nt apologise for what you are
Once you start being confident .
about yourself, the world will
look up to you.
I would also (e.) ____________
_____ that you approach a
caring teacher or counsellor in
school or maybe you can get
your parents to talk to your sch
ool mistress. This might put an
end to the insensitive remarks
of some of the teachers.
So cheer up. Concentrate on you
r (f.) _________________. Mo
dyslexics have outstanding tale st
nts. Find yours and shine in life
.
Love
Anne

Taken from: http://www.boloji.com/teens/articles/letters.htm


1 Read Annes answer to a teens letter.
Which of these is it answering? 1 pt.
a. b. c.
Dear Anne, Dear Anne, Dear Anne
I am a 15-year-old girl and I am deeply unhappy. My I have a strange problem and
the only child of my problem is that I think I am hope you will help me out. I
parents. My problem is not very intelligent. The am 16 and I am in love with
that my folks dont let me doctors have diagnosed two people. There is this
childhood friend of mine (we
go out anywhere. I cant me as dyslexic. I study a
grew up together) and we
go to parties or to the lot, but never manage to are kind of going steady.
cinema like other people get good marks. I am older Then last month a new guy
of my age. My parents are than most of the others in moved into my block and I
also very suspicious of my my class. I am really weak fell for him. He is so
friends and keep asking in maths and never handsome and he likes me
me questions. manage to even pass. too. What shall I do?

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL
48 UNIT 1
UNIT 1

2 Read Annes letter again and choose one 4 15 Listen to a conversation between two
option (i. iii.) for each gap (a. f.) 6 pts. friends, Carla and Susana. Are these statements
a. i. attractive ii. terrible iii. ugly true or false? 5 pts.
b. i. important ii. pretty iii. worrying a. Carlas crush is in a grade higher than she is.
c. i. are ii. can iii. choose b. Carlas crush plays hockey and volleyball.
d. i. happy ii. sad iii. sure c. When her crush looked at her Carla got
e. i. like ii. suggest iii. tell really nervous.
f. i. problems ii. studies iii. talents d. Carlas crush was smiling and waving at her.
e. The guy is not her crush anymore.
3 What advice is Anne giving the teen?
Choose 3 of these options. 3 pts. 5 15 Listen again and identify the word you
a. Concentrate on what you are good at. hear. 5 pts.
b. If you are not happy in your school change a. The embarrassing moment took place at a
to a different one. shopping centre / school.
c. If people tease you, you should tease them b. When I looked back he was still looking /
back. staring at me.
d. Studying and grades are important, but not c. I bet you got really excited / worried!
the most important thing in life. d. I noticed his smile turn into a funny /
e. Try to be positive and have a confident attitude. strange look!
LISTENING - AN EMBARRASSING e. I just grabbed my friends / things and left.
MOMENT LANGUAGE
6 Complete these sentences with your own
ideas. 5 pts.
a. The accident victim has internal injuries,
therefore ____________________________.
b. If we visit Vicua we ___________________.
c. I need to phone Peter because __________.
d. Although Mark went to Via del Mar _____
____________________________________.
e. Do you think they will help me if _________
____________________________________.

7 Use different intensifiers to make the meaning


of these sentences more powerful. 5 pts.
a. I failed even though I tried _________ hard.
b. I can hardly hold the pen. It is ___________
cold in this room.
c. You ask if I liked the film. It was __________
fabulous.
d. We went out last night and had a(n) ______
good meal.
e. I like the Browns because they are
________ nice people.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL ADVICE AND SUPPORT 49


SPEAKING WRITING
8 Develop a conversation with a partner asking 9 Write a reply to the letter below offering
for and giving advice in the situations below your personal advice. 10 pts.
(a. e.). Use the expressions in the box.
10 pts.
According to me I think you should
If I were you I would In my opinion Dear Anne,
The best thing you a &boyfriend. I &feel &very
I am 16 and &have never &had
s me down.
a. You have had an argument with your out of &place and &it &really get
girlfriend / boyfriend. &shy and &self-&conscious;
The &trouble &is Im &extremely
b. You think your parents are too strict. cant &seem &to change &it.
Ive &tried not &to &be, &but I &just
c. You came home late last night and your I &really &like. Ive only
parents got very angry. There &is &this guy at &school
nths. Hes within my
d. Someone at school is bullying you. &known &him a couple of mo
ly &ever &speak; &when &we
e. You want to invite a crush to a party. group of &friends &but we &hard
on opposite &sides of &the
are &in class &together &we &sit
&contact and I &try &to
&room; &we &keep making &eye
s away all &the &time. Ive
&smile at &him, &but &he &just &look
guage (&eye contact,
&tried &studying &his &body &lan
d &suggest &he &likes me, &but
nervousness, &etc.) and &it &woul
all &in my &imagination.
Im &thinking &this might &be
I &would &really &like &to date
I dont &know &what &to do,
&hell &laugh or &be &frightened
&him, &but I am &scared &that
off.
Please give me &some advice.
Georgia

0 to 11 25 38 50
10 to 24 to 37 to 50 PTS

KEEP TRYING REVIEW WELL DONE! EXCELLENT! TOTAL

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL
50 UNIT 1
UNIT 1
ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 1

READING ANNES ANSWER LANGUAGE


1. b. 6. Possible answers
2. a. ii.; b. i.; c. i.; d. iii.; e. ii.; f. iii. (Accept other sensible ideas).
3. a., d., e. a. he / she might die. / he / she might not
recover.
LISTENING - AN EMBARRASSING MOMENT
b. will visit the Gabriela Mistral museum. /
4. a. True. b. False. c. True. d. False. e. True.
will go up the Valle del Elqui.
5. a. shopping centre. b. staring. c. excited.
c. I want to borrow his bike.
d. funny. e. friends.
d. He didnt go to the beach.
e. I have a problem? / I ask them politely? /
TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - AN EMBARRASSING 15 7. Answers may vary, but make sure that the
MOMENT sentences make sense.

Speaker 1 (Carla) speaks with an Irish accent. Speaker 2 SPEAKING


8. Assign points according to these criteria.
(Susana) speaks with an English accent.
Student can ask for and give advice in
Carla: Two weeks ago I had the worst moment of my life. all the suggested situations, using the
I was hanging with my friends at the mall when appropriate language and correct
I saw my crush. This guy is so hot. At school, hes in pronunciation. 8 - 12 pts.
a grade higher than I am and plays basketball and Student can ask for and give advice in
football. Anyway, I noticed him near one of my most of the suggested situations using the
favourite stores and it seemed like he was staring appropriate language, with a few mistakes in
right at me. grammar and pronunciation. 5 - 7 pts.
Susana: Wow! Did you get nervous? Student can ask for and give advice in
Carla: I sure did! I tried to look away, but when I looked some of the suggested situations, with
back he was still staring at me. And then he smiled several mistakes in grammar and
pronunciation. 3 - 4 pts.
and waved.
Student can ask for and give advice
Susana: I bet you got really excited! only in one or two of the suggested
Carla: I did, but then I smiled and then waved back. Thats situations, with a lot of mistakes in
when I noticed his smile turn into a funny look! grammar and pronunciation. 2 - 0 pts.
Susana: What do you mean by funny?
WRITING
Carla: I mean surprised. Then I noticed that his best friend
9. Assign points according to these criteria.
was walking past me towards my crush. Student can write an appropriate letter of
Susana: So the guy was not smiling or waving at you! He reply, providing advice and using the
was waving at his friend! correct letter format. 8 - 10 pts.
Carla: Yes, he was. And they both laughed at me. I just Student can write a fairly appropriate
grabbed my friends and left the mall. letter of reply, providing some advice,
Susana: So, whats the score now? with some mistakes in language
Carla: Hes NOT my crush anymore! and in the letter format. 5 - 7 pts.
Student can write a letter of reply, providing
limited advice, with several mistakes in
language and in the letter format. 3 - 4 pts.
Student can't write a letter of reply, doesn't
offer advice, makes a lot of mistakes in
language and in the letter format. 1 - 2 pts.

ADVICE AND SUPPORT 51


UNIT 2 TWO OF THE ELEMENTS

In this unit you will learn to: You will also learn:
READING: find specific information through skimming / infer meaning of words. GRAMMAR: the First Conditional (continued) / connectors
LISTENING: identify tone of messages / discriminate between correct and incorrect of condition.
information / find the meaning of key words. VOCABULARY: words related to earthquakes and water.
ORAL
PRODUCTION: imitate a spoken model / practise following a guided
oral text.
WRITTEN You will use the following text types:
PRODUCTION: complete sentences / write an action plan. READING: an earthquake report.
FUNCTIONS: exchange information / give recommendations and advice. LISTENING: a television programme
(an infomercial).

You will pay special attention to these values:


The importance of having an earthquake plan.
The importance of English to learn and acquire new information.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS


Complementary material such as English language science books, newspaper cuttings on earthquakes
and the elements. A reliable online source is the US government Earthquakes for kids at
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/ with a wealth of information and activities or alternatively the
BBC resource http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4126809.stm
Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries,
definitions of chemistry terms, printed handouts, library material, notes, etc.

52 UNIT 2
PAGE 26 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION Natural phenomena (plural) natural
phenomenon (singular).
Invite the students to examine and describe the A natural phenomenon is a non-artificial event in
photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. the physical sense, and therefore not produced by
Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of humans, although it may affect humans (e.g.
the unit and make comments on the things they bacteria, natural disasters, etc.). Common examples
already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. of natural phenomena include volcanic eruptions,
Draw students attention to the values that will be paid weather, earthquakes and the elements in general.
more attention to, and ask them to anticipate what
issues will be discussed in connection with them. 2 Ask students to form groups of three or four
students and identify the objects they see. They
PAGE 27
must first say what they are and describe what
HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? we use them for. Then each member of the
Remind the students that this page of each unit will group must choose which ones are important in
contain activities meant to identify and activate the case of a disaster and which ones could be
their previous knowledge of the topic and related left out. Make sure that all students in the group
vocabulary to establish the starting point for the get the opportunity to express their views,
activities that will follow. They will also help to while the rest decide whether to assign him /
detect weaknesses that will require extra work and her a point depending on this explanation.
support and to contextualise the contents that will Possible answers
be developed and present cognitive challenges. Picture 1: bottled water essential for survival,
Although all the activities have been assigned clean, not contaminated.
points, the results do not indicate success or failure, Picture 2: British English torch / American
but help to identify the points mentioned in the English flashlight a portable light for searching
previous paragraph. in dark areas or if there is a power cut.
Give students time to form groups and discuss the Picture 3: battery operated radio get
exercises that have to be done in groups, and information about what is happening.
encourage them to reflect and be honest to do Picture 4: batteries essential if you have a
those that require individual responses. torch or a battery-operated radio.
1 Before doing the exercises ask students to give Picture 5: First-Aid-Kit to assist people who
examples of natural phenomena. Alternatively, are injured.
give them a list and ask them to decide if they Picture 6: canned / tinned food in case you
are caused by humans or if they occur naturally. are isolated for a period of time.
Examples: car crash, drought, earthquake, flood, Picture 7: matches to light a fire for light or
H1N1 flu outbreak, hurricane, landslide, mine heating.
explosion, nuclear disaster, rain, snow, terrorist Picture 8: British English mobile phone / American
attack, tornado. English cell phone to get in touch with people, to
Ask about safety, prevention and protection in get help, to inform others of your situation.
case of natural disasters. Refer students to what Picture 9: chocolate to get energy if you are
they might have learnt in their natural science isolated or in a very cold place for a long time.
classes about such occurrences. Picture 10: towels to clean wounds.
Quizzes are a favourite with students, especially Encourage students to work out their score and
when they are carried out as a competition. If read what it indicates. Give help to those students
appropriate, you can award a small prize (extra who get low scores and praise those who seem to
points for a future test, a sweet, etc.). Set a time be better prepared for the contents of the unit.
limit and ask students to get into pairs to do the Make notes of any useful information about what
quiz. You can make it more entertaining by students already know that you can use later when
ringing a bell when time is up. Tell students to developing the lessons.
assign their partners 1 point for each correct
answer. (See Students Book).

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 53


PAGE 28 Approximately 130,000 homes and buildings
LESSON 1 READING were destroyed, there were 2 million people
EARTH displaced, the death toll was estimated at 2,000
and 3,000 people were injured. (Some sources say
BEFORE YOU READ 6,000 people were killed). The total loss and
Remind students to check the learning abilities they damage to property was approximately half a
will develop with each of the activities and billion dollars (1960 dollars).
comment on their expectations and interests. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/events/1960_05_22.php

1 (Learning ability: to connect content and The Richter scale: A logarithmic scale used to rate
previous knowledge). the strength or total energy of earthquakes. The
Ask students to work in small groups, collect the scale has no upper limit but usually ranges from 1
information required and make notes in their to 9. Because it is logarithmic, an earthquake
notebooks. (For more information and ideas rated as 5 is ten times as powerful as one rated as
concerning group work see page 9 of the 4. An earthquake with a magnitude of 1 is
Introduction). detectable only by seismographs; one with a
Do not check answers at this point. magnitude of 7 is a major earthquake. The Richter
scale is named after the American seismologist
2 (Learning abilities: to identify topic from visuals / Charles Francis Richter (1900-1985).
to activate previous knowledge). http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Richter+scale
This kind of exercise encourages students to
apply previous knowledge, relates what has
3 (Learning abilities: to find meaning of key
words / to predict their presence in a text).
been learnt to their own experience and
The concept of key words is one of the most
stimulates thinking. The whole process of
important ones to grasp when trying to
referring to previous knowledge and other
optimise reading or listening skills. Increasingly,
learnt subject-matters is called reflective
when you are looking for information on the
learning. The following graph illustrates the
Internet, you go to the search engines. You type
reflective learning and thinking process.
in some words to describe what you are looking
Concrete
for. These words are key words. Students will
experience (1)
come across them in all kinds of everyday
activities. It is important to stress that finding
Testing in new Observation and
the right key words might facilitate both their
situations (4) reflection (2)
comprehension and their search for
information.
Forming abstract Source: Thinking Strategies for Student Achievement, Denise D. Nessel,
concepts (3) Editor: Skylight Professional Development,US, 2000 edition
You can also ask these questions to encourage Students read the list of words and check that they
discussion in the groups. Why are the pictures in know their meaning. If not, encourage them to ask
black and white? When and where were they taken? you or a classmate: what does ____ mean?
Ask students to make notes of their answers, but do Then they think how they could relate to the
not check at this point. subject of the lesson. In this case the topic is earth
BACKGROUND INFORMATION and previous exercises indicate that it is moving
On May 22, 1960, the earthquake that struck earth, in other words earthquakes. Students form
Valdivia, in the south of Chile, had a magnitude of hypotheses, debate their ideas which are then
9.5 on the Richter scale. This is the strongest substantiated once they read the text (confirming,
earthquake ever recorded. On the previous day, abandoning and rectifying predictions). Do not
an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.5 had struck check answers at this point.
the city of Concepcin.

54 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
4 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).
You can tell students that to place their ideas in easy
Students read the text and check their
compartments they may use a concept wheel.
predictions in the notes they made in the
Draw one on the board and tell them to copy it into
previous exercises.
their notebooks. There must be as many
compartments as concepts. The central idea is Answers
earthquakes. They then fill the concepts into the 1. a. The magnitude of an earthquake is
compartments and say how each word can be measured using the Richter scale.
related to the central concept. After they finish, tell b. Some safety measures during an earthquake:
them to put one or two more examples into the drop and cover; if you are outdoors, stay as
wheel, for example: disaster, tsunami. far away from buildings as possible; if you are
near glass or anything that can fall, move
away quickly; if you are in a crowded area, do
not run for the nearest exit; be prepared for
aftershocks.
2. a. The great Chilean earthquake.
b. Valdivia and the south of Chile, 22nd May,
1960.
3. damage, crowded, fall, magnitude, movement,
prevent, tsunami, volcano, withstand.

5 (Learning ability: to identify text organisation).


Please refer to the background information on
report writing. Ask students in what other ways we
Draw students' attention to the Internet site can organise a report. Have they ever written a
where they can see science films about the report? What was it on? How did they organise it?
elements. Encourage them to use the site on their
Answers
own, but to share the information with you and
b.
with their classmates.
PAGE 30 6 (Learning ability: to match information).
Tell students that, frequently, just by looking at
WHILE YOU READ a number we know what it refers to. There are
Remind students to check the learning abilities they other indicators that tell us what the number is,
will develop with each of the activities and for example, signs such as $, %, etc.
comment on their expectations and interests.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION Answers
A report is a formal document that is written for a a. Number of houses destroyed in the Valdivia
variety of purposes, generally in the sciences, social earthquake.
sciences, engineering and business disciplines. b. Number of people left homeless.
Examples of reports include: laboratory reports, health c. The magnitude of the Valdivia earthquake
and safety reports, instruction manuals, technical on the Richter scale.
reports, progress reports, etc. Reports are organised d. Hours after the earthquake when the
into separate sections according to the specific Puyehue volcano erupted.
requirements of the given task. For example, if it is a e. The year of the earthquake.
progress report it can be divided according to pre, f. The highest magnitude on the Richter scale.
while and post activities. A report can also be divided
according to subject or the questions it addresses.

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 55


ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
Make a list of these signs on the board and ask
students what they mean. Language Note The First Conditional (continued)
a. 23% b. US$100 c. 24 C d. 50 e. # 345 f. 50
More information on the Language Note on page
Answers 8 of the Introduction.
a. Per cent. This section further develops the First Conditional
b. US dollars. how to use it to offer recommendations and
c. degrees centigrade / Celsius. suggestions. More information on the First
Conditional plus extra exercises can be found at
d. Euros.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/StudyZone/330/gra
e. Number. mmar/1cond.htm and
f. Pound (currency). http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/firstconditi
onal/menu.php
7 (Learning ability: to discriminate between
correct and incorrect information). Answers
Students read the statements and then they go 3. a. If you are hungry get yourself a sandwich.
back to the text to check if the statements are b. If it rains take an umbrella.
true or false. c. If you chat on Messenger dont reveal
Ask fast learners to correct the false statements your telephone number or address.
and then share the information with the rest of
the class. Draw students attention to the American v/s British
English box, and help them to notice that the word
Answers
is accented differently in each variety of English. If
a. True.
your students are interested in this sort of
b. True.
information about the language, you can add that
c. True.
the word is accented differently when it is a noun,
d. False. Valdivia has since been rebuilt.
but in both varieties the verb is ad`dress.
e. False. They cannot be predicted.
Students can find more examples of differences
f. True.
between American and British English at
8 (Learning ability: to classify type of information). http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm
See detailed information on inferring on page PAGE 31
36 of this book and revise with students the
difference between both types of information. 9 16 (Learning abilities: to consolidate a
Answers grammar point / to imitate a spoken model).
a. Written in the text. Whenever there is an exercise with pictures ask
b. Inferred because the earthquake affected students to look at them and describe them in
areas of Concepcion, Valdivia and Puerto detail. If necessary, you can help by asking some
Montt. questions, such as: what kind of building /
c. Inferred as it is expressed in numbers we vehicle / situation can you see in Picture ___?
can guess it is a numerical scale. How many people can you see in Picture ___?
d. Inferred the tone of the letter indicates What are the people doing in Picture ___?
that Mr Araya is willing to help further. The students complete the sentences individually
or in pairs and then compare answers with the
AFTER YOU READ recording. Play the recording again for students to
Remind students to check the learning abilities they listen and repeat the sentences.
will develop with each of the activities and
comment on their expectations and interests.

56 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

BACKGROUND INFORMATION
10 (Learning abilities: to complete paragraphs / to
Emergency services telephone numbers: European
consolidate a grammar point).
Union: 112. United Kingdom: 999 / 112. USA,
This exercise can be done individually or in
Canada: 911. Australia: 000, Chile: Ambulance: 131,
pairs, giving students the opportunity to discuss
Fire Department: 132, Police: 133.
what they have learnt. You may need to explain
Answers some difficult words or expressions before they
See Transcript below, but accept sensible read: security warning = security alert; huge =
answers like these. enormous; shoreline = waterside; heeded =
a. If you see a house on fire / If you see a lot of paid attention to.
smoke / If you see flames, etc. Tell students to read the text, then read the
b. call the police / dial 999, etc. recommendations and then read the text
c. if there has been a serious accident / if you again, trying to insert the recommendations
see a car crash, etc. into the corresponding gaps. (a.) (d.). Check
d. tell them what to do / help the Emergency answers orally.
Service people, etc.
Answers
(a.) Follow these guidelines.
TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 16 (b.) Turn on your radio to learn if there is a
The boy has an American accent and the girl has an English tsunami warning.
(c.) Move inland to higher ground immediately.
accent.
(d.) Stay away from the beach.
a. If you see smoke coming out of a house, call the Fire (e.) Move away immediately.
Department.
b. If you need to contact the emergency services, call 999. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
c. Call for an ambulance if someone has been hurt. You can make your own gap-filling exercises from
d. If you have emergency rescue training, try to help as much English texts, depending on the type of grammar
as possible. point / vocabulary you want to practise.
Choose a short, simple and interesting text in
OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - GAME English, such as a popular song, an article, a news
Form groups of four to six students. item, an excerpt from a story, etc. Copy the text and
Give the groups some minutes to invent six delete some words in the copy. Your choice of
sentences like those in Exercise 9, using the First words can be made concentrating on certain types
Conditional followed by an Imperative. of words, prepositions, adjectives, verbs in a certain
Check and correct the sentences the students tense, definite articles, specific vocabulary items, or
produce while you walk around the class. you can delete one in every 6, 8 or 10 words.
Tell the groups to write each of their sentences in Photocopy or write the gapped text on the board
big, clear handwriting on separate pieces of and ask students to fill in the gaps correctly.
paper, and to cut up each sentence into the two Variation: Students work in pairs. Each student
clauses: conditional clause and imperative clause. prepares a short text and gives a copy to the
Organise the exchange of cut up sentences partner who will try to fill in the gaps correctly. The
between groups. author of the gapped text checks the answers.
Once the groups have put together the
sentences, they write them on a piece of paper
and show them to the authors, who decide if they
are correct or not.

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 57


PAGE 32 Answers
a. - ii. Picture 1.
11 (Learning ability: to consolidate grammar and b. iv. Picture 2.
vocabulary). c. - iii. Picture 3.
This type of exercise can be done either while d. i. Picture 4.
reading or as an after reading activity. In this
case, students go back to the text and focus on 13 (Learning ability: to connect content and own
matching the sentences provided (a. d.) with reality).
phrases or sentences in the text that have To quote the British Council: group discussion
similar or identical meaning. Ask students to skills are useful for everyday life as we regularly
read the four sentences carefully, go back to the find ourselves having discussions amongst friends,
text and find phrases or sentences that have a family and colleagues. These may vary from very
similar meaning. They can copy the pairs of informal chats about day-to-day things, to more
sentences into their notebooks. Check answers serious topics, for example a discussion about a
asking different students to write the pairs of recent news story or a problem that needs to be
sentences on the board. solved. Additionally, group discussions are
Answers increasingly being used in the job market during
a. You need some in-depth information about interviews and selection procedures. These can
the situation in Chile. take a variety of formats, but the key skills remain
b. The scale is known as the Richter scale. very similar. Last but not least, group discussions
c. You can find some useful information on offer an opportunity for extended speaking (and
tsunamis at listening!) practice by all of the contributors. Group
d. The building is constructed in such a way that discussion practice and skill development is
it can withstand the shocks and movement. therefore useful for all students.
Exercise 13 is a guided exercise to practise
12 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning). group discussion skills. Students read questions
This minitest allows students to evaluate their that will help them progress in the discussion
performance in the grammar aspect of the and prepare for the writing Application Task. As
lesson with the help of pictures. It is an in all guided discussions, you should play the
opportunity to remember that evaluation is a role of mediator and make sure that the
continuous process throughout the book. Read discussion is carried out with respect for other
the instructions aloud, make sure that all the peoples opinions.
students understand them clearly and set a For further information on team /group
time limit to complete the task. Check answers dynamics see page 9 of the Introduction.
and help students to work out their scores. You PAGE 33
may ask students to keep track of their progress
and then evaluate their overall performance in
the Minitests after two or three units. Learning tip
You can find more information on the minitests
on page 8 of the Introduction. Analyse this Learning tip together with the class
Draw students attention to the American v/s before doing the Application Task. Help them to
British English box, and help them to notice that notice that in this case they have already
different words are used in each variety of English. brainstormed ideas for the writing assignment
Students can find more examples of differences (Exercise 13).
between American and British English at
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm

58 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

14 APPLICATION TASK WRITING PAGE 34


(Learning ability: to write a text). LESSON 2 - LISTENING
For more information on the Application Tasks WATER
see page 9 of the Introduction. BEFORE YOU LISTEN
Exercise 14 is based on the group discussion in Remind students to check the learning abilities they
Exercise 13. The final version of the Earthquake will develop with each of the activities and
Plan can be done either in class or as comment on their expectations and interests.
homework. Do your best to check each This is a very cross-curricular lesson that calls upon
individual assignment, correct errors and make the students prior knowledge of things they have
helpful comments. Encourage students to learnt in their chemistry and biology classes. The
evaluate their work and reflect on their listening text and the activities reinforce and / or
performance, considering weaknesses and revise the students knowledge of these subjects.
strengths, and steps they can take to solve Go through the BEFORE YOU READ activities very
problems. Offer assistance if necessary. carefully to facilitate the listening tasks.
Source: Based on the Minnesota Language Proficiency Assessments
and the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages 1 (Learning ability: to connect topic and previous
(ACTFL). ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines - Writing (Revised 2001-PDF) knowledge).
available as a dowloadable PDF file at www.actfl.org
For notes on reflective learning see notes for
15 (Learning ability: to reflect on the contents of Exercise 2, Lesson 1 of this unit on page 54.
the lesson and relate them to personal Invite students to look at the pictures carefully
experiences). and then get into small groups to describe them
This is a roundup exercise where students are in as much detail as possible. Then they read and
asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the answer the questions. Check answers orally.
lesson in terms of content and language. Tell Answers
them to work in groups and share their answers a. Water in different locations and uses:
to questions a. and b. Question c. can be 1. People enjoying the water in the sea.
assigned for homework and students can 2. Water falling in a beautiful cascade.
present their findings orally, as a group 3. Water in bottles / bottled water.
presentation, or in writing on the bulletin board. 4. A water-purification system.
Answers b. H Hydrogen, 2 two parts, O oxygen.
c. Around 75% of the worlds seismic energy is This is the chemical formula for water.
released at the edge of the Pacific, where the c. It comes from rivers and streams, it needs a
thinner Pacific plate is forced beneath thicker process of purification, some people prefer
continental crust along subduction zones. This to drink bottled water, bottled water may or
40,000-km band of seismicity stretches up the may not have gas.
west coasts of South and Central America
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
and from the Northern USA to Alaska, the
This activity calls on students prior knowledge and
Aleutians, Japan, China, the Philippines,
can be assigned as a group project. Students
Indonesia and Australasia. Around 15% of
choose a topic from different areas of their
the total seismic energy is released where the
curriculum and form groups according to the
Eurasian and African plates are colliding,
subject they are going to research and present to
forming a band of seismicity which stretches
the class. The possibilities are: maths, history,
from Burma, westwards to the Himalayas to
philosophy / psychology, physics, technology, visual
the Caucasus and the Mediterranean.
http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/images/
arts and music.
Earthquakefaq.htm#FAQ03

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 59


Each group browses the textbook or discusses the Symbol: When writing names of elements, a chemist
subject they have chosen to decide on one point usually uses abbreviations, since they are quicker to
they want to teach in English. write than the names. These abbreviations are called
They must decide how they are going to organise symbols. None of the symbols contain more than
the teaching strategically (who does what, what two letters; the first one is always capitalised and the
materials they will need) and linguistically (what second, if any, is always lower case.
vocabulary and structures they need for the task). Examples: H (hydrogen), Cu (copper), C (carbon),
As well as preparing the teaching, they must also Au (gold), Ag (silver), etc.
prepare a test on the main items that they are Formula: letters, numbers and symbols that show
going to teach. the parts of a chemical compound.
The test is handed in to the teacher. The group Examples: NH3 (ammonia), CaCl2 (calcium chloride),
teaches their material to the rest of the class. CO (carbon monoxide), AgNO3 (silver nitrate), etc.
The teacher gives out the tests, probably with http://library.thinkquest.org/3659/pertable/
some minor revisions or editing, to be done by Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Oxford
the whole class in some subsequent period. (The University Press, 2000.
group who set the exam may or may not be
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
exempt from doing their own test).
You can ask fast learners to write the symbols and
Source: Phillips, D, Burwood, S & Dunford, H. 1999.
Projects with Young Learners. Oxford: OUP. formulas on cards of one colour, and the elements
and compounds on cards of another colour to play
2 (Learning ability: to identify key words). Memory Game, matching the corresponding cards.
Elicit from students the difference between
elements and compounds and between 3 (Learning ability: to identify key words
symbols and formulas. If necessary, write the connecting their written and spoken form).
definitions on the board, with examples. First read the words aloud and ask students to
Read the contents of the ovals aloud and then repeat them. Then give them some time to look
draw students attention to the difference in up the meaning of those they do not know.
colour. Ask them to read the instructions Help them to notice that the text they are going
carefully, check that everyone understands what to listen to contains scientific information, and
they have to do, and give them a few minutes to for this reason, many cognates are used, and
do the activity in pairs. Check on the board. encourage them to identify them in the exercise
(reservoir, aeration, chemicals, particulate,
Answers
odour, micropollutants).
CaO calcium oxide. NaClO Sodium
Invite them to work in pairs and share the
hypochlorite. NaOH sodium hydroxide.
information they find in the dictionary. Play the
FeCl iron chloride. O3 Ozone. H Hydrogen.
recording once through, and then play the
BACKGROUND INFORMATION recording again stopping after each word for
Element: a simple chemical substance that consists the students to repeat.
of atoms of only one type and cannot be split by
chemical means into a simpler substance. TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION 17
Examples: gold, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, copper, etc. surface store reservoir aeration softening chemicals
Compound: a substance formed by a chemical
particulate settle flocs odour micropollutants
reaction of two or more elements in fixed amounts
muddiness harmful layer storage supply
relative to each other.
Examples: ammonia, calcium chloride, carbon BACKGROUND INFORMATION
monoxide, silver nitrate, etc. Flocs are small solid particles formed in a liquid
through precipitation or aggregation of
suspended particles.

60 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate 18 (Learning ability: to discriminate between


6
matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of
correct and incorrect information).
solid or liquid suspended in a gas or liquid.
Read the questions and the alternatives with the
Draw students attention to the American v/s British class and then play the recording again, once or
English box, and help them to notice the different twice, for students to identify the correct answers.
spelling of the same word. You can ask keener
students to write more examples of the same Answers
difference on the board. a. iii. b. i.
Other examples: flavor flavour; neighbor
7 18 (Learning ability: to identify speakers).
neighbour; rumor rumour; labor labour;
behavior behaviour; harbor harbour, etc. Elicit from the students the number of people
Students can find more examples of differences they identified in the previous listening
between American and British English at activities, and ask them to write these names on
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm the board as they appear in their book:
Presenter (P), Expert (E), Student 1 (St. 1),
4 (Learning ability: to make predictions). Student 2 (St. 2) and Student 3 (St. 3).
Inform students that they are going to listen to Play the recording once or twice again and then
a special presentation. Based on the previous check answers on the board.
activity and on the pictures in Exercise 1,
Answers
students try to predict the topic of the
a. Presenter. b. Student 1. c. Student 3.
presentation, choosing from the provided
d. Student 2. e. Expert. f. Expert.
alternatives. Do not check answers at this point.
PAGE 35 8 18 (Learning ability: to transfer information to
WHILE YOU LISTEN a diagram).
Remind students to check the learning abilities they This activity requires concentration and careful
will develop with each of the activities and preparation. Read the instructions with the class
comment on their expectations and interests. and make sure they understand the items they
have to choose from to complete the
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
information in the diagram.
This presentation on television is an infomercial a a. Read the items in the box aloud and ask
long advertisement that tries to give a lot of students to repeat them, to help them to
information about a subject, so that it does not get familiar with what the words sound like.
appear to be an advertisement. In this case, it is a Read the parts of the process that already
scientific presentation with an expert talking to a have a name (Steps a., c., e., g., i. and k.).
live audience of students. Students now have to listen and put the
5 18 (Learning ability: to validate predictions). names in the box in the empty slots: Steps
Play the recording of the infomercial once b., d., f., h. and j. Play the recording once or
through for students to check their prediction in twice for students to do this task. Ask them
Exercise 4. If you notice that most students have to compare answers with a partner before
identified the correct topic before finishing the checking orally.
first listening, stop the recording and check Answers
their answers. Step b. Microfiltration in drum filters.
Answers Step d. Removal of flocs.
c. Step f. Disinfection.
Step h. Active carbon filtration.
Step j. Aeration.

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 61


b. Before listening again, students must check
Student 1: Stage 2 looks complicated. What is it?
which formulas from Exercise 2 are already
written in the diagram. Once they have
Nick: Its the addition of chemicals.
identified which formulas they have to Student 2: Chemicals? What for?
insert, play the presentation again for them Nick: Look at letter c. If we add calcium oxide and
to find in which of the two empty sodium hydroxide there will be pH adjustment.
rectangles they should go. Look at letter d.; when we add iron chloride we
Answers will remove humid acids and suspended
Stage 2, step d: FeCl3 iron chloride. particulate matter. Separators then settle and
Stage 5, step i: NaClO - sodium hypochlorite. remove flocs.
Student 3: What is step e.?
9 18 (Learning ability: to find specific information). Nick: When water is placed in a reservoir, there will be
As by now the students have listened to the softening through natural aeration or using
presentation several times, fast learners may be sodium hydroxide. If there is natural filtration,
prepared to answer these questions without softening will take place naturally.
listening again. If this is the case, read the Student 1: What is stage 3?
questions with the whole class and ask those Nick: Stage 3, step f. is disinfection using either sodium
fast learners to put up their hands when they
hypochlorite or ozone. If ozone is used it will kill
hear the answer to the first question, stop the
bacteria and viruses, it will improve taste and
recording and check their answer. Do the same
with the second question. If you notice that the odour properties and break down micropollutants.
students have got tired of listening to the Student 2: Why is the picture in stage 4 very similar to that
presentation, skip this activity. You can do it the in stage 1?
following class, as part of a revision activity. Nick: Stage 4 is the process of fine filtration, while
Answers stage 1 was pre-filtration.
a. The water that comes from rivers, lakes and Step g. shows slow sand filtration to remove
streams. residual muddiness and harmful bacteria. Notice
b. If there is natural filtration, softening will that if sand filters are backwashed with water
take place naturally. and air every day they will keep their filtrating
capacity for a long time.
TRANSCRIPT LISTENING - WATER 18 Student 3: What is step h.?
The speakers have an English accent. Nick: Active carbon filtration. Unless water streams
Presenter: The following programme is sponsored by through a granular activated carbon layer in a filter
Watertech, the company in charge of our drinking it will retain particles affecting taste and odour.
water. With you, their expert, Nick Rogers. Student 1: What is stage 5?
Nick: The diagram on the screen explains the Nick: Preservation and storage. When we add sodium
purification of surface water, the water that hypochlorite in Step i. we will guarantee the
comes from rivers, lakes and streams. All the preservation of quality. The water is now ready
stages in the diagram have a number and the to be distributed to users.
steps in each stage have a letter. Step j. is aeration. If there is aeration we will
Stage 1 is prefiltration. recover the oxygen supply of the water before
In step a. water is stored in reservoirs, where storing it. Step k. shows that the remaining
aeration, softening and pH-adjustments take place. water is stored in drinking water reservoirs.
Step b. is rapid sand filtration or microfiltration In our next session Ill explain (fade)
in drum filters.

62 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

PAGE 36 11 (Learning ability: to consolidate a grammar point).


AFTER YOU LISTEN Refer students back to the explanation of the
Remind students to check the learning abilities they use of unless in the Language Note. Do the
will develop with each of the activities and sentences orally first. Give students some time
comment on their expectations and interests. to copy the sentences into their notebooks and
then re-write them using unless. Check answers
10 (Learning ability: to synthesise information). asking different students to write the new
Ask some students to copy the diagram on the sentences on the board.
board, while others contribute information and
write some clues on the board for each stage Answers
and step of the process. Give groups some time a. Unless you pay attention you will not
to complete their summaries and help and understand the explanation. / You will not
correct while walking around the class. Check understand the explanation unless you pay
that students use appropriate verbs in their attention.
descriptions (See transcript). b. We will not give him the chemicals unless he
asks politely. / Unless he asks politely we will
not give him the chemicals.
c. Unless she sends the information now it will
Language Note Connectors of condition
not arrive before the meeting. / The
For more information on the Language Note see information will not arrive before the
page 8 of the Introduction. meeting unless she sends it now.
This section provides information on connectors of d. I will not let anyone take part in the
conditions such as when, if and unless. experiment unless I know who they are. /
Additional exercise can be found at Unless I know who they are I will not let
http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise- anyone take part in the experiment.
english-2/exercise-english-45666.php
PAGE 37
Answers point 4
If we add calcium oxide and sodium hydroxide 12 (Learning abilities: to reinforce grammar and
there will be pH adjustment.
vocabulary / to complete a paragraph).
When we add FeCl3 iron chloride we will
Research shows that the vast majority of words
remove humid acids and suspended
and structures are learnt from context. Make
particulate matter.
sure you give this opportunity to your students.
If ozone is used it will kill bacteria and viruses.
Invite students to describe the photograph
If sand filters are backwashed with water and
saying what kind of weather they can see and
air every day they will keep their filtering
how they think the boy feels. Help them to
capacity for a long time.
notice that the paragraph they will have to
When we add sodium hypochlorite in Step i.
complete is connected with the topic of the
we will guarantee the preservation of quality.
lesson water but it is not a scientific text.
If there is aeration we will recover the oxygen
Tell the students to work in pairs, read the
supply of the water before storing it.
incomplete story, then read the words in the box
and finally try to fill in the blanks in the story with
those words. Check their answers on the board.
If appropriate according to your students
interests, you can ask them to compare this
story to some Chilean legends, like La Pincoya, a
legend from Chilo.

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 63


BACKGROUND INFORMATION
TRANSCRIPT - MINITEST / ORAL PRACTICE 19
La Pincoya is a woman who lives in the sea. She has
long golden hair and wears a seaweed dress. It is said Anna has a Russian accent and Claire has an English accent.
that when she was just a child she cried for a long Anna: Do you think it will rain at the weekend?
time, so she became water. Huenchula, her mother, Claire: Im not sure, but I think its quite possible.
threw her into the ocean. In this way she became a
Anna: What will we do if it rains?
woman. She rules fishing. It is said that if she is seen
dancing in the ocean facing the land fishermen are
Claire: If it rains well stay at home.
not going to have a good catch. On the contrary, if she Anna: I dont think its such a good idea.
is seen dancing facing the sea fishermen will have Claire: Why not?
good fishing. She also rescues those men who have Anna: Because its so boring!
got lost after a shipwreck, taking them into the Claire: Well, thats your opinion. And what do you suggest?
Caleuche. Anna: If it rains we will go to the Hard Rock Cafe.
http://www.chatham.edu/PTI/2004%20units/ Claire: Why not? Sounds like fun.
Introduction%20to%20Folktales/gonzales%20unit.pdf
Answers Answers
David is a special teenager; when the sun Claire: Im not sure, but I think its quite possible.
sleeps, water gives him amazing powers. If he Claire: If it rains well stay at home.
is down, it will rain all night long. If there is a Anna: Because its so boring!
house on fire, he will bring water from a river to Anna: If it rains we will go to the Hard Rock Cafe.
extinguish it. The only problem is that
whenever he falls in love there will be several 14 APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING (Learning
typhoons at the same time in several parts of ability: to tell a story).
the world, unless the girl loves him back; in that For more information on the Application Tasks
case he will increase the amount of fish in see page 9 of the Introduction.
rivers, lakes and oceans. Read the instructions carefully with the class,
making sure they know what they have to do in
13 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning). each of the steps.
This MINITEST has several components. First, the Help them to choose one of the pictures on page
students have to apply the First Conditional, 34, Exercise 1, and try to get at least two groups
then they have to use their own ideas to working with the same picture. Remember that the
complete the missing parts, and finally, they process of discussion and preparation of the task is
have to role play the dialogue. as important as the final product, so encourage the
Give them time to read the incomplete dialogue groups to use English as much as possible, and to
carefully, then they have to work individually to use their imagination to add details to what they
complete it with their own ideas. Walk around the can actually see in the pictures.
classroom checking their answer as they finish. Assign a time limit to the preparation of the
Give them one point for each correctly completed descriptions. Once they have finished, go through
blank. Then play the recording for them to listen, the evaluation criteria with the class, form pairs of
compare their answers with the recording and groups that worked with the same picture, and
mainly, to imitate intonation and pronunciation. tell them to say their descriptions and to evaluate
Give students a few minutes to practise the each other using the evaluation chart. Take this
dialogue in pairs and then ask them to role play it. opportunity to emphasise the importance of fair
If there is time, ask all pairs to role play in front of play, respect for other peoples performance and
the class while you assign between 1 and 4 points respectful silence to listen to their classmates.
to their performance. If not, ask students to get
together with another pair and to evaluate each
others performance in the same way.

64 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

15 (Learning ability: to reflect on the contents of 2 You can ask the whole class to find the answers
the lesson and relate them to personal to these questions. Alternatively, you can divide
experiences). the class into two groups, each group answers
This is a roundup exercise where students are one question and then they share their answers,
asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the or you can ask fast finishers to do it.
lesson both in grammar and vocabulary as well Answers
as on their opinions. In this case, questions a. a. Vapour, liquid water, rain , hail, snow.
and b. invite students to reflect on what / how b. Because water does not disappear, but
they have learnt and question c. promotes changes from one form to another, and
reflection and discussion comparing what they moves from one place to another.
learnt in the unit and their own reality.
PAGES 38 - 39 3 Tell students to study the schedule first before
CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES doing the exercise. Students work in pairs.
For more information on this section see page 8 of Encourage them to take turns to ask and
the Introduction. answer, giving full answers to each of the
questions.
1 Students should be familiar with the water Example: If I play volleyball on Monday I will
cycle from their science lessons, so this not be able to take drama club or
activity should be fairly easy for them. If communication skills.
necessary, you can ask them to work in groups Answers
and describe the cycle in Spanish, trying to a. If I play volleyball on Monday I will not be able
identify the words they would need to fill in to take drama club or communication skills.
the blanks in the diagram. Then they read and b. If I take guitar classes I will do them twice
use the words and expressions in different a week.
colours in the text to write their definite c. If I take guitar classes I will need my own
version of the complete diagram. guitar.
Answers d. If I play basketball on Tuesday I will not
a. precipitation. f. run off. (wont) be able to play football.
b. snow. g. transpiration. e. If I take communication skills I will have to
c. hail. h. condensation. go on Monday and Wednesday.
d. rain. i. rivers and streams. f. If I take Drama Club on Monday I will also go
e. suns heat. j. lakes and oceans. on Tuesday.

This may be a good opportunity to draw students 4 Students work in pairs, examine and describe
attention to the pronunciation of the last syllable in each picture carefully and then complete the
the words ending in ation, all of them with a soft dialogues according to the pictures.
sibilant sound, like the one we use to request Answers
silence / /. a. If there is another tremor that wall will
Other words with the same ending: collapse / fall down.
abbreviation communication definition b. If you dont like tap water you can drink
election function generation hallucination bottled water / mineral water.
immigration jubilation (= alegra, not jubilacin) c. Of course we will, unless it is raining / it is
legislation migration narration obligation very cold / the weather is horrible.
plantation quantification radiation station
translation undulation - vaccination, etc.

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 65


PAGES 40 - 41 Questions and Answers
JUST FOR FUN Which countries are mentioned in this text?
For more information on the JUST FOR FUN section Chile and Canada.
see page 7 of the Introduction. Why are they mentioned?
Students can work in pairs or small groups, and Because they signed a free trade agreement.
check their answers on their own, using the answers When did this happen?
provided in their book. In February 1997.
What two parallel agreements does this
PAGE 41
agreement contain?
CHILEAN CONNECTION
An agreement of work-related cooperation and
For more information on this section see page 7 of an agreement of environmental cooperation.
the Introduction. What are the main objectives of the agreement?
Students work in pairs or small groups. To strengthen cooperation between both
This is a particularly challenging text, so be countries and to ensure the efficient application
prepared to provide support, help with vocabulary of internal environmental laws and regulations.
or have dictionaries at hand. What other important points are also mentioned?
You can also elicit / give some key vocabulary The promotion of sustainable development,
before students begin to read: cooperation in conservation, protection and
Free trade agreement = acuerdo de libre comercio improvement of the environment, the
Strengthen = reforzar promotion of effective and economically
Measures = medidas efficient environmental measures.
What is an important aspect of the
To guide the students reading, you can write agreement of environmental cooperation?
questions like these on the board for students to The promotion of transparency and the public
read the text and find the answers. You can check participation in environmental management.
answers orally with the whole class, or ask students What have Chile and Canada done in
to compare answers with other pairs / groups. Avoid connection with this?
using these questions as a testing device; their Both countries have created web sites of the
purpose is to help students to read and find the agreement.
answers, focusing their attention on particular points. What for?
To provide clear and updated information on
the subject.

66 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

PAGES 42 - 44 LISTENING A RADIO QUIZ 20


TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE 7. a. ii.
b. i.
Answers
c. ii.
READING - RYAN'S STORY d. ii.
1. c. e. i.
2. a. The year Brian learnt that people were 8. a. Music.
did not have clean water to drink. He b. tickets.
decided that raising money for these c. disco.
people would be a good thing and d. before.
worked for four months to earn some e. line.
money. 9. a. the Rolling Stones.
b. US$70: The first money Brian earned to b. Maroon Five.
help people who didnt have clean c. on the line.
water to drink. d. Seventeen.
c. The number of countries that have e. songs.
received water and sanitation projects
from Ryans foundation. TRANSCRIPT LISTENING A RADIO QUIZ 20
d. The number of people who have
benefited from Ryans project. The presenter speaks with an English accent. Jenna speaks
3. a. False. b. False. c. True. d. True. with a Scottish accent. Jack speaks with an American accent.
4. a. To earn money to build a well / to help Presenter: The prize, a Maroon Five concert ticket for two, is
people who were dying because they sponsored by the Music Netline. Remember, if
didnt have clean water to drink. you answer the question correctly, you can get
b. The need for clean water around the world. two tickets to a concert. So call us now and in
c. He plays basketball and ice hockey, and the meantime, Ill repeat the question. Which
loves playing video games. popular band from the 70s is named after the
d. He will be attending the University of
elements? Yes? I hear we have the first caller.
Kings College in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Hello, there! Whats your name?
LANGUAGE Jenna: Jenna.
5. a. If / When the weather is good we will Presenter: So, Jenna, whats the answer to our question?
go to the seaside. Jenna: Im not that sure, but I think it must be the
b. When / If he knocks on the door I /
Rolling Stones.
someone will open the door. / Unless he
knocks on the door, nobody will open
Presenter: Sorry, Jenna. Wrong answer, so therell be no
the door. / I wont open the door. tickets for you tonight.
c. If / When you give me some money I will Jenna: What a pity! I really love Maroon Five.
wash the dishes. Unless you give me
some money I will not wash the dishes. /
I will not wash the dishes unless you
give me some money.
6. a. If.
b. unless.
c. Unless.

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 67


Presenter: Maybe next time. Here comes the question WRITING
again: Which popular 70s band is named after 11.The students use the information in the
the elements? I can also add that they played a report in Lesson 1 to write a letter. Draw
fusion of disco, funk and jazz. And here comes a students attention to the number of words
small sample of their music. Come on, the the letter should have in each paragraph
questions really easy. Yes? Another caller. and in total. Assign points according to
Whats your name? Hello? I think were having these criteria:
some technical problems. Sorry, no luck. Yes, we Student writes appropriate information
have somebody else on the line. in each paragraph, without spelling
mistakes and using the appropriate
Jack: Hi, Jack here. I think I know the answer.
letter format. 7 - 10 pts.
Presenter: Now, are you sure? Student writes appropriate information
Jack: Well, Im pretty certain. Of course, its a band in most of the letter, with a few spelling
that played long before my time. mistakes, with relatively appropriate
Presenter: How old are you, Jack? letter format. 3 - 6 pts.
Jack: Seventeen. Student does not write appropriate
Presenter: Yes, its a band your dad probably listened to. information, makes a lot of spelling
Jack: Actually, it was my mother. And I think its Earth, mistakes and does not use the
Wind and Fire. Am I right? correct letter format. 1 - 2 pts.
Presenter: Absolutely! Three elements out of four. And what
PAGE 45
a band it was! Jack, you win two tickets to a
SELF EVALUATION
Maroon Five concert on Sunday in Detroit. Please
stay on the line to take your details. And you, See notes on this section on page 8 of the
listeners enjoy a few more songs with this band. Introduction.
Go through the different parts of the self-evaluation
SPEAKING sheet with the students. Remind them that there
10.Assign points according to these criteria. are two main parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR
GENERAL PERFORMANCE.
Student can talk about natural
disasters and their prevention in Chile, For YOUR TEST RESULTS they have to work out their
using the suggested expressions, score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read
with a minimum of hesitation and their results and reflect on them. Help them to think
with good pronunciation. 7 - 10 pts. of what they can do to improve results, solve
Student can talk about natural disasters problems, give or get help, etc.
and their prevention in Chile, using YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection
some of the suggested expressions, on their involvement with the main OFTs discussed
with some hesitation and with some in the lessons and invites them to think about their
pronunciation mistakes. 3 - 6 pts. learning strategies and attitudes.
Student cant talk about natural
disasters and their prevention in Chile;
he / she doesnt use the suggested
expressions, hesitates a lot and makes
a lot of pronunciation mistakes. 1 - 2 pts.

68 UNIT 2
UNIT 2
EXTRA TEST UNIT 2

READING - AN EARTHQUAKE PROTECTION PLAN

-
-Original Message @gmail.com ]
From: Sofia [mailto: sofia2009
10, 13:52 AM
Sent: Wednesday, July 13, 20
To: James Oswald
plan
Subject: Earthquake protection

Dear James, e case of an


sch oo l tri es to protect its students in th
You asked me ho w my e who told
ha d a vis ito r fro m ou r local Emergency Offic
earthquake. Today we He told us about
n in th e case of an earthquake.
us about an ev ac ua tio n pla tion procedures.
mu st ke ep in mi nd when planning evacua
some vital points we
r teachers and
we sh ou ld tak e a few minutes with ou
First of all, he sugg es ted at a good
to di scu ss an ev acua tion plan. He told us th
me
with our families at ho n of our home or schoo
l. Then we should
to sk etc h a flo or pla should plan a
idea would be ss ev ac uation details. Next, we
om an d di scu that if
walk through each ro or are a, if po ssible. The expert said
ea ch ro om
second way to exit from be a good idea to
me nt , su ch as a rope ladder, it would
we needed spec ial eq uip where our
d. He as ke d us to ma rk on the plan the place
mark where it is locate kits, and fire extinguish
ers are located.
foo d, wa ter, fir st aid
emergency our
ing s to rem em be r is to decide the location of
nt th sure that all of us
One of the most importa me eti ng place. We must make
ou ps ou td oo r
familys or our gr
ilding.
are able to leave the bu portant
or sch oo l pla n rea dy , we must write down im
e dical centres. The
Once we have the hous e, fire, paramedics, and me
ers , su ch as po lic bours and
telephone numb a to ha ve the numbers of our neigh
s a go od ide , such as
expert also said it wa in ca se we ha d no access to our home
gh t ne ed on.
some information we mi dic ati on s we ne ed to take regularly and so
er, the me
the car registration numb in case of an
s vis it I th ou gh t th at nothing could be done ourselves.
Before the expert at we ca n do lots of things to protect
am su re th
earthquake, but now I earthquakes happen pe
riodically everybody
su ch as ou rs wh ere
In a country
should be prepared. ase contact
inf or ma tio n us efu l an d if you need more, ple
I hope you find this
Office.
your local Emergency
al.
Love Taken from: Equipo editori
Sofia

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 69


1 Read the text and answer these LISTENING - A HORSE WITH NO NAME
questions. 4 pts.
a. Where is the school visitor from?
b. What special equipment is mentioned in
the mail?
c. Why do we need to prepare ourselves in
case of an earthquake?
d. What numbers should we have at hand in
the case of an emergency?

2 Read the text again and correct the false


information in these sentences. 3 pts.
a. First of all, he suggested we should take a
few minutes with the Emergency Officers to
discuss an evacuation plan.
b. He asked us to mark on the plan the place
where our family members are located. 4 21 Listen and identify the word
c. We must write down important addresses, you hear. 5 pts.
such as police, fire, paramedics, and a. There was sand / sound and hills and rings.
medical centres. b. It felt good to be out of the city / rain.
3 Read the mail once more and find phrases c. I was looking at the river bank / bed.
used by the writer that have similar meaning d. After nine days, I let the horse run far / free.
to these. 3 pts. e. Under the cities lies a heart made of
a. Decide where you are going to meet gold / ground

5 21 Listen again and fill in each blank


b. We should consider an alternative way to with one word. 5 pts.
get out of each room or area.
a. On the first part of the journey the person
saw ____________, and ____________, and
c. We should make a picture of the floor. ____________ and things.
b. The ____________ is a desert with its
____________ underground.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL
70 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

LANGUAGE SPEAKING

6 Choose the best option to complete the 8 Take turns to ask and answer
sentences. 5 pts. these questions. 10 pts.
a. If he doesnt phone you today a. What will you do if you get a poor mark in
i. he will do it tomorrow. this test?
ii. he will go to the party. b. Who will you phone if you know you are
b. If you give me a 10% discount going to get home late?
i. I will not return. c. Where will you go if you want to celebrate
your birthday?
ii. I will buy two of those.
d. What will you say if you meet your ex-
c. Unless you ask her politely
boyfriend / girlfriend in the street?
i. she will not help you.
e. Where will you go if you want to buy tickets
ii. she will talk to you. to a very popular concert?
d. When people get together
WRITING
i. there is trouble.
ii. they can achieve great things. 9 Choose one of these issues and
e. Unless he works really hard prepare an action plan. Use not more
i. he will pass the test. than 60 words. 10 pts.
ii. he will not pass the test. a. A fire prevention plan.
b. An evacuation plan.
7 Fill in the blanks in these sentences with
c. A school anniversary celebration plan.
when, if or unless. 5 pts.
a. ____________ you do your homework now,
youll be free all day tomorrow.
b. Joanna will be sad ____________ we tell her
the dog has run away.
c. Youll be really tired tomorrow
____________ you dont go bed soon.
d. ____________ you do it well I wont be able
to accept your work. 0 to 11 25 38 50
10 to 24 to 37 to 50 PTS
e. ____________ she keeps practising, shell
KEEP TRYING REVIEW WELL DONE! EXCELLENT! TOTAL
get better.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 71


ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 2

READING - TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - A HORSE WITH NO NAME 21


AN EARTHQUAKE PROTECTION PLAN
1. a. From Jamess local Emergency Office. The speaker has an American accent.
b. A floor plan, a rope ladder, emergency On the first part of the journey
food, water, first aid kits, fire extinguishers. I was looking at all the life;
c. Because earthquakes happen There were plants and birds and rocks and things;
periodically in Chile.
There was sand and hills and rings.
d. The telephone numbers of our neighbours
The first thing I met was a fly with a buzz
and some information we might need in
case we had no access to our home, such And the sky with no clouds;
as the car registration number. The heat was hot and the ground was dry,
But the air was full of sound.
2. a. First of all, he suggested we should take a
few minutes with the Emergency Officers Ive been through the desert on a horse with no name,
to discuss an evacuation plan. It felt good to be out of the rain;
First of all, he suggested we should take a In the desert, you can remember your name
few minutes with our teachers and with our Cause there aint no one for to give you no pain.
families at home to discuss an evacuation plan. After two days in the desert sun,
b. He asked us to mark on the plan the place My skin began to turn red;
where our family members are located.
After three days in the desert fun,
He asked us to mark on the plan the place
I was looking at a river bed
where our emergency food, water, first aid
kits, and fire extinguishers are located. And the story it told of a river that flowed
c. We must write down important addresses, such Made me sad to think it was dead.
as police, fire, paramedics, and medical centres. After nine days, I let the horse run free
We must write down important Cause the desert had turned to sea;
telephone numbers, such as police, fire, There were plants and birds and rocks and things;
paramedics, and medical centres. there was sand and hills and rings.
3. a. Decide the location of our familys or our The ocean is a desert with its life underground
groups outdoor meeting place. And a perfect disguise above;
b. We should plan a second way to exit Under the cities lies a heart made of ground,
from each room or area. But the humans will give no love.
c. We should sketch a floor plan of our
home or school.
LISTENING - A HORSE WITH NO NAME 21
4. a. sand. b. rain. c. bed. d. free. e. ground.
5. a. plants / birds / rocks. b. ocean / life.

72 UNIT 2
UNIT 2

LANGUAGE NOTES
6. a. i. b. ii. c. i. d. ii. e. ii.
7. a. if. b. when. c. if. d. Unless. e. If.
SPEAKING
8. Assign points according to these criteria.
Student can ask and answer the questions
using the correct structures, with a
minimum of hesitation and with good
pronunciation. 7 - 10 pts.
Student can ask and answer the questions
using some of the correct structures,
with some hesitation and with some
pronunciation mistakes. 3 - 6 pts.
Student cannot ask and answer questions;
he / she does not use the correct structures,
hesitates a lot and makes a lot of
pronunciation mistakes. 1 - 2 pts.
WRITING
9. The students use the information in the unit to
write an action plan of not more than 60 words.
Assign points according to these criteria:
Student writes appropriate information in
his / her action plan, without spelling
mistakes, in appropriate paragraphs.
Length according to instructions. 7 - 10 pts.
Student writes appropriate information in
most of his / her action plan, with a few
spelling mistakes, with relatively appropriate
paragraph distribution. Slightly longer /
shorter than required. 3 - 6 pts.
Student does not write appropriate
information, makes a lot of spelling
mistakes and does not use paragraphs.
Much longer / shorter than required. 1 - 2 pts.

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS 73


UNIT 3 PROFESSIONS

In this unit you will learn to: You will also learn:
READING: scan a text to find specific information / match titles and headings with GRAMMAR: modal verb should to express suggestions and
extended information. the expression had better to offer
LISTENING: identify specific information / transfer information into a graphic recommendations.
organiser. VOCABULARY: words and expressions related to jobs,
ORAL professional conduct and job applications.
PRODUCTION: participate in a guided dialogue / role play a job interview.
WRITTEN
PRODUCTION: write a Curriculum Vitae. You will use the following text types:
FUNCTIONS: offer and receive suggestions and recommendations. READING: an article / a Curriculum Vitae.
LISTENING: job offer radio announcements.

You will pay special attention to these values:


The importance of work and professional ethics.
Why we should work for our living.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS


If available, use of complementary material such as English language newspapers and magazines with
the classified ads section and other job advertisements. A good online source is
http://www.jobisjob.co.uk and http://www.job4good.com. For comparison, you can use Chilean
magazines and newspapers with job offers.
Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries,
definitions, printed handouts, library material, notes.

74 Unit 3
PAGE 46 OTHER POSSIBLE SOURCES:
INTRODUCTION Websites, word of mouth (from friends or relatives),
job advertisement section of a newspaper,
Invite the students to examine and describe the magazines, local municipality, recruitment agencies,
photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. radio advertisements, etc.
Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of
the unit and make comments on the things they 3 Collocation is the relationship between two
already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. words or groups of words that often go
Draw students attention to the values that will be paid together and form a common expression. If the
more attention to, and ask them to anticipate what expression is heard often, the words become
issues will be discussed in connection with them. glued together in our minds, like crystal clear,
PAGE 47 middle management, nuclear family, cosmetic
surgery, etc. Some words are often found
HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? together because they make up a compound
Explain to students that this page of each unit will noun, for example riding boots or motor cyclist.
contain activities meant to identify and activate This exercise tests collocations with the words
their previous knowledge of the topic and related job and work. Give students plenty of time and
vocabulary to establish the starting point for the advise them to work in pairs.
activities that will follow. They will also help to Source: Hill, Jimmie & Lewis, Michael LTP Dictionary of
detect weaknesses that will require extra work and Selected Collocations ISBN: 1 899396 55
support and to contextualise the contents that will Answers
be developed and present cognitive challenges. Job: job application, job centre, job description,
Although all the activities have been assigned job interview, job search; dangerous job, day
points, the results do not indicate success or failure, job, full-time job, outdoor job.
but help to identify the points mentioned in the Work: work clothes, work environment, work
previous paragraph. experience, work force; team work, dangerous
Give students time to form groups and discuss the work, hard work.
exercises that can be done in groups, and
encourage them to reflect and be honest when Encourage students to work out their score and
doing those that require individual responses. read what it indicates. Give help to those students
Discuss with students or ask them to talk in groups who get low scores and praise those who seem to
about the jobs they would like to have in the future. be better prepared for the contents of the unit.
Talk about their families and friends and the jobs Make notes of any useful information about what
they have. students already know that you can use later when
developing the lessons.
1 Ask students to read the business cards (1- 4) PAGE 48
and match the professionals with the job LESSON 1 READING
descriptions (a. d.). Make sure that students PREPARING A CV
understand the vocabulary. Tell students that
the pictures in the cards will help them to guess. BEFORE YOU READ
Give them four or five minutes to complete the Remind students to check the learning abilities they
activity. Tell them to assign themselves points will develop with each of the activities and
for each correct answer. (See Students Book). comment on their expectations and interests.
If possible, bring some English language magazines
2 Ask students about the places where they think or newspapers with job advertisements. If not,
people can look for jobs. Ask them if they know bring Spanish language newspapers and
where their friends or family members got their magazines to show students the section(s) where
jobs. Tell them to begin their answers with: people usually look for jobs.
People should / people might Ask students to look at the cartoon and discuss it.
How do they understand the word responsible? Why
is the cartoon funny?

PROFESSiOnS 75
1 (Learning ability: to connect content and PAGE 49
previous knowledge). WHILE YOU READ
Tell students to form small groups. Read the
questions with them and ask them to answer 4 (Learning ability: to find and match specific
and discuss them. information).
Ask them to present their findings / opinions to The reading text has three components: an
the rest of the class. Do students have the same article on CV writing PREPARING A CV (page
experiences / opinions? 50), a sample CV template (page 51) and tips for
Draw students attention to the American v/s British CV writing (page 51). Tell students to first have a
English box, and help them to notice that totally look at the sample CV. Ask them to read the
different words are used in each variety of English. headings (a. f.) and then place them back in
Students can find more examples of differences the sample CV (I. VI.).
between American and British English at Answers
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm a. VI. b. I. c. V. d. II. e. III. f. IV.
2 (Learning ability: to connect pictures and topic). 5 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).
Ask students to look at the four pictures and Tell students to discuss their choices in Exercise
describe them. Tell them to read the list of 3 with other students. Then ask them to check
suggested qualities for each job. Tell them to their predictions and also compare with a
pay close attention to the structure: You classmate; were they the same or different?
should . Students match the suggestions
Answers
(a. d.) with the jobs in the pictures (1 4).
a., b., c., e., f., g., j.
Answers
a. Picture 4 - ambulance driver. 6 (Learning ability: to find specific information).
b. Picture 2 - trapeze artist. Scanning is a technique often used when
c. Picture 3 - party entertainer. looking up something in the telephone book or
d. - Picture 1 - wildlife photographer. in a dictionary. People search for key words or
ideas. In most cases, they know what they are
3 (Learning ability: to predict using previous looking for, so they are concentrating on finding
knowledge). a particular answer. Scanning involves moving
Ask students if they have ever written a CV. In the eyes quickly down the page seeking specific
what situation? Have they sent or presented the words and phrases. Scanning is also used when
CV? Were they successful in getting the job they one first finds a resource to determine whether
applied for? Was it difficult to include all the it will answer ones questions.
information they wanted? We often use scanning when the objective is to
A wealth of CV samples can be found at find specific information.
http://www.cv-service.org . They are
Answers
downloadable in pdf and can be used for the class.
Party entertainer.
Ask students to read the list of headings. Which
headings do they think should be included in a
CV (P)and which ones should not (O)? Which Did you know that...
information is optional (?)?
Do not check their answers at this stage. See page 8 of the Introduction.

76 Unit 3
UNIT 3

7 (Learning ability: to relate information). AFTER YOU READ


Ask students to work in small groups. Ask them Remind students to check the learning abilities they
to read the tips on page 51 and decide which of will develop with each of the activities and
them should be expressed as a positive comment on their expectations and interests.
recommendation - should - and which ones as a 10 (Learning ability: to consolidate key vocabulary).
negative recommendation - shouldnt. Once
It is advisable to check if students have
they place the correct word in the provided
assimilated key words from the reading text.
blanks, ask them to read the whole tip aloud
Frequently, an exercise is provided in the
do the tips sound correct? Check answers orally.
Students Book, as in this case. However, you are
Answers advised to design your own exercises given that
Tip 1: You should. Tip 5: You shouldnt. you know what your students might find difficult.
Tip 2: You should / Tip 6: You shouldnt. You can do this exercise as a competition. The
you should. Tip 7: You shouldnt. winner is the student who first gets the four
Tip 3: You should. Tip 8: You shouldnt. words correct and writes them on the board.
Tip 4: You should. Answers
a. interview. b. scholarship. c. advertisement.
8 (Learning ability: to locate information). d. employer.
This is another application of the scanning
technique. Students look for specific required ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
information in the tips. Check answers orally. a. Write a list of words on the board in their root form:
Admit Apply Common
Answers Compete Employ Engage
a. Tip 2 and Tip 5. b. Tip 4. c. Tip 3. d. Tip 6. Market Publish Spell
b. Ask students to go back to the text and find the
9 (Learning ability: to find specific supporting
derivatives from the root words. Some of them
information).
might have more than one form.
Answering questions helps students to get the
Admit - admission. Apply - applying.
gist of the text. Take into account that the
Common - commonly. Compete - competition.
sentences the students will produce will
Employ - employer. Engage - engagement.
sometimes be awkward, but, as the objective of
Market - marketing. Publish - publishing.
the activity is to guide comprehension, you
Spell - spelling.
should favour correct information rather than
perfect use of language. PAGE 52
Answers 11 22 (Learning abilities: to summarise
a. We need a CV to apply for a job, to apply for
information / to imitate a spoken model).
a scholarship, to be admitted to a university,
This exercise helps students to summarise the key
to apply for speaking engagements, lectures,
information for CV writing. Ask students to work in
conferences or to publish your work.
pairs and read the questions (a. e.) and the
b. You can explain what you have included in
answers (i. v.) Tell them to write the questions
the CV.
and the corresponding answers in their notebooks.
c. You should promote your qualities and
Subsequently, play the recording for students to
skillsand avoid your shortcomings and
check their answers. Once the conversation is in
problems.
the correct order, ask the pairs to repeat after the
(Encourage students to share examples of recording and then role play the dialogue.
qualities / skills and shortcomings / problems).
Answers
See transcript.

PROFESSiOnS 77
TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 22 12 (Learning ability: to consolidate a grammar point).
This exercise uses everyday activities students
Speaker A has an Indian accent and Speaker B an English accent. might encounter. Ask them to offer appropriate
A: Should I tell my future employer about my experience as a recommendations and suggestions. After they
party entertainer? have written the sentences, tell them to justify their
B: Only if you are applying for a position in the entertainment choices. Help them along with prompts and
business. questions: why should the man not drive and talk
A: Would you recommend that I include my photo in the CV? on the phone at the same time? Why is it important
B: Only if you are a model or an actor and your appearance to be well-mannered when we share a meal? etc.
is important. Possible answers
A: Why should my CV be concise? Picture 1: The man should not /ought not to
B: Because no employer will want to read a CV several pages long. talk on the phone while driving.
A: What happens if I lie about my work experience? Picture 2: The girl should wear different
clothes to a job interview.
B: You might be caught out because employers often do a
Picture 3: The boy should/ ought to / might
background check on candidates. want to apologise.
A: Why is it important to check spelling and grammar? Picture 4: The girl might want to put on
B: Because employers pay attention to grammar and spelling something warmer.
errors. Picture 5: The boy should mind his table
manners / shouldnt put his elbows on the table.
PAGE 53
Recommendations and
Language Note suggestions
13 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate progress).
This section deals with the ways we can express This minitest allows students to evaluate their
suggestions and recommendations: should, ought
performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson
to, might.
Should and ought to have the same meaning. and also to consider evaluation as a continuous
They are used to give advice, or say what is the process throughout the book. Read the instructions
right thing to do. Might is most commonly used to aloud, make sure that all the students understand
express possibility, but we can also use it to make them clearly and set a time limit to complete the
suggestions or requests, although this is less task. Students should copy the situations in their
common in American English. notebooks and write the corresponding
recommendations. Help students to check their
Answers Point 3 answers and work out their scores. You may ask
You might want to prepare yourself... students to keep track of their progress and then
Below is a list of things you should and should evaluate their overall performance in the Minitests
not do.
after two or three units.
You will find an example of a CV you should fill
in as practice. Possible answers
You should prepare for the job requirements. a. You should / ought to eat more healthy food
You should use clear formatting. and watch your diet.
You should be neat. b. You might want to talk to her / him and
You should check your spelling. forget about your differences.
You should not use text boxes. c. Sheila should not drive without a driving
You should not include the reasons... licence. She ought to pass a driving test.
You should not lie about your experience. d. You might want to talk to them and ask
You should not include a photo. them to bring the volume down.
Your employer might want to judge... e. He should inform the police immediately
and get a new ID card.

78 Unit 3
UNIT 3

Draw students attention to the American v/s British format. Recommend they use simple fonts (Arial or
English box, and help them to notice the different Times Roman) in size 10 to 12. Ask them to print out
spelling of the word. their CVs to see if the format has been maintained.
Students can find more examples of differences
between American and British English at 16 (Learning ability: to reflect on the content of the
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm lesson and relate it to own experiences).
This is a roundup exercise where students are
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the
You could take this opportunity to look at the
lesson, in terms of abilities, content, grammar and
different uses of the word licence:
vocabulary and also encourages them to express
Do you think that you have licence (permission)
their opinions concerning important values
to behave the way you want?
explicitly or implicitly stated in the texts and
They have a licence (authorisation) to use the
activities. Refer students again to the first exercise
Word and Excel program.
in the unit, encourage them to share answers in
The restaurant is licensed to use the Disney characters.
their groups and / or with the whole class and
He has a licence (degree) to teach primary and
motivate them to substantiate their answers.
secondary school.
PAGE 54
14 (Learning ability: To consolidate key vocabulary LESSON 2 - LISTENING
through a game). ADVERTISING FOR JOBS
Read the instructions for the game with the
class. If necessary, demonstrate how to play with BEFORE YOU LISTEN
a small group of students. During the game, 1 (Learning ability: to connect content and
monitor students performance, correct previous knowledge).
grammar and pronunciation and make sure that Refer students back to Exercise 2 on page 47,
everybody gets a chance to participate. where they discussed places to find job
15 APPLICATION TASK WRITING advertisements. Ask them to indicate which ones,
(Learning ability: to write a text following a model). in their opinion, are the best places to look for jobs.
This is an individual task. Ask students to read the Have they or their friends / relatives found jobs
instructions carefully and answer any questions through one of them? Ask them to talk about their
they may have. Make sure they go back to the CV own / their friends experiences in applying for jobs.
template and check once again all the information 2 (Learning ability: to identify the correct
that should be included in a successful CV. Ask sequence of events).
them to re-read the tips (1 8), to know what to Write these sequencing words on the board and
include or not. Help and correct students work ask students to put them in the correct order
while walking around and encourage them to (First / To begin with, Second / After that / Next /
evaluate each step of the task. At the moment of Then, Finally / Last).
evaluating their own work encourage them to be Tell students to describe the cartoons and match
honest. Ask them to exchange the CVs and proof them with the corresponding sentences (a. c.)
read each others work. Highlight the importance Then, tell them to sequence the actions using
of respecting everyones work and offering positive the sequencing words.
/ constructive comments.
If you have time, collect all the CVs and correct them. Answers
Cartoon 1: First - a. - Picture 2.
ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENT
Next - b. - Picture 3. Finally - c. - Picture 1.
Ask students to take their hand-written CVs home if
Cartoon 2: First - a. - Picture 6.
they have access to a computer or use the schools
Next - b. - Picture 4. Finally - c. - Picture 5.
computers to type up the CV following the correct

PROFESSiOnS 79
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY PAGE 55
Ask students to think of an event or an article /
book they have read or a film they have seen and WHILE YOU LISTEN
write three sentences without using sequencing 6 24 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).
words. Tell them to mix the sentences up and read Play the recording once or twice and ask
them in random order to the rest of the class. Other student to check their predictions in Exercise 4.
students must put the sequence of events in the Check answers orally.
correct order using sequencing words. The student
who wrote the sentences indicates if the sequence Answers
is correct. Choose several students to do the same. a., b., e., g., h.

3 (Learning ability: to relate topic to own experiences). 7 24 (Learning ability: to find specific
Ask students to work in pairs or small groups. information identifying the order).
Tell them to read the statements (a. h.) and Read the four names of jobs with the class and
rank them from most to least important when make sure they identify the correct pronunciation.
choosing a job /profession. Tell pairs / groups to Ask them which of the four jobs they find the
compare their choices. most interesting. What are the advantages and
4 (Learning ability: to predict general information). disadvantages of each one? Then play the
Students try to predict the subject of the text recording at least once more so students can
they are going to listen to based on the previous identify the word in the recording and place a
exercise. Do not check answers at this point. number next to it indicating the order in which
Remember that When students make they appear. Remind them that one of the jobs
predictions, their understanding increases, and will not be mentioned. Check answers orally.
they are more interested in the material. Answers
Students use their background knowledge as well 1. Assistant chef. 2. Film extra. 3. Legal secretary.
as clues from the text....to predict and anticipate or
logically guess what the text will be about. 8 24 (Learning ability: to transfer relevant
(Fielding, Anderson, Pearson, 1990) information to a visual organiser).
The predicting process must be then rationalised Ask students to copy the chart into their notebooks,
(why?), checked (through reading / listening) and making it slightly bigger than in the book; this way
substantiated (proved). This is done in a subsequent they will be able to place all the necessary
exercise in the While you Listen / Read part of the information. Play the recording again. Ask different
lesson. Always make sure that predictions are students to complete the chart on the board.
checked once they have listened to or read the text. Answers
23 (Learning abilities: to identify and pronounce Job title Working Salary Location How to apply
5 hours
key words). Assistant Ten to twelve Good Cruise ship Application
Tell the students that these key words will appear chef hours per day, letter to Jennifer
in the listening texts, and that it is important that seven days a Spells, of The
week, for 6 Mediterranean
they know their meaning and what they sound weeks at a time. Cruise Company
like. Go through the words with them, give them After that, two
a few minutes to check meanings in dictionaries, weeks off.
and then play the recording. First they only listen Film extra 9am - 6pm for US$30 a Not Call Noel at
ten continuous day mentioned. 07 - 654 32 56.
to the words, and then they listen and repeat. days.
Legal Regular work US$20,000 Outside Contact Tanya
TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION 23 secretary hours, from nine a year Brisbane. Wood on
to five. 07 - 324 30 33 or
crew crowds feature film frustrated hiring shoot at tanya.wood@
hays.com.au

80 Unit 3
UNIT 3

9 24 (Learning ability: to discriminate between continuous days. Lunch and snacks will be
correct and incorrect information). provided during the shoot. There are NO
This is an activity to improve fine listening skills restrictions - the film company needs all types of
and help students to discriminate between people, all races, any age, and any nationality.
words / sounds. It might be necessary to play the The bad news is that you get paid only 30 dollars
relevant parts of the recording more than once. a day, but the up side is that youll see your face
Answers in cinemas around the world. Call Noel at 07 -
a. prepare and serve. b. resume. 654 32 56.
c. types. d. in cinemas. Speaker III: And last but not least anyone looking for fast
24 promotion and extra benefits should apply for
TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - ADVERTISING FOR JOBS
this job. A law firm is hiring a legal secretary.
All the speakers have an Australian accent. Salary: 20,000 dollars per year. To be considered
Announcer: If you are looking for a job, listen carefully to for this position, candidates should have
these advertisements from our community extensive previous secretarial experience in the
service. legal industry. Youd better have your own car too
Speaker I: If you enjoy cooking, love travelling around the because the firm is based outside Brisbane.
world and have the necessary qualifications, Regular work hours, from nine to five. To apply or
youd better pay attention to this one. The to find out more information, please contact
Mediterranean Cruise Company is looking for an Tanya Wood on 07 324 30 33 or at
assistant chef. Its a full time position for this tanya.wood@hays.com.au
summer so if job stability is your thing youd Source: http://www.filmextras.co.uk/listing/00000762 ,
http://jobview.careerone.com.au/GetJob.aspx?JobI
better not apply for this job. You will be required D=83286735
to prepare and serve meals to both passengers http://www.cruiselinejob.com
and the crew. The salary is good, but you should
AFTER YOU LISTEN
be able to work ten to twelve hours per day,
seven days a week, for six weeks at a time. After 10 (Learning ability: to infer relationship between
that, you get two weeks off. You should have a content and new information).
minimum of two to four years experience in the This exercise is based on Blooms taxonomy of
culinary or restaurant industry, and extra learning. Through this exercise students apply
training is available. So if you want to apply for their cognitive learning and also get emotionally
this job youd better get your resume ready involved with a situation, expressing their
because the interviews are starting next week. opinions and attitudes. They combine the six
steps defined by Bloom as necessary for an
Interested parties should send their CV and a
effective and complete learning process.
short application letter to Jennifer Spells, of The
Mediterranean Cruise Company, PO Box 201, 1. Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list,
memorise, name, order, recognise, relate, recall,
Sydney.
repeat, reproduce, state.
Speaker II: This one will certainly attract the crowds. Ever 2. Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss,
considered yourself a frustrated entertainer? explain, express, identify, indicate, locate,
Youd better get your pen ready and write down recognise, report, restate, review, select, translate.
the details because this is the job for you. Aussie 3. Application: apply, choose, demonstrate,
Films is looking for 35 extras for a major feature dramatise, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate,
film starring Daniel Craig and Emma Watson. practise, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
Extras should be on set from 9am to 6pm for 10

PROFESSiOnS 81
4. Analysis: analyse, appraise, calculate, Draw students attention to the American v/s British
categorise, compare, contrast, criticise, English box, and help them to notice the different
differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, spelling of the word.
experiment, question, test. Students can find more examples of differences
5. Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, between American and British English at
construct, create, design, develop, formulate, http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differen
manage, organise, plan, prepare, propose, set ces.htm
up, write.
6. Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, 12 25 (Learning abilities: to consolidate key
choose, compare, defend, estimate, judge, structures and participate in a guided
predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate. conversation).
Source: Designing and Managing MCQs: MCQs and Blooms Taxonomy. Ask students to work in pairs. They should read
http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/exams/blooms-taxonomy.html
University of Victoria the dialogue and complete it with the correct
structures. Help them to revise when we should
Answers
use had better and when should. Play the
a. Film extra. b. Assistant chef. c. Legal secretary.
recording for them to check their answers, and
PAGE 56 then listen, repeat and practise the
conversation. Choose a few pairs to role play the
dialogue in front of the class.
Language Note Had better versus should Answers
See transcript.
This section deals with the differences between
general and specific recommendations, namely TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 25
should versus had better. Both of them express an
emotional, practical, or other reason for doing The employer has a German accent and the employee speaks
something, but in the case of had better we refer to with an American accent.
a specific situation, while should is used for general Employer: The rules are simple. You should arrive at 8.30
recommendations.
More useful information can be found at am and leave at 6 pm.
http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/hadbetter/ Employee: No problem. And the working days?
menu.php Employer: We work from Monday to Friday.
Employee: Are we off at the weekends, then?
11 (Learning ability: to consolidate a language point). Employer: Yes. Saturdays and Sundays are free.
Help students with prompts and questions to Employee: How about transport?
talk about the situations in the photos. What is Employer: You might want to talk to some colleagues to ask
happening? Why? How can the situation be them where to take the bus. When you come in
changed? Tell students to read the three
you should sign this card so well know youve
statements and then write a recommendation
arrived. You should also sign it before leaving.
using had better for each one. Check orally.
Employee: How about lunch? Can I buy something here?
Possible answers Employer: Youd better bring your lunch from home because
a. Youd better take the bike to the garage and the nearest restaurant is 20 minutes from here.
get the tyre repaired. - Picture 3.
Employee: How about work clothes? Should I bring my own
b. Youd better get inside and get out of the
rain. Picture 1.
or do we get clothes here?
c. Youd better not swim now; the waves are Employer: Youll get a uniform, and you should wash it
too big. Picture 2. every week.
Employee: Thanks for the information.

82 Unit 3
UNIT 3

PAGE 57 15 (Learning ability: to reflect on the content of the


lesson and relate it to own experiences).
13 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning). This is a roundup exercise where students are
This minitest allows students to evaluate their asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the
performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson lesson, in terms of abilities, content, grammar and
and also to consider evaluation as a continuous vocabulary and also encourages them to express
process throughout the book. Read the their opinions concerning important values
instruction aloud, make sure that all the students explicitly or implicitly stated in the texts and
understand them clearly and set a time limit to activities. Refer students again to the first exercise
complete the task. Help students to check their in the unit, encourage them to share answers in
answers and work out their scores. You may ask their groups and / or with the whole class and
students to keep track of their progress and then motivate them to substantiate their answers.
evaluate their overall performance in the
Minitests after two or three units. Draw students attention to the American v/s
British English box, and help them to notice the
Possible answers different spelling of the word.
a. Hed better tell his parents right away. Students can find more examples of differences
b. Shed better leave the cat alone. between American and British English at
c. Hed better turn off the gas. http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm
d. Theyd better hurry up or theyll miss the bus. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
Time is usually of the essence when doing a class,
14 APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING so teachers tend to omit wrap up exercises. Most
(Learning ability: to participate in a guided teachers say that their lessons usually end in one of
conversation through role play). three ways:
See notes on this section on page 7 of the 1. The rest of the lesson that could not be finished
Introduction. in class is assigned as homework.
It is important to prepare the setting for the 2. The teacher wraps up the lesson quickly because
exercise. Make sure that the classroom is turned the class has come to an end.
into an interview room it will help students to 3. The teacher asks: Are there any questions? (to
get the feeling of a real interview situation. Let which the answer is usually silence).
them work in groups they feel most comfortable It is of the utmost importance to do a wrap up
with. In groups, they choose the job they like the activity (see notes on Blooms taxonomy of learning
most and assign or draw roles interviewees and on page 81 of this book). If there is no wrap up three
interviewers. They can later change roles. whole parts of the learning process are missing:
Give them at least 10 minutes to prepare the 1. Analysis
questions indicated in the instructions. At this 2. Synthesis
stage, they can read them from their notes. 3. Evaluation
The interview should last between five and eight Here are a few other wrap up activities applicable to
minutes. Go around the room to different groups this lesson and to other end of class activities.
to check pronunciation and grammar. Make notes 1 minute sentence. Time students for 1 minute and
to give students feedback after the exercise. ask them to write the most important thing they
Ask students how they felt. Were they learnt, the biggest question they still have, etc.
comfortable with their roles? What was the Ask students to write a note to themselves about
most difficult task? How could they improve what they want to focus on in the next class /
their performance? Discuss their body language week / course, etc.
and gestures. Ask the interviewers what they Ask students to try and remember 10 points
thought about the interviewees and vice versa. about the information they learnt in the lesson.

PROFESSiOnS 83
Ask students to name at least one word from the If he wants to be a sports coach he should be
lesson for each letter of the alphabet. good at sports. And if he wants to work in a
Allow each student the opportunity to think pharmacy he should be good at chemistry.
about something they would do differently if ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
they had the day / class over again. Offering advice / suggestions / recommendations.
Have students draw a mind map of the a. Prepare some 10 pictures cut out from a magazine
information they learnt in the class. or a newspaper depicting different situations.
Give each pair of students an index card. Ask b. Show students one of the pictures, ask them to
them to write down everything they can describe it and then ask them:
remember about the days content. i. What should this person do?
Source: M. Meier & T. Panitz. (2006). End on a High Note: Better Endings
ii. What would you recommend?
for Classes and Courses. LET THE ADVENTURE BEGIN
iii. What would you suggest?
PAGES 58 - 59
PAGES 60 - 61
CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES
JUST FOR FUN
See notes on this section on page 8 of the Introduction. See notes on this section on page 7 of the
1 Ask students to have a look at the three Introduction. Remind students that they should do
advertisements, check vocabulary they might the activities on their own, without much intervention
not know and then read and complete the from you, but help and support when necessary.
sentences (a. f.)
Answers
Possible answers 1.
a. If you want to organise a party you should I. The men were musicians.
hire the services of Fiesta House. II. Not a single one because he has a pear
b. Johns car broke down. Hed better call tree.
Cubex to repair it. III.The man carries the chicken across the
c. Emma hates cleaning. She might want to get river, leaves the chicken and comes back.
Cinderellas Home Services to help her out. He gets the fox, leaves the fox and gets
d. If you need to change your windscreen the chicken. He leaves the chicken and
youd better phone Cubex. takes the corn. He leaves the fox and the
e. To contact Cubex you should phone them corn and gets the chicken.
or visit their Website. IV. He omits to count the camel he is on.
f. To plant flowers in your garden you might V. The fat dog is the little dogs mother.
want to hire Cinderellas Home Services. 2.
a. Youd better wear different clothes to the
2 Students use the visual clues to complete the interview.
e-mail. b. Youd better proofread your CV and
Answers correct the errors.
1. supermarket cashier. 2. numbers. c. Youd better get up immediately.
3. pilot. 4. licence 5. school. 6. languages.
7. chemistry. 8. like / love. PAGE 61
CHILEAN CONNECTION
a. Celia told Julio that he should choose something
that he is good at and something he really loves Let students read the section on their own and then
doing. comment it in their groups. Promote comparison
b. If he wants to be a supermarket cashier he between the foreign and the Chilean contexts
should be good with numbers. If he wants to encountered in this short text and in the unit,
work in tourism he should be good at languages. making sure students give each one its own value.

84 Unit 3
UNIT 3

Ask students to describe their own visit to the


TRANSCRIPT LISTENING - APPLYING FOR A JOB 26
circus. What did they think of the show? Which part
did they like the best? Do they think that the circus Jennifer speaks with a Canadian accent.
tradition is worth preserving? Jennifer: Hello, is this Royal Victoria Hospital? I am calling about
PAGES 62 - 64 the advertisement in yesterdays paper. Could you put me through
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE to the Personnel Department, please? Thank you. I will hold.
(Pause)
Answers Hello, is this the Personnel Department? Im calling about the ad
READING WOMEN AND CLAY in yesterdays paper. I would like to apply for the position of
1. a. Piln is a small rural town near Cauquenes, nurse. Do I have an application form? No, sorry; I dont. Could I
in the Maule region. just give you the details on the phone? Yes? Great! OK, Im ready.
b. The Piln women artists are known as (Pause)
the loceras de Piln. Jennifer. Jennifer Grant.
c. Delfina learnt her craft from her mother (Pause)
and grandmother. Here, in Montreal. The address is Montreal, 235 Oak Street.
d. The women make their figures by hand Phone number is 359-6279.
and dont use a wheel.
(Pause)
e. Delfina had 12 children.
f. For Delfina it is an honour to be part of
No, I have no mobile phone.
the tradition. (Pause)
2. a. At the handicrafts fair in Parque Fully qualified paediatric nurse.
Bustamante. (Pause)
b. She has long braids, bright eyes and a Code? Im sorry.What code? Oh, just hold on a minute. I will look.
refreshing smile. (Pause)
c. Her mother died. Here it is N 1223.
d. Her daughter works in a car repair (Pause)
garage. Yes, of course I can give you my employment history. Im
e. No, they dont. They think they should unemployed at the moment, but my last job was at the Montreal
be doing other jobs.
Childrens Hospital. I was replacing a nurse on maternity leave. I
LISTENING APPLYING FOR A JOB started in May and finished in November.
3. a. i. b. ii. c. ii. (Pause)
4. b., c., e. Thats right. The last day of November.
5. Personal Information:
(Pause)
First and Last Name: Jennifer Grant.
Salary? 420 dollars a week. It was just part-time and I was
Address: Montreal, 235 Oak Street.
Phone Number: 359 62 79. replacing someone.
Job code: 1223. (Pause)
Employment History: Excuse me? Could you repeat that, please? I think theres
Last Position: nurse. something wrong with the line
Where: Montreal Childrens Hospital. (Pause)
Worked from: May to: November. When do you think youll be calling for an interview?
(Pause)
Sure, no problem. I do hope you call me. Yes. Thank you so
much. Bye.

PROFESSiOnS 85
LANGUAGE WRITING
6. a. i. b. ii. c. ii. 9. Students use the information provided in
7. If you are hungry you should eat the short advertisement to develop it into a
something. full one for the position of a personal
Your head still hurts? Then youd better take assistant. They should include all the parts
some aspirin. indicated: the job location, the profile of the
If you think youve lost your credit car you ideal candidate and his / her duties. They
should phone the bank immediately. must use the structures learnt in the lesson
When you go to Rio de Janeiro you might to indicate advice / recommendations /
want to see Sugar Loaf Mountain. suggestions. The ad should be coherent
The car is too small for such a big family, so and proof read to eliminate grammar and
you might consider buying a bigger one. spelling mistakes.
SPEAKING Assign points according to the following
criteria:
8. Assign one point for each correct
All required information is included,
suggestion / piece of advice.
the number of words is followed and
Also evaluate fluency, pronunciation,
there are very few grammar and
coherence and involvement.
spelling mistakes. 7 - 10 pts.
Possible answers
Most of the required information is
A combination of ought to, had better, might
included, a small difference in the
want to plus correct pronunciation and
word limit. Not a significant
intonation.
number of spelling mistakes or
a. A: I have to terrible headache.
grammar errors. 3 - 6 pts.
B: You should take an aspirin.
Very little of the required information
b. A: I had an argument with my boyfriend /
included. The text is too short and
girlfriend.
there are lots of grammar and
B: Youd better talk to him / her.
spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 pts.
c. A: I need to buy an inexpensive gift.
B: You might find something at the crafts PAGE 65
fair. SELF EVALUATION
d. A: Im in love but I am keeping it secret.
B: You should tell the person how you feel. See notes on this section on page 8 of the Introduction.
e. A: I crashed my bike and Im scared to tell my Go through the different parts of the self-evaluation
parents. sheet with the students. Remind them that there
B: You ought to tell them what happened. are two main parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR
f. A: Im not sure what to study in the future. GENERAL PERFORMANCE.
B: You should consider your skills and what For YOUR TEST RESULTS they have to work out their
you really like. score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read
g. A: I would really like to have a pet. their results and reflect on them. Help them to think
B: Youd better talk to your parents first, and of what they can do to improve results, solve
then visit a pet shop or a vet. problems, give or get help, etc.
h. A: I would really like to invite him / her out. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection
B: You should call or text him / her now on their involvement with the main OFTs discussed
and invite him / her to the cinema. in the lessons and invites them to think about their
learning strategies and attitudes.

86 Unit 3
UNIT 3
eXTra TeST UNIT 3

reaDING - hoW To SUcceeD aT Job INTerVIeWS

g for answers
t yo ur ne xt job interview, are lookin
If you are anxious ab
ou out from
yo u m ig ht ge t as ked, and want to stand
ns
to the tough questio t jo b, you have come to a
unique site.
th at ne xt gr ea
the crowd for b, and most
tio n th at sto ps you getting the jo
Often, it is som e tin y ac idates just do
it. Th e va st m ajo rity of interview cand
people never reali se ve the
t of th e co m pe titio n long before they lea
not know they are ou
interview room. at next job
to yo u. Before you go into th
Do not let th at ha pp en ink about, if you
kn ow th e kin d of things you should th
interview, get to
e job.
really want to get th
hoping they can
I. ________________
___________
e wh at qu es tio ns they are asked, and
s waiting to se
rn up at job interview
Most interviewees tu n how to
st m an ag e. Th at is a mistake. ge tting th e jo b th an anything else. Lear
ju ve more to do with
the interview will ha your interviewer.
W ha t yo u do be fo re
th e po in ts th at wi ll really ring bells with
ckground all
pick out from your ba
elf.
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ jo b is ho w yo u perfo rm at the interview its
II. ________ t what gets you the ally gets the
m e or CV m ay ge t you the interview, bu % of th e decisions on who fin
A good resu iewer s - in fa ct , 90 much more
ar an ce ha s a po we rful impact on interv m pa nies tru st wh at they see and hear
Visual appe rview, because co
b in a co m pa ny ar e made during the inte
jo
.
than what they read
ould prepare a
III. ______________
_____________ ld alw ay s stay in control. You sh
but yo u sh ou atedly, and
un de r pr es su re du ring your interview, ke d, yo u ge t your key points across repe
You may feel question you are as
, wh ich will ensure, whatever
PO INT PL AN y for the job.
ce th e in te rv iew er that you are truly read
convin
_____________ get an offer. In
IV. ______________ e ofte n pu zz led as to why they did not
o thought they did qu
ite well ar ich put them off.
Some interviewees wh en tio n qu irk s or ha bits of applicants wh
ten m
, interviewers will of
rejecting candidates
___________ tever else you
V. ________________ y tim e yo u go fo r a job interview. Wha
ember an
the key things to rem
We have mentioned at the fore nt of yo
fro ur mind. .net/
ep th es e po in ts /www.job-interview
remember, ke Taken from: http:/

PhoTocoPIable maTerIal PROFESSiOnS 87


1 Read the web page and put these headings 3 27 Listen to a conversation and
back into the correct places (I. V.). 5 pts. choose the best answer. 3 pts.
a. The Interview! a. Who is the woman?
b. Presenting Yourself On The Day i. A consultant.
c. Final Words of Advice ii. A mother.
d. Dos and Donts iii. An employer.
e. Before The Interview b. What is the young man doing?
i. Applying for a job.
2 Read the text again and decide which actions ii. Asking for a favour.
you should and which ones you shouldnt do. iii. Requesting information.
Write them in the chart. 6 pts. c. What are they talking about?
i. A job advertisement.
YOU SHOULD... YOU SHOULDNT... ii. A job interview.
iii. Preparing a CV.

4 27 Listen to the conversation again and


circle the word you hear. 6 pts.
a. I saw an advertisement for a job that could /
might interest me.
b. Youll probably need / require an interview to
meet them face to face.
c. Education references are also quite / very
lISTeNING - PreParING a cV important.
d. You might also include / provide contact
information for the references you mention.
e. In an application form the format is usually
free / set.
f. Most / Some cover letters are only three
short paragraphs.

5 27 Number the issues in the order they


are mentioned. 4 pts.
a. _____ Covering letters.
b. _____ Information that must be included.
c. _____ Organisation of document.
d. _____ Proofreading of document.

PhoTocoPIable maTerIal
88 Unit 3
UNIT 3

LANGUAGE SPEAKING

6 Complete this advice for a new employee on 8 Work in pairs and role play a conversation in
his / her first day at work. Use should / shouldnt / which Student A has to prepare her / his CV
had better and the verbs in the box. 5 pts. and student B offers advice and
recommendations.
arrive go to bed listen say wear
Use the expressions and the vocabulary you
a. You _________ clothes that are too casual. learnt in the unit and pay attention to
b. You _________ early on the first day. pronunciation and intonation. 10 pts.
c. You _________ early the night before.
d. You _________ that your last job was better. WRITING
e. You _________ to any useful advice your
workmates give you. 9 When sending a resume, most people include a
cover letter to introduce themselves. Imagine
7 Use had better to complete these sentences you are applying for a job and write a cover
with a suitable recommendation. 3 pts. letter to introduce your CV. Remember that
most cover letters are only two or three short
a. Its getting late. We ________________ now.
paragraphs and they should capture the future
b. The test is next week. I_________ right now.
employers attention. Pay attention to spelling
c. Its getting cold. You _________ the window.
and grammar too. 10 pts.

0 to 11 26 40 52
10 to 25 to 39 to 52 PTS

KEEP TRYING REVIEW WELL DONE! EXCELLENT! TOTAL

PhoTocoPIable maTerIal PROFESSiOnS 89


aNSWerS To eXTra TeST UNIT 3

READING - Mark: What kind of information should I include


HOW TO SUCCEED AT JOB INTERVIEWS in my CV?
1. a. IV. b. II. c. V. d. III. e. I. Mrs. Brandon: You must include contact information, such
2.
as your name, address, e-mail address and
YOU SHOULD... YOU SHOULDNT... telephone number, and of course the type
prepare for the mention / show quirks of work or specific job you are applying for.
interview beforehand. or habits which put Education references are also very
employers off. important.
learn how to pick out Mark: Should I mention my previous working
from your background experience?
all the points that will
Mrs. Brandon: If requested, yes. And you might also
really ring bells with
your interviewer. provide contact information for the
references you mention.
worry about your visual
appearance. Mark: How should I organise the information?
Mrs. Brandon: Well, in an application form the format is
always stay in control.
usually set. Just fill in the blanks, but make
prepare a point plan.
sure you follow all the instructions. Dont
keep these points at the omit any requested information.
forefront of your mind.
Mark: What do I do if the format is not set?
LISTENING - APPLYING FOR A JOB Mrs. Brandon: There are many ways of organising the
3. a. i. b. iii. c. iii. information you want to include, but the
4. a. might. b. need. c. very. d. provide. most important information should usually
e. set. f. Most. come first. Whatever format you choose,
5. b. c. d. a. you should keep your resume short. Many
experts recommend that new workers use a
TRANSCRIPT LISTENING PREPARING A CV 27
one-page resume.
Mrs. Brandon has an English accent and Mark has an Indian Mark: What else should I consider?
accent. Mrs. Brandon: Before submitting your resume, make sure
Mrs. Brandon: Hi, Mark. What can I do for you? that it's easy to read. Ask at least two
Mark Good afternoon, Mrs. Brandon. I saw an people to proofread it for spelling and other
advertisement for a job that might interest errors and make sure you use your
me and Im trying to prepare my CV, but I computers spell checker. Ah! One more
think Ill need some help. thing...When sending a resume, most
Mrs. Brandon: What do you need to know? people include a cover letter to introduce
Mark: First, why do I need a CV to apply for a job? themselves. Most cover letters are only
Why dont I just call the company and ask three short paragraphs. Your cover letter
for an interview? should capture the future employers
Mrs. Brandon: Well, CVs give employers the opportunity to attention and follow a business letter
see your qualifications and skills, and how format. Any other questions, Mark?
they match the job requirements, and then Mark: I don't think so. Thank you, Mrs. Brandon.
http://www.bls.gov/oco/oco20043.htm
you'll probably need an interview to meet
them face to face.

90 Unit 3
UNIT 3

LANGUAGE WRITING
6. a. shouldnt wear. 8. Assign points according to these criteria.
b. d better / should arrive. Student writes a cover letter that
c. d better go to bed. contains all the relevant information to
d. shouldnt say. introduce his / her CV, with no
e. should listen. grammar or spelling mistakes. 8 - 10 pts.
7. a. Wed better go / leave now. Student writes a cover letter that
b. Id better start studying. contains most of the relevant
c. Youd better close the window. information required to introduce
SPEAKING his / her CV, with a few grammar or
8. Assign points according to these criteria. spelling mistakes. 5 - 7 pts.
Student asks and answers questions Student writes a cover letter that
about preparing a CV, mentioning contains some of the relevant
all the required information, information required to introduce
with good pronunciation and no his / her CV, with some grammar or
hesitation. 8 - 10 pts. spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 pts.
Student asks and answers questions Student writes a cover letter that
about preparing a CV, mentioning contains very little of the relevant
most of the required information, information required to introduce
with good pronunciation and a his / her CV, with a lot of grammar
minimum of hesitation. 5 - 7 pts. or spelling mistakes. 0 - 2 pts.
Student asks and answers some
questions about preparing a CV,
mentioning half of the information
required, with some pronunciation
mistakes and with hesitation. 3 - 4 pts.
Student asks and answers a few
questions about preparing a CV,
mentioning very little of the information
required, with a lot of pronunciation
mistakes and a lot of hesitation. 0 - 2 pts.

PROFESSiOnS 91
UNIT 4 BEING ACTIVE

In this unit you will learn to: You will also learn:
READING: locate specific information in a text / identify sequence of events. GRAMMAR: prepositional and adverbial clauses.
LISTENING: find supporting information to answer questions. VOCABULARY: words and expressions related to sports and
ORAL physical activity.
PRODUCTION: participate in a quiz.
WRITTEN
PRODUCTION: write an itinerary. You will use the following text types:
FUNCTIONS: express certainty and uncertainty, knowledge and its lack. READING: an itinerary, a programme and a poem.
LISTENING: a TV quiz.

You will pay special attention to these values:


The importance of physical activity to have a healthy life.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS


Use additional materials such as travel brochures, cut-outs from English language newspapers and
magazines with travel destinations, sports articles, activities for young people, etc.
Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries,
definitions, printed handouts, library material, notes, etc.

92 UNIT 4
PAGE 66 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright requested a
patent application for a flying machine nine
Invite the students to examine and describe the months before their successful flight in December
photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. 1903. The first plane flew to an altitude of 3 metres,
Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of travelled 40 metres, and landed 12 seconds after
the unit and make comments on the things they takeoff. After making two longer flights that day,
already know, what they can do, what will be new, Orville and Wilbur Wright sent a telegram to their
etc. Draw students attention to the values that will father, instructing him to inform press.
be paid more attention to, and ask them to Two British aviators, Alcock and Brown made the
anticipate what issues will be discussed in first non-stop transatlantic flight in June 1919. They
connection with them. flew a modified World War I Vickers Vimy bomber
PAGE 67 from Newfoundland to Ireland.
An airship or dirigible is a lighter than air aircraft
HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT?
that can be steered and propelled through the air
Explain to students that this page of each unit will
using rudders and propellers.
contain activities meant to identify and activate
their previous knowledge of the topic and related Answers
vocabulary to establish the starting point for the All the statements are true.
activities that will follow. They will also help to
detect weaknesses that will require extra work and 2 Ask students what they do to relax and if they
support and to contextualise the contents that will participate in any competitive activities. Ask
be developed and present cognitive challenges. them if they know any competitive activities
Although all the activities have been assigned that are not sports (for example, quizzes,
points, the results do not indicate success or failure, karaoke games, card and board games, etc.).
but help to identify the points mentioned in the Tell them to discuss the six pictures in pairs and
previous paragraph. indicate which ones are competitive activities
Give students time to form groups and discuss the and which ones are for relaxation only.
exercises that have to be done in groups, and Answers
encourage them to reflect and be honest to do For relaxation:
those that require individual responses. Picture 1: flying kites.
Discuss with students or ask them to talk in groups Picture 5: going to art galleries.
about the name of the unit, how active they think Picture 6: going to concerts.
they are, the importance of physical and mental Competition-based:
activity, etc. Picture 2: playing basketball.
Picture 3: flying in a hot air balloon.
1 Before doing this exercise, offer a few Picture 4: swimming.
statements and ask students to say if they think
they are true or not, using the expressions 3 If the class is good, ask students to read the
provided in the exercise (Im sure / not sure, Im adjectives on their own; if you think your students
not quite certain, etc). Try to relate them to the will find it too difficult, ask some students to write
contents of this unit, i.e. flying and other the list of adjectives on the board and go through
interesting activities. them one by one with the class. Take advantage
Examples: of the fact that many of them are cognates and
Travelling by hot air balloon is really dangerous. ask students how cognates help them to
A hovercraft is a flying machine. understand texts or spoken messages and how
People do sports because they want to lead they can be misleading some times.
healthy lives.
Ask students to read the statements and Answers
express their certainty / knowledge about the Will vary, but check that students sentences
information provided. make sense and express their opinions.

BEING ACTIVE 93
PAGE 68 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
LESSON 1 READING A programme is a specially arranged selection of
FLYING things to be done or a written or printed list of the
events, performers, etc., in a public performance.
BEFORE YOU READ
An itinerary is a route or proposed route of a journey.
Remind students to check the learning abilities they
A timeline is a representation or exhibit of key
will develop with each of the activities and
events within a particular historical period.
comment on their expectations and interests.
PAGE 69
1 (Learning ability: to connect content and
previous knowledge). 3 (Learning ability: to find the meaning of key words).
Tell students to form small groups to answer A wide and varied vocabulary is the first step to
and make comments on the questions. success in language learning. These are some
Answers important points to bear in mind in connection
a. Icarus is a character in Greek mythology. He with vocabulary learning.
is the son of Daedalus and is commonly Comprehension improves when you know
known for his attempt to escape Crete by what words mean.
flight, which ended in a fall to his death Words are the currency of communication. Wide
when he got too close to the sun, which vocabulary improves all areas of communication
melted the wax on his wings. listening, speaking, reading and writing.
b. Aeroplane, helicopter, glider, dirigible, When children and adolescents improve their
shuttle, rocket, hot air balloon. vocabulary, their academic and social confidence
c. The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's and competence improve too, both in their
atmosphere which contains relatively high mother tongue and in the target language.
concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer It is also important that students learn how to use
absorbs 9799% of the sun's high frequency a dictionary. They will need the skill in the future.
ultraviolet light, which is potentially Answers
damaging to life on earth. Over 91% of the a. harmful. b. wrath. c. take off.
ozone in Earths atmosphere is present here. It d. peered. e. snacks / flight.
is mainly located in the lower portion of the
stratosphere from approximately 10 km to 50 4 (Learning ability: to predict content).
km above Earth, though the thickness varies It is important to interact with the text before,
seasonally and geographically. The ozone during, and after reading, listening, or viewing by:
layer is currently being damaged by the use of setting a purpose;
aerosols and by human-produced pollution. previewing the text;
Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer making predictions;
asking questions;
2 (Learning ability: to identify types of text). locating information for specific purposes;
Ask students to examine and read the three making connections.
texts in detail. What differences can they see? Students predict the contents of the text they
What are the similarities? Where can they find are going to read from the alternatives given,
these texts? Have they ever written a text like using also the title of the unit, the texts they
any of these? have examined and the previous exercises.
Answers Do not check answers at this point.
a. A programme. Draw students attention to the American v/s
b. An itinerary. British English box, and help them to notice that
c. A timeline. the word is spelled and pronounced differently
in each variety of English.

94 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

Students can find more examples of differences


8 (Learning ability: to infer information).
between American and British English at
Inference is the process of drawing a
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm
conclusion by applying rules (of logic, statistics,
WHILE YOU READ etc.) to observations or hypotheses. It is a
5 (Learning ability: to validate predictions). technique that students will use in their
everyday life in many areas. We can infer the
Students read the text quickly and check their
meaning of signs in a foreign country (for
predictions in Exercise 4.
example, the no smoking sign).
Answers In this exercise students read between the
c. lines they look for the meaning that can be
guessed from the words.
6 (Learning ability: to find and classify information).
Students scan the text to find the required Answers
information. Scanning is a reading strategy a. i.
involving rapid but focused reading of a text, in b. i.
order to locate specific information, looking for ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
particular details such as dates, names, or certain You can extend the inferring activity providing
types of words. It is processing a text at high speed other examples. You can use signs or sentences.
while looking for answers to specific questions. Here are a few examples.
When students use this technique they must What can you infer from the sentences?
begin with a specific question which has a specific 1. Travellers can take only one suitcase with them.
answer (for example, six places around the world). a. There is a limit of luggage permitted on the plane.
Answers b. The suitcase might get lost on the plane.
a. Rio de Janeiro, Stockholm, Australia, New 2. The pilot is worried because it is snowing today.
York, Hong Kong, Punta Arenas. a. Weather conditions might not permit the
b. To do business, to meet relatives, to have fun. plane to leave.
c. Fumes, burning wood, contaminating b. It is snowing so it looks beautiful and peaceful
industries, aerosols. outside.
d. Use cars less, recycle rubbish, protect our PAGE 72
skin and eyes.
9 (Learning ability: to identify sequence of events).
7 (Learning ability: to locate information). After students have read the text a couple of
Give students more time to read the text in detail. times, ask them to look at pictures 1 8 and put
This is a fairly difficult exercise and they might them in the correct order. They should justify
need your help. Walk around the classroom to their choices. As an additional activity, you can
offer help and tips. Check answers orally. ask them to write one heading for each picture.
Answers Answers
a. 7 a.m. b. 1 hour 15 minutes. c. we will check 3 5 7 4 2 6 1 8.
in at the international counter. d. will board.
e. takes off at 11.00 am. f. snacks will be
served. g. takes 5 hours. h. will collect our
luggage. i. will take us to the hotel. j. at 5 pm.

BEING ACTIVE 95
10 (Learning ability: to identify topic). Answers Point 3
Read the poem aloud or ask some students to do We are taking a plane to Rio de Janeiro.
it. The meaning of the most difficult words is given (Where?)
in the glossary. Ask student to identify the subject Our basketball teams are participating in the
of the text from the options given. Ask them to South American inter-school competition.
indicate the key words that helped them answer. (Where?)
Last week we got the itinerary from the travel
Answers agency. (Where?)
b. From the words fire and steel, wheel, engine, wings. We must get up really early to catch the bus to
the airport. (Which bus?)
11 (Learning ability: to find or infer specific They travel around the world to do business.
information). (Where?)
Ask students to write the answers to the I have my passport ready in my handbag.
questions in their notebooks. Check orally. (Where?)
Answers After we check in our luggage well go
a. They are participating in a sports through International Police control. (When?)
competition. I asked for one next to the window. (Where?)
b. They will go to play in Australia. I wonder if I can see the ozone hole from the
c. Because her science teacher told her that it air. (Where?)
is being depleted. Ozone is a kind of gas in the atmosphere.
(Where?)
PAGE 73 Theres a big ozone hole near Punta Arenas.
AFTER YOU READ (Where?)
All the nations in the world are now trying to
help. (Which nations?)
Language Note Prepositional phrases It shouldnt take that long and well be at the
hotel. (Where?)
See notes on page 8 of the Introduction. After a short rest we will go and visit the place
A prepositional phrase will begin with a
of the competition. (When?)
preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund
or a clause, the object of the preposition. In this
book we mainly deal with simple prepositional 12 (Learning ability: to consolidate a grammar point).
phrases, but teachers should be aware that a Ask students to use a pencil to underline the
prepositional phrase might end in a clause. A required phrases. Check answers orally.
prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or
an adverb. As an adjective, the prepositional Answers
phrase will answer the question Which one? a. According to Jenny, the plane left half an
For example: The house in the middle of my street hour ago.
is white. b. I cant complete the report without the
As an adverb, a prepositional phrase will answer relevant information.
questions such as How? When? or Where? c. In case of a disaster call this number.
We bought it before yesterdays class. d. Put the posters on your bedroom wall.
e. The text was translated by a professional
translator.
f. They studied in England for six months.

96 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

13 (Learning ability: to consolidate grammar and Possible answers


vocabulary). a. B: Where do you always take a walk?
The prepositional phrases in the exercise are A: We always take a walk on the beachfront
coined expressions that do not change. / on the beach / by the sea.
b. B: What time did Michael arrive?
Answers A: He arrived yesterday early in the
a. for ages. morning / at 7 oclock in the morning, etc.
b. under control. c. B: Where did you put the chair?
c. at the latest. A: I put the chair by the window / in the
d. for instance. sunlight.
e. In the meantime. d. B: When can we meet?
f. by the window. A: We can meet next Friday in the evening. /
on Friday at lunchtime, etc.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Prepositions are words that appear in front of nouns 15 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning).
or their substitutes (pronouns or noun phrases). Some This minitest allows students to evaluate their
frequently used prepositions are about, above, across, performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson
as, at, before, beneath, by, except, for, from, in, inside, like, and also to consider evaluation as a continuous
near, of, on, over, since, than, towards, under, up, with. process throughout the book. Read the
Prepositions are nearly always combined with other instructions aloud, make sure that all the students
words in prepositional phrases. Prepositional understand them clearly and set a time limit to
phrases can be made up of a different words, but complete the task. Help students to check their
they tend to be built in the same way: a preposition answers and work out their scores. You may ask
followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, students to keep track of their progress and then
followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of evaluate their overall performance in the
the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes Minitests after two or three units.
on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an
adverb, locating something in time and space, Answers
modifying a noun, or telling when or where or a. in. f. around.
under what conditions something happened. b. with. g. by.
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY c. to. h. apart from.
Bring to class any text cut out from a newspaper, d. in. i. By.
magazine, or photocopied from a book and ask e. to. j. at.
students to circle all the prepositions and underline
all the prepositional phrases they can find. As 16 22 (Learning ability: to role play a dialogue
prepositions are very common parts of speech, imitating a model).
students are bound to find lots of them. After you check students answers in Exercise 15,
PAGE 74 ask them to work in pairs. Encourage them to
introduce their own ideas wherever possible
14 (Learning ability: to apply a language item). and then role play the dialogue. Monitor
This exercise has a double aim: it helps students pronunciation and intonation.
to practise writing / asking questions Answers
(something that most students always find very Will vary, but see transcript to check the parts
difficult) and to apply what they have learnt that are most likely to be replaced.
about prepositional phrases. Ask them to use
the pictures provided as props.

BEING ACTIVE 97
TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 28 18 (Learning ability: to consolidate vocabulary
through a game).
Phil speaks with an American accent and Antonia with a Help students to read and understand the
Chilean accent. instructions, and make sure all the students in
Phil: Did you have a good time in Brazil? each group start at the same time (on the count
Antonia: I was absolutely delighted with Rio. of 3, for example).
Phil: Im sure it was great. What did you do? After students play the game, which is very
Antonia: First of all, we went to the beach. quick, get them talking about the different
Phil: Was the water in the ocean very cold? pictures and the concepts displayed. How are
Antonia: According to me no; it was fantastic. they linked to the title of the unit Being Active?
Phil: How did you move around the city? Answers
Antonia: We mainly walked, but we also visited a few Line 1: means of transport (ship / cruise, bus /
places by bus. coach, plane / airplane, train).
Phil: What else did you do? Line 2: activities (sunbathing, visiting a
Antonia: Well, apart from playing basketball, we visited museum / going to an exhibition, rock
the Botanical gardens. climbing / abseiling, shopping / buying
souvenirs).
Phil: Ive heard they are really big.
Line 3: places to stay (camping site, cabin,
Antonia: They are! By the time we got to the end I hotel, hostel).
could hardly walk.
Phil: And how was the flight? 19 (Learning ability: to reflect on the content of the
Antonia: Great and scary at the same time. text and relate it to own experiences).
Phil: Why? Students are asked to reflect on what they have
Antonia: Because of the funny feeling you get in your discussed in the lesson and decide if what they
belly at take-off and landing! have done has helped them to talk about the
topic of the lesson. Encourage students to
PAGE 75 discuss their answers to the questions in small
17 APPLICATION TASK WRITING groups, and to give and support their opinions
with respect for their classmates at all times. Pay
(Learning ability: to write a text).
special attention to questions c. and d., to
See notes on this section on page 7 of the
answer which they will have to evaluate
Introduction.
behaviour and moral issues.
Ask students to read the instructions carefully
and work in groups to prepare a real or PAGE 76
imaginary itinerary. One example might be their LESSON 2 - LISTENING
ideal class trip; it can be a national or an A COMPETITION
international destination, but they must
BEFORE YOU LISTEN
investigate the place and the means of
transport they would use. 1 (Learning ability: to connect content and
In the brainstorming part of the exercise, previous knowledge).
encourage them to use expressions such as Im Ask students to form groups they feel
sure / not sure, I agree / disagree, etc. comfortable with. Tell them to read and discuss
Tell students to check spelling and grammar the questions and take some notes of their
before they present their itinerary to their answers. Encourage them to give as much
classmates. information as possible about the volcanoes in
their area. Later, they should share their findings
Answers
and opinions with another group.
Will vary.

98 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY


Chilean volcanoes You can ask students to play a scientific version of
According to the Global Volcanism Program, Chile the stone, paper, scissors game. They form pairs and
has the regions largest number of historically active say one of these words associated with water, earth
volcanoes - 36 - ranking it 5th among nations, behind or wind:
Russia's 52 and ahead of Iceland's 18. Wind: hurricane and tornado.
Three of Chiles most watched and historically active Earth: earthquake and volcano.
volcanoes, Cerro Azul (Maule region), Hudson Water: flood and tsunami.
(Patagonia), and Villarrica (Araucana region) are The rules are:
composite volcanoes sometimes called Water beats Wind (hurricane and tornado)
stratovolcanos. They are typically steep-sided, with Wind beats Earth (earthquake and volcano)
symmetrical cones of large dimensions built of Earth beats Water (flood and tsunami)
alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, This game can be played online at
blocks and bombs and may rise as high as 2,500 http://www.fema.gov/kids/wwe.htm
feet above their bases.
On May 2, 2008, after more than 9,000 years of 4 (Learning ability: to identify key concepts).
silence, Chaitn volcano in southern Chile erupted. Take advantage of students previous
Radiocarbon dating of the last lava flow from knowledge and ask them to match the three
Chaitn volcano suggests that it had last erupted in types of volcano with their descriptions. The
7420 BC, give or take a few years. three words are cognates.
A comprehensive list of Chilean volcanoes can be Answers
found at http://www.volcanolive.com/chile.html a. extinct. b. dormant. c. active.

2 29 (Learning ability: to identify meaning and PAGE 77


pronunciation of key words).
Students might be familiar with the words from 5 (Learning ability: to identify useful listening
their natural science classes. Furthermore, some strategies).
of them are cognates. Play the recording and Go through the statements with the students and
ask students to pronounce them. ask them which strategies they have already used
in previous lessons. Have they helped them to
TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION 29 understand a recorded message? How? Encourage
them to use the strategies they find the most
cone crater fire lava smoke vent
useful in the listening activities that will follow.
3 (Learning ability: to match information and 6 (Learning ability: to predict general information
pictures that represent it). using previous knowledge and visual clues).
Ask students to match the words in Exercise 2 Listening is much more than just hearing; it is
with the corresponding parts in the picture. thinking about what one is going to hear and
Answers what one is hearing. Listening skills include:
a. Smoke. d. Lava. predicting outcomes, word differentiation,
b. Fire. e. Cone. following instructions, gap filling, etc. The first
c. Crater. f. Vent. exercise that can be done with listening extracts
is predicting. Tell students that, apart from just
looking at the pictures, they should take the
whole unit as the basis for making predictions.
What does the title of the unit tell them? How
about the other exercises in this lesson? Do not
check answers at this point.

BEING ACTIVE 99
WHILE YOU LISTEN
10 30 (Learning ability: to match specific information).
7 30 (Learning ability: to validate predictions). Ask the students to do the matching exercise from
Play the recording once for students to check what they remember about the recording. Then
their predictions. Were they right or wrong? play it again for them to check their answers.
Answers Answers
a. This is the recording of a television quiz a. iv.
show, in which two teams are competing. b. iii.
b. The quiz is about volcanoes. c. i.
d. ii.
8 30 (Learning ability: to classify specific
information). 11 30 (Learning ability: to identify speakers).
Ask students to read the questions before Ask different students to read the sentences
playing the recording again once or twice so aloud. Then play the recording again for
that they can focus their attention on the students to write the name of the speaker next
specific information provided in the questions. to the statement. Check answers orally.
Help them to notice how they should mark
Answers
each type of answer.
a. Presenter.
Answers b. Julie.
a. P b. P c. ? d. P e. O c. Presenter.
PAGE 78 d. Julie.
e. Stephen.
9 30 (Learning ability: to find and match f. Presenter.
information).
Ask students to read and copy the questions in 12 30 (Learning ability: to discriminate between
Exercise 8 into their notebooks, leaving plenty of correct and incorrect information).
space between them to write the answers. You After having listened to the recording at least
can ask keener students to write the possible three times, students should be able to determine
answers. Play the recording again and tell them the final score. If not, play the recording one more
to check / write the answers. Check orally. time and tell them to listen specifically to the
scores for each correctly answered question.
Answers
a. Mount Vesuvius. Answers
b. The crater, the vent, the cone. a.
c. It comes from the name of the Greek god
Vulcan.
d. Extinct.
e. Hawaii.
Draw students attention to the American v/s British
English box, and help them to notice that different
words are used in each variety of English.
Students can find more examples of differences
between American and British English at
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm

100 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

TRANSCRIPT LISTENING A COMPETITION 30 Stephen: Yeah, the same here.


All the speakers have an English accent. Presenter: It comes from the Greek god Vulcan. And youre
Presenter: Yes! Wonderful! Audience cheering and clapping right, you dont answer unless you have no doubts
for our two teams: The Red team from whatsoever. So, well go to question four. A volcano
Manchester City Secondary and the Green team that hasnt erupted for many years is called
from Notting Hill. Shout a little more loudly, as if dormant. If a volcanos not going to erupt ever
you were at a football match. again, what do we call it?
I cant hear you! If you try a little harder Im sure (Buzzer)
Ill be able to hear you! Julie: Extinct!
Presenter: Thats great! Now that you are shouting Presenter: Very good, Julie. 100 points for your team.
extremely loudly, we can start the show. Julies Which Pacific islands are completely made of
the captain of the Red team and Stephens the volcanic lava and ashes?
captain of the Green team. Ready? Hands on the (Buzzer)
buzzers? Presenter: Yes, Green team?
Julie: Red teams ready. Stephen: I think it might be Polynesia.
Stephen: Green teams ready too! Presenter: Sorry, Stephen. Its Hawaii. I told you - unless
Presenter: OK, so if you are both ready, Ill read the first youre absolutely sure its better not to answer.
question. I must tell you that its a difficult We must take away 100 points from your score!
question, although Im certain that both teams Sorry, kids, but rules are rules and even if you
will know the answer. This Italian volcano is dont like them, we must respect them! And now
responsible for the destruction of a whole city. we have the final question .
Sources: Investigating volcanoes at www.msnucleus.org
Whats its name? Volcanoes (Lets read and Find out Science 2) by Franklyn M.
(Buzzer) Branley and Megan Lloyd (Paperback March, 2008)
Presenter: Yes, Green team.
Stephen: Its Mount Vesuvius. AFTER YOU LISTEN
Presenter: Are you positive? No doubts? 13 (Learning ability: to develop study skills).
Stephen: Yes, I am 100% sure. Ask students to go back to Exercise 5 on page 77.
Presenter: Totally correct! 100 points for the Green team. Which techniques have they used while listening
Here comes question number two. Name at least to the quiz? Which ones have they found the
three parts of a volcano. most useful / effective? Which ones did not apply?
(Buzzer) Answers
Presenter: Red team this time. Will vary.
Julie: The crater, the vent, the cone.
Presenter: Absolutely right! 100 points for the Red team.
Oops! A little technical problem, but our
technicians will solve it really soon. As you
know, were broadcasting live, so such problems
can happen. But were OK again and heres
question number three. Where does the word
volcano come from?
Well teams? Whats happening?
Julie: Im not quite sure.

BEING ACTIVE 101


14 (Learning ability: to use information to role play Answers Point 2
a quiz show). Now that you are shouting extremely loudly,
When students role play a dialogue or an activity, we can start the show.
apart from learning English and correcting their Totally correct!
pronunciation they also learn these skills, which you Absolutely right!
should stress every time you do a role play activity: Our technicians will solve it really soon.
cooperating; Im not quite sure.
sharing; Which Pacific Islands are completely made of
participating; volcanic lava and ashes?
following instructions; Unless youre absolutely sure its better not to
taking turns; answer.
remaining on task;
accepting differences;
15 (Learning ability: to consolidate a grammar point).
listening; If necessary, provide plenty of other examples
positive communication and interaction; to explain the structure and meaning of
being polite and courteous; adverbial phrases. Tell students that the pictures
using good manners; illustrate the short dialogues.
respecting themselves and others. Answers
Answers a. Why are you collecting money?
See transcript. b. How often do the children play football in
the park?
PAGE 79 c. Where did you see the film?
d. How did the painter mix his paints?
PAGE 80
Language Note Adverbial phrases

Adverbial phrases are structures that act as 16 31 (Learning ability: to consolidate vocabulary
adverbs in a sentence. Many adverbial phrases are and expressions).
made up by prepositional phrases as their base Expressing certainty or lack of certainty is a difficult
(for his mother, with a big hammer, before my next task for the students. It is known in linguistics as
holiday). Explain it to your students to avoid epistemic modality, which is a modality that
confusion. Other adverbial phrases are made on
connotes how much certainty or evidence a
the basis of an infinitive (to buy a car, to show it to
my friends, etc.) speaker has for the proposition expressed.
You can find lots of information on adverbs and Epistemic modality in English can be expressed:
adverbial phrases and clauses at (a) grammatically, through:
http://www.learn4good.com/languages/evrd_gra modal verbs (e.g., may, might, must).
mmar/adverb.htm and a particular grammatical mood .
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adver (b) non-grammatically (often lexically), through:
bs.htm adverbials (e.g. perhaps, possibly, Im certain).
through a certain intonation pattern.
In this exercise students practise the lexical type
through the use of phrases such as Im certain, I
know, Im not sure, I believe, etc. Play the
recording for students to check their answers.
Source: Expressing Doubt and Certainty in English, by Janet Holmes,
Victoria University of Wellington New Zealand , RELC Journal, Vol. 13,
No. 2, 9-28 (1982) DOI: 10.1177/003368828201300202

102 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

Answers PAGE 81
See transcript below.
19 (Learning ability: to dramatise dialogues).
17 31 (Learning ability: to role play a dialogue Elicit from students possible results of
imitating a model). inappropriate pronunciation. They are likely to
Play the recording with pauses for students to say some of these.
practise and then role play the dialogue. People will not understand me.
People will get angry with me.
TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 31 People might misunderstand me.
Both speakers have an English accent. People will not want to listen to me.
I will get self-conscious and will not want to
Stephen: It was a very difficult quiz, dont you think?
use the language.
Julie: Im not so sure. I think only some questions were
Then, elicit or offer them the following tips for
tough. better pronunciation.
Stephen: Its not fair they take away points for incorrect Practise new words saying them several times.
answers. Listen to others say the words.
Julie: Well, rules are rules and we must obey them. Modulate clearly and carefully, especially
Stephen: I still have my doubts. when you learn a new word.
Julie: If you are not certain about the rules you should Learn to differentiate between different
speak before the competition. sounds in English.
Stephen: I suppose youre right. Im just upset because our 20 APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING (Learning
team lost. ability: to participate in a guided oral activity).
Julie: Dont worry. Im certain youll do better next time. For more information on these activities, see
Stephen: You knew the volcano parts quite well. page 7 of the Introduction.
Julie: I only guessed that one! This should be a fun activity. Students generally
Stephen: I knew the answer, but I wasnt quick enough. like doing puzzles and quizzes so it should offer a
Julie: I was lucky that the answer was correct. learning experience as well as an enjoyable one.
Stephen: Yes, I believe luck is important in competitions. Read the instructions aloud and check that
students understand them. Give them time to
18 (Learning ability: to evaluate learning). choose the subject, to design the points system
This minitest allows students to evaluate their and to prepare their questions. Once the quizzes
performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson are ready, monitor the activity throughout.
and also to consider evaluation as a continuous 21 (Learning ability: to reflect on the content of the
process throughout the book. Read the text and relate it to own experiences).
instructions aloud, make sure that all the students Students think about what they have discussed
understand them clearly and set a time limit to in the lesson and decide if what they have done
complete the task. Help students to check their has helped them to talk about the topic of the
answers and work out their scores. You may ask lesson. Encourage students to discuss their
students to keep track of their progress and then answers to the questions in small groups, and to
evaluate their overall performance in the give and support their opinions with respect for
Minitests after two or three units. their classmates at all times. Pay special attention
Answers to how the groups deal with questions c. and d.,
a. Every weekend. b. Last Saturday. which invite them to express their points of view
c. along the cliffs. d. very loudly. on serious moral issues.
e. to look at the whale. f. with a rolling motion.

BEING ACTIVE 103


PAGES 82 - 83 PAGES 84 - 85
CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES JUST FOR FUN
See notes on this section on page 8 of the See notes on this section on page 7 of the
Introduction. Introduction. Remind students that they should do
these activities on their own, without much
1 Ask students to look at the drawings and match intervention from you, but help and support when
them with the prepositional phrases. necessary.
Answers
a. 5. b. 3. c. 2. d. - 1. e. 4. Answers
Drawing 6 is not used: on the right of the box. 1. I. Picture 3.
II. Picture 5.
2 Students study the pictures and fill in the blanks III. Picture 1.
in the sentences (a. d.) with the correct IV. Picture 4.
adverbial phrases. V. Picture 2.
2. a. air - I. Zorbing.
Answers b. land III. Land yatching.
a. fast enough Picture 3. c. rain II. Grass sledging.
b. quite well Picture 1. d. rock IV. Abseiling.
c. incredibly loudly Picture 4. e. water I. Zorbing.
d. a little more straight Picture 2. f. wind III. Land yatching.
3. Answers will vary.
3 Apart from certain knowledge of prepositional
and adverbial phrases, this exercise requires a Draw students attention to the American v/s British
degree of creativity. It will also require some English box, and help them to notice that different
time to replace all the highlighted phrases. The words are used in each variety of English.
expressions in the box are not always synonyms Students can find more examples of differences
of the highlighted expressions, but are similar in between American and British English at
structure and / or function. Be flexible about http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm
students use of their own ideas.
PAGE 85
Answers CHILEAN CONNECTION
a. in May two years ago. Before doing this section, ask students to name at
b. in a different city. least 5 important Chilean sportsmen and
c. each month. sportswomen. What are their disciplines? What have
d. for the kids of the family. they achieved? Which ones do they consider the
e. very early. best sportspeople in Chile? Why?
f. quite warmly. Chilean sports people:
g. in light clothes. Kristel Kbrich - swimming. Alexis Snchez,
h. only sometimes. Humberto Suazo, Miguel Pinto football. Fernando
i. this time. Gonzlez, Marcelo Ros tennis. Eliseo Salazar- car
j. in the house. racing. Martn Vargas boxing. Erika Olivera
k. to the take-off strip. athletics. Jos Santos horse racing. Alberto
l. quite high in the sky. Larraguibel horse riding. Chaleco Lpez motor
m. absolutely happy and at peace. cycling.

104 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

PAGES 86 - 88 Gabriela: I think I will start next Tuesday.


TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Hugo: Just make sure to take some comfortable shoes.
Answers Gabriela: And I might also need a partner!
Hugo: You must be joking! Im a football and tennis guy.
READING SUMMER BREAK ACTIVITIES
Greta speaks with a German accent and the other
1. b. woman has an English accent.
2. a. Baseball field, basketball court, swim II
centre. Greta: Could you tell me a little more about the classes?
b. Zoo, aquarium, museum, library. Woman: All our teachers are professional artists.
c. Play an instrument, play chess, learn Greta: What else do you have, apart from pottery?
pottery.
Woman: Well, theres painting on glass, jewellery making
3. a. VI. d. II.
and next semester were starting oils and
b. IV. e. I.
watercolours.
c. V. f. III.
Greta: Thats great. Id be really interested in the oils
4. a.VI. c. II.
workshop. My dad used to paint with oils and I
b. III. d. IV.
still have some of his works.
LISTENING - FREE TIME ACTIVITIES
Woman: I could let you know when we start the course.
5. a. i. Greta: Please do.
b. iii. Geoffrey speaks with a Scottish accent and Sean
c. ii. is from New Zealand.
6. a. False. III
b. False. Sean: So what should I take with me to the first
c. True. session?
7. a. Next Tuesday. Geoffrey: Not much. A pair of shorts and a T-shirt will do.
b. Salsa, meringue, waltz.
Sean: I thought Id need some special clothes.
c. Watercolours, oils, pottery, painting on
Geoffrey: Not at the beginning. When you reach a higher
glass, jewellery making.
dan youll need a kimono.
d. Shorts, T-shirt.
Sean: I can just about imagine myself all in white with
8. a. II. c. I.
a black belt.
b. II. d. III.
Geoffrey: Hey, not so fast! It takes years of practice to even
get to a red or green belt.
TRANSCRIPT LISTENING FREE TIME ACTIVITIES 32
Sean: And there are no weapons involved, right?
Gabriela speaks with an English accent and Hugo with a Geoffrey: Thats right. The name of the sport in Japanese
Chilean accent. means an empty hand so no weapons are used.
I
Gabriela: Im thinking of joining Lorena in the waltz club.
Hugo: I never thought Lorena would be interested in
this kind of things. Shes not very musical, is she?
Gabriela: She took it up nearly three months ago and shes
really good at it now.
Hugo: Thats interesting, but I dont really see you
waltzing around a room.
Gabriela: Well, they also have salsa and meringue.
Hugo: Yes, tropical rhythms are more like you.

BEING ACTIVE 105


LANGUAGE WRITING
9. a. How much did it rain / Did it rain a lot 12. Students should be able to write an itinerary
last week end? for a trip with at least 5 bullet points.
b. Why did you borrow the tools? Assign points according to the
c. Where should I put the book? following criteria.
d. When does your boyfriend buy you Student writes the itinerary with all
flowers? the required information, with
10. a. really carelessly. very few spelling mistakes and
b. too quickly. grammar errors. 8 - 10 pts.
c. with too much fat. Student writes the itinerary with
d. under suspicion. some of the required information,
e. on the last day. with some spelling mistakes and
f. after the terrible experience. grammar errors. 5 - 7 pts.
SPEAKING Student writes the itinerary with
just a little of the required information.
11. Ask students to talk about at least two or
There are many spelling mistakes and
three activities they like. Tell them to say
grammar errors. 1 - 4 pts.
how and where they practise them and
what kind of equipment they need. The PAGE 89
presentation should be at least one and a half SELF EVALUATION
minutes long.
Assign points according to the See notes on this section on page 8 of the
following criteria. Introduction.
Student describes his / her favourite Help students to notice that there are two main
activity including all the required parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL
details, with good pronunciation and PERFORMANCE.
no hesitation. 8 - 10 pts. For YOUR TEST RESULTS they have to work out their
Student describes his / her favourite score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read
activity including most of the required their results and reflect on them. Help them to think
details, with good pronunciation and a of what they can do to improve results, solve
minimum of hesitation. 5 - 7 pts. problems, give or get help, etc.
Student describes his / her favourite YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection
activity including some of the required on their involvement with the main OFTs discussed
details, with some pronunciation in the lessons and invites them to think about their
mistakes and with hesitation. 2 - 4 pts. learning strategies and attitudes.
Student describes his / her favourite
activity including very few of the
required details, with a lot of
pronunciation mistakes and a
lot of hesitation. 0 - 1 pts.

106 UNIT 4
UNIT 4
EXTRA TEST UNIT 4

READING - DOES BARCELONA COUNT AS ANOTHER COUNTRY?

nnhaggerty
A travel blog by marya
Saturday, may 20, 2011

book.
ve an architecture guide
BARCELONA, Spain I ha s a very
g. Together, that mean
Keating has his camera ba
as boulevards.
slow walk along Barcelon
capital
y in Spain, it is proudly the
While Barcelona is legall an ) and
its own language (Catal
of Catalonia, an area with ss of
guage that looks like a cro
with street signs in a lan Sp an ish is the
a lot of extra Xs.
Spanish and French with , too , but
es, English shows up
second language; sometim
a bit silly.
trilingual signs can look
es a book
rnment helpfully publish
The Barcelona city gove
lking tour of Modern
with a well-explained wa in
t afternoon and evening
Architecture. On our firs slo wly) for several
lon a, we fol low ed it ca refully (and
Barce building
hing at one spectacular
miles, ooohhing and aaah at La
r stroll with our first look
after another, ending ou ece.
Fa milia, the ca the dra l that is Gaudis masterpi
Sagra da - where
ss. Ac tua lly, it is a cons truction site - see photo
much a work in progre re than a century.
The cathedral is still very ilding tha t ha s been in the works for mo
laboring on a bu many of his
hundreds of people are ell, a Ga ud i fan tas y of a public park. This, like
city to Park Gu kbook.
From there, we crossed the pa tro n wh o mo re or less gave him an open chec
th the backing of a
other works, was built wi about the city; we
nd sys tem ma de it sim ple to reach sites spread
dergrou ntjuic, and more.
Barcelonas extensive un ue , the Joan Miro museum in Mo
Tib ida bo Av en
saw the mansions of it a blast
old qu arters - Ba rri Go tico and El Raval - made
l streets of the citys re tour. Two of the
And the narrow medieva on ly thi nk of as the Picasso Drank He
rs on wh at I co uld e Gats. The
to seek out shops and ba sp en t so me tim e are Th e London Bar and Els Quatr
the Spaniard Wind
more famous ones where t ye ars as on e of the ke y settings in Shadow of the
ch of fame in recen t is soaked in
latter received a new tou t wa s a Eu rop ea n be sts eller, a Gothic thriller tha
book tha
(La Sombra del Viento), a
Barcelona atmosph ere .
2:44 AM
POSTED BY MARYANN AT heworldin2 9days.blogspot.com/
Taken from: http://aroundt

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL BEING ACTIVE 107


1 Read the post in Maryanns blog and LISTENING - AMAZING PEOPLE,
answer these questions. 4 pts. AMAZING STORIES
a. Why does Barcelona sometimes have
4 33 Listen to the recording. Can you say what
trilingual street signs?
b. What did Maryann and Keating use to visit kind of text it is? Choose an option. 1 pt.
the most important sites in Barcelona? a. An interview.
c. What is Barcelonas underground system b. A personal report.
like? c. A piece of news.
d. Where in Barcelona did Picasso spend some
time? 5 33 Listen to the recording again. Number the
questions in the order you hear them. 5 pts.
2 Read the post again and fill in the a. ____ What would you say are the most
blanks in these sentences. 6 pts. important achievements?
a. _______ is a very famous park in Barcelona. b. ____ And you became a volunteer?
b. _______ is a book whose action takes place c. ____ What can you tell us about your
in Barcelona. experience?
c. _______ is a well known Spanish architect. d. ____ How long does each case take you?
d. _______ is the language spoken in e. ____ When did you feel completely
Barcelona. engaged with the voluntary sector?
e. _______ and _______ are two old quarters
in Barcelona. 6 33 Listen to the recording once more and
choose the best answer (i. iii.) for these
3 Read the text once more. Are these questions (a. d.). 4 pts.
statements true (T) or false (F)? 3 pts. a. How did Jonathan spend his time before
a. ___ Maryann and Keating are fond of becoming a volunteer?
painting. i. He worked with young people.
b. ___ Spanish is the most important ii. He worked in industry.
language in Barcelona. iii. He travelled around the world.
c. ___ La Sagrada Familia was finished last year. b. Why did Jonathan answer the
advertisement?
i. To become a volunteer.
ii. To explore potential careers.
iii. To become a teacher.
c. How long does each case take him?
i. Three weeks.
ii. Three days.
iii. Three months.
d. How does Jonathan evaluate his
experiences in the volunteer programme?
i. They were positive.
ii. They were negative.
iii. They were neutral.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL
108 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

LANGUAGE SPEAKING

7 Complete the sentences with a phrase 9 Use the question words in the box to exchange
from the box. 4 pts. information about your last holidays with your
correctly in class in Indian restaurants partner. 10 pts.
to go hiking in the mountains very recently How What When Where Why
a. I enjoy eating ________________________.
WRITING
b. He graduated ________________________.
c. Did he behave _______________________?
d. You need proper shoes ________________. 10 Think about an outdoor activity you have done
lately and write a post to a blog (maximum 130
8 Match the sentences in column A (a. f.) words) like the one in the reading text. Include
with the phrases in column B (i. vi.). 6 pts. your opinion of the place, the activities, the
A people, the weather, and any other information
a. My friend works as an errand boy you want to share. 10 pts.
b. We went to the pool
c. I went to sleep 0 to 11 26 40 53
d. Jack went outside 10 to 25 to 39 to 53 PTS
e. John will meet me here
KEEP TRYING REVIEW WELL DONE! EXCELLENT! TOTAL
f. The boy laughed

B
i. after midnight.
ii. for some fresh air.
iii. at 4 oclock.
iv. incredibly loudly.
v. to watch the competition.
vi. at the grocery store.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL BEING ACTIVE 109


ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 4

READING DOES BARCELONA COUNT AS


Jonathan: Before starting to work, I undertook a series of
ANOTHER COUNTRY?
1. a. Because people speak Catalan and
training sessions. After completing the training
Spanish, and there are also some signs and attending a formal interview, I received my
in English for tourists. first case.
b. They used a book with a well-explained Reporter: How long does each case take you?
walking tour. Jonathan: I work on each one for approximately three
c. It is very extensive and useful. months. During this time, I work closely with a
d. At The London Bar and at Els Quatre Gats. number of young people, encouraging them to
2. a. Park Guell. b. Shadow of Wind. try new activities. Each case introduces me to a
c. Gaudi. d. Catalan. e. Barri Gtico /el Raval variety of challenges and helps me to understand
3. a. False. b. False. c. False. the problems that young people face in their
LISTENING everyday lives.
AMAZING PEOPLE, AMAZING STORIES Reporter: I understand that, from this experience, you
4. b. decided to pursue a career in teaching.
5. 1 - c. 2 - b. 3 - e. 4 - d. 5 - a. Jonathan: Oh, youre right. My experiences as a volunteer
6. a. iii. b. ii. c. iii. d. i.
were life-changing. They helped to give me
TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - 33 confidence to pursue a career in teaching. When I
AMAZING PEOPLE, AMAZING STORIES started the programme, I didnt really know what
to expect, but it was a very valuable and
Both speakers have an American accent. worthwhile experience.
Reporter: Working with young people as a volunteer gave Reporter: What would you say are the most important
Jonathan Rudkin an opportunity to find out achievements?
what it takes to work with young people. After Jonathan: It has helped me to gain a better understanding
signing up to a volunteer programme, Jonathan of how young people think and perhaps, more
went on to carve out a successful career as a importantly, the day-to-day pressures and
teacher. Jonathan, what can you tell us about challenges they face.
your experience? Reporter: Do you think its related to your work as a
Jonathan: After some time travelling around the world, I teacher?
wanted to try and give something back to my Jonathan: As a teacher, this can sometimes have an impact
community. After returning, I decided that I upon the classroom, and my experiences in the
wanted to pursue a different type of career. By volunteer programme really help to understand
coincidence, I came across an advertisement in the daily pressures many children face.
the local newspaper. A local organisation was http://www.amazingpeople.org.uk/resource/FINAL_Jonathan.pdf
looking for individuals to help support vulnerable
young people within the area. LANGUAGE
Reporter: And you became a volunteer? 7. a. in Indian restaurants.
Jonathan: I replied to the advertisement and felt the b. very recently.
experience would help me to explore a number of c. correctly in class?
potential careers. Really, after a number of years d. to go hiking in the mountains.
working in industry, I was unsure whether I 8. a. vi. b. v. c. i. d. ii. e. iii. f. iv.
would be able to relate to young people.
Reporter: When did you feel completely engaged with the
voluntary sector?

110 UNIT 4
UNIT 4

SPEAKING NOTES
9. Assign points according to these criteria.
Student asks and answers questions
about his / her last holidays, mentioning
all the information required, using
the language learnt in the unit,
with good pronunciation and no
hesitation. 8 - 10 pts.
Student asks and answers questions
about his / her last holidays, mentioning
most of the information required,
using most of the language learnt
in the unit, with good pronunciation
and a minimum of hesitation. 5 - 7 pts.
Student asks and answers some
questions about his / her last holidays,
mentioning half of the information
required, with some pronunciation
mistakes and with hesitation. 3 - 4 pts.
Student asks and answers a few
questions about his / her last holidays,
mentioning a little of the information
required, with a lot of pronunciation
mistakes and a lot of hesitation. 0 - 2 pts.
WRITING
10. Assign points according to these criteria.
Student writes a post that contains
all the required information, with no
grammar or spelling mistakes. 8 - 10 pts.
Student writes a post that contains
most of the required information,
with a few grammar or spelling
mistakes. 5 - 7 pts.
Student writes a post that contains
some of the required information,
with some grammar or spelling
mistakes. 3 - 4 pts.
Student writes a post that contains very
little of the required information, with a
lot of grammar
or spelling mistakes. 0 - 2 pts.

BEING ACTIVE 111


UNIT 5 CREATIVITY

In this unit you will learn to: You will also learn:
READING: identify text types / match visual and written information / fill in graphic GRAMMAR: relative clauses.
organisers with specific information. VOCABULARY: words and expressions related to inventions,
LISTENING: identify specific information / listen for specific words. inventors and creativity.
ORAL
PRODUCTION: talk about simple machines and how to use them.
WRITTEN You will use the following text types:
PRODUCTION: write instructions for the use of everyday machines. READING: a textbook, a brochure, a poem.
FUNCTIONS: define, describe, enumerate and give instructions. LISTENING: an interview.

You will pay special attention to these values:


Why being creative is important and should be encouraged.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS


You can use additional materials such as multi-lingual instructions on the use of different devices (most
common appliance manuals come in several languages for example mobile phone, liquidiser, coffee
maker, etc.). Most students will have mobile phones or iPods, so you can use them for demonstration to
show use, instructions and descriptions.
Visit the following page: http://www.geappliances.com/
This page offers a lot of instructions and appliance descriptions. Literally hundreds of products by make,
model and type of appliance in pdf format. You will find TVs, washing machines, radios, faxes, irons and
lots of others. Just click on the appliance and download the manual.
www.usersmanualguide.com
Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries,
definitions, printed handouts, library material, notes.

112 UNIT 5
PAGE 90 PAGE 92
INTRODUCTION LESSON 1 READING
BRILLIANT SIMPLICITY
Invite the students to examine and describe the
photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. BEFORE YOU READ
Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of
the unit and make comments on the things they
1 (Learning ability: to connect content and
already know, what they can do, what will be new, previous knowledge).
etc. Draw students attention to the values that will Ask students to form small groups and read the
be paid more attention to, and ask them to questions. Tell them to talk them over and
anticipate what issues will be discussed in present their findings and opinions to the rest
connection with them. of the groups. Do all people think alike? Why?
Why not? Where do they differ? Encourage
PAGE 91 students to produce sentences in English, but
HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? also accept their opinions in Spanish.
Explain to students that this page of each unit will ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
contain activities meant to identify and activate At this stage of learning, students are ready to do
their previous knowledge of the topic and related some analytical work on the unit. At the beginning
vocabulary to establish the starting point for the of each lesson in Units 4, 5 and 6 ask them to
activities that will follow. They will also help to prepare a chart like the one provided below and fill
detect weaknesses that will require extra work and in the corresponding parts at different stages of the
support and to contextualise the contents that will learning cycle. The first and second parts of the
be developed and present cognitive challenges. table should be filled in at the beginning of the
Although all the activities have been assigned lesson. You should do it together with the students.
points, the results do not indicate success or failure, For example, for this lesson, in the first part students
but help to identify the points mentioned in the might write in different types of machines they
previous paragraph. know. In the second part of the chart they might
want to write: relative clauses, more vocabulary
1 Students should be familiar with all the objects related to creativity, machines, writing instructions,
in the pictures GPS (5) might be the only one etc. The final part of the chart is filled in at the end
that is not widely known by sight. of the last lesson to see what the students learning
Ask them to look at the pictures and then read process was like and if their expectations were met.
the definitions. Ask them if they understand all
KWL CHART
the words in the definitions and if not, ask them
to use dictionaries or explain the words. What I know What I want to know What I learnt
Answers
Picture 1 - light bulb - d. Picture 2 - vacuum
cleaner - c. Picture 3 - mobile phone - g. 2 (Learning ability: to classify information).
Picture 4 - electric tooth brush - b. Picture 5 - This exercise presents six activities; some of them
GPS - f. Picture 6 - iPod - e. Picture 7 - digger - we do in everyday life and some must be done
h. Picture 8 - electric kettle / water boiler - a. by experts. Students have two flags a green
one for the jobs that we can do ourselves and a
2 Ask students what the word instructions means red one for jobs that must be done by experts.
to them. What do instructions tell us? Do they Tell them to join the flags with the corresponding
deal with the appearance of something or do jobs. Ask them to justify their choice.
they deal with a process? Answers
Ask them to read instructions a. c. and match Red flag: Picture 1 - repair electric installations.
them with some of the devices in Exercise 1. Picture 4 - work on an oil rig.
Which key words helped them to decide? Green flag: Picture 2 - change a light bulb.
Answers Picture 3 - hammer in a nail. Picture 5 - paint a
a. Picture 8. b. Picture 2. c. Picture 6. wall. Picture 6 - push heavy objects.

CREATIVITY 113
PAGE 93 6 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).
Tell students to read the texts more in detail and
3 (Learning ability: to infer the meaning of key check their predictions in Exercise 4.
words).
Ask students to read the words in the box. Answers
Either provide dictionaries or help them with c.
the meaning. Some of the words are cognates.
Ask them to express their opinion on which of 7 (Learning ability: to match information).
the devices are simple machines and which Graphic organisers are excellent tools to help
ones are more complex machines. students summarise and interpret texts. Tables
and charts are simple ways of putting
Answers information in perspective. Students read Text I
Simple machines: the inclined plane, the carefully to do this exercise.
lever, the pulley, the screw, the wedge.

Inclined plane
BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Wedge
Pulley
Screw
Lever
Inclined plane: a simple machine for elevating
objects; it is a flat surface whose endpoints are at
different heights.
Lever: the most common and simple machine used It was probably the P
for lifting heavy objects. As one persons weight is first tool ever used.
pushed down on one end, the opposite side or It was most likely used in
P
person is lifted up. building Stonehenge.
Pulley: a simple machine consisting of a wheel with It was used to hold
P
a groove in which a rope can run to change the ramps together.
direction or point of application of a force applied It was used to clean P
to the rope. animal skins.
It was used to place stones in
Screw: a simple machine consisting of a spirally P
threaded cylindrical rod that engages with a the building of the pyramids.
similarly threaded hole.
Wedge: a simple machine used to push two objects 8 (Learning ability: to discriminate between
apart. A wedge is made up of two inclined planes. correct and incorrect information).
Students read the instructions to the exercise
4 (Learning ability: to predict content from the first and then read Text I again.
context). Check answers orally.
Students predict the subject of some texts they Answers
will read, based on provided information title a. i.
of the unit and the pictures. Do not check b. iii.
answers at this point. c. i.
WHILE YOU READ
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
5 (Learning ability: to identify type of text). You can do an additional activity of the concept
Students have a quick look at the three texts. It map / network / tree type. Draw this graph on the
is not necessary for them to read the texts too board and ask students to fill it in with the correct
closely to identify the type of text. information. Ask students to carefully read Texts I
Answers and II to do this exercise.
Text I b. Text II a. Text III c.

114 UNIT 5
UNIT 5

AFTER YOU READ


General
topic 11 (Learning ability: to relate topic to own
experience).
The exercise requires some analytical skills on
the part of the students. They have read three
Machine Machine Machine Machine Machine texts where they were given a fair amount of
1 2 3 4 5 information on five simple machines. They must
now process this information to form their own
We use We use We use We use We use opinions and match the simple machines with
it for: it for: it for: it for: it for: proposed uses in real life situations. They draw
_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ not only on the information they have just
learnt, but also on their previous experience.
PAGE 95
Answers
Draw students attention to the American v/s British a. A pulley.
English box, and help them to notice that different b. A pulley or an inclined plane.
words are used in each variety of English. c. Screws.
Students can find more examples of differences d. A pulley.
between American and British English at e. A wedge.
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/jones/differences.htm
PAGE 97
PAGE 96
12 (Learning ability: to connect content, visuals
9 (Learning ability: to match information and
and previous knowledge).
visuals).
This is an extension of Exercise 1, but here
The additional activity suggested above should
students base their answers on visual aids.
help students to do this exercise. They read Text
II again and relate the objects in the pictures Answers
with the five simple machines. Picture 1 an axe wedge.
Picture 2 a corkscrew screw.
Answers
Picture 3 a pulley pulley.
Picture 1 screw. Picture 2 wedge.
Picture 4 a ramp - inclined plane.
Picture 3 pulley. Picture 4 pulley.
Picture 5 lever / wedge. Picture 6 lever.
Picture 7 screw. Picture 8 inclined plane. Relative clauses with
Picture 9 inclined plane. Language Note relative pronouns
Relative clauses are used to give additional
10 (Learning ability: to extract specific information). information about something without starting
Students read the poem on page 95 (Text III) another sentence. By combining sentences with a
and name six machines / tools mentioned. If relative clause, the text (written or oral) becomes
necessary, help them out with vocabulary. more fluent and we can avoid repeating certain
words. This Language Note deals with relative
Answers
clauses which use relative pronouns.
lever, jack, pry bar, pliers, pump, wheelbarrow.

CREATIVITY 115
BACKGROUND INFORMATION Example: Clara Richardson, who lives in Brighton, is
Relative talking to Tom. (Here the relative clause is non-
pronoun Use Example defining because it is obvious which girl you mean.)
Who Subject or object She is the woman WHO Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which
pronoun for people. spoke to me on the train. cannot be omitted and may not be replaced with that.
Which Subject or object I bought the car WHICH I
Examples: The director, who speaks French, talked to
pronoun for animals and saw at the exhibition.
the new students.
things.
Whose Possession for people, Do you know the This restaurant, which is new in our town, serves
animals and things. student WHOSE Italian food.
homework was left on Answers Point 5
my desk? Some of them, which you may have ignored
Whom Object pronoun for I was invited by the before, are all around us.
people, especially in professor whom I met at In Lebanon, construction workers who built
non-defining relative the conference. temples used blocks 64 feet long and 13 feet
clauses (in defining wide.
relative clauses we
colloquially prefer who). 13 (Learning ability: to apply new vocabulary and
That Subject or object We are describing simple structures).
pronoun for people, machines THAT we read Refer students to the Language Note. Always
animals and things in about in the lesson. make sure that you explain the content of the
defining relative clauses The foreigners THAT we Language Notes in each unit. This is not a part
(who or which are also invited to our party of the lesson that students should do totally on
possible). finally did not turn up. their own. Provide plenty of examples.
There are Defining Relative Clauses and Non- Answers
Defining Relative Clauses. a. that.
The Defining relative clauses (also called b. who.
identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative c. which.
clauses) give detailed information defining a d. whom.
general term or expression. e. which.
Example: Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom? PAGE 98
(Here the relative clause defines which girl you mean).
The Defining relative clauses are often used in 14 34 (Learning ability: to consolidate grammar
definitions. and vocabulary).
Example: A seaman is someone who works on a ship. This exercise is a synthesis of what has been
Note: Object pronouns in defining relative clauses learnt so far in this unit, given that it brings
can be dropped and we often prefer to use that together several items of grammar and
rather than who or which in this kind of clause, but vocabulary. The students work in pairs or small
when the relative pronoun is the subject of the groups to complete the dialogue using relative
verb, we must include it. pronouns and the information they have
collected about simple machines. Tell them to
Example: He is the man who/that robbed me. (Not:
compare their versions with the recording and
He is the man robbed me).
not to worry if their own version is not identical.
Non-defining relative clauses give additional
information on something, but do not define it. Answers
They are written between commas. See transcript below.

116 UNIT 5
UNIT 5

15 34 (Learning ability: to imitate a spoken model). 16 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning)
Ask students to form groups of five for this This minitest allows students to evaluate their
conversation where one is the teacher and the performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson
remaining four are students 1 4. Play the and also to consider evaluation as a continuous
recording at least twice for students to get the process throughout the book. Read the
pronunciation, intonation and stress right. It is instructions aloud, make sure that all the students
important to remember that students should understand them clearly and set a time limit to
not only pronounce the words well they complete the task. Help students to check their
should also be familiar with rising and falling answers and work out their scores. You may ask
intonation and the places where they should students to keep track of their progress and then
put stress both in words and in sentences. evaluate their overall performance in the
Answers Minitests after two or three units.
See transcript. Answers
who which / that which / that which
TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 34 who who.
All the speakers have an English accent. PAGE 99
Student 1: Professor Jones, can you please explain what
simple machines are? 17 APPLICATION TASK WRITING (Learning
Prof. Jones: Well, simple machines are tools that make our ability: to create a new text).
work easier. See notes on Application Tasks on page 7 of the
Student 2: Can you give us an example? Introduction.
Prof. Jones: Take a wedge, for example. It is a device which Instructions are step-by-step explanations of how
to do something: how to build, operate, repair, or
we use to split things or to keep things in place.
maintain things. This is one type of a piece of
Student 3: Who can use wedges? writing (but also a skill needed in speaking) that
Prof. Jones: People who need to hold things in place or split students will have to write time and time again -
them. both in their mother tongue and possibly in a
Student 4: Any other examples? second language.
Prof. Jones: The inclined plane, for example. Its a very Go through points a. k. with students and
useful machine. explain each step. Tell them that for instructions
Student 1: Who uses it? to be effective they have to be short and clear.
Prof. Jones: All the workers who move heavy weights must Explain to students that frequently the
use an inclined plane. instructions must include a description of the
Student 2: Where can we learn more about simple machine they are writing about, given that the
instructions will include key features of the
machines?
machine such as cabling, buttons, etc.
Prof. Jones: A lot has been written by engineers whose Examples of written instructions can be found at:
books you can find in any library. http://www.io.com/~hcexres/textbook/instrxx5c.html
Student 3: Any specific names youd recommend? http://www.io.com/~hcexres/textbook/instrxx4c.html
Prof. Jones: Yes, Professor Eric Holden, whom I met at the Obviously, students instructions should be
simple machine conference last month. much easier to follow and much shorter, but you
Student 4: Thank you, Professor Jones. Its been very can use these examples to see the most
useful. relevant parts.

CREATIVITY 117
18 (Learning ability: to consolidate vocabulary beginning of the 20th century. Ask them to read the
four bubbles and then try to match inventions
through a game).
a. d. with the inventors, basing their decision on
Students can complete this crossword puzzle on
what the inventors say (in the bubbles).
their own or working in pairs. Check answers on
the board, asking different students to draw and Answers
complete the puzzle. Picture 1 - Samuel Morse - d - the telegraph.
Picture 2 - Thomas Alva Edison - b - the light
Answers bulb.
1
H Picture 3 - Wilbur Wright - a - the aeroplane.
2
A P Picture 4 - Alexander Graham Bell - c - the
M U 3
W telephone.
4 5 6
T M S L E V E R 2 (Learning ability: to connect content and
O E C L D previous knowledge).
7 Ask students to form groups to discuss the
H A I R D R Y E R G
three questions and then share their findings
S E Y E
and opinions with the rest of the class.
T W It is also an ideal place to start the KWL chart
E presented in Exercise 1 of the first lesson of this
R unit (page 115 of this book).

3 35 (Learning ability: to check the meaning of


19 (Learning ability: to reflect on the content of the key words and identify and practise their
text and relate it to own experiences). pronunciation).
Students are asked to reflect on what they have Before you play the recording, ask students to
discussed in the lesson and decide if what they read the words in the box. It is important that
have done has helped them to talk about the they understand their meaning before they
topic of the lesson. Guide their discussions so repeat them. Talk to them about the importance
that they truly analyse the answers to questions of correct pronunciation and give them a few
c. and d. and identify the moral implications. tips to improve it:
Encourage students to discuss their answers to Listen to native speakers (films, songs).
the questions in small groups, and to give and Identify and practise pronouncing difficult sounds.
support their opinions with respect for their Learn to hear and produce sounds by repeating
classmates at all times. them frequently.
At this time, students can also fill in the third Use sounds and words in context (sentences).
part of the KWL chart on page 115 of this book.
TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION 35
PAGE 100
LESSON 2 - LISTENING background designer goal lack luxury
A BIT OF GENIUS polytechnic stuff youth
BEFORE YOU LISTEN 4 (Learning ability: to predict from key words).
1 (Learning ability: to match information and Ask students what they imagine a famous
visual clues). designer is like. Would he / she be young or old?
Ask students to look at the pictures and read the Where would he / she be from? What studies
names underneath. Do they know these inventors? would he / she have? Then ask them to read the
By the look of the pictures they can tell that they adjectives in the box and choose three to
are inventors from the19th century or from the describe the designer that will appear in the

118 UNIT 5
UNIT 5

recording. Why have they chosen these three? 36 (Learning ability: to extract and classify
8
Ask them to justify their choice but do not tell
information).
them which words are correct.
Ask students to read the fact file and identify
PAGE 101 what kind of information is required to complete
WHILE YOU LISTEN each blank. Where else would we find a request
for this type of information? Play the recording
5 36 (Learning ability: to validate predictions). again and check answers on the board.
You must play the recording at least twice for
Answers
students to be able to validate their
Name: Jonathan
predictions. The first time, they listen more for
Surname: Ive.
content and general comprehension, and the
Place of birth: United Kingdom.
second time they try to find the adjectives
Place of residence: Twin Peaks, California, USA.
describing the inventor.
Since: 1992.
Answers Profession: designer.
Adjectives used in the recording: charming, Place of work: Apple .
relaxed, shy. Inventions: iPod and iMac computer.
Adjectives that can be inferred: intelligent, Wifes name: Heather.
inspired, lucky, pleasant, satisfied. Wifes profession: writer and historian.
Hobby: music.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Luxury: Aston Martin car.
The iPod is a portable media player designed and
marketed by Apple and launched in 2001. The iPod line ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
can play several audio file formats including MP3 and Ask students to write the blank fact file in their
MP4. It has become an instant hit with young listeners. notebooks and work in pairs. They fill it in with
The iMac is a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop information on the other students parents, working
computers designed and built by Apple. It is a brother or friend. They should ask each other
computer intended for home, school, and small offices, questions to fill in the form.
and promoted by Apple as an easy-to-use, stylish
PAGE 102
computer that outperforms other low-cost options.

6 36 (Learning ability: to discriminate between 9 36 (Learning ability: to discriminate between


correct and incorrect information). correct and incorrect information).
Ask students to read statements a. g. and Ask students to read statements a. d. and then
then play the recording again. Which ones were play the recording again. They must circle the
used in the recording? You can ask keener words they hear. Check orally. You can ask students
students to write the answers to these to repeat the words to practise pronunciation.
questions in their notebooks. Answers
Answers a. shy. b. everyday objects. c. they are badly
In this order: f., e., c., b. designed. d. your invention meant for them.

7 36 (Learning ability: to extract specific information). 10 36 (Learning ability: to identify and extract
Again ask students to read the instructions to specific information).
the exercise and statements a. d. Then play By now students have listened to the recording
the recording again and tell them that only one at least four times, so it might not be necessary
word should be written in the blank spaces. to play it again. Tell them to complete the
sentences from what they remember and then
Answers
play the recording again for them to check.
a. gadgets. b. musicians. c. products. d. stories.

CREATIVITY 119
Answers Interviewer: And what is your greatest joy from the job?
a. the most important British industrial
Jonathan: I get the greatest kick when people give me their
designer of our times. / hes rather shy.
b. California / 1992 / 25. iPod stories - when they tell me that through iPod they
c. two-bedroom house / Twin Peaks, California, rediscovered lost music of their youth. Whats really great is
USA. when you talk to a friend or when someone you dont know
d. create gadgets / can be used without any wants to talk about what the iPod meant for them. Thats
difficulty. really fantastic.
Interviewer: One final thought for our listeners?
TRANSCRIPT LISTENING A BIT OF GENIUS 36
Jonathan: At the end of the day, its all about the music.
The interviewer speaks with an American accent. Jonathan SOURCE http://www.telegraph.co.uk
Ive speaks with an English accent.
Interviewer: Therere two things you need to know about AFTER YOU LISTEN
Jonathan Ive, inventor of the iPod and the iMac computer. First, 11 (Learning ability: to recognise synonymous
hes the most important British industrial designer of our times. sentences).
Second, hes rather shy. He may be a genius but he despises talking Tell students to first read the left column of the
about his life. Dont ask any personal questions and talk about chart all the sentences are taken from the
design. Dont pry into his background, we were told. So its a bit of recording. Do they understand them well? Is there
a shock to meet Jonathan Ive in the flesh. Hes a charming and anything else that needs to be explained, such as a
relaxed man. Jonathan, what can you tell us about your work? word they are still not sure about? Then tell them
Jonathan: I think Im very lucky Ive got the best job in the to read the right column of the chart. Once again
world. I work for a great company and I love what I do. do they understand the sentences? After that, tell
Interviewer: Do your interests and your present job have them to write the pairs of matching sentences
anything to do with the family tradition? in their notebooks. Check answers orally.
Jonathan: Not really. Im the son of a teacher. I studied design
Answers
at Newcastle Polytechnic and then, as a graduate, I became a a. ii. d. - iii.
partner at a London design consultancy working on power b. - vi. e. - iv.
tools. My background was as far as you can imagine from c. - v. f. - i.
computer gadgets. Finally, in 1992, when I was 25 years old,
Apple discovered me and I moved to California, where I now live. PAGE 103
Interviewer: We were told not to invade your privacy, but
maybe you can tell us a little bit about your life? 12 (Learning ability: to consolidate and summarise
Jonathan: Im a very private person. The only thing I can tell information).
you is that I live in a two-bedroom house in Twin Peaks with my In their professional and personal lives, students
wife Heather, whos a writer and historian. We met in England. I will frequently be asked to fill in personal
love music and the majority of my friends are musicians. I live a information forms or talk about themselves or
simple life and my only luxury is my Aston Martin car. about other people. The following exercise
Interviewer: Where do you get your inspiration from? helps them to summarise personal information
Jonathan: From the everyday stuff that surrounds me. The that is spread throughout a longer text (oral or
written). Be flexible and accept some variations.
reason why I like design is that I believe its as important as
function. Answers
Interviewer: So whats the ultimate goal of your work? Jonathan Ive was born in the UK, but moved to
Jonathan: To create gadgets that can be used without any difficult California in 1992. As a person, he is shy, relaxed
and charming. As a designer, he is the creator
instructions. Do you know why its so hard to programme a video or
of the iPod and the IMac computer. He can be
change the clock on the microwave oven? Because they are badly considered a genius.
designed. Its frustrating that were surrounded by products whose
design shows a complete lack of care.

120 UNIT 5
UNIT 5

Possible answers
a. 1st January is the date when we celebrate the
Relative clauses with
Language Note relative adverbs coming of the New Year.
b. A baker is a person who makes bread.
This section deals with a continuation of the use of c. A cinema is a place where we go to see films.
relative clauses, this time with relative adverbs when, d. A football stadium is a place where we play
where, why. football.
A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative e. A hammer is a tool which we use to put nails
pronoun preceded by a preposition. This often in the wall.
makes the sentence easier to understand.
This is the shop in which I bought my bike (relative 15 37 (Learning ability: to identify a logical
pronoun preceded by a preposition).
This is the shop where I bought my bike (relative adverb). sequence in a conversation).
Ask students to work in pairs. They read the two
Relative Use Example
adverb parts of the interview (Interviewer Jonathan)
When Refers to a time. Monday is the day
and then try to place it in the correct order. The
when we usually first question is indicated with number 1. Play the
play tennis. recording for them to check that they have put
Where Refers to a place. The court is the the questions and answers in the correct order.
place where we Answers
meet after class. See transcript below.
Why Refers to a reason. The reason why
we play is to have PAGE 105
fun.
16 37 (Learning ability: to imitate a spoken model).
After students have placed all the questions and
13 (Learning ability: to consolidate new structures). answers in the correct order, play the recording
Refer students to the Language Note before again for students to listen and repeat. Tell them
doing this exercise. A good idea would be to ask to practise the interview taking turns to be
students to copy sentences a. h. in their Jonathan and the interviewer. Correct
notebooks to practise spelling. Students may pronunciation, stress and intonation while
work in pairs. Check answers orally. walking around the class. Ask some pairs to role
Answers play the conversation for the class.
a. where. e. where.
b. when. f. when. TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 37
c. why. g. when
d. where. h. why. The Interviewer speaks with an American accent and
Jonathan with an English accent.
PAGE 104 Interviewer: Can you tell us something about your work?
Jonathan: My work is my whole life.
14 (Learning ability: to use new structures). Interviewer: And in your opinion, how would you describe
In this activity students apply two items they a designer?
have learnt: relative clauses with adverbs and Jonathan: Its a person who has a lot of imagination.
relative clauses with pronouns while writing Interviewer: And what is a well-designed product?
definitions. Students may work in pairs or small Jonathan: Its an object which doesnt need instructions.
groups. Check answers orally. Interviewer:You moved to California, does it feel like home?
Jonathan: It definitely is, because home is the place where
you feel the best.
Interviewer: Do you ever go back to the UK?

CREATIVITY 121
Jonathan: I do, because its the place where I was born. 19 (Learning ability: To reflect on the content of the
Interviewer: You were still very young when you left, werent you? lesson and relate it to own experiences,
Jonathan: Yes, I left when I was 25 years old. expressing personal opinions and attitudes).
Interviewer: How about friends? Do you have many? Students are asked to reflect on what they have
Jonathan: I have lots of friends who are musicians. discussed in the lesson and decide if what they
Interviewer: Any final thoughts for our listeners? have done has helped them to talk about the
Jonathan: Yes, respect who you are and what you can do for others. topic of the lesson. Encourage students to
discuss their answers in small groups, and to
give and support their opinions with respect for
17 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate learning).
their classmates at all times.
This minitest allows students to evaluate their This is also the the moment when students can
performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson fill in the third part of the KWL chart.
and also to consider evaluation as a continuous
process throughout the book. Read the PAGES 106 - 107
instructions aloud, make sure that all the students CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES
understand them clearly and set a time limit to See notes on this section on page 8 of the
complete the task. Help students to check their Introduction.
answers and work out their scores. Be prepared to
accept variations in students answers. You may 1 Ask students to read the three riddles and see if
ask students to keep track of their progress and they can guess the machines or tools they refer to.
then evaluate their overall performance in the Answers
Minitests after two or three units. a. Lever a see-saw. b. Inclined plane a fan.
Possible answers c. Levers with a wedge scissors.
a. An alarm clock is a device which wakes us up.
b. It was on Monday when we met for the last 2 This activity reviews vocabulary. All the words in
time. the box have appeared throughout the two
c. Paris is the city where I learnt French. lessons and students must now place them
d. Meet Stephen, the man who will help us. under the correct heading.
e. The reason why we do this exercise is to learn Answers
more. Simple machines: inclined plane, lever, pulley,
f. The boy whom I saw in the street asked me to screw, wedge.
show him the way to the station. Complex machines: cash dispenser, crane, iPod,
microwave oven, toaster, vacuum cleaner, video.
18 APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING Accessories: battery, button, cord, plug, rope.
(Learning ability: to provide a definition, a Actions: lift, operate, pull, repair.
description and corresponding instructions).
See notes on Application Tasks on page 7 of the 3 Students review the use of relative clauses by joining
Introduction. the sentences in the short dialogues. They should
Go through the instructions with students. rewrite them in their notebooks. Check orally.
Check they are clear about the steps to follow. Answers
Tell them to work in groups and prepare the Glenda: Look! Thats the woman who stole my bag.
definition, description of and the instructions for Rick: She looked different when I saw her on the bus.
one of the devices they see in the pictures. Tell Susan: This is Patrick, who gives me a lift every day.
them they may take notes, but their John: Ive spoken to him in Brook Street, where he lives.
presentation to the rest of the class must be Jennifer: This village called Amberly is where I used to live.
delivered orally. Gus: I remember it because it is near the town where my
grandma lives.

122 UNIT 5
UNIT 5

4 Tell students to look at the pictures and then Let students know that positions 1st to 6th are
read the bubbles. Finally, they should read the clearly indicated in the text. Items in positions
questions and match them with Ever 1s answers. 7th to 10th can be in any order.
2. a. False. c. False. e. True
Answers b. True. d. False.
a. Ever 1, who is your inventor? The man who 3. a. Family car. b. Telegraph.
made me is Professor Baeg Moon-hong c. Space capsule.
b. Where do you live? At the Korean Institute
of Technology, where I was invented. LISTENING KEEPING IN TOUCH 38
c. When is your birthday? 4th May, 2006, when I 4. The mobile phone.
was first introduced to the world. 5. a. i. b. ii. c. i. d. ii.
d. Do you have any friends? Yes, two children 6. a. Text messaging.
whom I met at the robotics fair. b. Voice mail.
e. Do you have feelings? No, and its the reason c. Caller ID.
why I cant laugh or cry. d. GPS.
e. Internet access.
PAGES 108 -109 f. TV programmes.
JUST FOR FUN
See notes on this section on page 8 of the Introduction. TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - KEEPING IN TOUCH 38
Remind students that they should do these activities on The reporter speaks with an English accent and Dr. Jenkins
their own, without much intervention from you, but speaks with an American accent.
help and support when necessary. Reporter: Dr. Jenkins, in your opinion, whats the contribution of
Answers wireless communication to the development of the human race?
1. Picture 1: dog-to-human translation device. Dr. Jenkins: I think that the most important thing is
Picture 2: software that detects cats permitting common people like you and me to be in touch.
walking across the keyboard. Imagine, in a matter of seconds I can communicate with
Picture 3: electromechanical teenager repellent. someone who is camping in the middle of the desert or
Picture 4: alarm clock that runs away from you. someone who is sailing across the Pacific. We also use it to do
2. Answers will vary. business or in the event of an emergency when there is no
other means of communication available.
PAGE 109
CHILEAN CONNECTION
Reporter: Whats the story behind this invention?
Dr. Jenkins: First of all have you ever wondered why we
Before students read this section, ask them if they use the word cellular?
know any famous Chilean inventors or inventions. Are Reporter: No, but please explain.
any Chilean people in the Guinness Book of Records? Dr. Jenkins: Nearly 60 years ago two researchers, Frenkiel and
PAGES 110 - 112 Engel divided wireless communications into a series of cells that
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE automatically switched callers as they moved, so that each cell
could be reused. From there we have the name cellular.
Answers Reporter: I understand that its development was slow.
1. 1st : X-ray machine. Dr. Jenkins: Thats right. At first, the primitive wireless
2nd: penicillin. network could not handle large call volumes. A single transmitter
3rd: DNA double helix. on a central tower provided only a small number of channels for
4th: Apollo 10 space capsule.
5th: V2 rocket engine.
an entire metropolitan area. Between one and eight receiver
6th: steam locomotive. towers handled the call return signals. At most, three subscribers
7th: first computer. could make calls at one time in any city.
8th: steam engine. Reporter: And now?
9th: car.
10th: telegraph.
CREATIVITY 123
Dr. Jenkins: Now 60 percent of the world uses one. Thats, The student cannot provide the
well, let me think... 3.5 billion people. And some of them instructions for operating the device using
have more than one! the appropriate words from the box, makes
Reporter: Any other thoughts youd like to share with us? several grammar and pronunciation
Dr. Jenkins: In modern times, it's much more than just making a mistakes, and hesitates a lot. 0 - 1 pts.
simple call. The modern device has features such as text WRITING
messaging, voice mail, caller ID, GPS, Internet access and in recent 10. Give students about 30 minutes to write the
times you can even watch your favourite sports programme! interview questions and the corresponding
answers. They can either write the interview
for a famous inventor or, if they feel more
LANGUAGE comfortable, it might be someone they
7. a. A bus is a big vehicle which carries lots know well, such as a teacher or a friend. The
of passengers. questions that students write should be
b. A cow is an animal which gives us milk. more than just simple yes / no questions
c. A dentist is a doctor who takes care of and, if possible, they should include a variety
our teeth. of question words: what, who, where, when,
d. A home is a place where people live. why. The interview should have
e. A waitress is a lady who serves food in approximately 150 words.
a restaurant. Assign points according to these criteria.
8. a. She is Mrs Barry, who lives next door to Student writes appropriate questions
my sister. and answers with a few spelling and
b. This is Tom, whose girlfriend is in the grammar mistakes. 8 - 10 pts.
same class as Judy. Student writes appropriate questions
c. Meet Yoko Kosumo, whom I met at the and answers with some spelling and
robotics fair. grammar mistakes. 5 - 7 pts.
d. They are Jon and Russell, whose credit Student writes some questions and
cards were stolen. answers with quite a few spelling and
e. This is Valdivia, where I was born. grammar mistakes. 2 - 7 pts.
SPEAKING Student writes only a few questions
9. Tell students to work in pairs; each student and answers. There are many spelling
must choose one of the devices in the pictures. mistakes and grammar errors. 0 - 1 pts.
Give them a few minutes to prepare the
instructions for operating the device; they PAGE 113
must use the words provided in the box, which SELF EVALUATION
include the necessary actions and accessories.
Assign points according to the following See notes on this section on page 7 of the
criteria. Introduction.
The student provides the instructions for Help students to notice that there are two main
operating the device, with correct sentences, parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL
appropriate pronunciation and a PERFORMANCE.
minimum of hesitation. 8 - 10 pts. For YOUR TEST RESULTS they have to work out their
The student provides the in structions for score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read
operating the device using most of the
their results and reflect on them. Help them to think
appropriate words from the box, but makes
some grammar and pronunciation of what they can do to improve results, solve
mistakes and hesitates. 5 - 7 pts. problems, give or get help, etc.
The student provides the instructions for YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection
operating the device using some of the on their involvement with the main OFTs discussed
appropriate words from the box, in the lessons and invites them to think about their
makes several grammar and pronunciation learning strategies and attitudes.
mistakes and hesitates. 2 - 4 pts.

124 UNIT 5
UNIT 5
EXTRA TEST UNIT 5

READING - THE EUREKA MOMENT

Accidental inventions
tiny colour
not matter. Sometimes a
You think small things do
difference.
stripe makes a world of
ring at the
ant professor of enginee
In the late 1950s, an assist s working with
d Wilson Greatbatch wa
University of Buffalo calle . While
olo gists to fin d a wa y to record heart sounds
ca rdi out of
Gr ea tba tch pulled the wrong resistor rrent, look
tinkerin g on e da y,
all, res istors , which regulate electric cu
to do . After denoted by a
a box. It was easy enough ck ing ou t eit he r en d. Th eir varying strengths are
wires sti
a bit like brown ants with
les s than a millimetre wide.
series of colour bands grabbed brown-black-
wn bla ck - orange but instead
0 oh ms bro followed by a
Greatbatch needed 10,00 g. He ch ec ke d the circu it; it cycled a brief pulse,
es as stron ch like a heartbeat.
green, a resistor 100 tim ch ec kin g he art sounds, but very mu
t gre at for
one-second silence. No ker.
tch say s, rec all ing the moment, this is a pacema
eatba
I said, wait a minute, Gr lcutta, former
er for ma ny pe op le, su ch as Mother Teresa of Ca
That simple device has be
en a lifesav der Silvio Berlusconi.
sh, an d Ita lia n Prime Mi nister and opposition lea
Guns n Roses guitarist Sla
The rare accidental
inventions
ly
Sure, there have been tru
In 18 79,
accidental inventions.
illed a
Constantine Fahlberg sp
nd it
substance on his hand, fou
ted sac charin.
sweet and soon paten
encer was
In 1946, Percy LeBaron Sp
s when he
working with radar wave
uld melt the
realised the radiation co s born.
Ding! The microwave wa
candy bar in his pocket.
lie behind
ma gic mo me nts, learning and preparedness
se even
But much as we love the
myths of the
y ha ve stumb led up on something momentous,
ually know when the
them. Lucky inventors us
tional.
if the discovery is uninten moment.
en t pattern of doing so mething, it is that Eureka!
When you see a differ from: http://www.msnbc
.msn.com/id/4752353/
Taken

Tinker : verb / to make small changes to something in order to repair or improve it. Stumble : verb / to find
something by chance, while looking for something else.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL CREATIVITY 125


1 Read the text and choose an option. LISTENING - USEFUL APPLIANCES
What kind of text is it? 1 pt.
4 39 Listen to the recording and choose
a. An article.
b. A brochure. the best answer. 2 pts.
c. A report. a. What is Extract I about?
d. A story.

2 Read the text again and find this


information. 5 pts.
a. The inventor of the pacemaker.
____________________________________
i. A water heater.
b. An invention that tastes sweet.
ii. A washing machine.
____________________________________
iii. A vacuum cleaner.
c. The human organ the pacemaker imitates.
____________________________________ b. What is Extract II about?
d. The snack that took part in the invention of
the microwave.
____________________________________
e. What you can shout when you discover
something.
____________________________________
i. A blender.
3 Read the text again. Are these ii. A clothes dryer.
statements true or false? 4 pts. iii. A hair dryer.
a. The inventor of the pacemaker was working
with other engineers. 5 39 Listen again and tick the correct
b. The pacemaker was the result of a mistake. column. 6 pts.
c. The pacemaker saved Mother Teresas life.
Which appliance I II
d. Even though we love the myths of magic
a. must not pick up
moments, a lot of preparation lies behind
hard, sharp objects?
them.
b. may permanently
stain your clothes?
c. must not be packed
to the top?
d. must be unplugged
when not in use?
e. must not be used as
a toy by children?
f. must have a vent to
let humidity out?

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL
126 UNIT 5
UNIT 5

6 39 Listen again and circle the SPEAKING


correct option. 5 pts.
9 Answer and discuss these questions
a. Do not use outdoors or on wet / warm
with your partner. 10 pts.
surfaces.
b. They may damage the engine / machine or a. What is the role of tools and simple
the bag. machines in your everyday life?
c. Change bag / filter frequently. b. Can you name some jobs that you have
d. A basic rule is that your clothes should be done using them?
cold / warm. c. Can you describe the simple machine you
e. Its important to realise / recognise that the used?
machine eats up a lot of energy. d. Can you describe the job you did?

LANGUAGE WRITING

7 Fill in the blanks in these sentences 10 Write a short paragraph (about 90 words)
with a word from the box. 4 pts. about ONE of these points.
The most important invention of all times OR
when where which who How to use a __________________
a. An old man, _____________ was carrying a (a machine of your choice). 10 pts.
suitcase, knocked at the door.
b. July and August are the months
0 to 13 26 40 51
_____________ most people go on holiday. 12 to 25 to 39 to 51 PTS
c. Edinburgh is the town _____________
KEEP TRYING REVIEW WELL DONE! EXCELLENT! TOTAL
Alexander Graham Bell was born.
d. This book, _____________ was written by
Isabel Allende, is my favourite.

8 Complete the definitions below using the


correct relative adverb. 4 pts.
a. A pencil is an object ___________________.
b. A laboratory is a place _________________.
c. Chile is the country ____________________.
d. Summer is the season _________________.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL CREATIVITY 127


ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 5

READING THE EUREKA MOMENT Use extra care when cleaning on stairs.
1. a. Do not pull or carry by cord, use cord as a handle, close door
2. a. Wilson Greatbatch. b. Saccharin.
on cord or pull cord around sharp edges or corners. Do not
c. The heart. d. A candy bar. e. Eureka!
run appliance over cord. Keep cord away from heated
3. a. False. b. True. c. True. d. True.
surfaces.
LISTENING - USEFUL APPLIANCES Unplug appliance when not in use. Turn off all controls
4. a. iii. b. ii. before unplugging.
5. Which appliance I II Do not unplug by pulling on cord. To unplug, grasp the
a. must not pick up plug, not the cord. Never handle plug or appliance with wet

hard, sharp objects? hands.
b. may permanently Speaker II: It is simple to use, and it doesnt require much

stain your clothes?
maintenance. First of all, make sure the
c. must not be packed
appliance is installed correctly and that it has a
to the top?
d. must be unplugged vent to the outside. Use an aluminium duct,
and make sure that nothing is blocking the duct
when not in use?
e. must not be used as and that the duct isnt squashed between the
machine and the wall.
a toy by children?
f. must have a vent to The most important thing you can do to keep

let humidity out? your appliance working properly is to empty its
6. a. wet. b. machine. c. bag.
lint screen after every load - that is the place
d. warm. e. recognise. where all the fluff and dirt collect.
When you put a load in, dont pack it to the top.
TRANSCRIPT LISTENING - USEFUL APPLIANCES 39 Protect your fabrics by adding a fabric softener
sheet. A basic rule is that your clothes should be
Speaker I has an American accent. Speaker II has an English warm or even a little damp from the humidity,
accent. but they should not be hot when coming out.
Speaker I: To ensure the proper functioning of your Also, make sure you dont put stained clothes in
appliance, you must follow the following as the heat will set the stains permanently in
warnings and instructions. your clothes.
Do not use outdoors or on wet surfaces. Finally, its important to recognise that the
Close supervision is necessary when any appliance is used machine eats up a lot of energy, so look for
by or near children. Do not allow your machine to be used ways to conserve that energy. The best way to
as a toy or to run unattended at any time. do it is to shorten the cycle. And if you have
Keep hair, loose clothing, fingers, feet and all parts of your clothes that can air outside, take advantage of
body away from openings, rotating blade and other that and save energy.
moving parts.
Avoid picking up hard, sharp objects - they may damage LANGUAGE
the machine or the bag. 7. a. who. b. when. c. where. d. which.
Always turn off this appliance before connecting or 8. a. A pencil is an object which we
disconnecting hose. use to write.
b. A laboratory is a place where we do
Do not use without dust bag or filters in place. Change bag
experiments.
frequently when picking up very fine materials such as
powder.

128 UNIT 5
UNIT 5

c. Chile is the country where we live. NOTES


d. Summer is the season when we
are on holiday.
SPEAKING
9. Assign points according to these criteria.
Student talks about the role of
simple machines in his / her life,
mentioning all the required
information, with good pronunciation
and no hesitation. 8 - 10 pts.
Student talks about the role of simple
machines in his / her life , mentioning
most of the required information, with
good pronunciation and a
minimum of hesitation. 5 - 7 pts.
Student talks about the role of simple
machines in his / her life, mentioning
half of the required information, with
some pronunciation mistakes and
with hesitation. 3 - 4 pts.
Student talks about the role of simple
machines in his / her life, mentioning a
little of the required information,
with a lot of pronunciation mistakes
and a lot of hesitation. 0 - 2 pts.
WRITING
10. Assign points according to these criteria.
Student writes a short paragraph
about one of the points suggested,
with no grammar or spelling
mistakes. 8 - 10 pts.
Student writes a short paragraph
about one of the points suggested,
with a few grammar or spelling
mistakes. 5 - 7 pts.
Student writes a short paragraph
about one of the points suggested,
with some grammar or spelling
mistakes. 3 - 4pts.
Student writes a short paragraph
about one of the points suggested,
with a lot of grammar or spelling
mistakes. 0 - 2 pts.

CREATIVITY 129
UNIT 6 AT WORK

In this unit you will learn to: You will also learn:
READING: match visual clues with written text / summarise text / identify the GRAMMAR: the Present Perfect Continuous.
purpose of a text. VOCABULARY: words and expressions related
LISTENING: listen for specific information / identify expressions of interest. to being a volunteer and applying for jobs.
ORAL
PRODUCTION: express on-going actions / express interest in or
pleasure about an action.
WRITTEN You will use the following text types:
PRODUCTION: write about a personal experience. READING: a website, an e-mail, a magazine article,
FUNCTIONS: express pleasure, sadness, interest. forms.
LISTENING: a job interview.

You will pay special attention to these values:


The importance of doing voluntary work and of adequate behaviour when
applying for a job.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS


If available, use of additional materials such as illustrations, pictures, diagrams, application lettes,
websites articles about volunteering jobs, etc.
An excellent source of information on the topic of the lesson are the following websites
http://www.volunteermatch.org/ and
http://jobsearch.about.com/od/jobapplicationletters/Job_Application_Letters.htm
Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries,
definitions, printed handouts, library material, and notes.

130 Unit 6
PAGE 114 different stages of the learning cycle. The first
INTRODUCTION and second parts of the table should be filled in
at the beginning of the lesson. You should do it
Invite the students to examine and describe the together with the students. For example, for this
photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. lesson, in the first part students might write in
Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of different types of voluntary work they know. In
the unit and make comments on the things they the second part of the chart they might want to
already know, what they can do, what will be new, write: other verb tenses, more vocabulary
etc. Draw students' attention to the values that will related to voluntary work, writing application
be paid more attention to, and ask them to letters, etc. The final part of the chart is filled in
anticipate what issues will be discussed in at the end of the last lesson to see what the
connection with them. students learning process was like and if their
PAGE 115 expectations were met.
HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? KWL CHART
1 Ask students if they have ever been asked to fill What I know What I want to know What I learnt
in a form. Where? Why? Why do we need forms?
What is special about forms? Ask them to
examine the two forms on page 115 and identify
their use from the options provided. What kind
of information does each form ask for?
Answers
Form 1 c. Form 2 b. Talk to students about volunteering in general and
about their own experiences. Were they
2 Tell students to copy form 2 into their notebooks positive? Why do they think people volunteer to
and fill it in as fully as possible with their own do something they are not paid for? Would they
details. They can even invent a persona to fill in volunteer? Ask them to name Chilean and
all the rubrics or they can use the information of international organisations that do voluntary work.
one of their parents or relatives.
2 (Learning ability: to match information and
3 Students will need to use structures that pictures that represent it).
express interest, surprise, sadness, lack of Ask students to describe the actions in the
interest and others if they want to communicate pictures. Can they recognise the organisations?
adequately in English. This exercise checks how What do they normally do? How do they get
familiar they are with such expressions. The their funding and recruit volunteers? Why is it
topic is further developed throughout the unit. important to be a volunteer?
Answers Answers
a. - Picture 3. b. Picture 1. c. Picture 2. All the pictures show voluntary work.
Picture 1: The volunteer is distributing food.
PAGE 116 Picture 2: The volunteer may be recruiting
LESSON 1 READING people or giving information.
VOLUNTEERING Picture 3: The volunteer is putting out a fire.
BEFORE YOU READ Picture 4: The volunteer is helping a dog.

1 (Learning ability: to connect content and


previous knowledge).
At this stage of learning, students are ready to
do some analytical work on the unit. At the
beginning of each lesson in units 4, 5 and 6 ask
them to prepare a chart like the one provided
below and fill in the corresponding parts at

At WORK 131
a letter is usually written to inform about
3 (Learning ability: to deduce meaning of key words).
something;
Go through the words in the box with the
a manual might instruct us how to do
students. Read them aloud or ask them to read
something to our car;
them aloud, then tell them to have a look at the
an encyclopaedia entry generally gives a brief
texts and find the words. Can they guess the
definition of something.
meanings from the context? Ask students to
Ask students to identify the communicative
match the meanings (a. f.) with the words.
purpose of each text.
Remind students that success is a false cognate;
it does not mean suceso. Answers
Answers General b.
groom d. huge a. Text I d.
lap c. stuff e. Text II a.
success b. tangled f. Text III c.
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
4 (Learning ability: to predict content from the Ask students to match the type of text below with
context and visual clues). the corresponding communicative purpose. You
In this exercise, students predict the content of can also write short pieces of different texts or use
the text they are going to read on the basis of cut-outs from newspapers and magazines and then
provided information title of unit, pictures, ask students to identify the purpose.
and previous exercises and from the options
provided. Do not check answers at this point. A recipe. To instruct.
PAGE 117 An instruction leaflet. To instruct.
A university brochure offering courses. To inform.
WHILE YOU READ
A travel book. To inform.
5 (Learning ability: to validate predictions). A newspaper article on music types. To inform.
Students quickly read the texts and check their
An invitation to a party. To persuade.
predictions in Exercise 4.
Answers 8 (Learning ability: to infer meaning of words /
c. expressions).
Tell students that we can express the feelings of
6 (Learning ability: to summarise). sadness and happiness not just by saying I am sad
In this exercise students choose one sentence or I am happy, but by a varied number of idioms.
that best summarises each text. Summarising Ask students to go back to the texts and study the
involves putting the main idea(s) into other expressions written in bold (a. h.). Can they
words, but including only the main point(s). guess from the context which ones express
Answers sadness and which ones happiness? After this,
a. Text I. c. Text III. d. Text II. they should write them in the organiser and then
practise them by writing sentences.
7 (Learning ability: to identify communicative
Answers
purpose).
Different texts have different purposes and it is Pleasure / Happiness Sadness / Regret
important for students to recognise it. For Just grins from ear to ear. Feeling down in the
example: Be over the moon. dumps.
an advertisement is generally written to Youll never look back. With a lump in my throat.
persuade us to buy something; Having the time of my life. My heart sinks.

132 Unit 6
UNIT 6

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
9 (Learning ability: to localise specific information).
Take students to the computer lab. Prepare a text
Students read the instructions and the incomplete
with some ten words suitable for synonym
sentences and then read the texts again.
replacement. Tell them to locate a thesaurus online
Answers or in a word processing program. Tell them to select
a. Text I. b. Text III. c. Text III. d. Text II. e. Text II. the word, click Tools on the menu bar at the top of
PAGE 120 the screen and choose Language and Thesaurus.
The computer will present a list of words students
10 (Learning ability: to identify descriptions / to can substitute for their own word.
match information and visuals). 12 (Learning ability: to identify and extract specific
Describing in English usually involves using a lot information).
of adjectives. If we describe actions then we use Ask students to read Text II again and then
verbs. Ask students to read Text I again and find answer the questions. Check orally.
all the words that describe the three animals
mentioned and then write them under the Answers
corresponding picture. a. An animal shelter or animal protection
organisation.
Answers b. Yes, a person can work as a volunteer even
a. Rufus black and white, green eyes. just for 40 minutes a week.
b. Sooty completely black, yellow eyes. c. Walk dogs, stuff envelopes or help with
c. Duchess - Persian, blue-eyed, long-coated. fundraising events.
OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - GAME d. To help to protect animals.
Ask students to play a game using the pictures of e. Any two of these: you get good company,
the other cats presented in Text I. Students write a you meet the new you, you can find a new
short description of the cats and then take turns to career and become part of the solution.
read one to their partner and ask: which animal am I f. They can phone.
talking about? Alternatively, use pictures of other
animals or pictures of people. 13 (Learning ability: to discriminate between
correct and incorrect information).
11 (Learning ability: to identify synonyms). Ask students to read the statements (a. f.) and
Tell students that when we create sentences, we decide if they are true or false. Then they must
can make them more interesting by using go back to Text III to check their answers. You
words that mean the same as the word you are can ask fast learners to correct the false
speaking about. This allows us to add variety to statements and share the information with the
our vocabulary. You can give them an example class once they have all finished.
of two sentences, one of which uses synonyms
Answers
and another one which does not. Which one
a. True. b. False (the animals and the people
sounds better?
are really friendly, everyone is really relaxed
I live in a nice little house and the house is in a nice
and shes been having the time of her life).
little town in Canada.
c. True. d. False (very often she thinks it is bad
I live in a lovely little house and it is in a pleasant
news: another person giving up their pet).
small town in Canada.
e. False (she offers advice on cats and dogs).
Answers f. False (she gives a lot of information: if she
In this order in the text: a. moggies. b. feline. thinks an animal can be adopted or not,
c. tom. d. Persian. e. kitten. adoption and euthanasia policies, what the
peoples options are).

At WORK 133
PAGE 121 16 40 (Learning ability: to role play dialogues
AFTER YOU READ imitating a spoken model).
Students listen to the recording to check their
answers to Exercise 15 and then listen and repeat
The Present
Language Note Perfect Continuous to practise and role play the mini dialogues.
This section deals with the structure and use of the TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 40
Present Perfect Continuous tense. We use it to
describe an action that started in the past and The woman has an American accent and the man has a
stopped recently. There is usually a result now. French accent.
(Im tired because I have been running). A: What has this boy been doing?
We also use the Present Perfect Continuous to
show that something started in the past and has B: I think he has been lying in the sun for too long.
continued up until now. A: What has this girl been doing?
The structure of the Present Perfect Continuous tense is: B: I think she has been eating lots of chocolate.
Subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb
have been base + -ing A: What has this young woman been doing?
has B: I think she has been running in a marathon.
A: What have these ladies been doing?
14 (Learning ability: to apply a language item). B: I think they have been doing the shopping.
Refer students to the Language Note before A: What has this man been doing?
doing this exercise. Provide more examples and
B: I think he has been painting the house.
check that students understand both the
structure and its application.
Answers Learning tip
a. It has been raining since 5 oclock on Monday.
b. Grandma has been knitting that sweater See notes on this section on page 8 of the Introduction.
since last spring.
c. The dog has been chasing its tail since 17 (Learning ability: to use new vocabulary).
4:30 today. After students study the language tip, ask them
d. They have been playing chess since noon. to try to fill in the gaps in the sentences with the
e. They have been working in the garden correct word, job or work. Check orally.
since 3 pm. Answers
f. He has been painting the house since 9 am. a. job. b. work. c. work. d. work. e. work. f. job.
PAGE 122 PAGE 123

15 (Learning ability: to apply new vocabulary and 18 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate progress).
structures). This minitest allows students to evaluate their
Ask students to work in pairs and carefully study performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson
the pictures. What have the people in the and also to consider evaluation as a continuous
pictures been doing? Why do they think that process throughout the book. Read the instructions
they have been doing it? Tell them to construct aloud, make sure that all the students understand
mini dialogues using the visual clues. them clearly and set a time limit to complete the
Possible answers task. Help students to check their answers and work
See transcript below. out their scores. You may ask students to keep track
of their progress and then evaluate their overall
performance in the Minitests after two or three units.

134 Unit 6
UNIT 6

Answers 2 (Learning ability: to express opinions).


a. have been studying. b. have been waiting. What is acceptable or unacceptable will vary
c. has been correcting. d. Has it been raining. from person to person. Ask each student to do
e. have not been listening. the exercise on his or her own. After they all
finish, read the options one by one and ask
19 APPLICATION TASK WRITING (Learning
several students to give their opinions on each
ability: to create a new text). choice. Why do they think that such behaviour is
Go through the instructions with the students acceptable or not? Can they give reasons? How
and check that they all understand what they would they behave in a similar situation? In
have to do. Tell them to use the Past Simple general, they should agree on what is acceptable
tense given that it is going to be a text about a or unacceptable behaviour at a job interview.
past experience. If students tell you that they
have never volunteered or worked, tell them to Answers
invent a story. Check each piece of writing and Acceptable behaviour (A): a., b., e., f.
correct grammar and spelling. Discuss students (but not too loud), h. Unacceptable
performance and give feedback. behaviour (U): c., d., g.

20 (Learning ability: to reflect on the content of the 3 (Learning ability: to connect pictures and content).
text and relate it to own experiences). Ask students to read the sentences in the
Students are asked to reflect on what they have bubbles (a. c.) and then match them with the
discussed in the lesson and decide if what they pictures (1 3). The three bubbles include
have done has helped them to talk about the expressions from the recording. You can tell
topic of the lesson. Encourage students to faster students to listen to these sentences in
discuss their answers to the questions in small the recording during the listening activities and
groups, and to give and support their opinions check whether they are exactly the same.
with respect for their classmates at all times. Answers
Encourage them to express their honest a. Picture 2. b. Picture 3. c. Picture 1.
opinions when answering questions b. and c.,
which raise value issues. PAGE 125
This is also the place where students can fill in
the third part of the KWL chart. 4 41 (Learning ability: to identify and pronounce
PAGE 124 key words).
LESSON 2 - LISTENING Students listen to the words and repeat them.
APPLYING FOR A JOB Do they know their meanings? You can write
sentences on the board to provide context. It
BEFORE YOU LISTEN would also be a good idea to familiarise
1 (Learning ability: to connect the topic and students with the names of places that will
personal experiences). appear in the text: Brighton Hove - London.
Ask students to prepare a KWL chart. In pairs or Examples:
groups, students discuss the questions. Then, When I worked for the shop my duties included
they discuss their answers in bigger groups and serving customers and accepting payments.
compare their options. Do you think the exercise is difficult? Not really. I
think it is fairly easy.
Mum, Id like you to meet my mates from
school: Helen and Jack.
I love kayaking, climbing and trekking; in fact,
any activities that you can do outdoors.

At WORK 135
She has an outgoing personality: she loves Answers
partying and being with people. a. True. b. False (he is the youngest of three
The most important skills for this job are brothers). c. False (he moved to London).
concentration and attention to details. d. False (He has worked as a tourist guide since
he left school). e. True. f. True.
TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION 41
duties fairly mates outdoors outgoing skills 9 42 (Learning ability: to find and support
specific information).
5 (Learning ability: to relate similar meanings). Play the recording again. Check answers orally.
Students read the words and match them with Ask keener students to describe a friend or a
the synonyms in Exercise 4. classmate using the expressions they have
ticked. They can write their sentences on the
Answers board to share them with the class.
abilities skills. extrovert outgoing.
friends mates. obligations duties. Answers
outside outdoors. sufficiently fairly. c. Good team player. e. Outgoing personality.
f. Responsible. g. Sporty.
6 (Learning ability: to predict using previous h. Takes his duties seriously.
knowledge). PAGE 126
Talk to students about interviews. Have they
ever been interviewed for a job? What kind of 10 42 (Learning ability: to find specific information).
information do they think an interviewer might
First give students examples of the type of
require? Refer them to the list of questions
expressions they will be looking for. Tell them that
a. f. and ask them to tick the ones they think
to keep peoples interest when we are face to face
are asked at an interview. Do not check answers
we can nod, or look someone in the eye, make
at this stage.
humming noises, use expressions such as: I see,
WHILE YOU LISTEN OK, etc. Play the first part of the recording again
and ask students to write the three expressions.
7 42 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).
Answers
Play the first part of the recording once or twice
a. Oh, really? b. I see. c. Mm, very interesting.
for students to check their predictions in
Exercise 6. 11 42 (Learning ability: to identify the correct
Answers sequence).
a., d., e., f. In this exercise students apply their analytical
skills. They take the whole recording into
8 42 (Learning ability: to discriminate between
consideration and analyse it to associate the
correct and incorrect information). pictures with specific situations. Finally, they
Before playing the recording again, ask students number the pictures in the order the associated
to read the statements (a. f.). Play the first part events appear in the recording. You can ask the
of the recording once through and then with students to describe the pictures and identify
pauses for students to do the exercise. You can what they represent in connection with the
ask fast learners to correct the false statements recording. Then they listen and put them in order.
and then share the information with their Picture 1: a tourist guide, a sporty person, an
classmates. adventure sports guide.
Picture 2: a bus that takes big groups of tourists.

136 Unit 6
UNIT 6

Picture 3: the clock indicates times when


TRANSCRIPT LISTENING APPLYING FOR A JOB 42
people have to do things.
Picture 4: a birthday cake for someones 25th The interviewer has a Japanese accent. John speaks with an
birthday. English accent.
Answers Part I
1. Birthday cake: John, I can see from your Interviewer: John, I can see from your application form that
application form that youre 25 years old. youre 25 years old. Can you tell me a bit more about
2. The clock: Sometimes I have to start work yourself?
early and finish late. John: Im from Brighton and I consider myself an
3. The adventure holiday guide: Im a sporty outgoing, friendly person. Im the youngest of
person. Ive been specialising in adventure three brothers and Ive been working as a
holidays for a year or so.
tourist guide since I left school.
4. The tourist bus / coach: Ive been travelling with
big groups of tourists for at least two years.
Interviewer: Oh, really? Why do you want to change jobs?
John: As I said, Im from Brighton, I live here and my
12 42 (Learning ability: to extract specific job is in Hove. I have no car and sometimes I
information). have to start work early and finish late. At the
Ask students to read the sentences and fill in the beginning, I used my dads car, but for the last
gaps. They can work in pairs. Play the recording year Ive been relying on a ride from one of my
again for them to check their answers. Check orally. mates since dad moved to London. And its been
Answers very difficult to get to work on time. And then I
a. more. saw this ad right here in Brighton.
b. change. Interviewer: I see. Tell me, why did you choose this line of work?
c. car. John: Im an outgoing person and I love spending time
d. time. with other people, especially outdoors. I finished
e. Spanish / French. school and I wasnt really sure what I wanted to
f. big / years. do, but Ive always been good at languages I
speak fluent Spanish and French and Ive been
13 42 (Learning ability: to find matching information). studying German for the last five months so I
First students read the answers and then they thought that tourism would be a good career for
write the questions they think the interviewer me. And because I am a sporty person I've been
asks. Tell them not to worry too much about
specialising in adventure holidays for a year or so.
being absolutely exact. After they have written
the questions, play the second part of the
Interviewer: Do you have any experience with big groups?
recording and tell them to check their answers. John: I took a course and then passed an exam to qualify
as a professional guide and Ive been travelling
Answers
with big groups of tourists for at least two years. I
See transcript, Part II.
would say that Ive got a lot of experience.
Interviewer: Mm, very interesting. Tell me, why should I
hire you to work for my agency?
John: Im very responsible and I take my duties
seriously. I like what I do, I like being with
people and showing them around and I think
Im a good team player. I think I can contribute
quite a lot.

At WORK 137
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY
Part II
Copy this chart on the board and ask students to fill
Interviewer: What two things are most important to you in column A with for or since.
your job?
A (Answers)
John: First of all, the most important thing is job stability,
A long period of time (for)
and the second thing is opportunities for promotion. Leaving Primary school (since)
Interviewer: What skills and abilities do you have? Christmas (since)
John: Skills and abilities? As I said, I think Im fairly Two hours (for)
responsible, Im punctual and Im a hard worker who is Ages (for)
willing to learn new things. This morning (since)
Interview: What are your salary expectations? Ten minutes (for)
John: I know that Id just be starting, so my salary I lived in New York (since)
expectations are not excessive. A short while (for)
Half an hour (for)
Interviewer: Is there anything youd like to add?
The end of last year (since)
John: One thing I would like to add is that Im an honest Last March (since)
person and if you hire me youll get an excellent worker. Tuesday (since)
PAGE 127 15 43 (Learning ability: to infer required information).
AFTER YOU LISTEN Ask students to carefully read the answers. What
information do the answers provide? What
The Present Perfect Continuous
questions are being asked? Before they actually
Language Note (the use of for and since) write the full questions, ask them to write the
question words required, if any, and then to write
We use for and since when talking about time.
for + period of time the rest of the questions. They can do this in pairs.
A period is a duration of time, for example: Play the recording once or twice for students to
5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years. For means from the check their answers. Let students know that these
beginning of the period until the end of the are only the recommended answers and their
period. For can be used with all tenses. options might be slightly different, but still correct.
since + point in time
Answers
A point is a precise moment in time, for example:
9 oclock, 1st January, last Monday. Since means See transcript below.
from a point in the past until now. Since is
normally used with perfect tenses. TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE 43

The interviewer has an American accent and Dell an Indian accent.


14 (Learning ability: to apply new vocabulary and
Interviewer: Can you tell us your name and age?
structures).
Dell: My name is Dell Taylor and Im 18 years old.
Refer students to the Language Note before
doing the exercise. Check orally.
Interviewer: What position are you applying for?
Dell: Id like to apply for the position of a receptionist.
Answers Interviewer: Do you have any experience in the area?
a. for.
Dell: No, Ive got no experience, but I am willing to learn.
b. since.
Interviewer: Do you speak any foreign languages?
c. for.
d. for. Dell: Yes, I speak Spanish.
e. since. Interviewer: What are your most important qualities?
Dell: My qualities? I am hard-working, responsible
and I think Im a good team player.

138 Unit 6
UNIT 6

Interviewer: If we hire you, when could you start? PAGE 129


Dell: I could start as soon as you need me.
19 (Learning ability: to role play an interview).
PAGE 128 This exercise is an extension of Exercise 17,
where students discussed different jobs and
16 43 (Learning ability: to participate in a what is necessary to apply for them. Role playing
conversation imitating a spoken model). an interview is an interesting way of preparing
Play the recording once or twice more for students for a potential situation where they
students to listen and repeat. Give pairs a few have to apply for a job, apart from checking if
minutes to practise, taking turns to be the they have successfully acquired the skills taught
interviewer or the interviewee. You can ask fast in this unit. It is important to take into
learners to change the information in the consideration students level of language and
answers with their own ideas. Invite pairs of not to expect the interview to be without errors
students to role play the dialogue for the class. and some Spanish expressions. It is important to
provide students with concrete information and
17 (Learning ability: to discuss situations). clear role descriptions so that they can play their
Group discussions provide the opportunity for roles with confidence. After the role play,
important interaction among students. feedback is essential. To quote Carol Livingstone:
Additionally, you can check on what students are Once the role play is finished, spend some time on
learning through their questions and answers. debriefing. This does not mean pointing out and
Students work in pairs. Ask them to look at the correcting mistakes. After the role play, the students
pictures, identify the jobs (Picture 1: Master of are satisfied with themselves; they feel that they
Ceremonies MC at a circus. Picture 2: ballet have used their knowledge of the language for
dancer. Picture 3: singer / guitarist / musician. something concrete and useful. This feeling of
Picture 4: beautician) , and then read and satisfaction will disappear if every mistake is
answer the questions. analysed. It might also make the students less
18 MINITEST (Learning ability: to evaluate progress). confident and less willing to do other role plays.
Livingstone, Carol (1983)
This minitest allows students to evaluate their Role-play in Language Learning. Longman.
performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson
and also to consider evaluation as a continuous 20 APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING
process throughout the book. Read the (Learning ability: to make an oral presentation).
instructions aloud, make sure that all the students It is recommended to do this exercise in a new
understand them clearly and set a time limit to class period given that students have had several
complete the task. Help students to check their speaking activities before (Exercises 17 and 19).
answers and work out their scores. You may ask Read the instructions with students and make
students to keep track of their progress and then sure they understand what they have to do. Talk
evaluate their overall performance in the to students about different ways of introducing
Minitests after two or three units. themselves and others. Provide examples and
Each line with blanks is worth 2 points. situations. Elicit examples from students. Set a
Answers time limit. Help them to evaluate their
a. have you been using. performance using the points provided.
b. have not been using / for.
c. have been playing since.
d. you have been playing for.
e. have been telling you for.
f. have been trying / since.

At WORK 139
21 (Learning ability: to reflect on the content of the Answers
text and relate it to own experiences). a. The Senior Citizens Club has been doing
Students are asked to reflect on what they have aerobics for one hour and five minutes.
discussed in the lesson and decide if what they b. John Brown, Daisy Elmer and Karl Royce
have done has helped them to talk about the have been using the machines for one and a
topic of the lesson. Encourage them to discuss half hours.
their answers in small groups, and to give and c. Susan and Deborah Drake have been doing
support their opinions with respect for their Pilates for 25 minutes.
classmates at all times. Pay special attention to d. Mrs Carole Johnson has been sitting in the
questions c. and d., which raise interesting value sauna for ten minutes.
issues. e. Gordon and Sarah Plank have been doing
This is also the place where students can fill in kick boxing for five minutes.
the third part of the KWL chart. f. The children from Tollgate School have been
swimming for 40 minutes.
PAGES 130 -131 g. Deepak Kharma has been doing yoga for
CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES nearly two hours.
See notes on this section on page 8 of the
Introduction. 3 Students look at the pictures, read the clues and
then write sentences using the Present Perfect
1 Students read the letter and answer questions Continuous tense, following the example.
a. d. If they answer with complete sentences,
they should use the corresponding Present Answers
Perfect Continuous forms. You can decide if this a. They have been going to this restaurant for
is necessary or not in your class; you may be five years.
interested in them getting the information b. He has been looking for a job since he left
required, in which case just a short answer will school in June.
be enough. c. They have been painting the house for
seven hours.
Answers d. She has been working out since two oclock.
a. (He has been living in Auckland) for 5 years.
b. (He has been preparing for the test) for a year. PAGE 132
c. (He has also been studying) traffic rules and JUST FOR FUN
traffic laws. See notes on this section on page 8 of the
d. (He has been working for the Infirmary) for Introduction. Remind students that they should do
two years. the activities on their own, without much intervention
from you, but help and support when necessary.
2 Ask students to study the schedule with the times
and the activities. Tell them to pay attention to the Answers
time when the activity started and the time when a. vi. - Picture 3. d. - iii. - Picture 6.
Delva is looking at the programme. b. - v. - Picture 5. e. - iv. - Picture 4.
c. - ii. - Picture 1. f. - i. - Picture 2.
PAGE 133
CHILEAN CONNECTION
Talk to students about unusual professions they
know some of them in Chile. Do they think that
organ grinding is an unusual profession? Why do
they think some professions disappear?

140 Unit 6
UNIT 6

Answers Brenda: Well, you already know my name. Im 23


1. -Mexico -corridos. 2. -Argentina -tangos. years old and I am a computer program
3. -Spain -zarzuelas. 4. -Chile -cuecas.
analyst.
PAGES 134 - 136 Interviewer I: Any specific programs?
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Brenda: Mainly Oracle and Java but Im also familiar
with Mercury and XML.
READING VOLUNTEERING EXPERIENCES Interviewer II: Thats very impressive. Do you have any
1. c. previous work experience?
2. a. i. b. ii. Brenda: I graduated 6 months ago and I worked for
c. ii. d. i. three months as a systems analyst for a big
e. i.
telecommunications company in Wexford.
3. a. NM. b. NM.
Interviewer I: What were your main duties?
c. True. d. False.
Brenda: I coordinated the installation of computer
LISTENING
hardware and software, but I also did some
AT A RECRUITMENT CENTRE 44
program analysis for our clients.
4. a. False. b. True.
Interviewer II: Why did you leave?
c. False. d. False.
Brenda: I was a trainee and the position was
e. True. f. False.
5. a. Hamilton. temporary. I finished last week.
b. Tuesday. Interviewer I: Thank you, Miss Hamilton, we will study
c. 23. your CV and recommendations and will let
d. duties. you know if you got the job tomorrow.

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING 44 LANGUAGE


AT A RECRUITMENT CENTRE 6. a. have you been living.
Interviewer I has an English accent, Brenda has a Scottish b. have been working.
accent and Interviewer II has a French accent. c. have been waiting.
d. has not been feeling.
Interviewer I: Hello, welcome to the recruitment centre.
e. has been building.
First of all, Id like to take your details.
7. a. for.
Whats your family name?
b. since.
Brenda: Hamilton. My full name is Brenda Hamilton.
c. for.
Interviewer II: And what position are you applying for? d. since.
Brenda: Program analyst. e. since.
Interviewer I: I dont seem to be able to find your CV, Miss
Hamilton. (pause) Oh, here it is. Have you
filled in an application form?
Brenda: Yes, I sent my application form by email last
Tuesday. But I have a copy with me if you
need another one.
Interviewer II: No, thank you, it wont be necessary. Can
you tell us something about yourself?

At WORK 141
SPEAKING Assign points according to the following
8. Tell students to look at the two pictures criteria.
and describe them in detail not just what Student writes appropriate information
they see, but what they feel about them: in all the corresponding parts of a
how the people in the pictures behave, form and a complete application
feel, look, etc. What questions are they letter, with just a few grammar and
asking? Why? What answers are they spelling mistakes. 8 - 10 pts.
receiving? What job do they think the Student writes appropriate information
person in the shirt is applying for? in most of the corresponding parts
Assign points according to the following of a form and a fairly complete
criteria. application letter, with some grammar
Student describes the situations and spelling mistakes. 5 - 7 pts.
correctly, indicating the appropriate Student writes only a few pieces of
questions and answers, with information in the corresponding
good pronunciation and no parts of a form and an incomplete
hesitation. 8 - 10 pts. application letter, with several grammar
Student describes the situations, and spelling mistakes. 2 - 4 pts.
indicating several of the appropriate Student writes very little information
questions and answers, but makes a in the corresponding parts of the form
few mistakes. Acceptable pronunciation and writes a very incomplete
and some hesitation. 5 - 7 pts. application letter, with a lot of grammar
Student partly describes the and spelling mistakes. 0 - 1 pts.
situations, indicating a few of the
appropriate questions and answers,
but makes several mistakes. PAGE 137
Acceptable pronunciation and SELF EVALUATION
some hesitation. 2 - 4 pts. See notes on this section on page 8 of the
Student hardly describes the Introduction.
situations, indicating just a few or
none of the appropriate questions and Help students to notice that there are two main
answers, and makes a lot of mistakes. parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL
Poor pronunciation and a lot of PERFORMANCE.
hesitation. 0 - 1 pts. For YOUR TEST RESULTS they have to work out their
score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read
WRITING their results and reflect on them. Help them to think
9. Tell students to fill in the application form of what they can do to improve results, solve
with their own or invented details. They problems, give or get help, etc.
should also include a short application YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection
note where they write about their on their involvement with the main OFTs discussed
experience, hobbies and the reasons why in the lessons and invites them to think about their
they want to apply. learning strategies and attitudes.

142 Unit 6
UNIT 6
eXTra TeST UNIT 6

reaDING - VolUNTeer SPoTlIGhT

timore
Easter Seals, Inc. board chair Jerry Mat
has been a volunteer leader with the
My
organisation for more than 30 years.
the start,
involvement was very personal from
he says.
uals with
Easter Seals has been helping individ
ds, and the ir
disabilities and special nee
cen tres to
families. From child development
g for
physical rehabilitation and job trainin
Eas ter Sea ls offe rs a
people with disabilities,
variety of services to help people with sion has
Mattimore feels that Easter Seals mis
and
disabilities to address lifes challenges never been more important providi
ng
ls. tha t all people
achieve personal goa exceptional services to ensure
d the ir
t of imp orta nt with disabilities or special needs (an
As volunteers, we are all a par to live,
ard (Jer ry) families) have equal opportunities
and won der ful wor k, say s Ger ir com mu nities. He
ut all tha t learn, work and play in the
en I thin k abo
Mattimore, Wh
s and recently led a team of more than 350
volunteers do today and the million volu nteers from across the country to me
et
kes me ver y
millions of lives we touch it ma with their local members during the
t of suc h an incr edib le gro up
proud to be par organisations annual convention in
alongside
of people. Washington, D.C. Here, he worked
ely and
nteer at fellow volunteers to pass along a tim
Mattimore has been working as a volu important message: that peo ple with
ery
Easter Seals for nearly 30 years. Ev disabilities and other special needs
have equal
a uni que stor y abo ut how the y
volunteer has care to
am always access to quality, affordable health
personally became involved, and I get what they need, when the y nee d it.
igu ed to lear n from oth ers abo ut their nteers
intr
add s Mat tim ore . It is a powerful message, and as volu
passion for givi ng, said. I am
we are also powerful advocates, he
t of Easter
from the proud to be a volunteer, to be a par
My involvement was very personal ieve we are
rnament Seals. As volunteers today, I bel
start, he says. I played in a golf tou anisations
I me t som e of the fam ilies we served for charged with shaping the many org
whe re t century
t that will move and thrive into the nex
the first time. I was very taken by tha are on
and I feel to serve millions more. We
introduction and my wife Audrey
small part our way.
incredibly fortunate to have been a
of so many lives. Taken from: http://www.volunteerma
tch.org/
6
volunteers/stories/spotlight.jsp?id=4

PhoTocoPIable maTerIal At WORK 143


1 Read the article and identify its purpose. 1 pt. 5 45 Listen to the interview again and
a. To raise funds for the organisations next circle the correct alternative. 5 pts.
campaign. a. Come in / on, Mr. Gomez.
b. To engage more young people as volunteers. b. How long have you been working / playing
c. To promote the activities of the organisation. with children?
c. For about five months / years.
2 Read the text again and answer d. I mean outdoor sports / indoor sports, Daniel.
these questions. 5 pts. e. Youre applying for a position as a monitor
a. What is the name of the organisation? in a winter /summer camp.
b. What is Jerry Mattimores position within
the organisation? 6 45 Listen to the recording once more. Then, read
c. What is the target group the organization the advertisement and mark with a tick () the
works with? requirements that Daniel complies with. 2 pts.
d. How many people were under Jerrys
leadership during the annual convention?
e. Where did the annual convention take place?
DEER LAKE
3 Are these statements true (T), false (F)
SUMMER CAMP
Spend two months in Maine,
or not mentioned (NM)? 4 pts.
USA and earn money.
a. ____ Jerry has been working as a volunteer
since he was 30. Deer Lake Summer Camp is looking
n
b. ____ Jerry began working when he was for young people to work with childre
between 5 and 10. They should :
single.
c. ____ Jerry leads a voluntary team from be 18 years or over;
of
Washington DC. like children and have experience
d. ____ Jerry is in charge of raising funds for working with them;
r
the organisation. be interested in a number of outdoo
sports;
lISTeNING rIGhT PerSoN, rIGhT Job have qualifications in swimming
and
lifesaving;
4 45 Listen to the interview. Choose the have good knowledge of life in the
correct answer for each question. 3 pts. USA.
a. What position is Daniel applying for? Telephone Mrs Fenway at Working
w
i. Tennis coach. Holidays Abroad to arrange an intervie
ii. Camp monitor. at our local office on (562) 7937892
iii. Swimming instructor.
b. Where does the interview take place? 7 45 Decide if these sentences are true
i. In the USA. or false. 5 pts.
ii. In Chile.
iii. In Maine. a. Daniel has worked with children since he
c. At what time does the interview take place? was 16.
i. In the morning. b. He likes outdoor sports very much.
ii. In the afternoon. c. Daniel has got qualifications in lifesaving.
iii. In the evening. d. Daniel has never visited another country.
e. He has deep knowledge of American
culture and life.

PhoTocoPIable maTerIal
144 Unit 6
UNIT 6

laNGUaGe Services
Justice Resource Institute, Department of Youth
8 Complete the sentences using the FOOD SERVICE WORKER
Present Perfect Continuous tense of Part time (20 hours a week)
the verbs in brackets. sa
5 pts. We are currently seeking one (1) part time, 20 hour
a. Carlos ___________ English for two week, Food Service Worker in Taunton, MA.
years and now hes stopped. (study) ay, 8
Schedule: Saturday, 8 hours (10 am to 6 pm); Sund
b. Mary and Bob had a big argument; now they s (3 pm to 7 pm).
hours (10 am to 6 pm) and Monday, 4 hour
___________ for the last two hours. (talk) to,
c. Patricia ___________ at that company for Responsibilities would include, but are not limited
three years. (work) preparation, distribution and handling of meals.
the
d. What ___________ for the last 30 minutes? Responsible for the maintenance and sanitation of
t have
(do) kitchen, dining room and all food storage areas. (Mus
e. It ___________ for the last three days. (rain). a high school diploma or GED)

PART-TIME PACKAGE-HANDLERS
9 Complete the sentences using for
or since. 5 pts. CHOOSE
(START WORKING RIGHT NOW! 4 SHIFTS TO
a. I have been playing Playstation ________ FROM DAY / TWILIGHT / NIGH T / SUNR ISE)
five hours. Friday
Consistent 3.5 to 5 hour shifts Monday to
b. My son has been looking at Facebook Sun rise)
Hiring Right Now! (Day/Twilight/Night/
________ 8 pm.
Seasonal and Permanent Part-time Package
c. They got measles. They havent been feeling work
Handlers choose from 4 shifts that best
well ________ two weeks. ity nea r you.
within your schedule at a UPS facil
d. His mother has been living with us ________ t, Night
Strongly Urge You To Apply For Twiligh
we got married.
and Sunrise Shift Openings!
e. Adam has been living in Dublin ________ a
long time.

SPeaKING WrITING

10 Work with a partner and choose one of these 11 Read the advertisements in Exercise 10
job advertisements to role play a job interview again. Choose one and write a short
like the one in the listening text. 10 pts. letter applying for the job. 10 pts.
_______________________________________
SALES TEAM MEMBERS
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
Best Places to Work
_______________________________________
Sundance Vacations, a national travel _______________________________________
Wilkes-
company, is opening a new office in the _______________________________________
stic Sales
Barre area and is looking for enthusia _______________________________________
Team Members.
uses, _______________________________________.
Will earn $1000+ weekly, lucrative bon
guaranteed salary health benefits , paid
not
vacation. Sales experience helpful, but
necessary. Will train. 0 to 20 36 50 55
Cal l for an appointment today! 19 to 35 to 49 to 55 PTS

KEEP TRYING REVIEW WELL DONE! EXCELLENT! TOTAL

PhoTocoPIable maTerIal At WORK 145


aNSWerS To eXTra TeST UNIT 6

READING - VOLUNTEER SPOTLIGHT Mrs Fenway: What other sports are you interested in,
1. b. apart from tennis?
2. a. Easter Seals.
Daniel: I like computer games and chess.
b. Board chair.
Mrs Fenway: I mean outdoor sports, Daniel.
c. People with disabilities and special
needs. Daniel: Oh! I sometimes play football, but Im not
d. 350 volunteers. very fond of it.
e. In Washington DC. Mrs Fenway: I see. Have you got any qualifications in
3. a. Not mentioned. b. False. swimming and lifesaving?
c. False. d. Not mentioned. Daniel: Well, errr, no.
Mrs Fenway: But you can swim, cant you?
LISTENING RIGHT PERSON, RIGHT JOB
Daniel: Oh, yes.
4. a. ii. b. ii. c. ii.
5. a. in. b. working. c. years. d. outdoor. Mrs Fenway: Mmm. You know youre applying for a
e. summer. position as a monitor in a summer camp in
6. Be 18 years or over. Maine, USA. Have you ever visited the USA?
Like children and have experience of Daniel: No, I havent. In fact, Ive never been abroad,
working with them. but Id love to go one day.
7. a. True. b. False. c. False. d. True. e. False. Mrs Fenway: How much do you know about American
culture and society?
Daniel: Lots! I watch lots of American films and
TRANSCRIPT LISTENING - 45 shows on TV.
RIGHT PERSON, RIGHT JOB
Mrs Fenway has an English accent. Daniel speaks with an
LANGUAGE
Australian accent. 8. a. has been studying.
Mrs Fenway: Can I help you? b. have been talking.
Daniel: Good afternoon. My names Daniel Scott; Ive c. has been working.
got an appointment. d. have you been doing
Mrs Fenway: Ah, yes. Come in, Mr Scott. Have a seat, e. has been raining.
please. 9. a. for b. since c. for d. since e. for.
Mrs Fenway: How old are you, Daniel?
Daniel: Im 18.
Mrs Fenway: And how long have you been working with
children?
Daniel: Oh, for about two years.
Mrs Fenway: Tell me about your experience working with
children. What exactly do you do?
Daniel: Well, I play and give tennis lessons at the
sports club I belong to.
Mrs Fenway: Umm, I see. And how long have you been a
member of this club?
Daniel: For about five years.

146 Unit 6
UNIT 6

SPEAKING
NoTeS
10. Assign points according to these criteria.
Student participates in a job interview,
mentioning all the required information,
with good pronunciation and no
hesitation. 8 - 10 pts.
Student participates in a job interview ,
mentioning most of the required
information, with good pronunciation
and a minimum of hesitation. 5 - 7 pts.
Student participates in a job interview,
mentioning half of the required
information, with some pronunciation
mistakes and with hesitation. 3 - 4 pts.
Student participates in a job interview,
mentioning a little of the required
information, with a lot of pronunciation
mistakes and a lot of hesitation. 0 - 2 pts.
WRITING
11. Assign points according to these criteria.
Student writes a short letter applying
for a job, with no grammar or
spelling mistakes. 8 - 10 pts.
Student writes a short letter applying
for a job, with a few grammar or
spelling mistakes. 5 - 7 pts.
Student writes a short letter applying
for a job, with some grammar or
spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 pts.
Student writes a short letter applying
for a job, with a lot of grammar or
spelling mistakes. 0 - 2 pts.

At WORK 147
ThemaTIc bIblIoGraPhY

Units 1 & 2 - Students world Speaking


Reading Holcomb, E., 2008. Asking the Right Questions -
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Shapiro, B., 2007. Other Peoples Love Letters;
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Fadem, T., 2008. The Art of Asking: Ask Better Questions, Get Better Answers, 1st edition, FT
Questions, Get Better Answers, 1st edition, FT Press, ISBN-10: 0137144245.
Press, ISBN-10: 0137144245. Rogerson, P., et.al, 1990. Speaking Clearly
Gross, J., 2008. The New Oxford Book of Literary Teachers book - Pronunciation and Listening
Anecdotes - Oxford Books of Prose & Verse, Comprehension for Learners of English,
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Glasser, W., 2003. For Parents and Teenagers - Fraleigh, D., et.al. 2008. Speak Up - An Illustrated
Dissolving the Barrier Between You and Your Guide to Public Speaking, Bedford/St. Martins,
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Heaton, J. B., 1990. Longman Preliminary English Units 3 & 4 - academic world
Skills: Teachers Guide - Longman for the
Cambridge Exams, Longman, Reading
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to Make a Great Impression and Get the Job You
Writing
Want, 4th edition, Kogan Page Ltd, ISBN-10:
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Occasions - The Best Models for Every Business Pangrazi, R. et.al; 2009. Activity Cards for
and Personal Need, Adams Media, Promoting Physical Activity and Health in the
ISBN-10: 1580628907 Classroom, ISBN-10: 0321582381.
Bly, R., 2003. Websters New World Letter Writing Thomas, D.; 2006. Physical Activity & Health: An
Handbook, 1st edition, Websters New World, Interactive Approach, 2nd edition, Jones &
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Letters for All Occasions, Topaz Cove Creations, Siegel, E., et.al.; 2005. Are You Really Listening?
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Russell McDonald PhD, C., L. McDonald PhD R., ISBN-10: 1893732886
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148
Writing Listening
Lister, L.; 2008. FastTrack To Job Success - Kessler, R.; 2006. Competency-Based Interviews:
Getting a Job From Search To Interview, Resume Master the Tough New Interview Style And Give
Writing, CVs, Job Finding and Interview Them the Answers That Will Win You the Job, 1st
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Shaw, M., and Weil, R.; 2007. Linking Up: Planning Tompkins, G.; 2007. Teaching Writing: Balancing
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Speaking Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing,
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0130964492.

149
bIblIoGraPhY

Atwell, N., 1998. In the Middle: New Some Web Sites


Understanding about Writing, Reading, and
Listening comprehension:
Learning - Workshop Series, 2nd edition, Boynton /
Cook, ISBN-10: 0867093749. http://www.isabelperez.com/songs.htm
Song lyrics and activities for ESL; includes
Burke, J., 2003. Reading Reminders - Tools, Tips,
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popsongs/index.htm
Claire, E. and Haynes, J., 1994. Classroom Teachers
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ESL Survival Kit, Pearson ESL.
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Hadfield, C. J., 2002. Simple Listening Activities -
Reading comprehension:
Oxford Basics series, Oxford University Press.
http://www.abcteach.com
Hadfield, J. and C., 2001. Simple Writing Activities -
Free printable worksheets and activities.
Oxford Basics, 1st edition, USA, Oxford University
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English lesson plans & podcast for studying
Hadfield, J., 2000. Communication Games
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Intermediate, 1st edition, Pearson P T R,
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Speaking
Hancock, M., 1996. Pronunciation Games,
Cambridge University Press, ISBN-10: 0521467357. http://www.onestopenglish.com
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Hewitt, I. E., 1998. Edutainment: How to Teach
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Language with Fun & Games, Bk & CD edition,
Delta Systems Co Inc. http://www.proteacher.com
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Klippel, F., 1984. Keep Talking: Communicative
practice.
Fluency Activities for Language Teaching -
Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers, Writing
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Teachers, 3rd Edition, Pearson. TEFL English Students.
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Book, Cambridge University Press, http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/
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A complete guidance to understand the
Turkenik, C., 1998. Choices - Writing Projects for
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Students of ESL, Cambridge University Press,
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Lessons for learners, including fun pages like
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150
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