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p10 Phra s avle r h s pl1 Discussion


Types1-4 Vocabulary: Phrases for reactingto an opposingview(Ihof'so S tyl e:Longandshortsentences V ocabul ary:A dl ecti vet o
s des c ri be
emoti onal
Phras al v e r b sp e n d fair point, I suppose.But in my view, etc )
: a s s i va Vocabulary: Similes(oswhiteas snow, states(perplexed,remorseful,d isillusioned, etc.)
inf init ivfeo r m s 6 ) Re a ctinto
g a n o p p o sin vie
g w etc.) D i cti onary
w ork:Fi nding s y nony ms

p21 Photocomparison
Would,pastperfect,future Vocabulary: Phrasal verbs(h1ngout with,kicksb out, etc) A film review V ocabul ary: fi l ms(l ow .
A dj ecti vedses c ri bi ng
in t he pas t ,e t c . Vocabulary: Verb-noun collocations (skipschool,etc) U si ngparti ci plcl
e auses budget,wackv,x-roted,etc-)
to i mprove
styl e
Simpleandc o n t i n u o u s G ra m m aSp
r : e cu la tin g V ocabul ary:A spectsof fi l ms V ocabul ary:
Modi fyi nga dv erbs w i thgradabl e/
forms (soundtrack,screenplay, etc.) non-gradable adjectives(extremely, foi rly, etc.)
f i De scr ib inpgh o to so f h o m e le ss
p e o p le

ll-i2 !i:h o::ll-r. p33 Negotiation


Verbpatterns V o ca b u la rCo p h r a se s
y: m p a r a tive D escri bi nga pl ace V ocabul ary:A dj ecti ves pl ac es
f ordes c ri bi ng
Dictionary
work:Finding Vocabulary: Phrases for negotiating(l'llgo atongwiththot,hove S tyl e:U si ngmoreel aboratevocabul ary (bustling, touristy,sprowling, etc.)
out aboutverbpatterns wecometo a decision? eIc.) Vocabutary: Synonyms (interestin
g, D i cti onary
w ork:D epe ndentprepos i ti ons (1)
6i Talkingaboutthe relativemeritsof differentcaf6s coptivoting, 9ripping, fascinating, etc.) (renownedfor, reminiscentof, etc.)

p42 Conditionats p43 Discussion i :i.:


t : L : rt , t , - I I

1st, 2nd,3rd and mixed Urbanchange Topicsentences Vocabulary:Speculating (lt'sboundto hoppen,


c ondit ion a l s O TatkingaboutpLanned changesto a towncentre Vocabulary: neither-..nor,either...or, there'sno chanceof it happening,etc.)
Inversion whenf omitted Vocabulary: opinions(Ihol3 howI see it, to
Expressing not only .., but olso, etc.
as long as, supposing, my mind, etc,)
prcvided,unless

p54 Ellips i s p55 Presentation


Reduced infinitives Functional phrases C onsi deri ngthetargetaudi ence Vocabulary: Linkersfor addition(opartfrom,
Omissionof mainverbafter Vocabulary: Changing the subject;Acknowledging an opposing Writinga goodopening along with, to boot, etc.)
m odalor a u x i l i a rvye r b v i e w;Dism issinagn o p p o sinvie
g w;Re fe r r ing
t o somethi ng
sai d Vocabulary: Personal qualities(altruism,
earlier amiabiIity, trustuvorth in ess, etc.)
f) Listening to a presentation Vocabulary: Wordfamilies

p54 Repo r t i nsgt r u c t u r e s p65 Photocomparlson ., 'l i

Reporting verbs Vocabulary:Synonymsof prize(award,reword,trophy,etc.) Styte:Adverbs,adjectives,


etc.
Adverbsandreportedspeech Vocabulary: ldiomsfor expressingjoy (overthe moon,thrilledto Adverbsand adverbphrases
Vocabulary:
Conveying tone and bits, jumping for ioy, etc.) (typeand position)
e m0t ion Vocabulary: Concession and counter-argument(allthesame, Vocabulary:
Orderof adjectives
Reporting speechwithout granted,mind you, etc.) Vocabulary:
Reportingverbs(groan,etc.)
usingprecisewordsspoken O Sp e cu la tinagb o u ta p h o to Grammar: Punctuatingreportedspeech

p 76 A ddin g e m p h a s i s p77 Presentation


Cleftsentences Eco-friendlytourism Appropriate style V ocabul ary: probl ems
H ol i day andc ompl ai nts
Frontingphrases fl Listeningto presentations Correctlayout
doldid for emotiveor Vocabulary: Expressionsfor describingbenefitsand drawbacks Vocabulary: FormaIlanguage Qtrustyou
contrastiveemphasis (hovea detrimentaleffect,of mutuolbenefit,etc.) will ensure,we regretto informyou, etc.)
Vocabulary: Expressingcause,purposeand result(/eadto, etc.)
Vocabulary:Generalising(to o gredtertent,by ond lorge, etc.)

p86 Modal verbs p87 Stimulus-based discussion


Overview of modals VocabuLary:Phrasesfor describing graphsand charts
statistics, R ecommendilng ocalmusi cvenuesand Vocabulary:Connotation(attentive/intrusive,
VocabuLary:Verbsfor describinglends(rocketed, slumped,etc.) restaurants bustling/ crowded,Iight/ insubstontiol, etc.)
Vocabulary:Phrasesfor givingestimates(in the regionof, elc.) Layoutof a report
5l Talkingaboutdifferentkindsof chart V ocabul ary:
P eri phrasiand
s euphemi sm

F$$ F.tsslve -rlrrr il:ii p99 Drawingconclusions


P art ic iple
phrases V o ca b u la r y:
Ph r a sefo
s r d r a win g
lo g icaco
l n clusi ons Vocabulary: Phrasesfor introductions yourw orkw i thoutdamagi ng
E di ti ng the meani ng
Vocabulary: Vaguelanguage Grammar: Passivestructureswith or flow
f | Co m p a r inagn dco n tr a stinpgh o to s believe, consider, etc.
Voc abul ar y Adi
: ec ti v e- nounc ol l oc ati ons

0 1 0 9 Pr e se n ta tr o F
P repos it io ni nsr e l a t i v e a ngdco r r e ctinyo
P a r a p h r a sin g u r se lf W r i ti ng a good c onc l us i on Grammar: l mpersonal for i ntroduc i ng
struc tures
c Laus es A v oid in rge p e titio n Voc abuLar yR: ound up of us eful phr as es optnions(lt wouldbe wrongto suggestthot, etc)
R eLat ivc e
la u s e s O L iste n into g p r e se n ta tio n s and linkers (lt would be hard to deny S tyl e:l Jsi ngstyl i sti caLl
a ppropri
y ate
l anguage
thot, moreover, etc ) (odmittedly, currently, inconceivable, etc)
f) E xpressi ng opi ni on s

VocaBUIARY Bu!f { r FP D131 f) Li s teni ng( 1 01 = di s k 1, tr ac k 1 / 2 01 = di s k 2 , t ra c k 1 )


ANDTHECOMMONEUROPEAN
FRAMEWORK

Th i n ka bouty ourpr og re s a
s s y o u w o rkth ro u g hSo l u ti ons
A dvonced.
A ftercompl eti ng S ki ttsR ound-up
1-4 readeachstat em entand
wri tethe num berof t ick s(/) th a t a p p l yto y o u .D o th e sameagai nafterS ki l tsR ound-up1-10.

/= | needm or eor ac ti c e . //: I sometimesfind this difficutt. ,/,/./ = No problem!

Skilts Skilts
In Engtish
lcan... Round-upRound-up
t-4 1-10

Listening
82 ...understandextendeddiscussions on familiartopicsandidentify 1A,1B,7F,2A,
speakerviewpoints.
2F,3A,8A
82 ...understandandreactto currentaffairsradioprogrammes. 1C
82 ...followcomplex
linesof argument on familiartopics.3F
82 .. understand
detailed
andlinguisticallycomplex descriptive passages.
andnarrative 2C,5A,8F
c1 ...followextended
speechevenwhenit is notclearly
structured.
2C,4A,5F,7F,9F
c1 ... understanda wide rangeof broadcastmaterialand identifyfiner pointsof detail.3C, 4C,6C,7C,9C,
10c
Reading
82 ...scanquicklythroughlongandcomplex relevant
texts,locating detail.1D,2D
82 .. readreviewsdealingwith the contentand criticismof culturaltopicsand summarisethe mainviews.
2G
82 .. understand
magazine
articles
aboutcurrent
issues adoptparticularviewpoints.3D
in whichwriters
82 .. understand
factualarticles
andreports.
!D,4E,6E
c1 .. understand
longandcomplex
factualandliterary
texts.2D,4D,6D,7D,9D,10D
c1 ... readreports,analysesand commentaries
whereopinionsand viewpointsare discussed.5D,8D, 9G,
10D
c1 thesocial,potitical
...recognise or historical
background
of a literary
work.4C,9C
Speaking
82 . . .pr es ent d e ta i tedde s c ri p ti o n s o a
n v a ri e tyoffami l i artopi cs.78,2A ,2G,38
82 ...takeanactivepartin a discussion
on familiartopics.1A,1C,2D
82 ...developa clearargument, supporting
myviewsat somelengthwithrelevant
examples.
!t,28,2F,3A
c1 ...engagein conversationon mostgeneraltopics.30, 4C,6A,7C,9A,98
c1 ...formulate
ideasandopinionsandpresent
themskilfully
andcoherently
to others.
3C,4A,4B.,4F,5A,
5c,6c, 6F,78,gB,gD,108,10C
c1 . . .giv ea c lea rl yd e v e l o p e dp re s e n ta ti o nh,i g h l i ghti ng poi ntsand rel evantsupporti ngdetai t.
si gni fi cant
3F , 5F , 7F ,8 F9,F ,1 0 F
Writing
82 ...writea reviewof r fih, bookor play.2G
l-
B2 wr it edet a i l e dd e s c ri p ti o nosf re a Io r iimaginary
m a e ina eventsi n a cl earconnected
t ext.1G.6G
. . .wr it ec lear,w e l l -s tru c tu retedx tsw h i c he x p andand supportvi ew sw i th subsi di ary
poi nts,reasonsand
examptes.4G, 9G,10G
c1 ...selecta styleappropriate
to thereader
in mind.5G
c1 ...puttogether information
fromdifferent
sourcesandrelateit in a coherent
summary.
3G,8G
c1 ...writeforma[[ycorrectletters.7G I

yourprogress
Check Press
@ OxfordUniversity
THtS Ul{ t T |lt Ct UD E S ..
Vocabulary.prefixes.timeexpressions.adverbcollocations.adiectives describing emotional
s t a t e s .s i mi l e s
GEmmar. phrasalverbs. talkingabouthabitualactions
S p e a k i n g .ta l ki n ga b o u tch i l d h o o memor
d ies.talkingaboutinher itedchar acter istictal
s . k i ngabout
t h eo r i g i n sof l a n g u a g e. sd i scu ssi on:genetic . r eacting
engineer ing to opposingviews
Writing. s description of an event

M emorie s

n the photo 4 Matchthe expressions


(1-10)withthe synonymous
words
r school. andexpressions
in the box.

- allthetime finally fornow immediately


1 Howdoyouimagine thechildis occasionallynever never-endingrepeatedly
feeling?
Usethewordsin the boxto then verysoon
describe
hisemotions.
1 timeaftertime 6 endless
i: overaweduneasy
overaweo uneasy 2 at thetime 7 oncein a while
'fr disorientated
distraught 3 forthetimebeing 8 notfora moment
preoccupiedunnerved
4 anymoment now 9 at once
overwhelmedcircumspect
5 thewholetime 10 in theend
bewilderedwithdrawn
2 Whatothersituations might t Complete
the textwith words
causesimilar emotions? andexpressions
fromexercise 4.
3 Whatareyourownmemories
of yourfirstdayat school? A chLldluadvwerwary
I grewup in centralLondon,
o.N Vocabulary p.131
Builder1.1:Prefixes: whereit tooktwo hoursto
escapefromthe citgbv caror
2 O f.Of Listento fourspeakers tatkingaboutaspects
of bus.1-, dadusedto take
theirchildhood.
Choose the topicwhichbestmatcheseach us for a drivein the countrgside
speaker. but mostof thetime,we staged
a primary school(classmates,teachers,subjects,
etc.) closeto home.Sothe firsttime
b bestfriends I visitedmggrandparents' houseonthe coast,I fellin
c familyrelationships lovewiththeseaside 2-. 3-, mggrandparents
d favourites(games, food,clothes,
films,W shows,books, werein theirsixtiesandquitefit andhealthg, sotheg
etc.)
wouldcomewithus to the beachevergdag.I havesuch
e fearsandanxieties
t specialoccasions (birthdays,
festivals,
etc.)
vividmemories of those4-afternoons that mg
sistersandI spentplagingin the sea.Thewaterwas
Speaker
rI Speakerz! Speakerr! Speaker4! freezing, but s- didthat put us off! Neither
didthe
3 the phrases largeandpowerful waves,whichusedto knockmeoff
O f .Of Complete the speakers
usewiththe
wordsin the box.Listenagainandcheck. mgfeet6-. I wouldlaugh,jumpupandrushback
intothewaves-. 7 Wewouldn't wantto leavethe
call evocativehindsight ingrained picture beach,but 8-, sunsetwouldforceus to returnto mV
recall recoIlectionreminiscetraumatic
grandparents' houseforthe night.
7 As | - , t he t ro u b l es ta rte dw h e n ...
2 W it h- , I s u p p o s ei t w a s ... 6 Chooseonetopicfromexercise
2 to talkabout.
Thinkof
3 I foundt he wholeth i n gq u i te threememories
to include.
4 I can s t ill i t c l e a rl y .
5 ...unt ilit bec am ec o m p l e te L y i n m y me mory. 7 F5{18 Workin pairs.
Take
turnsto beA andB.
6 C hr is t m asis a v er y ti me fo r m e . S tudentA : Tel lyourpartneraboutyourmemo r ies. I nclude
7 I can' t- t o m i n d m a n yd i s a p p o i n tme n ts . as manvw ordsand expressi ons fr omexer cises
8 I st ill hav ea c lear o f th a t s mi l e . 1, 3 and 4 as possi bl e.
Thentry to answerB's
9 It wout dbe f un t o a b o u tth e g o o do l d d a y s. questi ons.
Thenaskyourpar t nert hr ee
S tudentB : Li stencareful l y.
questi onsabouthi s or her memor ies.
W or kin p a i rs .D i s c u s sth e s eq u e s ti o n s.
f) r.of Li stenagai n.W hatexactw ordsdo t he speaker s
useto expressthesei deas?
1 I' vegot the sameki nd of noseas my dad.
2 I' vei nheri tedmy mum' spersonal i ty.
3 W e deatw i th stressfuIprobtemsi n a verysim it arway.
4 | l ookextremelsi y mi l arto my granddad.
5 Otherpeopl ecanseethat my si sterand I ar ef r omt he
samefami ty.
6 My brotherdoesnot l ooksi mi l arto anyot herf am ily
memoer.
betw eenme an d m v dad.
7 | canseecl earsi mi l ari ti es
8 Thehabi tmusthavebeeni nheri ted.

Writefive sentencescomparingyourselfto familymembers.


Useexpressions from your answersto exercise4.

TwinsRyanand Leowereborn in Germanyin 2008. 6 Studythese sentences.Underlinethe verb formsfor talking


about habitualbehaviour.Matchthe sentenceswith a-h in
1 W hatphy s ic alan d me n ta l tra i tsc a n b e i n h e ri te d?
the chartbelow.
2 W hatphy s ic alan d me n ta l tra i tsc a no n tyb e a q u i red?
1 My grandmother usedto suckthe thi rdfi ngeron her lef t
2 S) r.OZ In pairs,completethe quiz questionsusingthe hand.
wordsin the box,then choosethe correctanswers.Listen 2 I' l l oftencal lmy mum to tatkaboutmy pro blem s.
and check. 3 P eopl ew ereal w aysmi staki ngus for tw i ns.
4 I'd detiberately wearverydifferentclothesfrom my
b a s es c hr om os o me s c o d e g e n o me h e ti x trai t
brother.
1 DNAis of t endes c ri b e da s th e ' d o u b l e-' b ecause: 5 My si sterw // phoneme l ateat ni ghtfor a chat .
a ev er yc ellc onta i n stw o g e n e s . 6 My brotheris foreverborrowingmy clothes.
b its structureis arrangedin pairs. 7 My grandfatherwouldinsiston drivingwithouta seatbelt.
c therearetwo differentkindsof DNA. 8 | usual l yti kethe samemusi cas my dad.
2 Howm anypair so f - a refo u n di n m o s th u mancel l s?
a 23 b 46 c mo re th a na m i l l i o n past present
3 How m any dif f ere nct h e m i c al , th e fu n d amental neutral a_ D_ d_
buildingbloc k s o f D N A,a re th e re ? g_
expressing e- f- n_
a4 b40 c4 ,0 0 0
disapproval
4 Howm any gene s ,a p p ro x i ma te l ya,re d e s c ri b e di n the
hum an , a c o mp l e tema p o f h u ma nD N A? N {:.i i i tx$tai $i ri i tl *r i t; };l i l i i l ri q ti ;,\i l tti i l ,' ri .i ri i r,,i
a 250 b 25, 0 0 0 c 2 5 m i l l i o n .i r-ti srts:i r.i i i i
5 Hum anss har eab o u t 5 0 % o f th e i rg e n e ti c- w i th:
a c him panz ee s . b d o l p h i n s . c b a n a n a s . F|IfilKIIIClWorkin pairs.Thinkof fiveexamplesof things
6 A r ec es s ivgene
e s h a re db y b o th p a re n tsc a u s e soffspri ng whicha familymemberoftendoesor oftenusedto do.Then
to hav ea per s o n a l i ty or physical which: te[[yourpartner,usingasmanydifferent verbformsas
a noneof t heir a n c e s to rs had. possible fromexercise 6.
b onlyt heirgr a n d p a re n ts had.
c c er t ainanc esto rs h a d ,b u t n o t th e i rp a re n ts . I Prepare foryourpartner
an interview aboutmentalor
physicat fromparents
traitsinherited or grandparents.
Use
3 6) 1.03 Listento a dialoguebetweenthree peoptetalking the tistfromexercise3 to writesixquestionsandtry to
a b outf am ilys im ila ri ti e sW
. h i c ho f th e s eth i n g sd o they
includeexpressions fromexercise 4.
me nt ion?
',t i it, iir rt'li llll ,]ir.,l'air rr ,r
i,i , -,;
a s t r ongphy s ic alr e s e mb l a n c e {t , i , ri i'i l
I I
b s im ilarper s ona l i tytra i ts
c s im ilart as t esan d h o b b i e s Workin pairs.Taketurnsto beA andB.
d a s har edc hit dh o o dh a b i t
Student B usingyourquestions
A: Intervlew fromexercise
B.
e views
s im ilaroot it ic aI
Student
B: Answer A'squestions.
Useexpressions andverb
f a s har edt alent
formsfromexercises4 and6 whereappropriate.

unr li. B egr nni n g s


I can understqndand reactta an
trticLeabant the ariqinsaf Enqlitln

Workin pairs.Lool<at excerpts1-5 and matchthem with the


worksof Englishliterature(a-e) from which they are taken.
Whichwordsgaveyou the clues?
1 'l nev erhad one h o u r' sh a p p i n e s si n h e r s o c i e ty,and yet
my m ind a[ [r oun dth e fo u r-a n d -tw e nhtyo u rsw a s harpi ng
o n t he happines o s f h a v i n gh e rw i th m e u n tod e a th.'
2 ' O ! s he dot h t eac hth e to rc h e sto b u rnb ri g h t.'
3 ' Hwat l W eG ar d e n a i n g e a rd a g u m,
peodc y inga,
n prymgefrunon,
h u da apelingas ellenfremedon.'
4 'lt wasthedaymygrandmother exploded.'
5 'Withustherwasa Doctour of Phisik,
Inatthisworldnewasthernoonhymlik,
Tospekeof phisikandof surgerye,
Forhewasgrounded in astronomye.'
a Beowulf, an epicpoem composed byan unknown author
sometimebetween 800and1200.
b TheCanterbury Toles,a collectionof storieswrittenin the
foufteenthcentury bythe poetGeoffrey Chaucer.
c Romeo andluliet,a ptaybyWitliamShakespeare, written
around7594. ll Matchwords1-8, whichhaveallenteredthe Engtish
d GreatExpectations,a novelbyCharles Dickens, written
languagerecently, (a-h).Canyouwork
withtheirdefinitions
in 1860.
out howthewordswereformed?
e TheCrowRoad,a novelby lainBanks, writtenin 1992.
1 neet 5 newoeat
$ f .O+ Listento a radioprogrammeaboutthe originsof 2 shedquarters 6 slurb
the English
language. Whatarethethreemainphasesin its 3 peerents 7 glocalization
history?
Complete theterms. 4 moregeoisie 8 locavores
1 O- Engtish (alsoknownasAnglo-Saxon) a parents whotryto be liketheirchildren's
friends
2 M- English b a suburban areawithverypoorhousing
3 M- Engtish c a W episode whichis shownagainwithextramaterial not
previouslyincluded
f) f .O+ Listenagain.Complete eachsentence withup to
threewords. d youngpeople whoarenotin employment, education
or training
1 Before thefifthcentury, the inhabitants of Britainspoke e whenmultinational companies tryto respectlocal
variousLe\ttc \angvagn. customs andsensitivities
2 WhenBritain wasinvaded byGermanic tribesduringthe f consumers whostriveto acquiremorethanothers
fifthcentury, the nativepopulation wentto livein Wales, g people whoonlyeatfoodwhichis produced nearto
CornwaIl
theirhome
3 ManyEngtish wordsderivedfromAnglo-Saxon area h a homeofficein thegarden
reflection of their-.
4 Alongwiththewordforschool, onethingwhichtheAnglo- Howmuchdoyouknowaboutthe originsof your
Saxons borrowed fromtheRomans was-. ownlanguage?Discuss the questions
withtheclass.
5 TheVikingraiders whocameto Britain around 900mostly 1 Howmuchhas yourlanguagechanged overthepast1,000
settled in the- partsof thecountry. years?Wouldyoube abteto understanda textwritten
5 Fromtheeleventh centuryonwards, Englishwordorder 1,000yearsago?
became 2 Whichotherlanguages aremostcloselyrelatedto your
7 Thewordsbeefandmuttonreflectthefactthat,in the ownlanguage? Why?
Middte Ages, theweatthiest peopte in Britain
were- . 3 Doesyourlanguage containwordsderived fromLatinor
8 Theeraof Modern Englishis generalty accepted to Greek?Giveexamples.
coincide approximately withtheinvention of-. 4 Doesyourlanguage containmanywordsderived from
9 Today, theEnglish language is beingshaped notonlyby English?
Aretheyoldor recentacquisitions?
people whospeakit asa mother tongue, butincreasingly 5 Canyouthinkof anywordswhichhavebeenaddedto
bythevastnum ber of yourlanguagein thepast5-10years?
5 Matchthe highlighted in thetextwiththeir
adverbs
equivalents.
B A Canadian
invention 1 byandlarge 7 unti di l y
James Naismithwasa Canadian physicaleducationinstructorwho 2 staunchly 8 paradoxicaily
worked attheYMCA (youngMen's Christian
Association)training 3 swiftty 9 extensively
school inSpringfield,Massachusetts,
intheUSA. In 1891,hewas 4 purportedty 10 unambi gu ously
a.skedto devisea newsportwhich thestudentscouldplayindoors 5 effectively 11 forwards
during thewinter to staveoffboredom.Naismith came upwith 6 thereby 12 vaguel y
a gamewhichinvolved twoteamsof nineplayerstryingto throw
a ballintopeach baskets whichwerefixedtothewallai either
endofthegym.lt wasloosely based ona game fromhisown do notalwayscollocate
Wordswiththesamemeaning
childhood called'Duck ona rock'. we cansayThisis your
in the sameway.Forexample,
0n 15January 1892, hepublishedtherulesofhisnewgame, big chance!but not Thisis yourlargechoncel,even
which hecalled basketball.Naismith's
handwrittendiaries,
which A gooddictionary
thoughbig andlargearesynonyms.
werediscovered byhisgranddaughter in2006,reveal thathe willinctudeinformation aboutcollocations.

6 neadtheLookout!box.Thencompletethe sentences
with the adverb(a-c)that collocates best.
1 Thepractice oftakingdrugsto enhance athletic
performance is - agreedto havebegunin
ancient Greece.
a largely b generally c chiefly
to replace
theoriginal
baskets.However,it wasanother tenyears
before 2 Inthe1930s,thefirstamphetamines wereproduced,
open-endednetsweredeveloped; priorto that,players
had
to climbupandretrieve butwerenot- availablefor a fewdecades.
theballfromthenetwhenever a basket
wasscored. a widely b broadly c extensively
3 At the 1952Otympics, speedskaters whohadtaken
amphetamines became - ill.
sport
C Anall-American a grimly b gravely c solemnly
ln 1968,theInternational Olympic Committee issued
In 1905, a famous sportswriternamed Henry Chadwick wrotean were-
its firstlistof substances thatathletes
irticlesuggesting thatbaseball evolved fromthe old English game
prohibitedfromtaking.
of tounait"t.Thiiupset AlbertSpalding, oneof the game's earliest
a firmly b rigorously c strictty
ptuy.oanda manufacturer ofsports equipment'.He resolutely
gamedid originate
not inln 7997,twentyex-East German swimming coaches
Lrir*a to accept thatthegreatAmerican givinganabolic steroidsto their
ofseven prominent admitted
America, SoSpalding organised a commission
baseball' The formercharges duringthe 1970s.
and men
patriotic tJdetermine the'true origin'of
ln charge the
of a openly b overtly c plainty
fropa *aswidelyreported inthenewspapers'
wasiolonelMillsof NewYork. Hehadplayed baseballln 7994, renowned footballer DiegoMaradona
iommision
una during the CivilWar and was the fourth president of wasbannedfromtheWortdCupfortakingdrugs.
U.tore
teague in 1884.The commission's investigations a globally b universally c intemationally
theNational
wereessentially it a deadenduntilAbnerGraves, a mining In 2003,a British
sprinter calledDwainChambers
.ntin.., frombenver who was travellingthrough ohio at the time' testedpositiveforTHG, a - inventedsteroid.
haipened to seea newspaper articleabout it' He sat down in his a freshly b tatety c newly
no[.f,oo* andwrotea iongletter totheMillsCommission. lnthe 8 Today, whilethevastmajority of peopleare-
Graves
letter, stated categoricatlythatat Cooperstown in 1859 he
opposedto the useof drugsin sport,detection
hadwatched a USarmyofficer calledAbner Doubleday scratching remainsa realproblem forthegoverning bodies.
outa baseball pitchonthe ground and instructing other young men c steadily
a staunchly b securely
howto playbaseball withteams ofeleven players andfourbases'
Graves described howtheballthat they used was made ofroughly- FiiIIJKIlfd Discussthe questionin groups.Then
stitchedhorse-hide andstuffed with rags.The Mills commissioners compare yourideaswiththe class.
andSpalding wereelated. They promptly proclaimed baseball
armyofficer, Abner Doubleday' in lf youcould'un-invent' onesportsothatit no [onger
wasinventei byanAmerican
existed, whichwouldyouchoose, andwhy?
Cooperstowninl8Sg'Theon|yevidenceforthis.wasthetestimony
ofGraves, whowasperhaps notthemost reliable ofwitnesses' A
yearlater,hemurdered hiswifeandwascommitted to anasylum
forthecriminallY insane'
Readt he t ex t and e x p l a i nth e q u e s ti o ni n th e ti tt e.Thensum
up t he ans wert he te x t g i v e s .
W henphrasal verbs are usedi n passi vest r uct ur es, t he t wo or
threepartsstaytogether.
All the lights hod beenswitchedoff.
Why do some peoptebackdown when facedwith a threat, Thesamei s true for i nfi ni ti vestructures u nlesst he ohr asal
while othersstandup to it? When givena difficutttask,why verb bel ongsto type 2.
do some peopleseeit through,white othersgive up? lt att Janeis not easyto get on with. I needto look it up in a
comesdown to personalityBut wheredoesthat come from? dictionory.
Somescientistsbelievethat most traits are inherited Others
Readthe Lookout! box.Thenfind phrasalverbs1-8 in the text
take the oppositeview:personality, they say,is formed by our
i n exerci se1 and deci de:
environmentand parentsdo not passit on to their children.
The truth is probablysomewherein between.Sometraits a w hat eachohrasalverbmeans.
are cteartydeterminedby your environment:whateveryour b w hethertheyaretype 1, 2,3 or 4.
genetic background,if you grow up in Sweden,you'[[ probabty c w hethertheyareacti ve,passi veor i nfi n it ivest r uct ur es.
speakSwedish, On the other hand,when it comesto traits 1 backdow n 3 seethrough 5 passo n 7 accountf or
like the colourof your eyesor your bloodtype,it is clearthat 2 standup to 4 gi veup 5 growup 8 m akeup
geneticsaloneaccountsfor them. Thereare alsotraitswhich
are partly inheritedbut partlyshapedby environmentyour Readthe text in exercise5, ignoringthe mistakes.What
weight,and evenyour heightand skin colour,are examples. can identicaltwins tell us about the effectsof geneticsand
Of course,geneticsand the environmenttogetherare not the envi ronment?
full picture.Yourfree will - your abitityto take decisions
- is
alsoa factor in shapingyour identity,but how big a factor?
You'tlhaveto makeyour own mind up about thatl

Findand correcteight moremistakeswith the word orderof


- Readthe Learnthis! box below and matchone, two or three phrasalverbs.
examples(a-h) with eachtype.
a Howwell do y o u g e t o n w i th y o u rs i b l i n g s ? Most peoplewould agreethat human behaviouris made
b P uty ourjac k e to n , w e ' reg o i n go u ts i d e . oFnp Lrpof a mixture of geneticsand environment.The
c W ho is goingt o l o o ka fte rme w h e n I' m o l d ? questionis: can we break down it into its constituent
d lt ' s nineo' c loc k- ti me to g e t u p ! parts and decide which influenceis stronger in certain
e I don' tt hink ma n yg u e s tsa reg o i n gto tu rn u p . situations? It's an intriguingquestion,and onewhich
f Don'tforgetto take offyour shoes. will certainly have important consequencesfor our
g societyif the scientistswho have been looking it into for
Howc any ou pu t u p w i th th a t n o i s e ?
many years suddenlycome with up a definitiveanswer.
h I ' d lik et o t hink i t o v e rfo r a w h i l e .
For example,if drug addictionturns out to be largely
ri genetic,can we blame a heroin addict for not being
Phrasalverbs
able to give up it? If a man is destinedto be a criminal
A phr as alv er bi s w h e na v e rbc o mb i n e sw i th an adverb becauseof his DNA, is it morally right to punish him
or preposition(or sometimesboth)to createa new for his crimes, or should societyallow him to get them
m eaning.P h ra s a l v e rbcsa n b e d i v i d e di n to fo ur mai n awaywith?
types: Calculatingthe relativeimportanceof geneticsand
1 Two-partverbswith no object.Example(s): environmentis difficult, but in some situations,
it is possibleto work out it. Of particularinterest
2 Two-partverbswhoseobjectcan comebetweenOR
to researchersare identicaltwins who have been
afterthe two parts.(However, when the oblectis a brought in differentfamiliesup. It's the differences
pr onoun,i t m u s tc o m eb e tw e e nth e tw o p a rts.) betweenthesetwins which providethe key: only their
E x am ple (s ): environmentscan accountthem for becauseidentical
twins share exactlythe sameDNA.
3 T wo- parvt e rb sw h o s eo b j e c tc a n n o tc o mebetw een
t he par t s .E x a mp te (s ):
4 T hr ee- pa vrte rb sw h o s eo b j e c tc a n n o tc o m ebetw een W orki n pai rs.D i scussthesequ est ions.
t he par t s .Ex a m p l e (s ): 1 W hatki ndof peoptedo you get on w i th b est ?
2 W hi chfamouspeopl edo you l ookup to, and why?
3 Whichof yourpersonality
traitswerepassedon byyourparents
andwhichcanbe accounted for byyourexperiences?

Unit i. B eginn i n g s
^"%"-

Discu ssio n
Re a dt he f ir s t par agra p ho f th e te x t.W h a ti s u n u s u a about
l
An d i ,t he m onl< ey f) r.os Li stento a manand a w omandi sc- ss- : : - : - : : :
in t h e p h o to g ra p h ?
of geneti cexperi ments.
A nsw erthe questi or s
a Bef or ebir t h,he wa s g e n e ti c a tliyd e n ti c a ttoa h u man
a W ho i s i n favourand w ho i s agai nst:
e m br y o.
b A t w hat poi ntdoesthe w omanthi nkt-e -: - : - _ : : - :
b His DNAwasgene ti c a l leyn g i n e e reto d ma l < eh i m i mmune
seri ous?
to c er t aindis eas e s .
c HisDNAinc ludesa g e n efro ma n o th e rc re a tu re . W ho makespoi nts1-8, the manorthe w oman?Co*pLe: e
the poi ntsw i th the adverbsi n the box.
Readthe rest of the text. Whichview is closerto vour own
o p i n ion? enti rel y freel y geneti cal l y moral l y event uat l, . ,
real i sti cal l yvi rtual l y w i del y

1 l t' s- i ndefensi blto e useani mal si n e xper im ent s.


2 l f sci enti sts are al tow edto createdesi gnerbabies,t hen
one day,peopl ew ho haven' tbeen- modif iedwill be
A lthough it is illeg a l seenas i nferi or.
in mostcountries for 3 B y al teri ngour D N A ,sci enti sts w i l t_ be ablet o
el i mi natethe mostseri ousdi seases.
scientists to alterthe
4 There' sno reasonw hy parentsshoul dn' tbe ablet o
DNAof humaneggsor choose w hethertheyhavea babygir l or boy.
embryos, experiments 5 A rti fi ci atal terati ons to our genesmayhave
on animals areall o we d . unforeseen si deeffects.
6 -, sci enti sts w i l l neverfi nd a curefor cancerunless
In A pril2001thefirs l
experi ments on ani mal sare permi tted.
genetically-mod ie dif 7 l f thi s ki nd of experi ment is- permi tted,scient ist s
monkevwasborn- w i [[go on to createmonstersby mi xi nghum anand
hewascalledA nd i ani maID N A .
8 W e haveto embracesci enti fi cprogress, si n ceit 's
(representi ng'l nserted
i mpossi bl e to hol d i t back.
DNA'backwards). Andi
developed froman egg O f .Og Completethe usefuIexpressions for reactingto an
opposi ngvi ew .Thenl i stenagai nand check.
intowhichscientists
1 | don' t real l y- w i th that.
hadinserted a jellyfish 2 That' si ust an opi ni on- there' sno evi dencet o - it .
gene;asa resultof whichAndiglowedgreenin 3 B ut w herew i l l i t - ?
ultraviolet
light. 4 That' sa fai r poi nt,| - . B ut i n my vi ew. . .
5 Thatargumentdoesn' t- sense.
D a v eKin g a, cam paigner
against humangenet ic 6 Y oudon' t to - thi ngsto sucha n ext r em e.
engineering, 'lt is science
saidyesterday: out of 7 |- w hatyou mean.B ut ...
controlandat itsmostirresponsible. Peopleshould 8 Y oucan' t seri ous.
wakeup to thefactthatgenetic engineeringof S tudentA s w ork i n pai rsand S tudentB s w ork in pair s.
p e opleco u ldb ej ustaroundthecorner.' S tudentA s: Y ouagreew i th the statementbel ow.
S tudentB s:Y oudi sagree w i th the statementbet ow.
S i m onFi shefrl o mthe P arkHospital, Nottingh a m, Eachwrite a [ist of pointsto supportyour own position.Use
responded: 'We'vebeenstriving for hundreds
of the poi ntsfrom exerci se4 andyour ow n i deas.Com par e
t h o u sa n dofs ye a rsto eliminate
humandiseas elfs . your l i st w i th yourpartner.

w ege tto thesta gein humandevelopment whe re Designer babies will lead to a
t h eonlywa yto do thatisto attacktheerrorsin o u r healthier and happier population.
DNA,thenwe haveto try to attackthoseerrors.I see
W orl <i n new pai rsof one S tudentA and one
t h i sasoo siti ver esearch.' S tudentB . D i scussthe statementi n exerci se6. Use
expressi ons from exerci se5 to reactto opposingpoint s.
lY
jw I can write an effecttve
dcscrtpttanaf a,wevent.

Lookat the adiectivesfor describingemotionaIstatesand !-*iiIfllj Workin pairs.Choose two 'firsts'fromthe tist
fi n d pair swit h s im ila rme a n i n g sT. h e ns a yw h e ny o u m i ght belowanddiscuss yourpersonal memories. Useadjectives
experiencethese states. fromexercises 1-3 whereappropriate.
1 yourfirstdayat a newschool
affioyd apprehensive baffled disenchanted 2 yourfirsttripabroad
disillusioned eager elated enthusiastic iritated 3 thefirsttimeyoumeta closefriend
n e rv ous per plex e d p e tri fi e d re l u c ta n t re mo rseful 4 thefirstCDor DVDyoueverbought
re p ent ant t ens e te n i fi e d th ri tl e d u n w i l l i n g upti ght 5 yourfirstromantic date
6 yourfirstdayat work
allo\ ed - r r f i J a l e d 7 yourfirstvisitto a largecity
Yorrrnigfrllee\annoled or rrritairdii loLrrbrothrrp\a1eo
iorrdnrLnic 8 the dayyougotyourfirstpet
wh rl 1
t ou$r t r Pt f ling1ore v i s e
Youhavebeenaskedto writean articleforyourschool
magazine. the planbelowto describe
Follow oneof the
Usesynonyms (wordswiththe samemeaning) eventsthatyouchosein exercise
4.
to avoid
A gooddictionary
repetition. mayprovideinformation
aboutsynonyms. Whenandwheredid it happen?
Howoldwereyou?
Whoelsewasthere?
Readthe writingtip. Thenlookat the extractfromthe Oxford
AdvancedLeorner's Dictionaryandanswerthe questionsbetow. Whatareyourstrongest
memories?
Whathappened?
S Y N O N Y MS Howdidyoufeel?
antry
m ad . i n d i g n a n t .c r o s s . i ra te
do youhaveof theoccasion?
Whatothermemories
All thesewordsdescribepeoplefeelingand/orshowing
anger. Howdid it end?
angry feelingor showinganger:Please don'tbeongry
with me o Thousonds oJongrydemonstrutots Iilled the
sQuore
mad [not beforenounl (informal,especiollyNAnE)angry:
Whathappened Howdo youfeelaboutit
aftenruards?
Hegot mod andwalkedout o She's mad at me for being now,looking
back?
late EEE3 Mad istheusualwordfor'angry'in informal
AmericanEnglish. Whenusedin BritishEnglish,
especially in the phrasegomad,ilcanmean'veryangry':
Dad'llgo mad whenheseeswhot you'vedone 'Go mad' Workin pairs.
canalsomean'gocrazy'or'getveryexcited'
indign a n t f e e l i n go r s h o w in g
a n g e ra n dsu r p r ise 1 Lookat yourpartner's
notesfromexercise5 andwrite
because you thinkthat you or sb elsehasbeentreated
unfairly: Shewasveryindignantat the wayshehad been downthreequestions to ask.
treoted 2 Askandanswer thequestions youwrotedown.
cross (rothetinlormal,espetiallyBr8 ratherangryor
annoyed:I wasquitecrosswith him lor beinglate f,EE 3 Use youranswersto yourpartner's
questionsto addmore
Thisword is oltenusedby or to children to yourplan.
details
irate very angry:irotecustomers o an irate letterFllfl
lrate is not usuallyfollowedby a preposition: Srhe$J
im+e-withnekboati+ Writean articleof 200-250wordsfollowingyourplan.
Remember to usesynonyms to avoidtoo muchrepetition
Which of the four synonyms of angry areyou most likely to use andto includeat [eastonesimile.
1 if you'resix yearsold?
2 if you'refrom NewYork? yourworkusingthe list below.
Check
3 i f you' r edes c r ibin g
u n fa i rtre a tm e n t?
4 if you'redescribingan extremefeeting?
Haveyou
Rewritethe sentencesusingsynonymsto avoid repetition.
! fottow eathe pl ancorrectly?
Usea dictionaryto help you, if necessary.
1 The roomwas verylargewith very largewindows. tr writtenthe correctnumberofwords?
2 Sh ewas a t hin wom a nw i th a th i n fa c e . T usedsynonyms?
3 My c t ot heswer ewe t a n d my h a i rw a sw e t.
| co ulds eet he bea u ti fum
tr i nctudedat l eastone si mi l e?
4
5
l o u n ta i n sa n d b e a u ti fullakes.
Whent he phoner a n g ,I a n s w e re di t i m m e d i a te lay n d knew
T usedat l eastone shortsentence
to add e m phasisor
bui l dsuspense?
i mm ediat ely t hat s o me th i n gw a sw ro n g .
6 l fo und m y f at her ' sd i a rya n d fo u n da n o l d p o s tc a rdi nsi dei t tr checkedthe spel l i ngand grammar?
EHnn I
R e a dth e d e fi n i ti o na n d th i n k of S hei s thoughtto havebecomeespecially at t ached
a rgum ent sf or and a g a i n s tc l o n i n g . to i t afterthepi t bul l savedher l i feuTh snsnslhsrdno
attackedher.
i klJon; NAmt kloan! noun, verb
. noun 1 tbtology'ta plant or an animal rhat is produced Thel atterachi evednotori etytastyearwhen his wel[ -
naturally or artificially from the cells of another plant or
animal and is therefore exactly the same as it pubti ci sedbreakthroughs i n cl oni nghu m anst emcells
t verb lvrtl 1 to produce an exact copy of an animal or a werediscoveredto be fake.
plant from its cells: A team from the UK were the first to
Increasi ng demandmeansthe costfor cloninga dog
successfully clone an animal o Dolly, the cloned sheep
maycomedow nto l essthan $5o,ooo.
Lookquicklythroughthetextin the Readingexamtask, Thedog,namedB ooger,di ed a yearan d a half ago but
ignoringthe gaps.Whattwo argumentsin favourof cloning hi s ow nerkeptpart of the dog' sear i n cot dst or age.
areimpliedby thetext?Doyouagreewiththem? N everthel ess, somepeopl earew orri e dt hat hum an
cl oni ngi s an i nevi tabl edevel opment .
Dothe Reading
examtask. In this case,ce[[shavebeen extractedfrom Booger's
earti ssueand i nsertedi nto the eggsof livingdogs.

Readthe textcarefully
anddecidewhichsentence (A-F) 4 Lookat thephotoof Frankensteinbelow.Discuss
thequestions.
bestfits eachgap(1-5).Thereis onesentence
thatyou 1 Whatdo youknowaboutthe story?
do notneed. 2 Howdoesit portrayscience
andscientists?

$t 50,000for a pet dog, Dothe Useof Englishexamtask.


just likeyourlastone
Snuppy: the first cloneddog in the world the text.Writeonewordonlyin eachgap.
Complete
dog-lover
A Californian hasagreedto pay$150,000 to have people fie posibility
Mony regord
herdeadpit bullrecreated
in theworld'sfirstcommercialpet
ofhumon r- horror
1 clones
cloningproject.! SouthKorean will nowusethe
scientists
ondseeil ososignftol scienlific
tissue
to attemptto create
anexactreplica of thepet.
progress
isspirolling
'-
saidit isalready
RNLBio,basedin Seoul, working on the
ofcontrol. thisinitiol
Although
Theworkwillbecarried
order. outbya teamof SeoulNational
(SNU) revulsion il is
isunderslondoble,
University scientists
underthedirectionof professor
LeeByeong-chun,a keymember of theresearch
teamheaded
perhops
tokingthings
bydisgraced
stemcellscientistHwang Woo-suk. '- on exlreme. Afler
oll,
'! Aut
theSNUteamwassuccessful in creatingtheworld's firstdog humon clones olreodyexislinnolure:lhey're
colledidenlicol
twins,
o- people
anAfghanhoundnamed
clone, 'Snuppy'. ond though some findidenlicol
Minsunnerving,
Bernann McKunney istheAmericanwomanwhoreallymisses feworeocluolly disgustedbylheveryideoofthem.
5- 6-
herdeaddog.'I Specific of pitbullarebanned
breeds or Itt oll eosylodismissrloning fteworkofmod
restricted
in several including
countries theUK,NewZealand frying
scienlisls locreole Fronkensteinlike
monslers.
This
imoge
7- 8-
andCanada, butnotin theUSA. hosverylinlem withthetruth. reoliry
theoim
ChoSeong-ryul, RNL'smarketing
director,
saidthecompany's ofscienli$s isl0findnewwoys lo comboldiseoseondrepoir
the
success ratefor producingdogsbycloningwashighwith humon body. Some hove
scienlists suggesled
tholbycloningour
t-
around one outof wery foursurrogatemotherdogsproducing owncells, wecould holtormoybe reverselheogeing
a
clonedpuppies.l_.lThescientistsandMrsMcKunney are pro(ess.Theultimote prizewould beo kindofimmortolity.
l0
hoping thatat leastoneof thesewilldevelopintoa healthy lhotwouldbeo goodthingin proclice isonolherqueslion.
puppy.
'lf successful,
thiswillmarkthefirsttimethata doghasbeen 6 Dothe Speaking
examtask.
cloneclin a commercialcontract,'Chosard'Butit won'tbethe
lastClonrngisfastbecornrng
an rndustry!' nruL Bioplans
to {ocus
eventually on cloningnotonlypets,butalsospecial Readthe followingstatement.Doyouagreeor disagree
dogslikethosetrained
to sniffoutbombs the issuewithyourpartner,
withit? Discuss respondingto
anycounter-arguments theyhave.
Thecloningof humans shouldneverbeallowed.
THIS U NI T I 1{ Ct UDE S O '
Vocabulary . compoundadiectives. compoundnouns. verb'noun/adjective nouncollocations . phrasalverbs.
aspectsof films. adjectives
describingfilms. modifyingadverbs
Gnmmar. Iike,unlikeandos . narrative tenses. simpleandcontinuousforms. speculating
Speaklng. 1611;n*uboutcharactersin filmsand books. talkingaboutTVviewing habits. reacting
to literarytexts
Writing. s film review

'%*
,-*;+s$&s*
Compound
adjectives

1 to threepeople Howmanycompound canyoumakeusingthe


adiectives
6i 1.07 Listen describing
thekindof films
theylike.Whataspects of thefitmsdo theyparticularly
[ike? adjectives
andnounsbelow?Howmanymorecanyouadd
usingdifferent
adiectives
andnouns?
big broad cold empty btood eyed hair hand
fair kind long narrow head heart teg mind
single thin wide shoutderskin
Rewrite
thetextby replacing
the underlined
wordswith
compoundadiectives.
Youmayneedto makeotherchanges.
0f MiceandMenir a novelb1thaNobet
?riza-r^rinninq
author
Johnitarnbeck
ryrrefi@grytn
Of Mice and Men is a novel by the author John
2 f) f .OZCompletethe compound adiectives
thatthe Steinbeck,who won the Nobel Prize. It is set in
speakers usewiththewordsin the box.Thenlistenagain 1930s California and is the story of two migrant
andcheck. farm workers, GeorgeMilton and Lennie SmaII.
action time engineeredheart cool man moving George thinks quickl)'. and has a kind heart, and
narrow raising run self witted looks after his friend Lennie Small, who is like a
child and has a simple mind. Physically they are
7 genetically- 7 --h e a d e d different too; Georgeis small, with a slim build.
2 --packed 8 alt-- while Lennie is tall and his shoulders are broad.
3 --war m ing 9 --down They share a dream that one day they will own
4 slow-- 10 h a i r-- their own ranch. But it all goeswrong when Lennie
5 --m ade 11 --m i n d e d accidentally kills someone.The ending breaks )'our
6 q u ic k - - 72 --assured heart, as Georgekills Lennie in order to save him
from a lynch mob. The novel only has 100 pages,but
Whichadjectives
in exercise2 canbe usedto describe: it is a fantastic read.
a character?
b aspectsof fitms?
6 Workin pairs.Thinkof someone or something
I thatcanbe described
usingthe compound adiectives
below.
|n Compound adiectives
1 Manycompound adjectives consistof Explain
whytheycanbe described likethis.
- a a noun,adiective or adverbpluspresent 1 cold-blooded 5 time-consuming
- participle. 2 absent-minded 6 cut-price
thirst-quenching easy-going never-ending 3 tight-hearted 7 remote-controlled
b a noun,adjective or adverbpluspastparticiple. 4 long-lasting
tongue-tied left-handedwell-paid
Make notesunderthe headingsbelowabout a character
2 Whenthefirstelement of thecompound is an from a story,film or W programmethat you know.Usesome
adjective, the pastparticiplecanbe formedfroma of the compoundadjectiveson this page.
nounratherthana verb.
thick-skinned tight-fisted thin-lipped flat-footed posi ti veaspects
1 C haracter:

pattern 2 C haracter:
negati veaspects
3 Another common is adiective/number +
noun.Thenounis always singular. 3 A ooearance
deep-sealast-minuteten-storey
Workin pairs.Describethe characterto your
partner.C anyourpartnerguessw ho i t i s?
a V oc abularB
y u i l d e r2 " 1 :C o mp o u n i3 a !;e 6 ti y s5'
" " .l l t.
o V ocabutary
B ui l der2.2: C ol r$oundnouns:pr .lli
W
w I tqn discu.r.rtlac ctfcct.r

What'son the box? at TY ar. chi l ci rut.

1 Complete thetextwithappropriate
words.Writeoneword Flil:llKltlGlnsk andanswerthe questionsin exercise4. Give
onlyin eachgap. reasons andexamples.

Ioo nrurh IU rnoy resuh t- qrademicfoilure 6 6) f .OAComplete


thesesentences
fromthe listeningwith
Iike,unlikeor as.Thenlistenagainandcheck.
Ieenogers whowotrh severol hours'-lelevision o doydo
worse olschoolondoreless likelylogroduole t- their peers,o a Andshe's- , 'Whyareyouwatching thatrubbish?'
b Myparents area bit- thattoo.
newstudy suggesls.The20-yeor sludy involvingneorly 700fomilies in
c I don'thavea TVin mybedroom, Chrisdoes.
fie USAfoundthotthose wotching moreftonlhreehours ofTVo doy d Wewatchdramas andfilmsmainly, andseries,
were holfoslikelyo- conlinue post
lheireducolion highschool. Heroes.
Infie mid-I980sscienlistsbegon inlerviewingl4-yeor-olds from e Thestoriesarefascinating, - arethe characters.
6/8fomilies oboullheirtelevisionviewing hoblts.
They olso osked f - Heroes,lost is setin therealworld.
lheleens' porenlsost- whether lheyoungslers hudony
behoviourolororodemic Thereseorchers
diffirulties. conlinued
informolion
collecling fromtheporenfs ondinlerviewed theteens
ogoinotoge16,ondogoin utoges 22ond33.
Aloge14,mo$oftherhildren wokhed '- oneondlhree hours
oftelevision
eorh doy, while l3%wotched morethonfourhours, ond
l0%wolrhed lesslhononehour. The found
scienlisls thot30%of
sludenlswhowolched more lhonthree hoursoftelevision ologe14
hodottenlion problems '-subsequenl yeors,ond fell behind
orfoiledtogroduofe byoge22. t- compurison,onlyl5%of
lhosewhowotrhed lessthononehour ofTVologe14showed the
some ottenlion lotern-.
deficits
0fherexperls,however, soythelinkisuncleor ondmointoin lhollhe
Readthe Learnthis!box.Matchgaps1-6 withthe sentences
sludydoes nol provideslrong evidence 'o- o cousol relotionship (a-D fromexercise6.
between viewing
lelevision ondsubsequenl otlenliondifficulties.
Teens
"_ leorning disordersmight simply bemore likelyto wotcho like, unlikeand as
lotofTVbecouse theyfindocfivilies "-os reoding lexlbooks Wecanuselikeor as to describe similarities.
toorhollenging. 7 likeisa preposition andcomesbefore a nounor
oronoun.
Discussthisquestion:
Shouldparentsrestrictthe You'relike a child! 1_
amountof TVtheirchildrenwatch?justifyyouropinions. 2 asisa coniunction andcomesbefore a clause
(subject andverb/ auxiliary).
O f .OAListento threepeoplediscussing
television.
What She'sscared,os weoll are. 2_
reasonsfor watchingTVdo theymention?Choose from: 3 We often use llke as a conjunctioninstead of as.lt's
lessformal.
boredom relaxationescapism fillingtime
Hefooledme, like he fooledeverybody. 3 -
self-educationgettingnews sociaIactivity
4 Wesometimes invertthe subjectandverbafteras
satisfying andgeneral
curiosity interest seekingadvice (butneverafterlike).
culturalandaesthetic
enjoymentfamilyactivity
He'stall, os is hisfother. 4_
Weusethe preposition unliketo describedifferences
Complete the questions
withthewordsin the box.Usethe Unlikeyou, I loveAmericoncomedies. 5-
correctformofthe verbs. ln veryinformalspeech, we canusebe + liketo
portray rubbish set slushy unwind we[[-drawn introduce somebody's words.
Hewaslike,'l'm so happy!' 6
7 DoyouwatchW -?
2 Doyouagreethere'sa lot of - on TV? $ {i r i i n r r r i i r S i r i l r i r , r. ) " i i s s ; r i i r : i i ! i c : t r . i i ti
3 Doyoutike- romantic
comedies?
4 Areyoucriticalof thewaywomen on TV? witha partner.Doyouthinkmenand
Discuss
5 Canyouthinkof a really in a TVseries?
character womenhavedifferenttastesin filmsandW programmes?
6 Doyoupreferfantasyseriesto W dramas- in the Givereasons
andexamples.
realworld?
t--..u Unit2. stories
,/
''iit'i;r*67*

r i i l fl 'fl ,ttqn/ (t
I a:l r i " 1t't.1 t'(
la i t. .\tr ti ( l hi t r ,, l l ,1y

Readthe definitionof the 'GreatAmericanDream'.Towhat Makenew collocations. Match1-8 in exercise3 with


extentdo you betievethat the dreamis (a) admirableand (b) the verbsand adiectivesbelow.Choosethree and write
achievable? sentences.
TheGreatAmerican Dream is the belief that every citizen can a reach c cause e mari tal g covet ed
achieveprosperity and happiness through their own efforts b serveon d draw f right-wing h consider able
and abilities, irrespectiveof classor race.
Glossary
Completethe text with the correctform of the wordsin shoul der= si deof the road
brackets. S tudebaker = a makeof can
archsupports = thingsyouputin shoes
to fivesupport
andcomfort
w i ndshi el=dcarw i ndow

ArthurMi[[er(1915-2005) is Q f .Of Readthe glossary,then listento the opening


of Deathof o Salesman.Why does Willy arrive home late?
universatly
recognised as oneof the
Choosethe correctanswer.
greatest
'_ (DRAMA) of the
twentiethcentury. Mi[te/sfather 1 H e coul dn' tconcentrate w hi l ehe w as dri ving.
2 H e fel tasl eepw hi l ehe w asdri vi ng.
hademigrated to the USAfrom
3 H e w as i nvol vedi n a caracci dent.
Austria-Hungary,drawnlikeso many
othersby the 'GreatAmerican Dream'. $ f .Oe Listenagain.Answerthe questions,givingreasons
However, he experienced
severe'_ (FINANCE) hardship for your answerswhen appropriate.
whenhisfamilybusiness wasruinedin the GreatDepression 1 H oww oul dyou descri beW i l l y' sphysi cat
an d m ent alst at e?
of the early1930s. 2 H oww oul dyou descri beLi nda' satti tudeto Wilt y?
Mitte/smostfamousptay,Deathof a Salesman, is a 3 W hatreasonsdoesLi ndasuggestfor w hat happenedt o
powerful attackon the American system,with its aggressive W i l l yi n the car?
business tacticsandits '_ (INSIST)on moneyand 4 W hatremedi esdoesLi ndasuggest?
socialstatusas4_ (INDICATE)of worth.In WiLty Glossary
Loman, the heroof the ptay,we seea manwhohasfatten to senda w i re= senda tel egram
foul of this system.WiLty is'burntout'andin the ruthless to showthe l i ne= shownewproducts
worldof business thereis no roomfor sentiment: if he accommodati=ng w i l l i ngto adj ustto the needsof ot herpeople
can'tdo the work,thenhe is no qoodto his 5- = sadanddi sappoi nted
crestfal l en afteran unexpect fed ailur e
(EMPLOY), the WagnerCompany, andhe mustgo. WitLy is to tramparound= travelaround; moveabout
u- (PAIN)awareof this andbewildered at his lackof
success. Hehidesbehinda smokescreen of [iesandt f) f.rO Readthe glossarythen listento the second
(PRETEND) the factto himselfandothersthat
to disguise extract.Whattwo topicsdo Lindaand Willydiscussat tength?
he hasfai[ed.
Whenit wasfirst stagedin !949, the ptaywasgreeted 6) r.ro Listenagainand answerthe questions.
with 8- (ENTHUSE) reviews,andit wonnumerous 1 W hatdoesLi ndasuggestthat W i ttyshoul ddo in or dert o
n- (PRESTIGE) titeraryawards.However, Mitle/sviews i mprovehi s w orki ngl i fe?
attractedthe attentionof the Un-American Activities 2 H owdoesW i l tyreacton the threeoccasi o ns t hat Linda
Committee, whichhadbeenset up to investigate American makesthi s suggesti on?
artistssuspectedof havingcommunist sympathies. Mitter 3 W hatdi d W i ttyand hi s son B i ffargueaboutear lier ?
wasfoundto_ (GUILT) by the UAAC of undermining 4 C anyou i denti fythreeoccasi ons w henW i tt yis indecisive
the American wayof [ife.Theverdictwas,however, later and qui ckl ychangeshi s mi nd?
overturned and Mi[[erwenton to write overfifty ptays. triffllflfd Work in pairs. Discussthe questions.
1 D o you feelsympathyfor W i l tyand Li nda?Why?/ Whynot ?
Makecollocationswith the wordsbelow.Useverbsfor 7-4 2 l s theresi mi l arpressure on busi nesspeoplet o succeedin
and adjectivesfor 5-8. Findthem in the text. your country?
1 har ds hip 5 h a rd s h i p 3 Towhat extentdo you believethat yourfutureprosperity
- -
2 attention 6 status and happi nessdependon yourow n efforts?
- -
3 a c om m i tte e 7 award 4 D oyou agreew i th W i tl ythat i t' s goodfor yo ungpeoplet o
- -
4 a verdict movearoundand try out l otsof di fferenti obs?
- 8 - s y m p a th i es

Unit2.stories (}
o f the F lies
1 Workin pairs.lmagine youanda groupof D i scussthe questi ons.Justi f yyour opinions.
friendsweremarooned on a smallislandin the middleof the D o you thi nkthat a groupof tw el ve-ye ar - old boysis t ikely
ocean.Discuss thequestions: to behavei n the w ay descri bedi n the ext r act ?
1 Whatwouldyoudo in orderto: (a)survive?(b)getrescued? l f teftto thei row n devi ces,do you thi nk a gr oupof t welve-
2 Whatrules,if any,wouldyouestablish? Howwouldyou year-ol dboysi s capabl eof l i vi ngpeac ef ullywit h one
agreeon them? another?

2 Readthe extractfromLordof the Fliesby WilliamGolding,


ignoringthe gaps.Answerthe questions. A group ofboys
1 Wherearetheboysandhowdidtheygetthere? havebeenmarooned
2 Whyis Ratphangryat the startof the extract? on a desertisland,
3 Whatwasthe purpose of thefire? followinga plane
4 Whoseresponsibility wasit to keepthefiregoing? crash,and are
5 WhatwasRalphdoinginstead of looking
afterthefire? waiting to berescued.
6 Howdoeshelustifyhisbehaviour?
astheirleader?
In this extractJack
7 Whohadtheboyschosen
8 Whatpossession of Piggy'sdid Jackbreak? and Ralph,strong
9 WhohetpsPiggyto find hisglasses? characterswho both
10 WhatdoesJackapologise for? want to beleaderof
(a-h)withthe gaps(1-7) in the
thegroup,comeinto
t Matchthe sentences
extract.Thereis onesentence thatyoudo not need. conflict.
a Piggy grabbed andputon theglasses.
b Hetooka step,andableat lastto hit someone, stuckhis
fistintoPiggy's stomach. I Ralph flung back his hair. One arm pointed at the
c Jackturnedto Piggy andapologised forhiscruet empty horizon. His voicewas loud and savage,and
behaviour. struck them into silence.
d Theymighthaveseenus. 'There was a ship.'
e Theywaitedfor an appropriatelydecentanswer. s
f Hewenton scrambling andthe laughterroseto a galeof Jack,facedat once with too many awful implications,
hysterialo. ducked away from them. He laid a hand on the pig
g Jackwas loudandactive. and drew his knife. Ralph brought down his arm, fist
h Thenhisvoicecameagainon a peakof feeling. clenched,and his voice shook.
'There was a ship. Out there!You saidyou'd keepthe
4 fxplainin yourownwordsthesesentences fromthe text. 10fire going and you let it out!'He took a steptowards
1 Thedismaltruthwasfilteringthroughto everybody. Jack,who turned and facedhim.
(tine23) 't ! We might havegone home - '
2 Therewasthe brilliantworldof hunting,tactics,fierce This was too bitter for Piggy,who forgot his timidity
exhilaration,skill;andtherewasthewortdof longing and in the agonyof his loss.He beganto cry out, shrilly:
baffted common-sense. (line32) rs'Youand your blood,
JackMerridewlYouand your
3 Heresented, asan addition misbehaviour,
to Jack's this
hunting! We might havegone home -'
verbaItrick.(tine84)
Ralph pushedPiggy on one side.
4 Bythetimethepilewasbuilt,theywereon different sides
(tine105) 'I was chief; and you were going to do what I said.You
of a highbarrier.
talk. But you can't evenbuild huts - then you go off
5 fina examplesof the followingbehaviour
in the text: rohunting and let out the fire -'
1 lack'sviolence andaggressiveness. He turnedaway,silentfor a moment.'I
2 lack'scruelty. 'Therewasa ship-'
3 Ratph'sindecision. One of the smallerhuntersbeganto wail.rThe dismaF
4 Piggy'sdefiance. truth was filtering through to everybody.Iack went
5 Ralph'sinftexibility. r5very red ashe hackedrand pulled at the pig.
6 Simon's concern forothers. 'The job wastoo much.We neededeveryone.'
7 thehunters'quickly changingmoods.
Ralphturned.

Unit2 . Stories
'You could havehad everyonewhen the shelterswere He drew himself up.'2
finished.But you had to hunt -' ' - I apologise.'
30'Weneededmeat.' The buzz from the hunters was one of admiration
Jackstood ashe saidthis, the bloodied knife in his 80for this handsomebehaviour.Clearly they were of
hand. The two boys facedeachother. There was the the opinion that Jackhad done the decentthing, had
brilliant world of hunting, tactics,fierceexhilaration, put himself in the right by his generousapologyand
skill; and there was the world of longing and baffleda Ralph,obscurelp13 in the wrong. oI
35common-sense.Iack transferredthe knife to his Ieft Yet Ralph'sthroat refusedto passone. He resented,as
hand and smudgedsblood over his foreheadashe 8san addition to
|ack'smisbehaviour,this verbal trick.
pushed down the plasteredhair. The fire was dead.The ship was gone. Could they not
Piggybeganagain. see?Anger insteadof decencypassedhis throat.
'You didn't ought to havelet that fire out. You said 'That wasa dirty trick.'
noyou'd keep the smoke going - ' They were silent on the mountain top while the
This from Piggy,and the wails of agreementfrom e0opaquelook appearedin
Jack'seyesand passedaway.
some of the hunters drove Jackto violence.The Ralph'sfinal word was an ungraciousr4mutter.
bolting look cameinto his blue eyes.3! Piggysat All right. Light the fire.'
down with a grunt. Jackstood over him. His voice was With some positive action before them, a little of the
asvicious6with humiliation. tension died. Ralph said no more, did nothing,
'You would, would you? Fatty!' esstoodlooking down at the ashesaround his feet.
'!
Ralph made a step forward and JacksmackedPiggy's He gaveorders,sang,whistled, threw remarks at the
head.Piggy'sglassesflew off and tinkledTon the rocks. silent Ralph - remarks that did not need an answer,
Piggycried out in terror: and therefore could not invite a snub;rsand still Ralph
so'Myspecs!' was silent. No one, not evenJack,would ask him to
He went crouchingand feelingover the rocksbut r00move and in the end they had to build the fire three
Simon, who got there first, found them for him. yards awayand in a placenot really as convenient.
Passions beat about Simon on the mountain-top with Ralph assertedhis chieftainship and could not have
awful wings. chosena better way if he had thought for days.Against
ss'Oneside'sbroken.' this weapon,so indefinable and so effective,fack was
nI H" looked malevolentlyat tospowerlessand ragedwithout knowing why. By the
Jack.
'I got to havethem specs.Now I only got one eye.fus' time the pile was built, they were on different sidesof
you wait -' a high barrier.
fack made a move towards Piggy who scrambleds
60awaytill a great rock lay betweenthem. He thrust his
Glossary
headover the top and glaredat Jackthrough his one I (to)w ai l= (make) a l ong,hi ghcryof pai nor sadness
flashingglass. 2 di smal= mi serabl e
'Now I only got one eye.)ust you wait - ' 3 to hack= cutwithroufh,heavyblows
Iack mimickedethe whine and scramble. 4 baffled= confused
es']uS'youwait - yah!' 5 to smudge = makea di rtymark
= cruelandaggnessi ve
6 vi ci ous
Piggy and the parody were so funny that the hunters
7 (to)ti nkl e= (make)
beganto laugh.Jackfelt encouraged.sl__lUnwillingly a l i ht,hi B hri ngi ngsound
I to sramble= movequicklyandwithdifficulty, usingyour
Ralph felt his lips twitch;tl he was angry with himself
handsto hel o
for giving way.
70He muttered. 9 mimic= copyin a funnywaythewaysb speaks andacts
10 a fal e of hysteri=athesoundof peopl e l aughing
'That was a dirty trick.'
uncontrol l abl y
Jackbroke out of his gyration and stoodfacingRalph. 11 (to)tw i tch= (make) a sudden, smal movem
l ent
wit hout
His words camein a shout. meanrng to
All right!All right!' 12 to drawoneselup f = standupto one' sful lhe if ht
7sHe looked at Piggy,at the hunters,at Ralph. 13 obscurely = for a reasonthatwasdifficult to identify
'I'm sorry.About the fire, I mean.There.I - ' 14 ungraci ous = i l l -mannered andunfri endl y
15 a snub= an i nsul t

Unit2 . Stories
.S
rtnr

Na r r a t te n s e s
I ReadtheAesop's fableandchoosethe moral(a-c)which 4 Completethefablewiththe correctformof theverbsin
youthinkbestfitsthe story. brackets.
Sometimes twoanswers arepossible. Justifyyour
a Don'ttryto achieve theimpossible. Thenin pairs,writea moralfor thefable.
choices.
whatyoucannothave.
b lt is easyto despise
The hare and the tortoise
c Don'tunderestimate thedifficuttv
of a task.
One day a hare 1- (run) along a path when he 2-
(come) across a tortoise. The hare 3- (follow) the same
The fox and the grapes
route every day and (never come) acrossa tortoise
There was once a fox that
before. The tortoise 5- (walk) slowly and the hare 6-
used to wander far and wide
(begin) to laugh at her. Irritated by the hare, the tortoise 7-
to find food. He would
(challenge) him to a race.The hare 8- (never have) any
sometimeswalk for days in
doubt that he was the fastest animal around, so he e-
order find a nice meal. One
(accept) the challenge. After the hare 10- (run) for a while,
day,he came acrossa vine
he realised that he 11- (leave) the tortoise far behind, and
branch from which were t2- (sit) down under a tree to relax for a while. It wasnt
hanging bunchesof ripe,
long before he 13- (fall) asleep.Although the tortoise
black grapeswhich no one 14- (not hurry), she overtook the hare. When the hare
had yet picked. The fox had 1s- (wake up), he 16- (realise) that the tortoise
been searchingfor food for 17- (beat) him to the finishing line.The hare 18-
many days and was almost
(remember) this experience for the rest of his life.
dying of hunger.He stood
on tip-toe and stretched
as high as he could, but he couldnt reach the grapes.He Usethe informationbelowto writethe fablelhe boywho
tried jumping but still without success.The fox had thought criedwolf.Usea varietyof narrativetensesand makeany
that it would be easyto reach the grapes,and to hide his necessarychangesto the text.BeginTherewosonce... .
disappointment he said to himself,'What a fool I am! The
grapesare sour.I was going to eat them, but I ve changedmy The boywho criedwolf
mind.'And with that. he walked off.
A shepherdboy lived in a village. His family lived there for
many years.He looked after a flock of sheep.Every day he
Findexamplesof verbforms1-7 in thefablein exercise
1.
went to the hillside abovethe village. He was bored. He left
Whendo we usethem?
his sheep.He ran to the village. He shouted,'Wol{l Wolfl'
1 pastsimple 5 would
The villagers heard his cries.They ran to help him. They
2 pastcontinuous 6 usedto
wasted their time. He laughed at them. He did this two or
3 pastperfect 7 futurein the past
4 pastperfect
continuous three times. A wolf really did come. He shouted'Wolfl Wol{l'
The villagers ignored him. The wolf killed the whole flock of
Explainthe difference
in meaning in thesesentences. sheep.The boy didnt cry wolf again.
1 a WhenJoearrived, I'd madesomecoffee.
b WhenJoearrived, I madesomecoffee. 6 Complete thesesentences in yourownwords.Useasmany
c WhenJoearrived, I wasmakingsomecoffee. verbformsasyoucanfromexercise2.
d WhenJoearrived, I'd beenbakingsomebread.
1 ...because it hadbeenraining.
2 a HespokeJapanese becausehe'dlivedin Japanfortwo 2 I'd hada terrible
dayat school...
years. 3 When| lastspoketo you...
b HespokeJapanese becausehe'dbeenlivingin Japan 4 | hadn'tbeenfeeling well...
fortwoyears. 5 I'd neverthought ...
3 a Whatwasthatbookyoureadon hotiday? 6 As I waswalkingthroughthe park,...
b Whatwasthatbookyouwerereading on holiday? 7 | wasto have...
4 a George usedto smokein theoffice.
FEiTffIIfrl Workin pairsor smallgroups.Inventa fableto
b George wouldsmokein the office.
illustrate
oneofthesesayings. Tetlit to the class.
5 a KimandBenmetin 2001andwereto getmarried in Makehaywhilethesunshines. Lookbefore youleap.
2005.
Don'tjudgea bookbyits cover. A stitchin timesavesnine.
b KimandBenmetin 2001andwereto havegotmarried
,
in 2005. O :,

.
t"?r!n

Photocomparison
the questions.
Fd|ilfiflfd Workin pairs.Discuss 7 f) r.rz Listento someonesayingwhat she thinks life is
1 Whatproblems do homeless people face? like for the personin the first pictureand why he might be
2 Whydo peopte become homeless? homeless.Doyou agreewith her opinions?

2 Workin pairs.lf youhadto interview person,


a homeless 8 f) r.rz Completethe speculativesentences.Youcan use
whatquestions wouldyouask?Notethemdown. morethan one word in a gap.Thenlistenagainand check.
1 Thi sman- qui teyoung.
Wereanyof yourquestions
f) r.rr Listento the interview.
2 lt - he' shad a parti cul arlhard
y ti fe.
asked? Howdidthe girlanswer them?
3 lt - he hasenoughl ayersto keepw arm .
4 6) r.rr Complete (1-5)withthe correct
the phrasalverbs 4 H e' ssi tti ngon a bunkbed i n w hat' s a nightshelt er
prepositions, (a-0.
andmatchthemwiththe definitions of someki nd.
Thenlistenagainandcheck. 5 |- he hasn' tbeensi tti ngtherefor l on g,and he
doesn' tspendhi s daysthere.
1 get sb a starttaking(e.g.drugs)
6 H e- to haveany possessi ons w i th him .
2 hang b s ta yi n a p l a c e
7 |- life is prettytoughfor him.
3 get - sth c l e a v es u d d e n l y
t.' - i f he' srun aw ayfromhomefor somer eason.
4 walk- d s p e n dti m ew i th ( peopte)
5 k ic ks b - e makesb leave
6 hangout - f d e p re s ss b
9 Workin pairs.Saywhat you think life is like
5 tvtatch1-5 witha-e to makecollocations
fromthe listening. for the personin the secondpictureand why he might be
1 sk ip a one'sdrughabit homel ess.
2 l o os e b rough
3 feed c change
4 k ic k d one'sdrughabit
5 sleep e school

Whencomparing photosstartbysaying
whatis similar
aboutwhatyoucanseebeforeyoustartto
anddifferent
offeropinions
or speculate
aboutotheraspectsofthe
photos.

6 FJt:nfiilfdWorkin pairs.Readthe speaking


tip andthe
taskbelow.Talkaboutthe mainsimilarities
anddifferences
betweenthe photos.Usethe phrasesin the boxto helpyou.

Th ephot oss howh o m e l e s sp e o p l e C . o mp a rea n d c ontrast


th e phot os ,and s a yw h a ty o u th i n k ti fei s l i k efo r th ese
p e opleand whyt he ym i g h tb e h o m e l e s s .

D es c r ibing s imilar i ti e sa n d d i ffe re n c e s


The mostobvioussimilaritybetweenthe photosis (that)...
Theohot osar es im i ta ri n th a t ...
Themostobviousdifference betweenthe photosis (that)...
In t he f ir s tpic t ur e...
, w h i l e /w h e re aisn th e o th e r,.. .
Phot o1 s hows. . . P h o to2 , o n th e o th e rh a n d ,s h o w s...

Weoftenusethepresent
perfect
simpleandcontinuous
aboutphotos.
whenspeculating 10 Inyourpairs,turnto page142anddo the
picturecomparison
task.

U ni t2'St or ies
Workin pairs.Discussthe questions. ln which paragraphdoesthe writer:
1 Hav ey ou s eena n yfi l m sre c e n tl yi,n th e c i n e maor on the 1 tal k aboutthe fi l m' sstrengths?
T V ?Didy ou enf o yth e m?W h y ? /Wh yn o t?U s eth e i deasi n 2 gi vea bri efsummaryof the ptot?
t he boxt o helpy o u . 3 gi vebackground detai laboutthe fi tm,s uchas t he t it le
and di rector?
s oundt r ac k ac ti n g l o c a ti o n s s p e c i a l e ffe c t s storyl i ne
4 gi vehi s/heroveralverdi
l cton the fi l m?
play
s c r een
5 tal k aboutthe fi l m' sw eaknesses?
2 W ho ar ey ourf a v o u ri tefi l m s ta rs ?Wh a td o y o u [i ke
Completethe sentenceswith the words in the box.
aboutt hem ?
adaptati on box-offi ce del i vered enhanced gr oss
Readthe film review.Howwouldyou describeit? Find l ocati on mi scast sequel sequence set t ing
evidencein the text for your opinion. supporti ng tw i sts unfol ds
1 very positive
2 fairly positive
1 A s the story- , the paceof the actionquickens.
2 Thefi l m i s an - of l an Fl emi ng' best
s - selling novel.
3 [ uk ewar m
3 Therei s a carchasei n the openi ng of t he f ilm .
4 negat iv e
4 Thefi tmw asshoton - i n the mount ains of Scot land.
5 K ei raK ni ghtl eyw as badl y i n the r oleof t he villain.
6 A n i nstant hi t w hen i t w as rel eased, t he f ilm went
on to - over$200 mi l l i on.

FItM
7 Thefitm was let down by below-average performances by
the - cast.
8 A fternumerous and turns,there'sa nail- bit ing
Review 9
fi nal e.
The backstreetsof NewYorkprovidethe perfect
I'm a big f an of t he I n d i a n aJ o n e sm o v i e ss, o l w a s fi rst i n the for this film noir.
queue at the box office when lndianaJonesand the Kingdom 10 B radP i tt- a fi ne performance i n the leadingr ole.
11 Themovi ei s beauti ful ty fi tmedand by digit at
of the CrystalSku//wasscreenedat our localcinema.Likeits
technol ogy.
blockbusterpredecessors, it's directedby StevenSpielberg
72 TheTwoTowersis the - to the highty-acclaimed
and starsHarrisonFordin the title role as an archaeologist-
Fellowshipof the Ring.
adventurer.
Set in 1952 at the heightof the Cold War;most of the What is the functionof the sentencesin exercise4? Putthem
actiontakesplacein the junglesof SouthAmerica.The plot underthe correctheadi ng.
revolvesaroundthe raceto find a crystalskull,whichthe
villainousSovietofficerlrinaSpalko(CateBlanchett)wants
to get her handson in order to harnessits mysticalpowers.
Needlessto say,at the end of the film the goodiescomeout
on top, find the skulland restoreit to its rightfulplace.
Despitevery good performancesfrom Fordand young,
upcomingactor ShiaLaBoeu[who playsa leather-jacketed
biker,and some pretty effectivestate-of-the-artspecial
effects,the fllm is let down by the rather convolutedand far-
fetchedplot. In fact after about an hour;the film abandons
any pretenceof a story and descendsinto a sequenceof
high-speedcar chases,fights,stunts,and encounterswith
red ants and quicksand.
we usethepresent
In a review, simpletenseto describe
As adventuremoviesgo, it's fairlyentertaining, but nowhere
theplotof a film,bookor play.
nearas good as the first three instalmentsin the Indiana
Jonesseries.But if it's pure escapismyou're after and you Workin pairs.Readthewritingtip,thendescribe
tffflffi
can totally suspenddisbelief,this film'sprobablyfor you. theplotof a filmto yourpartner,
withoutusingthenamesof any
of thecharactersor actors.Canyourpartnerguessthefilm?
In pairs,lookat the adjectives
for describing
films.Which 3 Ti tani ci s one of the mostsuccessfut
fi tmsof all t im e.and
aspects of films(f -l) cantheybe usedto describe?(Some w on el evenOscars.
adiectives candescribe morethanoneaspect.) 4 ForrestGumpfeaturesTomHanksin the titte roleand is
my favouritemovieof at[ time.
5 TheMistwas adaptedfrom the StephenKingnoveland is
big-budgetdisappointing edgy epic far-fetched
a terrifyinghorrorfilm.
fast-movingflawed frighteninggripping light-hearted
low-budgetmoving powerful predictableserious Match1-8 with a-h to makesentencesthat give overall
third-ratethought-provoking
violent wacky X-rated opinionsof films.Whichonesare (a) positive?(b) negative?
(c) lukewarm?
1 theperformance of theactors
2 the story 1 lf you havean aversionto pointlessspecialeffects,
3 thefitmin general 2 Not the greatestfilm evermade,
4 thescreenplay 3 Forhardcorefantasyfans,
5 specialeffects 4 Thi smovi ei s, qui tesi mpl y,fantasti cand
5 Thereare someni cemoments,
6 lf like me you are a loverof feel-goodmovies,
Youcandescribe aspectsof a filmmoreaccurately
and 7 Thefi tm i s w el lw orthseei ng,
subtlybycombining adjectiveswithmodifying
adverbs 8 D espi tebei nga l ow -budget art-house fi l m ,
suchas: a thi s i s one of the mosti mpressi ve movi esyou'llsee.
o (little)bit notporticulorly notvery quite fairly b thi s fi l m i s not for you.
pretty rather very extremely c but it's marredby poora performance fromthe lead.
Remember thatthe adverbquitecomesbeforethe d thi s fi l m w on' t Ii veup to al l the hypesurrounding
indefinite article: its release.
It'squitea slow-moving film. e i f onl yfor the dazzl i ngspeci aleffects.
f thenyou w on' t regretgoi ngto seethi s fi l m .
Readthewritingtip andrankthe modifying in order,
adverbs g but w orththe pri ceof admi ssi on.
fromthe strongest
to theweakest.Thenfindexamplesof h l thoroughl yrecommend i t.
someofthemin thetexton page22.
Make notesabouta fitm that you haveseen.Followthe plan
. . Vocabulary
Builder2.3:Modifying p.132
adverbs: below.

1 Background informationaboutthefilm(title,genre,
F{:i'ilKftrd Workin pairs.Thinkof a fitmthatyou haveboth
seen.Talkaboutthe fitmusingadiectives fromexercise
1 director,
basedon a book?date?otherinteresting facts?).
andmodifying adverbs. 2 A briefsummary of theptot.
' l :',,.t'1 ri '. ..i. l' ' ,' - r r- ' ', : ' ' . '.o" 3 Thefilm'sstrengths andweaknesses.
-\
4 Youroverall verdicton thefilmanda recommendation
(positiveor negative).
Wecanuseparticiple clausesto improve ourwriting
style. Writeyourreview(200-250words).Usethe notesyou made
Thisfilm wosreleasedin 2002andwosan instantsuccess. in exercise
6.
-)Releasedin 2002,thisfilm woson instantsuccess.
Hancock starsWiilSmithandis a superheroadventure yourworkusingthe listbelow.
Check
that left me cold.
) StarringWillSmith,Hancock is a superhero
adventure thatleftme cold. Haveyou
! the plancorrectly?
fotlowed
Useparticiple clauses to rewritethesesentences that ! writtenthecorrect numberof words?
introduce films.
I included at leastonemodifying
adverb?
7 SovingPrivateRyanwasdirectedbythree-time academy
! checked thespelting andgrammar?
awardwinnerSteven Spielberg andis oneof themost
gripping warfilmsevermade.
2 Thelncredible Hulkwaspannedbythe criticswhenit was
firstreleased,butit wasa boxofficehit.

U ni t2 . St or ier
LnrcuAG r_2w
Vocabulary Grammar
1 Add a prefixto the wordsin the box and use them to 5 Completethesentences. Usea pastor presentformfor
completethe sentences. describing
habituatactionsin thefirstgapandlikeor osin
the secondgap.
awed easy occupied orientated nerved
1 Whenmygrandfather wasyounger, he - work
Harryknew he'd madea mistake,so he felt veryr.,rri.,
,: when a tenniscoacheverysummer.
h i s bos sc alledhim i n to h i s o ffi c e . 2 Mysister- losinghertemper thesedays,lust
1 J ac ks oonbec a m e i n th e n a rro ws tre etsofthe ourmuml
c it y .He r ealis e dh e w a sc o m p l e te l [oy s t. 3 Tom'sa goodtennisplayer, buthe behave
2 O t iv iawast oo w i th h e r n e w b o v fri e ndto a chi tdw heneverhe tosesa gam e.
not ic et hat her mo th e rw a s i l t. 4 Don'tworry.
I making
mistakes
3 lt wast he f ir s tt i m e s h e ' ds u n gi n p u b ti c ,s o s h ew as that w hen I w asyourage.
c om plet ely w h e ns h ew a l k e do u t o n stage.
4 T hedoc t or ' sf ai l u reto m e e th e r e y e sd u ri n gth e
EE! Ttr
appoint m ent G ra c ec o n s i d e ra b l y .
6 Completethe sentenceswith the correctform of the phrasal
EE! ]tr verbsin the box.Wherepossibleuse an objectpronoun.

l ookafter l ooki nto makeup put on st andup t o


2 Usethewordsin bracketsto formcompound
adiectives
thi nkover
whicharesynonyms of thefirstword.
artificial(make) 1 My si ster' sgot tw o chi l dren,so w henshegoesout I
( m ind )
1 int ot er ant always
2 pleasing(warm) 2 | was goingto carrymy jacket,but when I saw it was
3 s ens ible( head ) rai ni ngI deci ded
4 mean(fist) 3 P ol i cehavenot yet foundthe personresponsible f or t he
5 intetligent(wit) burgl arybut the case- .
6 scary(raise) H erfatheri s verydomi neeri ng, but she' sst ar t ed
and tel l hi m w hat shethi nks.
EE! ]tr Thecourtprovedthat she had l i ed.Thest or yof her
husband' sdi sappearance - to obt ainhis lif e
3 Matchthe adiectives(1-5) with their opposites(a-e). i nsurance money.
1 serious a g n p p rn g W henMi keaskedH ol l vto movei n w i th him she saidshe
2 betievable b flawed
3
4
dult
perfect
c
d
th i rd -ra te
far-fetched
EE! ]tr
5 high-quatity e l i g h t-h e a rte d
7 Completethe text with the correctpast tenseform of the
EE! ]tr verbsin brackets.
Garywas fed up. He 1- (wait)for his girlfriendfor
4 Comptetethe sentenceswith the adverbsin the box. overan hourand she sti l t2- (nott ur n up) .Just
as he I (contempl ate)
goi nghome,shewalked
categorically ironicatly loosely promptty widety
roundthe cornerl ooki ngpl easedw i th herselfHer
. sm ile
1 ThefitmA BeautifulMind is basedon the tife 4- (vani sh),
how ever, w henshe sawt he expr ession
of J ohnF or besN a s h . on Gary'sface.
2 T heat hlet ef inis h e dth e ra c ea n d - c o l taosed ' W hat' sw rong?'she asked.
ont ot he t r ac k . ' Y ou' rel ateagai n,'he sai d.
3 T heideat hat hu m a na c ti o n sa re re s p o n s i b lfo e r cl i mate ' N o, I' m not,'she repl i ed,' Thecl ocks5- ( go back)
c hangeis now- a c c e p te d . last night.You6- (be)earty!'
4 W it t iam ' sbos s- re fu s e dto g i v eh i m a payri se.
He s aid it was im p o s s i b te . EE! ]tr
5 V anG oghis one o f th e w o rl d ' smo s tfa mo u sp a inters, yet t@
he o n l ys o l do n e p i c tu rew h e n h e w as ati ve.

EE! Itr
"'qk,

Srcus t"
rf **"1-2
Speaking 4 Forquestions 1-8, choosethe correctextract(A-D).
Whichwritersaysthatheor she:
1 Workin pairs.Decidewhatthe threemostimportant
1 resoonds wetlin difficult
situations?
personality
traitsareforworkingin a large,office-based
2 doesnotfindhis/hercurrent jobdemanding enough?
company.
3 haslivedin severat different countries?
yourideaswithanotherpair.Canyouagreeon a 4 hasthetechnical skillsnecessary?
2 Compare
5 co-operates weltwithotherworkers?
ioint'top three'?
5 initiatty
workedin education?
7 is keento raisehis/herleveIof English?
Reading 8 hasa goodknowledge of thebusinessasa whole?

3 Lookquicklyat the four extractswritten by four different


p e o pleand dec ide : Listening
a what type of text they are all from
b w hat t he t opicof e a c hp a ra g ra p hi s

A
r r r t . rl r . . / . r 'n t , i .ttlf 1 ; b t ,i .r cif' ' tl"tr tcr ' "' "ltcc:It1 .rh6;',
I t i l l . , 1 1 t r i t r J l ett ,t2 p r c7 ' r tr lft | .:,tt1r Il;i a titlttt 2!r1','tr
i
t L l h i r t t l l e r l l c( tlttlltttii( tllIcr r ;kilj i d tr L l' .1 iri l 'L
1 1 ! t ; I 1 a L l t, \ . r r l tv t r /cr e r tr t' .t in a tt"tlt, I "r rtt l "'i l l -
"' .L il
1 ,1 t' ,;r k
r ' r l / , r i i . ; t i i r l t 1 1 ' t',1 1 ' ;' 1 - "' ;l( lt) to ( h ' ;tt' t !l tc
"
1 a . ,l, .ln tl ccn tf i' :< p i' :te c!i r^,t!i t
j t 1 . 1tltiL :|l.tr
"tbi!tti,
l l r L , ' fl l i t r l r i l n t' i iL l.r r h "r t t ,1 Pr a ,ttilq !li ' tprri tttl '
!u yr:'blett i ( !"iL IL J ' ' ti b ' littt ll' t"! e L n t;r L :^ 'cthrti tl t'L

i n r i r i i . r t b , ' t ' , 4 i tu ,, tle t ti' 1 h f ' :1 1 t!:' ,ic - ' r r i ,tb tli l i i :.

Havingworkedat a comparably-sized

ft-
logistics
company In
Rigaformorethanthreeyears.lfirmlybelieve
thatI havethe
necessary
programmingskills
forthisposition
at lnterpost.
I am

f) r.rf Listento a iob interview. in


Whichof the extracts
exercise
3 did Edgars write?

English-speaker,
I amalsofluentin Latvian
(mymothertongue) 6 f) r.rl Listenagain.Answerthe questions.
andRussian,
andI havea soundknowledge of French 1 Whatis themainpurpose of Edgars'visit
to theUK?
2 Whatjokedoestheinterviewer makewhenthey're talking
Although mycurrenl joboffered a degree of challengeat the aboutvisitsto Edgars'hometand?
slarl,I havenowreached a slage where I need to broaden my 3 Whydoestheinterviewer continue theinterviewwhenthe
horizonsin orderto develop my further'
skills firealarmfirstsounds?
professional
io a larger company. In 4 Whydoestheinterviewer offerEdgarstheiobandpress
Thatis whyI amkeen lo move
himfora response, ratherthanwaitingfora letterto be
addition,I amarvare thata highlevelof fluency in English
sent?
professionally,
is a greatassel which is whyI intend to
5 What assistance doesthe interviewer
offerEdgars in
spend a minimum of twoyears in an English-speaking counlry
relation
to accommodation?
lo perfectmylanguage skills'

Writing
D Affer graduatingwitha degreein C,omputer 3ciencefoom
Universityin myhomecountryof Lifhuania, I completed 7 lmagineyouareEdgars. Writean account of yourjob
a post-
graduate diploma in webdesignatthe University as partof an emailto a friend.Writeabout:
interview
of Manchester,
This ledto a teachingpostat lne sameinstitution.AFler
four
. yourfeelings
before theinterview.
yearsin academia, I decided
on a changeof directionandapplied r whathappened duringtheinterview.
for variousjobs in the commercial sector.I relocated to Madrid
r whathappened at theendof theinterview.
fo workfor a largeadvertising agencyaslneir headof weo . howyoufeeIaboutit now,tooking back.
aevelopment, a positiont foundbothchallenging andenjoyable

\i iil. l - 'r r
Exnm 2
Canyougiveanyexamples of: (a)'urbanmyths'(strange 4 oo the Reading
examtask.
well-known storiesthatmanypeoplebelievebutareunlikety
to betrue)and(b)'lnternet
myths'(storiesspread viathe
Internet
whichturnout notto betrue)?
Readthe text. Decidewhich sentencepart (A-J)best fits
eachgap (1-8). Thereare two optionsthat you do not need.
2 Dothe Useof English
examtask.
An articlein the Japanese MainichiDailyNews(which
cl ai msmerel yto ' - that appearedi n a m agazr ne
calledFushigiKnuckles) tettsthe storyof the attemptto
Completethe text with the correctform of the words
in brackets. i ntroduceW ormB urgersi n Japan.A food com pany,so
the storygoes,tri edto marl < et w ormsas fo od f or hum an
ln 2O O 7 a r um ou sr p re a db y c h a tro o ms a n dte x tmessage
hit t he pr ic eof ba n a n a fro s mC h i n a ' sH a i n a ni s l a n dThe. consumpti on becauseof thei rhi gh nutri tional value.Wor m
m es s ages c laim e dth e fru i tc o n ta i n evdi ru s e ths a tborea B urgerscontai nedgroundw orms(i nsteadof beef l,chopped
strong1- (SIMILAR) to SARS, the severerespiratory oni ons,w heat,fl ourand egg- w i th a ti ttl em it kt o m akeit
2- ( lLL)whi c hh a sk i l l e dh u n d re dos f p e o p l ew orl dw i de. go dow nmoreeasi ty.Themagazi nenotest hat 2- t he
3- ( P RO D U CoE) f th e b a n a n aisn H a i n a ns a \/th e
4- W ormB urgerendedup as a maj orfl op.Thecom panyhad
( RE S ULpI ri c es l u mpc o s tth e mu p to 2 0 mi l l i on
y uan( U5$2. 6m) a d a y .C h i n a ' As g ri c u l tu re
Mi n i s tr di
y smi ssed beentargeti ng w omenand youngpeopl e ,but appeart o
the S A RS c laimas c o mp l e te l5y- (T R U E).
Offi ci ats havestruggl ed to overcome the i mageof wor m st - .
claim edt hatt her ew a sn o 6 - (SC IEN CeEv)i d ence to It' s possi bl ethat the storyi s true,but i t i s m or et iket ya
supportthe rumourand that it was/- (TOTAL) without recycl i ng of the ol d W ormB urgerurbanmyt ho- .
foundat ion. T heya d d e dth a ti t w a s8 - (P O S SIB LE for) Thi surbanmythstartedw hen papersrepor t edt hat f ood
h um anst o c ont r a cat p l a n tv i ru sT . h eb a n a n afe a rscomeami d
sci enti sts w ereexperi menti ng w i th earthwor mas s a sour ce
i nt er nat ional c on c e rnosv e rta i n te dC h i n e s e x p o rt s, i ncl udi ng
e- ( A LLE GE o f )p o i s o n si n p e tfo o da n dto o thpaste. of protei n.Take,for i nstance, thi s arti cl eth at appear edin a
Thestate-own ed ChinaDailynewspaper 10- (RECENI numberof A meri cannew spapers i n mi d-Decem ber , 7975.
c r it ic is edChina' fso o ds a fe tyre g u l a to rs a n dc a l l e don the ' Thel ow tyearthw orm, t-the fi sherman, is bur r owing
g ov er nm ent t o do m o reto p ro te cC t h i n e sceo n s u m ers. i ts w ay i ntothe w orl dof bi g busi ness,and m aybe put t o
w orksoonto hetpman growcrops,di spo seof gar bage
3 f ) r . r + Do t he L i s te n i n ge x a mta s k . and evensati sfyhi s di etaryneedfor protein.lf pr oducedin
suffi ci entquanti tyat a costcompeti ti ve w it h ot herpr ot ein
materi al s, w ormscoul dbe usedas feedfor pet s,poult r y,
L is t ent o a r adiop ro g ra m m ea b o u ta n u rb a nm y th.C hoose fi sh and otherani mal s,u-. S eventy- t wo per centof a
the correctanswer(A-D). w orm' sdryw ei ghti s protei n.'
7 TheNewYorkTimesreportabout alligatorsstatedthat A ftera few arti cl esti kethi s had appeared, it was sim plya
A t he f ir s tat l i g a tosr i g h ti n gto o k p l a c ei n a s ew age. matterof ti me beforetal esbeganto sprea dof M cDonalds
/-.
B one of t hos ew h o fi rs ts a wa n a l l i g a tow r a s ki Ll ed. and otherfast-foodchai ns H ow everwor, m sar e
C one wasf irs ts e e nd u ri n ga p e ri o do f c o l dweather. a muchmoreexpensi ve sourceof protei nthan beef ,so
D loc aIaut ho ri ti e re s fu s e dto i n v e s ti g a te th e matter. there' sIi ttl ereasonto fearthat fast-foodchainswi[ [st ar t
2 S om eof t he p e o p l ea t B ro o k l y nMu s e u ms ta t i on paddi ngthei rburgersw i th w ormsu-.
A s aidt he an i m a lth e y ' ds e e nw a s e x tre m e ly bi g.
B wit nes s eda n a l ti g a totra
r n s p o rte o d n a tra i n. A i n the nearfuture
C t r iedt o t r a pth e a n i ma li n a ru b b i s hb i n . B secretl yusi ngw ormsi n thei rburgers
D pr ov ideda n e x p l a n a ti o fo n r th e a n i m a l ' sp r esence. C i nsteadof protei n
t o a p o p u l a rm y th ,a l l i g a to rs
3 A c c or ding i n th e sew er D fromthe tate1970s
A r epr oduc eadn d l i v e di n ta rg eg ro u p s . E i gnoredby al mosteverybody but
B had beenin tro d u c e d to fi g h t ra ts . F repl aci ng the beefw i th w orms
C wereof a type specificto NewYork. G despi tethe besti ntenti ons
D c lim bedup i n to p e o p l e ' sto i l e ts . H be repeati ng a report
I as a bizarrefood
4 S c ient is ttshin k
J as w el l as food for peopl e
A alligat or g s ro wto o b i g to fi t i n to s e w e rs .
B t her e' sno fo o dfo r a l l i g a to rsi n s e w e rs .
C s ewer sar eto o c o l dfo r a l l i g a to rs to b re e d .
D t heyneedt o d o mo rere s e a rc h i n to th e myth.
T H f S UNIT INCtUDES oqt
Vocabutary.verb(+ adjective) + nouncollocations.setphrases.phrasesrelatedto friendship
. literaland figulativelanguage.comparative phrases.phrasesfor negotiatinS.a61aa,'u"r
tot
describing p l a ce s.d e p e n d e nptre p o sitions
( 1)
Gnmmar. contrast:presentperfectsimpleand continuous.verbpatterns
Speaking.talkingaboutretationships. negotiation
Writing. sn 3,11.1" a place
"bout

i tqn tal k abaLttdi fferent


af rel ati anslitp,
k-it,,al.;
Relationsh
ips
1 Workin groups.Lookat the photosandanswer Matchtheverbs(1-9)withthe nouns(a-i)to formcommon
thequestions. expressions.
1 Whatkindof partnershipdoeseachphotoshow? verb+ noun
Collocation:
2 Whatqualitiesareneeded to makeeachpartnership
1 voice- a a friendship
successfu
[?
2 form b yourmind
3 Whatotherkindsof partnershipcanyouthinkof?What
3 offer c a dispute
qualities
do theyrequire
to be successful?
4 pay d thefavour
5 take e a setback
6 resolve f attention
7 return g advice
8 speak h control
9 suffer i anopinion
I
;;'l Someverb+ adiective
+ nouncollocations
areatso
common.Lookforthesein yourdictionary
andin texts
,.=
2r IOU l i l d,

f; Overtheyears,theysufferedsomemajor setbacks.
J Paycloseottentionto whatl'm aboutto tell you.
@
Cp Readthe Learnthis!box.Thencompletethe sentences with
expressions fromexercise 4.
1 lt'simpossibte to - a close withsomebody
unless youhavea lotin common.
2 In anyfriendship, onepartner is always
stronger
andtends
.4 to - of therelationship.
3 lf you'rewitha friend,it's alwaysOKto - an honest

l"r -*-i 4 A friendshipthathas a maior- is stronger


thanonewhichhasnot.
$ f .f S Listento fivepeoptetalkingabouttheirpartners.
Matchthe speakers (1-5)withthe kindsof partnership
(a-D 5 A friendwillnevergetannoyed or upsetwithyoufor
theyaredescribing. Whichwords gave you a clue? constructive
6 Theeasiest wayto a- is to ignoreit and
a co-presenters of a newsprogramme L_j pretend thatnothingis wrong.
b iointownersof a ctothesshop L_l
c a composer andlyricist L_l 6 Workin pairs.Doyouagreeor disagree
withthe
d co-stars of a stageplay L__l statements
in exercise
5?Givereasons
andexamples.
e a pairof circusacrobats L__l I disagree
withnumber 1. I thinkit'sperfectly
possibleto
f a rattydriveranda navigator L__l forma closefriendship
withsomebody whois verydifferent
(1-5)mentions fromyou.In fact,somepeoplesaythat'opposites attract'!
f) r.rS Listenagain.Saywhichspeaker
thesethings.Thenanswerthequestions.
a gettingdepressed L_l (AboutwhatT) aN Vocabulary
Buitder3.1:Setphrases:
p.132
b beinglikea married couple L__l(lnwhatway?)
c theirdifferentbackgrounds L__l(Whatarethey?)
d a partner'sinitatinghabit LJ (Whatis it?)
e havingto be carefulwhatshesays L__l(Why?)

Unit3.Partners
(}
w
I c q n d i s ctti s the meantng
and impartawe af /liendship.
Friends
In pairs,discussthisquotationby C.S.Lewis, 6 f) f .f e Complete
theseexcerptsfromthe description
authorof TheChronicles of Nornia.Doyouagreewith it? Can usingwordsfromthe box.(Youneedto usesomewords
yougiveanyexamples of howfriendshipsin yourownlife morethanonce.)Then[istenagainandcheck.
began?
back down inside out through to up
Friendship is born at that moment
when one person says to another:'What! 1 Asfriends, we go- morethantenyearsandwe've
You,too? I thought I was the only one.' knowneachotherevenlonger thanthat.
2 Wehaven'tfalten years,butin the
at all in recent
2 Readthe song.Howwouldsumup the meaningof the lyrics? past,we'vehadour-s and-s.
3 We'veevenhadtheoddset-- overthevears.
I twrn ta YauL 4 We'vebeen- so muchtogether.
5 Recently,problems at workhavebeengettingme- .
When I'm last Ln the rain,
6 She'salways beensomebody I canreally open
In yaur eyetI knnw I'lLf.nd the ltght ta liqht My wqy.
7 lt'seasyto talkto closefriendsbecause theyknowyou
When I'vn scared, LqtiAg4ylald,
When wry warl,/ it 9atn4 crazy,yo^ cat tur4 [t all araund 8 S he' sverydependabl e,
and honest- and
And when I'm dawn yau'retltere; pushingnte ta tlrc tap.
lou're alwaysthere:gtvinj wreall you qot. 7 Lookat the examples
of the presentperfectin exercise
6.
Far a shieldfou tl49garn, Tryto explainthe choiceof thesimpleor the continuous
far a friend: for a love form.UseGrammar Reference 3.1on page119to helpyou.
Ta keep Me ta,fe and warrn, I GrammarBuitder perfect
3.1:Present simpie
I turw fo yot4. p.I X9
andcontinuous:
Far the strengthto be ttratry;
For the wtll tn Asyryry, I Exptainthedifference in meaning
between
sentences
a and
For everythingyau da, b in eachpair,if thereis any.
For everytlatn4 that's trtte, 1 a I'vespenta lot of timewithmybestfriend.
I turn ta yol4. b I'vebeenspending a lotof timewithmybestfriend.
WhevtI lasethe wrll ta 2 a We'vedriftedapartsinceleaving school.
b We'vebeendrifting apartsinceleaving school.
I tusl reath {or yau and IJq4L reqch the sky 4qatn.
3 a Howlonghaveyoubeenworkingin lT?
I can da anyflttnq,
'Caus ey our lav e i- rta a m a z i n q ;' c a r$ yetu r l o v ei tupi rcs ntc. b Howlonghaveyouworkedin lT?
4 a Haveyouseenthegirlin theftatbelowus?
And I needa fvicnd, yau'rcalwaysan nt'ysi/e, b Haveyoubeenseeingthegirtin theftatbetowus?
-*hew
7iving me faitl.eta get wte thrauqhthe ntght 5 Haveyoubeenwearing
a the coatI boughtyou?
For the arur ta be my sheltertlarauqhall tht b Have youwornthecoatI boughtyou?
Far truth that will ncverchanqe,
Far sovneane ta leatt ott, 9 Lookat the boxin exercise
5 andchooseonetypeof friend
Far a heart I tan, rely on through.anytl'ttnq, fromyourownlife.Writedownfivekeypointsaboutyour
withthatperson.
relationship Tryto includeappropriate
Fa r t he ane who I cq wra t ta ...
phrasesfromthe songandfromexercise 5.
I tt.trwto y1u.
10 Workin pairs.Taketurnsto beA andB.
3 Exptain phrases
the underlined in yourownwords.
StudentA: Usingyournotesfromexercise 9, tellyour
partneraboutyourfriend.Thenanswer B's
4 Workin pairs.Howmanyothersongscanyou
thinkof aboutfriendship? yourideaswiththeclass.
Compare ouestions.
to yourpartner's
StudentB: Listencarefully description.
Thenaskthreequestions aboutthefriendusing
Q f .f e Listento a womandescribing
a friend.Whichof
thesewordsandphrases bestdescribe
thatfriend,andwhy? thepresentperfect simpleor continuous.For
examole:
anacquaintance anassociatea childhood friend
a classmatea crony a fair-weather friend
a familyfriend a friendof a friend a soulmate
a workmate oneof a close-knit circle(offriends)

Unit3 . Partners
'1;1i i l r r r i - i 11 "t
j)lrllr l, fl l l i l :l l l i ,r r tr

FTiLilKTIIFExplainthis slightlyalteredquotationfromthe Ff[il[I[Im Work in pairs.Answerthe questionsand justify


lrishwriterOscarWildein yourownwords.Whatdoesit tell your answers.
youabouthisattitudeto marriage? 1 Wouldyou payfor any beautytreatmentsbeforeyour
w eddi ngday?W oul dyou w antor expectyourf ianc6( e) t o?
Bigamy is having one husband or 2 l f you get marri ed,w hi chcel ebri ty
w oul dyou m ost[ iket o
wife too many, So l's monogamJz resembl eon yourw eddi ngday?W hi chcetebr itwould y you
mostl i keyourfi anc6(e) to resembl e?
FEI:ilmlH Workin pairs.Lookat the chartaboutweddings
in Britain.Present
the information to anotherpair.
it contains O f .f e Listento six peopletalkingabout differentaspects
of weddingsand marriage.Choosethe correctanswers.
WEDDING
VENUES
1 A man i s tal ki ngaboutw eddi ngs.W hatofte nspoilst hem ,
i n hi s ooi ni on?
a the musi cduri ngthe eveni ng
church
b the standardof food at the reception
licensed
venue c a fami l yargument
abroad 2 A w omani s tal ki ngaboutthe ageyou can l egallym ar r yin
the U K .W hati s her opi ni onof the l aw ?
RegistryOffice
a S hethi nksthe ageshoutdbe rai sed.
b S hedoesn' tthi nk parentalconsentshou ldbe needed.
c S hebel i evesthe exi sti ngl aw shoul dremain.
licensedvltu= a non-retigious venue(e.9.hotelor 3 A man i s compl ai ni ngaboutcoupl esw ho ch ooset o m ar r y
restaurant) whjchhasbeengranteda licenceto perform i n a church.W hyi s he cri ti cal ?
weddingc er em on i e s a H ethi nkseveryone shoul dhavea ci vi lcer em ony.
Registry0ffice (or RegisterOffice)=a municipaloffice b H ethi nkstheychoosei t for the w rongreasons.
whichperforms non-religiouswedd'ing
ceremoniesand also c H e doesn' tbel i evei n maki ngrel i gi ous
vo ws.
officiallyrecordsbirths,deathsand marriages
4 A w omani s di scussi ng supersti ti ons
surrounding
marri age. W hati s her atti tudeto them?
Fill]liKilfd Work in pairs. Comparethe informationin a S hei s determi ned to fol l owthem as muchas oossible.
exercise2 with your own country.Answerthe questions. b S hedoesn' tbel i evei n them but thi nksthey'r ewor t h
1 Ar et he bas icc hoi c e so f v e n u eth e s a m e ?Ex p l a i nany fotl ow i ngas partof tradi ti on.
differences. c S hethi nksthey' reri di cul ousand refusest o f ollowt hem .
2 Doy ou t hinkc hur c hw e d d i n g sa re m o reo r l e s sp o p ul ari n
5 A man i s expl ai ni ngthe tradi ti onalorderof speeches
at
your country?Why?
W hi chthreepeoplegive
a B ri ti shw eddi ngrecepti on.
soeech es?
f) r.rZ Listento a newsreport.What is it chieflyabout?
a the bestman,the bri deand the groom
a th e r is ingc os tof w e d d i n g si n B ri ta i n
b the bri de' sfather,the groomand the bestm an
b Br it is hhabit sand a tti tu d e sc o n c e rn i nw geddings
c the bri de,the bri de' sfatherand the bestm an
c th e dec liningpopu ta ri ty o f w e d d i n g si n B ri ta i n
5 A w omani s tatki ngaboutunusualw eddi ngvenues.What
f) r.rZ Listenagain.Are the sentencestrue or false i s her atti tudeto them?
accordingto the report?Correctthe falseones. a S hethi nksthat the moreunusualthe ven ueis. t he
t 4 2 perc entof m en a n d w o m e nw o u l dl i k eto l o s ew ei ght better.
b ef or et heirwedd i n g . b S hethi nksi t i s vervromanti c.
2 C ouplesget t ingm a rri e di n te n dth e w e d d i n gto c o st,on c S hethi nkspeopl el ust do i t for publ i ci ty.
a v er age, f 10, 500.
3 Th es ur v eyonlyinc l u d e dme n a n d w o m e nb e tw e enthe Ffilill[Ifd Work in pairs.Answerthe questions.
a gesof 20 and 34 . 1 W hati s the i dealageto get marri ed,i n youropinion?
4 N ear lya quar t erof b ri d e sp a ymo reto w a rd sth e w e ddi ng 2 D o you knowany supersti ti onsconnected to weddingsin
th an t he gr oomdo e s . your country?
5 Younger c ouplest e n d to h a v es h o rte re n g a g e m e n ts
than 3 W hathappensat a typi calw eddi ngi n yourcount r y?( Think
o tderc ouoles . aboutthe ceremony, the gue st s,gif t s,et c. )
the recepti on,
6 A t ot of m en s aidt h e yw o u l dmo s tl i k eth e i rb ri d eto l ook
Ii k eK at eW ins leto n th e i rw e d d i n gd a y .

Lr nit3 .Par i ner .s


fh
!W
i t,tt,, y 11,,/g7.',1,1t
i u', ;l t 1c t

Loveconquers
atl t'c ," i ( ! 16 4l ,l ,.t ;1r .:r '

1 F|i[-flKIIfd Workin pairs.Discuss


experienced
a they'refromdifferent
b theyfollowdifferent
whatproblemsmightbe
bytwo peoplewantingto bea coupleif:
continents.
religions.
Love and
War
c oneis froma richfamilyandtheotherfroman ordinary
working-classfamily.

2 FnffiKIIIA Shareyourideasfromexercise1 with the class.


Decide whethera, b or c wouldcreatethe mostproblems.
Wouldyoupersonally bewillingto facetheseproblemsfor
the rightperson?

, Readthetextquickly.
Whichof the problems
fromexercise
1
did EhdaaandSeanface?

4 Readthe textagain.Arethe sentences trueor false?In


whichparagraph A-K canyoufindevidence to supportyour
answers? A Theysayal l ' sfai ri n l oveandw ar;unl ess, per haps, it
1 At theirfirstmeeting theattraction between Seanand i nvol ves the U SA rmy.A yearago,w henan Am er ican
Ehdaa wasphysicat. sol di erfel li n l ovei n B aghdad, hi scommander or der ed
2 Thewriterfindsit surprising thatthearmywasnotmore hi mnotto marry.W hatw as a heartsi ck soldier t o do?
supportive of therelationship between SeanandEhdaa. W el l ,S gtS eanB l ackw ell aunched
l a secr etm ission
3 Sean's commanding officer
madeit impossibte forSean to marrythe lraqiwomanhe loved.That'swhen
the Armycamedownwith bothbootsandordered
andEhdaa to seeeachotherafterthewedding.
B l ackw elhome,
l 11,000 ki l ometres
fromh is br ide,Ehdaa,
4 AsEhdaa setoffto be reunited withSean,shewas
apparentlnever y to seeheragai n.
preoccupied withtherisksof thejourney.
5 Members of Sean's patroIknewthatthesecret wedding B B uttherew as onethi ngthe A rmydi dn' count t on.lt 's
wasgoingto takeplace. somethi ng el setheysayaboutromance - t hatlove,of
5 Seantooktimeofffromhisarmvdutiesin lraoin orderto course,conquers al l .l t' s6 a.m.i n B agh dad andEhdaa
B l ackw eli sl donni ng a bul l et-proof vest.She'sf illed
bewithEhdaa.
with hopefor a new future,evenas shewavesgoodbye
7 Thefactthattherehasbeenmediainterest in Ehdaa's
to everythi ng shehaseverknow n.E hdaais m akinga
storymakesit easier forherto enter,|ordan.
runof 500ki l ometres throughthe danger of s t he Sunni
8 SeanandEhdaa foundit difficutt
to communicate with
Tri angl e,
tryi ngto reachhernewA merican husband, t he
eachotherwhentheywerefaceto face.
onethatthe A rmyorderedoutof herl i fe .'Som et im es,
9 Thearmyoverestimated the strength of feelingbetween youjustfall in loveandyou don'tknowwhy.I think
SeanandEhdaa. it'sourfate,'saysEhdaa. 'l thinkwe'remeantto be
10 Therulesof themilitary forbidsoldiers frommarrying local together. I just can'twaitto see him.'
civilianswhiteon activeservice.
C Thedreami s to bri ngtogether tw o l i vest hatcouldntbe
11 Seanfeelsstightty awkward whenhe is reunited with
moredifferent. Ehdaagrewup wealthyin a countryat
Ehdaa in lordan.
w ar.S eangrewup peaceful liy, n a w orking- class ar ea
12 Seanchanged hisreligiousbeliefsbefore marrying Ehdaa. i n Fl ori da.
H e l i stened to countrymusi c;shelist ened to
S addam. S hew entto medi calschoolhe ; heldt o a f am ily
tradi ti on, hi sfatherandsi x unclesint ot he
fol l ow i ng
Manymilitary wordsandphrases canbe usedin a literal military.
senseto describe militaryevents,or in a figurative
sense D A fterthefal lof B aghdad, B l ackw ell anded
l in oneof
to describe
otherkindsof events. thosepl acesw herethetensi onw as gre at estBaghdad's
,
Literal:Caesor's
ormiesoutflanked theirenemyand bi ggesthospi tal0ne. day.ami dthe chao s,in walked
attackedthemfrom behind. Ehdaa,a younglraqidoctor.'Tobe honest,when I first
Figurative:
ThePrimeMinister'sonnouncement has mether,I was like,you know,she'svery,veryattractive,
outflankedhis opponents, whowereplanningto raisethis butyou knoq what'sthe pointof tryingto starta
veryissuethemselves. rel ati onshiover
p here?'recal l sB l ackwell. 'Andt he m or e
we talked.the morewe startedto learnabouteach
l ongfor,youkno w,em ot ional
other,andi t di dn' ttake
attachment to growthere.'

Unit3 . Partners
E 'l s aw a t all,s hy ,h a n d s o me s o l d i e r.
H e h a dth e mo st A t the border, guardssearchthe carthreeti mes,and
beaut if ul ey esI h a de v e rs e e n ,' s a yEh s d a aEh . d aa Jordani an pul l sE hdaaandher bro t heraside
i ntel l i gence
hadnev erm etan Ame ri c a n b e fo rei n h e rl i fe .Bu t for questi oni ng. Therei s no guarantee thatshewill m ake
s oon,s hewas s e e i n gth i sA m e ri c a n e v e ryfe w d a ys. i t outof l rao- S addam t l owdoctorsto h ave
di dn' al
B lac k well hadbe e ni n l ra qo n l ya fe w w e e k sb, u t passports. S hespendsthreehoursgoi ngnow h er e, when
bet weenpat r olsa n dw e a p o n sra i d ss, h e ' db ri n gh i m the i mprobablhappens;
e oneof the guardsrec ognises her
hom e- c ook ed m e a l sa n dh o u rso f c o n v e rs a ti o' ln . froman arti cl ehe readaboutan l raoiw omanwho m ar r ied
st ar t edt hink ingw, h a tw e a red o i n gi s i m p o s s i b l e . an Americansoldier. And in thisdustylittleoutpost, fame
l' m M us limandh e ' sa C h ri s ti a n I' .m l ra q ia n dh e ' s i s a passport. E hdaaconti nues on herj ourneya ndat
Am er ic an. lt jus tc a n ' th a p p e ns,'a y sE h d a a' l.t d i d . l ast,i n Jordan, the coupl earereuni ted, ' S hel oo ks. just
as
Lov ec anpr odu c em i ra c l e sI .d o b e l i e v th e i sn o w .' beauti ful as thefi rstti meI sawher.I feelso comf or t able.
F Afterthreemonthsof war-zonedating,Blackwell took It'slikeI haven'tbeenawayfromherfor six months,' says
t he plunge- k ee p i n go,f c o u rs ew, i thl o c a tra l d i ti o n, B l ackw el l .
wher ea m ar r iag p e ro p o s ai sl a q u e s ti o an s k e dm a n- In a sense, the B l ackw el lare
s exactl yw hatthe Pent agon
t o- m an.B lac k w eal l s k e dE h d a a 'bsro th e r, w h oto l d haddreamed of at the startof the w ar - A merican
h im ,' l' d be hono u refo d r y o uto m a rrym y s i s te r.' But sol di ersembraced by l raq.l t seemsi roni cthatwhent he
u nderloc allar y a Mu s l i mw o ma nc a nma rryo n l ya gotw hati t w anted,at l easton a smal sl cale,it
mi l i tary
Mus limm an.S o Bl a c k w esl lto o db e fo rea n l ra q ij u dge manoeuvred to di vi de,onl yto be outfl anked by a soldier
a nds aidin A r ab i c':T h e re 'osn l yo n eG o da n dth a t's 115 w ho w oul dnotdi sobey the ordersof hi sheart. I
G odandM ohame ids th e m e s s e n g eorf Go d .' T h r ough
t hos ewor ds .B la c k w e b l l e c a mea Mu s l i ml.t w a s a t
c onv er s ion of c o n v e n i e n cneo, tc o n v i c ti o n . l5 tip on page30.Complete
Readthe reading theseverb-noun
G Thec ouplewas re a d yto s a y ' l d o ' w h e nBl a c k w el l ' s collocations
fromthetext.
c om m anding of f i c e sr te p p e d
i n .T h e rew a s n o a to - a (secret)mission
r egulat ion
again sat m a rri a g eb,u tth e b a tta l i o n b to - a bullet-proof
vest
c om m ander was w o rri e dth a t,i n a w a r z o n ei,t w o ul d c to - anorder
be a danger ous n .o h e o rd e re dBl a c k wel l
d i s tra c ti o S d to - on oatrol
notto get married.'Wewere broughttogetherby e to _ to an attack
s om e,s om ehigh efo r rc eth a no u rs e l v e sa ,n di t w a s f to-adetour
m eantt o be, 's ay sBl a c k w e l'lAn . dI w a s n ' tg o i n gto g to - guard
let anybodystopthat.'Forthe firsttimein his career, h to - charges
S gtB lac k wells e to u tto d i s o b e ay n o rd e r.0 n a s i z zl i ng
A ugus mt or ningh,e w e n to u to n p a trow l i tha s m a ll 6 Complete
the sentences
withcollocations
fromexercise
5.
team,Thesoldiersresponded to a rocketattack Arethe phrasesusedliterallyor figuratively?
B utont he way b a c kto b a s eth , e p a trom l a d ea n
1 Onthewayhomefromschool, we- intotownto buy
unauthorised detourto a restaurant.
a newvideogame.
H Twosoldierswith heavyweaponsstoodguardoutside. 2 Thechiefexecutive wasaccused of negligence, but-
B lac k well wentin toth e c o u fi a rdw h e reEh d a aw as bypointingoutthattheevents in question occurred
w ait ingwit hherf a m i l ya, j u d g ea, n da p a i ro f ri n g s. beforehistermof employment began.
F r iendst r ans latethd e A ra b i cv o w sa n dre c o rd e o dn 3 Threemembers of thebattalion wereseverely
tapeones m allm o me not f p e a c ei n a l a rg e w r a r.l t
reprimanded for- aftertheygaveunauthorised
endedwit ha k is so n th efo re h e a da,n dth e nB l a c kw el l
interviews
to theoress.
w entbac kon patrow l i thh i ste a m .H eh a s n 'st e e n
4 SomeAfrican governments to eradicate malaria
E hdaain oer s ons i n c e 0. n c eth e b a tta l i ocno mmander
by 201.5.
foundoutaboutt h ew e d d i n gBl , a c k w ew l l a se x i l e d
to B aghdad ls lan di n th el l g ri s R i v e r.
H o w e v en r,o
5 Theymeton thestepsof theArtInstitute of Chicago,
c har ges wer ef ile da g a i n sBlt a c k w e lal ,n di t ma yb e wheretwobronze lions- outside theentrance.
thatthe Armylustwantedthe wholethingto go away. 6 Someareasof townareconsidered so lawless thatpotice
B lac k well gotaw a yw i th n o mo reth a na re p ri m a n d officers
areinstructedto - before going on foot
andlef tt he m ilit a ry w i tha n h o n o u ra b d l ei s c h a rg e . patrot.
I B uts ixm ont hsafte rh i sw e d d i n gBl, a c k w esl la i d 7 F{E:ilKIIG Workin pairs.Thinkabouta storyyou know
goodby teo hismo th e a r n dh e a d e db a c kto w a rd sth e whichinvolves lovetriumphing overobstacles.
lt couldbe a
w ar z onehe hadr e c e n tl lye ft.Eh d a ae, s c o rte d by truestory,a bookor a film.Answer the questions.
s p e dp a s tth e w a r z o n e so f F a l l u jah
herlit t lebr ot her,
andRam adi t owa rd sth e re n d e z v o uosn th e b o rd e r 1 Whatexactty werethe obstacles?
bet weenlr aqandJ o rd a nSo . o nth , e 1 1 ,0 0 0 -k i l o m etre 2 Howdidthecoupte manage to overcomethem?
separation is cut downto a stretchof highway, 80 3 Whatisyouropinion of thestory?
k ilom et r es
long.
I FifilKTIfA Workin pairs.Presentyourstoryto the class.

l _l ni t 3. P rrtnprc
'Wr-- .i-t*u&q

]W I t.an ust orvariety

Verbpatterns o.fvcrb patterns

Whenyouworkcloselywithsomeone, whatkind 4 Lookat the dictionary


entry.Doesthisverbtakean infinitive
of persondo youworkbetterwith?Givereasons. or -ingform?Howdo you know?
a a familymember c a n a c q u a i n tance post'pone /pa'spaun; NAmF pou'spoun/ verb - sth (tol
until sth) to arrange for an event, etc. to take place at a
b a closefriend d a stranger later time or date EIE pur oFF: lvNl The game hos al-
ready been postponed three rimes. o We'll have to postpone
the meeting unt| next week o lv -ingl lt w6 an unpopular
3 Complete thetextwiththe infinitive,baseform(infinitive decision to postpone building the new hospital.---<ompare
withoutfo),pastparticipleor -ingformof the verbsin cANcEL > post pone ment noun lU,Cl: Riots led to the
postponement of local eletions.
brackets.
Thendescribe thetwins'working relationship
in
yourownwords. 5 Usea dictionaryto find out if the verbsin the box:

Like many identical twins, Helen and 1 take an infinitive.


Morna Mulgray are used to '-_=-.--_ 2 take an -ing form.
(do) things together. They have always 3 take either,with no differencein meaning.
enjoyed2- (watch)the same 4 take either,but with a differencein meaning.
television programmesand have tended
3- (read)the samebookstoo. claim demand fail guarantee hate love refuse
They even chosea- (pursue)the remember risk stop try
samecareeras teachers.Now, at the age
of 68, being retired has allowed them
(focus) on a mutual hobby: V erbpatternscan i ncl udepassi ve,perf ectand cont inuous
forms of the infinitiveor -ing form.
'Weboth spent 31.years6- (work) as Engtish She claimsto have met Leonalewis. (perfectinfinitive)
teachers,so we've alwaysbeen keen on 7- (write)i The window oppeors to have been broken deliberately.
said Morna. (passiveperfectinfinitive)
It took the twins five years 8- (get) their novel,
which is entitled No SuspiciousCircumstances, e 6 Readthe Look out! box. Then completethe text with the
-
(pubtish). Atthough the finat detaits of the agreementwith infinitive or -ing form of the verbs in brackets.You may need
their pubtisher have yet 10- (be) finatised, they to use passiveand/or perfectforms.
anticipatethe book 11- (be) fotlowedby at teasttwo more.
SamandDavewereoneofthemostpopular singingduosofthe
Morna, who is the elder by ten minutes, said: 'Weboth sit
1960s.Theirliveperformances wereso goodthatsomeotherstars
at the laptop, and whoeverhappens72- (be) closestto
oftheirdagrefused1- [book]onthesamebillin casetheg
the computer or feels like 13- (type) just startsi Helen
added:'Occasionallythere are smatt disagreementsover the weremade2- [look]second-rate.
In hisautobiographg,
the bossof Atlantic
Recordsremembers 3-
text but ...'She lets her sister1a- (finish):It rarety [impress]
happensl bgSamandDave's'harmong andgoodwill'onstage.In fact,the
two performerswereonlgpretendinga- [have]a good
relationship.
Offstage,
theuwerehardlgmanaging s-
3 Findoneverbin thetextfor eachverbpattern(1-5).Usethe
verbto makeyourownexamplesentence. Istag]on speaking terms.WhenDaveshotandinjuredhisown
wifein a domestic dispute, Samgaveup 6- [trgJ
?-
1 verb+ infinitive
ImaintainJ ang kindof relationship
withhis partner.Although
Dave
decide:Wedecidedto get morriedin lune.
seems8- (forgive)bg hiswifeshortlgaftertheshooting,
Samrecallss- [disgust]so muchbgtheeventthathetold
2 verb + object+ infinitive
Dave: 'l'llsingwithgoubut l'llneverspeakto gouagain.'And
persuade:
My sisterpersuaded
meto takeup aerobics.
thegwenton 10- [performJtogether,he claims11-
Inot speak] a wordto Dave forthenexttwelvegears.
3 verb + object+ baseform
make:Myparentsmademe learnthepiano.
. (2):p.120
3.1:Verbpatterns
Builder
Grammar
verb (+ object)+ -ing form
imagine: I con't imagine (my brother)becomingrich. Workin pairs.Tellyourpartnersomething
thatyou:
verb + object+ past participle 1 regretnothavingdone.
have: She had her car stolen lastweekend. 2 canimagine havingbeensaidaboutyou.
3 weretaughtto do bya relative.
4 wouldhatebeingmadeto listento.
r u i l d e r3 .2 :Ve rbp a tte rn s{ t): p . 1i 9
$r am r na B 5 hopeto bedoingin fiveyears'time.

Unit3 . P ar tn e rs
*ql-rr

( atl

Negotiation ri il

Fifililfifl Workin pairs.Lookat the photosin exercise 6 ml:l?fKllfd Workin pairs.Ask and answerthe questions.
2. Match1-8 witha-f to makecomparative phrases and 1 W hatfeaturesw oul dyouri deaIni ghtctubhave?
decidewhichcaf6eachphraseis liketyto applyto. 2 W hatdo you i magi nearethe bestand w orstaspect sof
1 moreattentive w orki ngi n a ni ghtcl ub?
2 l i v elier a p o rti o n s 3 D o you thi nkow ni nga ni ghtcl ubi s an easywayt o m ake
3 mo r eaf f luent b hygiene money?W hy?/W hynot?
4 larger c staff
5 moreaffordabte d a tmo s p h e re mlj|lKllfd lmaginethat you and your partner are going to
6 h i ghers t andar dso f e c l i e n te l e opena new ni ghtcl ub.D eci deon:
7 mo r elaid- bac k f d ri n k s 1 a name.
8 mo r eup- m ar k et 2 the typeof cl i entel eyou w i shto attract.
3 the typeof musi cyou w i tl pl ay.
2 Flil-ilKllfd Workin pairs.Compare
andcontrastthe photos. 4 the i mage:i nternaIdecorati on and externaappear
I ance.
Whatkindof peoplewouldyouexpectto findat eachcaf6? 5 w hatfood and dri nkyou w i l [ offer.
Whichcaf6wouldyoupreferto visit,andwhy?
I FdfilfKllfd With your partner,imagine now that you have
receivedsuggestions(1-5) from a marketingagencyfor
improvingthe profitabilityof your new club. Discusseach
suggestionand decidewhich one you are goingto choose.
Thi nkaboutquesti ons(a-e) bel owand i ncl udephr asesf r om
exercise5.
a Witlit be popularwithyourclientele?
b Witlit be easy/difficult/cheap/expensive to organise?
c Willit be popular/unpopular with localresidents?
d Wittit be moreattractive to peopleon theirown/ingroups?
e W i l ti t be profi tabl e?
W hy?/W hynot?

Fancq @

3 Fnl]|lKllfd Workin pairs.lmagine


youarebusiness
partners
dress nigllt!
whoplanto buya caf6.Whichof thefactorsbelowdo you
thinkis mostimportant? Givereasons.
1 l o cat ion 4 e x te rn aal p p e a ra n ce
2 size 5 name Differentthemeeochweek
3 i n t er naIdec or at io n 6 quatityof staff t5 entrg fee
t50 prizefor the winning
4 f) r.rf Listento two business
partners
discussing
three costume
caf6s.Whichdo theydecideto buy?Whichtwofactorsfrom
exercise
3 leadto the decision?
a TheSoupBowl b Mario's c TheCorner Caf6
llanny
hout!
Halfnficedfinlslrom7- I n.m.euerueuening.
5 f) r.re Comptetethese usefulphrasesfrom the dialogue.
Th e nl is t enagainand c h e c k . e
1
2
So , let ' slookat t he d i ffe re n t
Wh atput s m e -
Srrt+las flqh"l
i s ... U {)
3 Atl in , it is n ' tv e rya p p e a l i n g .
4 | thinkwe s hout d o n toth e n e x to o ti o n .
5 Thisone hasquit ea l o t - fo r i t, i n m y o p i n i o n .
6 C any ou t hink of an y- ?
7 | su ppos et her ear e a ro u n dth a t.
8 | think it ' s def init e ty c o n s i d e ri n g .
9 On r ef lec t ion, m ay b ew e s h o u l d th a f o n fi o n
10 So, hav ewe a decision?
11 I'ttgo wit h t h a t.

iJnitr.Partne. /-F
i:sii4ms

F|Il-ilKIflA Lookat the photos in the article.Which town


wouldyou preferto visit?Givereasons.
The Cotswoldsregion in the centre of Englandboastssome
of the most exquisitesceneryin the country,as well as some
Readthe article.Foreachtown, saywhich of the topics
of the quaintestvillages,renowned for their golden Cotswold
b elowar e m ent io n e d .
stone.Alternatively,if shopping and nightlife are more your
a eat ingout e sport
scene,both are readily availablein some of the largertowns.
b ar c hit ec t ur e f e x c u rs i o n s
g Why not base a visit around two contrastingtowns?They make
c night lif e c u l tu rea n d a rts
d s hopping h s u rro u n d i nlga n d s c a pe perfect partnersfor the ideal holiday!

Burford
Rich in history,Burford is situatedtwenty miles north of Oxford
b y g o i n gb e y o n dbasi c
Y ouc an liv enup a d e s c ri p ti o n
and is reminiscentof a town from a storybook.The High
voc abularandy u s i n gmo ree l a b o ra tew o rd sa n d phrases.
Thisals o helpst o a v o i dre p e ti ti o nC. o mp a re : Street,which slopesgently down to the willow-fringed River
Wi n d r u s h , i s l i n e d o n e i t h e r s i d e w i t h g o l d e n sto n e h o u se s,
Thereare a lot of shops in the town centre.
some of which date back to the fifteenthcentury.
Thetown centreboastsan impressivearray of shops.
Often describedas the southernBatewayto the Cotswolds,
Readt he wr it ingti p . T h e nl o o kth ro u g hth e a rti c l eand fi nd: Burford is ideally placed for excursions,whether it be on foot,
1 at leas tf our diffe re nw t a y so f s a y i n gth a t th e rei s/area l ot by car or by bicycle. Explorethe picturesquecountrysideof
of s om et hing. c e n t r a l E n g l a n d ,w h e r e i d y l l i c v i l l a g e st u c k e d aw a y i n w o o d e d
2 as m anydif f er e nat d j e c ti v eas s p o s s i b l ew h i c hhavea valleys are waiting to be discovered
bas em eaningo f ' a ttra c ti v e ' .

W or kin pair s .Us i n ga d i c ti o n a ryto h e tpy o u ,d e ci dew hi ch


synonym(a-c) is teasttikelyto be apptiedto a town or city.
W hatels em ightit d e s c ri b e ?
1 interesting: a captivating b fascinatingc gripping
2 large: a considerobleb immense c vast
3 old: a oncient b ontique c historic
4 modern: a up-to-date b current c contemporory

Rewritethe sentences,going beyondbasicvocabulary. Try


n o t t o us et he s amep h ra s em o reth a n o n c e .
Cheltenham
1 T her ear ea lot o f o l d , a ttra c ti v e
b u i l d i n g so n th e
lf shopping is your thing, then Cheltenham,on the western
HighS t r eet .
edge of the Cotswold region, has a Breatdeal to offer,from
2 T her ear ea lot o f l a rg e m, o d e rnb u i td i n g si n th e
f inanc ialdis t ri c t. fashion to furniture and from accessoriesto antioues.The

3 T hepor t hasa l o t o f i n te re s ti nhgi s to ry . Beechwood ShoppingCentre,a stone'sthrow from the train


4 T her e' sa lot f or y o u n gp e o p l eto d o i n th e to w n centre. s t a t i o n ,h a s a w e a l t h o f w e l l - k n o w n s t o r e s ,w h i l e fo r th o se
5 T her ear ea lot o f mo d e rnIn te rn ect a fe sn e a rth e stati on. seekinga more individual purchase,Suffolk Streethas a parade
6 A lot of c ult ur ei s o n o ffe ri n th e th e a tred i s tri c t. o f s m a l l , i n d e p e n d e n ts h o p s .

${trTKnTd Workin pairs.Describesomeof the attributesof By night, the streetsof Cheltenhamare teeming with Iife, and
your own town or city,or a placeyou knowwell, usingthese thanks to the wide variety of
expressionsfrom the article. ven ues offering after-hours
1 lf - is y ou rth i n g ,th e n ... e n t e r t ani m e n t , c l u b b e r sa r e
2 lf - is / ar em o rey o u rs c e n e th
, e n ... well provided for. The town
3 F ort hos es eek i n g also catersfor couples,anct
w h e t h e ry o u w i s h t o d i n e
at a romantic hide-awayor
a b u s y b i s t r o ,y o u 'l l f i n d
y o u r s e l fs p o i l e df o r c h o i c e .

.4n " pai*rers


uni:'i
( qr 1 t / , t r l t ( a \ ArtICle dbAut A
p( lt t lar 1 6 t t t I d c s l i 't c l t a r t .

Workin pairs.Lookat the adiectives places.


for describing Findexpressions 1-12 in the articleon page34 andwrite
Dividethemintotwogroups:positiveandnegative. Which the missingpreposition.
couldgo in eithergroup,depending
adjectives on your 1 renowned 7 a stone's throw
opinion? 2 rich- 8 teemi ng
3 reminiscent- 9 thanks
affluent bustling cosmopotitancrowded deprived 4 tined 10 well provided
desolatehigh-risehilly historic industrialisotated 5 to dateback- 77 to cater-
picturesqueremote rundownsprawlingthriving 6 ideallyplaced- 72 spoi l t- choice
touristy vibrant wel[-connected
Complete witha preposition.
theseexpressions Usea
dictionary.
F{il-{K[fd Compareandcontrastthe two photosusing
adjectives 1. Answerquestions
fromexercise 1-4 below. 1 buzzing with 5 to be home
2 to ptayhost- 6 bl essed
3 steeped 7 to date
4 to harkback- I to take pri de

Completethe sentenceswith expressions from exercise5.


a C hel tenhami s 1- to the w orl d-famous Chelt enham
racetrack.EveryMarch,the racetrack 2- to
-
the annualC hel tenhamFesti valw. hi chl
to 1902.
b Theresi dents of B urfordo- i n theirt own,
w hi chi s 5- i n hi story.TheB ayTreeH o t el,which
6- fromthe si xteenthcentury,mai ntainsm any
ori gi nalfeaturessuchas stonefl oorsand openf ir eplaces.

Readthe task below.In pairs,choosethe two townsyou


are goingto write about and makenotes.Usethe topicsin
exercise2 on page34 for ideas.
1 Wh ic hplac ewouldy o u p re fe rto v i s i t?Gi v ere a s o ns.
W ri tean arti cl efor an i n-fti ghtmagazi ne
exto lt ing
t he
2 Wh ic hplac ewouldy o u p re fe rto l i v ei n ?Gi v ere a s ons.
virtuesof two contrastingtownsin your region.
3 Wh atdo y ou im ag i n ew o u l db e th e a d v a n ta g easn d
d i s adv ant ages
of li v i n gs o me w h e re
i s o l a te d ?
4 Wh atdo y ou im ag i n ew o u l db e th e a d v a n ta g easn d Workin pairs.Writeyourarticle(200-250words).
disadvantages of livingsomewheretouristy? 1 Useyournotesto writeaboutonetowneach.Tryto go
beyondbasicvocabulary.
2 Swapyourworkandmakesuggestions your
forimproving
A d i c t ionar yent r ywi l l o fte ni n c l u d ei n fo rma ti o na b o ut partner's
writing.
prepositionsthat go with that word.Tryto learnthe word 3 Worktogether to writetheintroduction.
a n d t he pr epos it ion to g e th e a r s a p h ra s e Ma. k ea n o te
yourworkusingthe listbelow.
Check
o f th em as y ou c om ea c ro s sth e m.Wri ti n ga n e x a mpl e
se n t enc ec an helpt o fi x i t i n y o u r me mo ry .
Haveyou
Readthe writingtip. Thencompletethis sentenceusing
! mentioned a rangeof attractive
features
for
informationfrom the dictionaryentry below.
eachtown?
C h e lt enham benef i ts e x c e l te n ttra n s D o rtc onnecti ons.
! writtenthecorrectnumber of words?
bene.fit 0r /'benrfit/noun,verb
! gone beyondbasicvocabulary?
. verb\-t-or-tt-) 1 [VN]to be usefulto sb or improvetheir
life in someway: Weshouldspendthe moneyon somethtng I used the prepositions?
correct
that w iII benefit everyone
! checked andgrammar?
thespetting
2 [v] - (from/bysth)to be in a better position becauseof sth:
better position becauseof sth: I4lhoexactly stand.sto
benefitfrom thesechange s?

Unit3.Par r ner s
f}
EHn 3
Lookat the photo from a newspaper friends.'l'hetrvo lost touch rvher-r
fackicrrovedon to secondary
story.What do you think the story might be? Usethe school.For 26 yearsJackierirn a rescLlchorre frrr rabbitsin Hythe,
expressionsin the box to help you. a coupleof hundred miles arvavfron-rJohn.After being rcunited
ou the Iuternet,the couplearrangedto meetup irr Soutl-ranrpton.
ch it dhoods weet h e a rts ro ma n c eb l o s s o m e d d ri ftapart '\\re knew we kx'ecleachother beforerveevenmet up,'saiclfohn.
mut uallov e t o t i e th e k n o t So,takingdrasticsteps,fohn resignedfrorn his job and sta)'edin
Sor,rthampbn. l)espitethe obstacles they had to overcome,and
the peoplethev hurt, JackieanclJohnboth firmly believeit u'asall
rvorthit.
W hi chcoupl e:
1 neverhad a peri odw hentheyw erenot i n cont act ? T
2 pri ori ti sed
thei row n rel ati onshiover
p the f eet ings
of others? tr
3 fi rstmet outsi deE ngl and? I
4 w eretemporari lseparated
y afterseei ngeachot her
agai n? T
2 Dothe Reading
examtask.
5 both got di vorcedbeforegetti ngbacki n t ouch? I
6 di d not re-establ i shcontactonti ne? T
7 met at secondary school ? tr
Readthetext.Forquestions
1-8, choose
thecorrect
8 l i vedi n the samecountryw hi l eapart? I
couple(A-C).Thecouples
maybe chosen morethanonce.
A BeatriceBallott,84, first met 87-year-oldIvan Hicks in 1942 3 Dothe Useof English
examtask.
when shewasa clerkin a bank in Oudtshoornand he was
stationednear the towrl as part of his training for the RAF.The
pair met at a party and their romancesoonblossomed, but n'hen
Mr Hicks rvasstationedback in Englandthel'drilled apart. Somelinesof thetextarecorrect andsomecontain an
Eventuall)',they both married,although they stayedin touch over extrawordwhichshouldnot be there.Crossoutthe extra
the yearsrvith lettersand cards.However,u'hen Mr Hicks' wife wordsandtickthe lineswhicharecorrect.
passedarr'aylast 1'earhe set about going through his diary ar-rdit 0 There aremanycustoms andsuperstitions associated '/
was then that he can-reacrossMs Ballotts telephonenurnber.After
00 withweddinSs, mostof whichhadoriginated centuries
his daughterHazelcontactedher for him, the trvo arrangedto see
1 ago.Inthepast, a wedding wasseenasa timewhen
eachother.They quickh'realised that their mutuallovefor each
other was still present.The pair happilytied the knot on Saturda,v,
2 people thatwereparticularly susceptible to badluckand
September 26th. 3 evilspirits.Some traditions,such as thebride isnotbeing
4 seen by the groom in herwedding dress before the
B Childhoodsrveethearts SueHammond and Chris Osnrenthave 5 ceremony, are known throughout the UK and many other
nrarriedafierbeingreunitedr.iathe Internet30 yearsafterthev 5 parts of theworld too. Othersmay be regional or can even
first met. Rornanceflrst blossomedbet'rveen the couplewhcn thev
7 maintained withinfamilies fromgeneration to generation
werc l5-year-oldpupilsat HighfieldComprehensive Schoolin
8 Whether theyarewidespread or specificto a smallgroup,
Newcastlc, in the north-eastof England.But afterthey left school
they didn't sete)'eson eachother again until last year,rvhenthev
9 theyaremaintained inthebelief thattheywillbringthe
madecontacton the FriendsReunitecl website.Both Chris and 10 goodluckandhappiness tothecouple ata timewhen
Sueweresinglefollorvingthe break-upof their ntarriages. Thev 11 theirlivesarechanging, hopefullyforthebetter. Inthe
chattedto eachother everydav for nvo months using rvebcams 12 daysgoneby,whenmarriage proposals weremore
bcforeSusantravelledto Chris'snervhome on the oppositesirle 13 formal, theprospective groomsenthisfriends or his
of the rvorld.Shespeut nvo lveeksin S,vdney beforereturning to 14 members of hisfamilyto represent hisinterests to the
the UK, but then atierfbur painfulmonthsapartfrom Chris,she 15 prospective brideandherfamily. lf theysawa blindman,
madethc decisionto ernigrateto Australiafor a nervlife rvith the 16 a monkora pregnant woman during theirjourney it was
man shelovecl. 17 thought thatthemarriage wouldbedoomed to failure asif
18 theycontinued theirlourney, sotheyhadto gohomeand
C A nrirn hasleft his n'if'eafier rneetinga childhootl srveetheart
he hardnot scenfor nearlyhalf a centLrry.fohn Pearceir'alkeclout 19 startagainl lf,however, theysawgoats, pigeons or
on his rr'if'eof 20 vearsto rneetup with old friend JackieButt 20 wolves, these weregoodomens whichwouldnotbring
irntl rreverwent backhomc.They met eachother on the Friends 21 goodfortune to themarriage,
Reunilecl website,the lnternetsitewhich putsold schoolfriends
backin tor.rchrvith eachothcr.JackieanclJohnmet at prinrrrv
schoolin Ph'mor.rth in l9-52at the ageof fir'cirnd cltrickll'becante
TH IS U I { I T I NCT UD ES .'
Vocabutary. 5ynelymsof chonge. nounsformedfromverbs. expressions with chdrge. adjective.
. expressing
nouncollocations opinions. linkingwords. ,eltherlnor,eitherlor, not onlylbut also
. speculating
(degrees
of probability)
GEmmar. comparative andsuperlative forms. reducedrelativeclauses.conditionals
Speaking. 1311;69 change. talkingaboutprotestand protestsongs. discussion: plansfor
urbandeveloDment"bout
wlltlng. a discursive
essay

I cqn descrLbethe
PracerJof chanTe.
Describing
change
Readthe quotation
fromGeorge
Bernard
Shaw 4 $ r.zO Writenounsformedfromtheverbsin brackets.
andanswerthe questions. Thenchoosewhichcollocationthespeakers used.Listen
Some people see things as they are againandcheck.
and say,'Why?'I dream of things that 1 film/screen (adapt)
2 significant/minor
- (alter)
never were and say,'why not?' 3 complete/radical (transform)
1 Howcouldyouparaphrase thewriter'sattitudeto change? 4 stight/smatt
- (modify)
ls hegenerally
in favourof it or against
it? 5 process/period
of- (adjust)
2 Whatis yourownattitude to change? Whichpartsof your 6 make/requiresome (refine)
lifedo youpreferto remainconstant? 7 undergo/experiencea- (convert)
8 theory/process
of - (evolve)
2 Complete eachpairof sentenceswithoneverbfromthe box
in the correctform.Usea dictionary
to helpyou. Workin pairs.Describethe changes
that
havetakenplacein the photos.Useverbsandnouns
adapt adjust alter convert evolve modify fromexercises
2 and4. Giveyourpersonalopinionof the
refine transform changes.
1 a Thissofa- intoa bed.
b Lastyearmyuncle to Cathoticism.
2 a Thenovelwas forthe screen.
b Mycousin couldn't to lifein France.
3 a Nothing can- thefactthattheworld'spopulation
is increasing rapidty.
b WhenI metHarry,he had beyondrecognition.
a Yogahas- herlife.She'sbecome muchcalmer
andmoreoositive.
b Scientists cannow humancellsfromonetype
intoanother.
a Zoologists believe thatbirds fromdinosaurs.
b American footbatl fromrugbyandsoccer.
a Crude oitis- to makepetrolanddiesel.
b Thetawneeds- if it'sto be completely effective.
a Thisknob thevolume on theW.
b lt tooka moment formyeyesto - to the
brightlight.
8 a In Brazil,manycarshavebeen- to runon ethanol.
b lt'spossibte to genetically - cropsto makethem
moreresistant to disease.

3 f) r.ZO Listento fourspeakerstalkingaboutthings


andpeoplethathavechanged in someway.Sayif the
speakersare:
1 positiveaboutthechanges.
2 negativeaboutthechanges.
3 neutral.
.s Vocabulary
Builder4.1:Expressions p.733
withchange:

Unit4.changes
(\
'.Wfrffo' 7
j- t , t r i 1 ': l k q b i : t c l . t o l t t t l t . t; h q t
a( ( t r ,11 ailftr,t,,t rtqqu c f ' l i t 't
Lifechanges

.J#
= .."p$ : X . l -l'.i'$.
,;'i;.
f,_r.:'r".= :' '.. ','g'/,i$lr",
6aqi fp*$ rrtl?, {S9, ,&d=

1 Comparethetwo photosandusethewordsbelowto say 4 f) f .Zf Listento threeteenagerstatkingabout how their


whatimagetheyconvey of childhood years.
andteenage liveshavechangedsincechildhood.Matchtwo sentences
Doyouthinkit is accurate?
lf not,suggest
whatotherwords with eachspeaker(1-3).
wouldgivea moreaccurate portrayal. a H e/S hecl ai msto be l esschi tdi shthan mo stt eenager s?
carefreefrustratedidte idyttic innocent joyfut b H e/S heseesfami l ymembersfar l essand fr iendsf ar m or e?
tistless c He/Shehasbecomeslightlymoreindependent by working?
d H e/S hethi nksparentsaregeneral lto y bl am ef or
arguments w i th thei rteenagechi tdren?
2 Readtheseopinionsabouthowpeoptechange asthey
(a-h).Saywhetheryouagreeor disagree e He/Shedoesnot haveso manyfamilyarguments as before?
become teenagers
f H e/S hebel i evesthat havi ngmoremoneywouldm ean
withthem,andtry to thinkof examples.
fewerfamilyrows?
a Emotionally,youareprobably at yourleaststableduring
yourreenage years. Lookat these phrasesthe teenagersuse for modifying
b Oneofthehardest thingsaboutbeinga teenager is comparativeand superlativeadjectives.Add them to the
leavingbehindthesecurity andcomfort of chitdhood. correctplacein the tist below.
c Duringyourteenage years, youbecome moreandmore
a gooddeal a bi t so a l ongw ay marginally
awareof theworldaround you.
far and away only very
d Whenyou'rea teenager, themorefriends youhavethe
better.
e Asa teenager,youaren'tquitesowilting to involveyour : modifying superlatives
parentsin yoursocial[ife. * 1-
i*.
/ easity
thebest
f Youbecome lessandlesslikelyto accept yourparents' the 2- best
opinionswithoutquestioning them. d the bestby farI by miles/ bya mite / by3

t
g Theolderyouget,the moreyoustartto haveyourown
modifying comparatives
ootntons.
no better[than...]I 4- asgood[as...]
h Theworstthingaboutbeinga teenager is thatyouhaveto 5- / veryslightlybetter
workmoreandadultshelpyou[ess.
a littte/6_ / a tittlebit better
Rewritethesentences usingthewordsin brackets, andthe ratherbetter
examples in exercise2 to help.Don'tchange the meaning! notquiteas/ notquite/ not7- bad[as...]
Thensaywhetheryouagreeor disagree witheachone.Give (quite)a lot better
reasons. much/ farI afarsight/ an awfullot/ 8- better
1 lt becomes steadily
moredifficult to makenewfriends
duringyourteenage years.(lessand[ess)
Asyoustartto go outmore,moneybecomes morecentral
to yourtife.(themore) Wecanonlyputverybeforea shortsuperlative form,nota
Fewthingsaremoreimportant to teenagers superlative
withmosf.Wealsouseit withfrsf.
than
friendship. (oneoD Myparentswalkedin ot theveryworstmomenL
Teenagers wantto havethemostfashionable It wastheveryfirsttimel'd spenta nightawayfromhome.
clothes
possible. (thebetter) 6 F ilKTIfE Readthe Lookout! box.Thendiscussyourown
Asa teenager, youaremoresensitive to criticismthanat ideasabouthowpeoplechangeastheybecome adults
anyothertime.(atyourmost) ratherthanteenagers.
Useexpressionsfromexercise5 and
Asa teenager, youbecome a bit moreunwilling to follow discussthetopicsbelowor yourownideas.
orders.(notquiteso)
famityrelationships
fashion freedomfriendship
l . i l i t r t - r r r i i i $ i : li$ 9 1 ' r l.\: i- .r .:r ;ii:ir ii,tlivti
iiit,..i.\iiitr :,.r.,"i
monev work
i r i i r r $ : s . ' . 1, l t.)

Unit4. Chanee s
i..l!+fi:" . ,',,:71%,

lr'l r,/,11 iri li:, l

iril(.ft t()t,l

FTfiKiIII Workin pairs.Readthe lyricsof StrangeFruit. Completethetextwiththecorrectform


Discusswhatyouthinkthe'strange fruit'areandwhatthe of thewordsin brackets.
songis about.Thenshareyourideaswiththe class.

StrangeFruit
SI]IGI]IO
F||BGHA]IGE
Southern trees bear strange fruit Thestoryof the Americanprotestsonggoesback
Blood on the leaves,and blood at the root (StcNtFtcANCE)furtherthan StrongeFruit.
'-
Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze
Afterthe foundingof the UnitedStatesin 1776,songs
Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees
Pastoralsceneof the gallant south werewrittenby slavesin protestagainsttheir2
The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth (CAPTIVE). Songslike WeShollBe Free and SteolAwoy
The scentof maenolia sweet and fresh hadtheirrootsin religiousmusic,but theirmessage
lhen the sudclensmell of burning flesh was more t- (POLITICS).
Onesong,calledFollow
Here is a fruit for the crows to pluck
the DrinkingGourd,evencontainedcodewordsthat
For the rain to gathel, for the wind to suck
For the sun to rot, for the tree to drop helpedslavesescapeto o- (FREE)in the Northby
Here is a strange and bitter crop describing landmarks alongthe routethey neededto
follow.
$l tzz Listento part one of a radio programmeabout Duringthe nineteenth century,protestsongsfeatured
StrongeFruit.Wereyour ideasin exercise1 correct?
a varietyof subjects,
includingthe 5- (ABOLISH)
of
slaveryand votesfor women. u- (PERFORM)often
took well-known existingsongsand wrotetheirown
N a m esof peopt ean d p l a c e sc a n b e d i ffi c u l to
t u n d erstand
wh e ny ou heart hem.Be fo reIi s te n i n gl,o o kth ro u g hthe
words,a traditionwhichcontinues to thisday.
q u e s t ionsand pr on o u n c ea n y n a m e si n y o u r h e a d . The/- (ECONOMY) hardshipof the Great
Depression in the 1930sprovedfertilegroundfor the
$l tzz Readthe listeningtip. Thenlistenagainand protestsongand a new themeemerged:unionismand
a n swert he ques t ion su s i n gth e n a m e si n th e b o x .(O neof workers'rights.Later,in the 1960sand197Os, singers
the answersrequirestwo names.) from differentmusicalgenresunitedin theirt-
Ab elM eer oool A b ra mS m i th L a u raD u n c a n (CONDEMN) of the war in Vietnamand in theirsupport
L e wisA llan T hom a sSh i p p for MartinLutherKingJr and the CivilRightsmovement.
Today, Americanmusicians of everygenrecontinue
1 Underwhosenamewas the songStrongeFruitfirst
to write protestsongs.Somehavean e-
o ubt is hed?
(ENVIRONMENT) message, otherscampaign for social
2 Whatwast he r ealn a meo f th e w ri te r?
3 On whos em ur derw a sth e s o n gb a s e d ? justiceor againstwars.Whetherit is possibleto change
4 Who first sangStrangeFruit?- the worldwith a songis hardto say,but songwriters
who are part of thistraditioncertainlyfeelthat it is their
f) f .Zf Readthe sentencesbelow.Thenlistento part two duty to try.
of the radioprogramme.Are the sentencestrue,falseor is
the answernot stated? FEhilffIfd Workin pairs.Discuss
the questions.
Give
1 Bar neyJ os ephs oto n td Bi tl i eH o l i d a ya b o u tth e s o n g. examples wherepossible.
2 In m os tnight c lub a s t th a t ti m e , b ta c ka n d w h i tec u stomers 1 Howmanyprotest songsdoyouknow? Whatarethey
weresegregated. protestingabout?
3 Holidaywas too frightenedto singStrangeFruitin 2 Aresongsan effectivemethodof protest?What
Jos ephs on'nightcs lub. advantages mightsongshaveoverotherformsof protest?
4 Th es ong r ec eiv e a v e ryg o o dre c e p ti o n
d th e fi rs tti me 3 Whatothermethods of protest
arethereandwhichis the
Hot idayper f or m e d i t. in youropinion?
mosteffective,
5 Hot idayblam edr a c i a p I re j u d i c e
fo r th e d e a tho f h er father. 4 Arethereanysingers, pastor present,
fromyourown
5 Rec or ding S t r ong eF ru i tl e dto th e te rmi n a ti o o n f Hol i day' s country whosesongsoftenhavea serious message?
re c or ding c ont r actw i th C o tu mb i a . 5 lf youweregoingto writea protest
song,whatwouldit be
7 StrangeFruitwasgenerallyregardedas one of Holiday's about? Invent [inesfor
a titteandthinkof someoossible
fi nes tr ec or dings . yoursong.
8 ForHolidayt,he em o ti o n aeI ffe c to f p e rfo rm i n th g e song
b e c am eev ens t r o n g ear s th e y e a rsp a s s e d .

L,' i t l .. r lr : , 1got f - - F
I can uno{erttandand react to an article about
Jame(newha'smadea radicalchanqein tlaelrltfe
direction
1 Workin pairs.Readthe quotation
fromRaymond
Doyouagreewith it?Givereasons.
Chandler.

Ability is what you're capable of doing.


Motivation determines what you do. Attitude
determines how well you do it.
2 Lookat the photoandthefirsttwo linesof the article.
Predict
whatthetextis about.Thenskim-read it andcheck
yourideas.

3 Readthe textandchoosethe bestanswers.


1 As a child,Jaeger playedtennisbecause
a shewantedto bethebestin theworld.
b herparentsput pressure on herto play.
c shewantedto escapefromheroverbearing father.
d shewantedto develoo a 'killerinstinct'.
Jaeger gaveup tenniswhenshe
a starteda children's charity.
b gotfedup withthe competitive atmosphere on the (1-8)withthe nouns(a-h)to make
4 Matchthe adiectives
tenniscircuit. collocations
fromthe text.
c suffered an injury. 1 enforced a teenager
d realisedthatshewanted to hetppeople. 2 uplifting b environment
Whenshestoppedplayingtennis,shewaspleased 3 impressionable c father
because she 4 stormy d chitdhood
a hadputheramazing talentto gooduse. 5 overbearing e lourney
b hadachieved herambition of beating Biltie-Jean
King. 6 brief f retirement
c no longerenioyed theapplause. 7 competitive g row
d coulddo something different withherlife. 8 protracted h relationship
Whatdid AndreaJaeger keepsecretfor nearly Workin pairs.Retellthe storyof Jaeger's
lifeso
twentyyears? far usingthe collocations
fromexercise 4.
a herfrequent arguments withherfather
b thefactthatshedeliberately lostan important match Lookat the example of a reduced relativeclausefromthe
c a closefriendship withMartinaNavratilova text.Expand it intoa full relativeclause.
d herambition to do something differentwithhertife
lacked
,|aeger thekillerinstinct of greatchampions.
required
WhenJaeger looksbackat the past,she
a believes shecouldhavewona totof GrandSlams. Findthreemoreexamples of reduced
relativeclauses
in the
b wonders howsuccessfuI shemighthavebecome. text(lines72-!8,24-29,60-65)andexpandthemintofull
c hasno regrets. relativeclauses.
d wishesshehadn'tbeeninjured.
a$ Builder
Grammar 4.2:Reduced
relative p.121
clauses:
WhenJaeger returned to Wimbledon, she
a wassurprised thattheguards didn'tknowwho Workin pairs.Answerthe questions.
snewas.
1 Do youadmireAndreaJaeger? Why?/Why not?
b wasoverwhelmed bythefactthattheguardstreatedher
2 Whydon'tmorefamous peopledevote theirlivesto
tikeroyalty.
goodcauses?
c wasbitteraboutthefactthatshehadwasted
heryouth. 3 Doyouthinkthatyouwouldbewillingto giveup fameand
fortuneanddevoteyour[ifeto peoplelessfortunate than
d wasdetighted at thewaythattheguardstreatedthe
yourself?
Why?/Why not?
childrenshewaswith.
4 'Kidsshouldbe drivenbytheirowngoalsandtheirown
passion,notbysomeone else's.
That'swhenit becomes
whatextentdo youagreeor disagree
dangerous.'To with
view?
Jaeger's

Unit4 . Changes
t
(
a\
Liflttcs'tars -/ [- ";
r AndreaJaegerwasa tormentedteenagerlostin theworldof mg hotelroomall night,going,"Well,evergbodg thinksI'm
professional
tennis.Nowshe'sat peacewithherself. ao greatbecause I wonthe match,butwhataboutthe person
I beat?How's shefeeling?"'Sheminded losinglessthan
Attheageof41 andnearlgtwodecades afterherenforced
heropponents did.0nlgthreegearsago,though, didJaeger
retirementfromthegame,Jaeger nowrunsa charitg
admitto deliberatelg losing
thefinalof the 1983Wimbledon
s thatsheset upto helpchildrenwithcancer. lt hasbeen
Championships, a tournament
shehadblasted through
a long,sometimestortuous, journegof
oftenuplifting
+s withoutlosinga set.0n theeveof thefinal,aftera protracted
sacrifice
ontheroadto a destingshe dimlgglimpsed as an
rowwithherfather, shewasshutoutof thefamilg's rented
impressionableteenagerlostin an adultworld.
housein Wimbledon. Jaegerwentto knockonthedoorof the
Alongthewagshehadto reconcile a stormgrelationship onlgpersonsheknewin thestreet,whichhappened to be
ro withheroverbearing father,Roland,andadmitto losing Navratilova.Thenextdagthethree-time champion finished
matches on purpose, amongthemtheWimbledon finalof so Jaegeroff in 54 minutes.
1983.Through a painfulandalltoobriefchildhood,Jaeger
'l neverlookedbackon mUtenniscareeruntilthisgearand
discoveredshehadfewequalsat hittingtennisballs,but
I'veneverwondered howgoodI couldhavebeen,'she sags.
of greatchampions.
lackedthekillerinstinctrequired In
'lf I'dstagedouttherefortengearsandnotbeeninjuredand
rs thewomen's locker-room, inhabitedbg ChrisEvert,Billie-
wonalltheGrand Slams, I thinkI wouldhavelosta bitof mg
JeanKingandMartinaNavratilova, fifteen-gear-old
the
ss soul.Professional tenniswasmUteenage thisis mg
calling;
foundherselfoutof stepwitha ruthlesslg competitive
adultcalling.Whenmgteenage gearsweredone,it wastime
environment.
to moveonto something else.'
'l didn'tjointhecircuitto be No1',shesags.'ljoinedbecause
Success is nowmeasured in lessstarkwagsthanthe
zoI wasgoodenough to.'Shealsoplaged thegameto pleaseher
numbers on a scoreboard. Raising moneU forhercharitg
parents. 'Kidsshouldbedrivenbgtheirowngoalsandtheir
oo requires preparation anddiscipline, qualitieseasilg
ownpassion, notbgsomeone whenit becomes
That's
else's.
transferable fromthetenniscourt,butthesoundof laughter
dangerous,'she sags.
comingfromthechildren on holidag at thefoundation's ranch
Jaeger tookthefirstopportunitg offeredto herbU a shoulder nearAspen in Colorado echoes througheachdag.Mangof
zsinjurg,sustained at the French0penin 1984,to pursuethe themhaveneverseena mountain, letaloneexperienced
lifethatsecretlg shehadalwagsbeenwantingto lead.She es raftingdownthe Roaring ForkRiver, withJaeger asguide.
set upthe LittleStarFoundation - initiallg
withhercareer Recentlg shewasrecognised bg a fellow passenger on a
earnings of $ 1.38m - to helpchildren with canceror at risk planenotfor beinga formertennischampion, butfor running
in thecommunitg. a cancercharitg.Thatpleased her,a signof progress in her
so'WhenI gotinjured, to be honest,I wasrelieved',sheexplains. " ownlifetoo.
'Evergone wasapplauding meforplaging tennis,butwhen zo A fewUearsagoJaegerreturned to Wimbledon withsome
I wasinjuredlthought,"Finallg, I cangoandbeme."I was of herterminallg ill kidsandthe guards onthe gatenotonlg
givena giftto plagtennis,butit wasn'tmgrightto sag recognised herbutgavethechildren bagsof sweets.'There
whetherI hadit forfiveUearsor 50 gears.I beatBillie-Jean werethese guards alldressed uniformpracticallU
in saluting
rs Kingon Centre Courtat Wimbledon - how mang people can the kids.Mgkidsthoughtthegwerethekingandqueenof
evensauthegplaged Wimbledon? zs England,' Jaeger sags.'lf it tookallthosehoursof training
'Mgdadwasa brilliant coachandmg mumenjoged howwell anddiscipline, alltheanguish, to getto this,it wasworthit.
weweredoing.Mgsisterwasat Stanford andI wassittingin I didnlloseangthing bglosing a Wimbledon final.'

?
' fP

u n it 4.ch a n g e s
C}
)

Workin pairs.Tryto answerthe questions. usi ngmi xedcond it ionals.


R ew ri tethe sentences
1 Weredinosaurs warm-blooded or cold-blooded? 1 Y oudi dn' t l i sten,so you don' t knoww hat t o do.
2 Whenandwhydidtheybecome extinct?
2 K atefai l edher dri vi ngtest [astw eekso she'sr et aking
to the questions
Readthe textandfindtheanswers in i t i n l ul y.
1.
exercise 3 H e' sbeenprosecuted becausehe refusest o payanyt ax.
4 | don' t ti kehi m becausehe w as rudeto m e.
5 H i si nj uri esare moreseri ousbecausehe wasn'twear ing
It isa scientific
factthat
a seatbel t.
dinosaurs suddenly
6 | forgotmy keysso I can' tget backi nto t he house.
became extinctabout 65
million years ago.Many Rewritethe sentencesusingan inversionin the conditional
palaeontologists believe cl auseand omi tti ngf.
thattheextinction was 1 l f you shoul dneedto makeany photocopies, t her e'sa
caused bya giantmeteor photocopi er outsi demy offi ce.
crashing intotheEarth. On 2 P l easecontactheadoffi cei f you shou ldneedt o m ake
thefaceofit,it sounds an a comol ai nt.
unlikely explanation,but 3 l f K urtC obai nw ereal i vetoday,he' d be over40.
dinosaurs werea highly 4 l f i t w eren' tfor the factthat she' smarriedt o t he boss.
she' dneverhavegot the i ob.
successful speciesthathad
5 l f I' d know ni t w oul d rai n,I' d havetakenan um br ella.
ruledtheEarth forabout
6 l f i t hadn' tbeenfor my parents'generosit y, I couldnever
160million years,andit's
haveaffordeda new car.
difficultto account fortheir
disappearance
sudden unless prettydrastic
something tookplace. FfifilTm Completethe sentencesin your own words.
Butanequally intriguingquestion iswhatwouldhavehappened Compareyour answerswith your partner.
if themeteorhadmissed itstarget? Suppose dinosaurswerestill 1 l f onl y I had moreti me, ...
roaming theEarth today,wouldthe human race have managed 2 l f I hadn' tstudi edE ngl i sh,...
to evolvealongside them?lt wasthought for a longtimethat 3 l f teenagers aren' tal l ow edenoughfre edom ., . .
4 U nl essw e act now ....
dinosaurswerecold-blooded andwouldneverhavesurvived
5 A s [ongas the w eatherdoesn' tchang e,. . .
an lceAge.However, morerecentresearch hasrevealed that
6 H ow l w i sh ...
dinosaurswerein factveryadaptable, andsomemayevenhave
beenwarm-blooded. Somepalaeontologists believe that,had Rewritethe sentencesusingthe wordsin brackets.
themeteornothittheEarth, dinosaurs wouldhavecontinued to 1 I' d neverhavefi ni shedthe j ob w i thoutyour help.( i0
thrive,meaning it'sunlikelythatwe'dseemanyof themammals
thatwe nowrelyon for foodandcompany! Andif therewereno
sheep, cowsanddogs,wewouldn'thavewool,milkor'man's 2 l f w e don' t hurry,w e w on' t get to the air por ton t im e.
bestfriend'.ln alllikelihood,if themeteorhadn'tstrucktheEarth, (unIess)
wewouldntbearoundtodayto speculate on howthingsmight 3 You can borrowmy MP3 ptayer,but you must give it back
haveturnedout. to me tomorrow.(providedthat)
4 E veni f therew erei ntel l i gentl i feout ther e,how couldwe
makecontact?(supposi ng)
In thetext,findexamplesof structures 1-5. Whichreferto 5 Fol l owthe di recti onsI gaveyou and you can'tgo wr ong.
(a)the past(b)the presentor (c)the pastandthe present? (as tongas)
1 a second conditionat 5 Forhi m to haveadmi ttedhe w asw ron gwould havebeen
2 a thirdconditional totallyout of character.(iflit)
3 twomixedconditionats
4 twoconditionalclausesintroduced
bywordsotherthanif FTfiltnlfd Workin pairsand discussthe questions.
5 clause
a conditionaI wherei/is omittedandthesubject How might things be/have been differentif ...
andverbareinverted 1 w e coutdtravelbacki n ti me?
2 we stoppedeatingmeat?
3 we could live for ever?
4 comD uters hadn' tbeeni nvented?
5 C ol umbus had not di scovered A meri ca?
5 di nosaursw eresti l lal i ve?
t Discussion
,r,,, rtlt r:!.r cf
t: ,., t.,.,i i ( tl l ,/r r

1 Workin pairs.Answerthe questions.


1 Howhasyourtownor citychanged (a)overthe lastfew
years?(b)overthe lastfewdecades?
2 Arethechanges forthebetter? youropinion.
Justify
3 Ingeneral,areyouin favourof renovating
otd,dilapidated
buitdings
or of knockingthemdownandreplacing them?
Givereasons foryouropinion.

Putthe expressions 5 in the correctplacein


fromexercise
the chartbelow.
A Givingopinions
oneadvantage of ...is (that)...
Lookat the plansforthe redevelopment of a towncentre. onedrawback of ...is (that)...
Howmanyof the buildings andfacilitiesin the boxcanyou Persona[[y,
I thinkthat...
find?Whichcanyoufindin yourtownor city? B Agreeing/Partiallyagreeing
artscentre disabled That'showI seeit too.
access chainstore cycleracks
independent market I go alongwiththat.
shop landscaped area open-air
carpark pavement
multi-storey caf6 pedestrian
crossing C Disagreeing
pedestrianised
street periodbuitdings shopping
mall I don'tacceptthat.
skateboardpark waterfeature I disagreewiththeviewthat...
D Conceding a point
Howwouldyoudescribe
the plans?Usetheadiectives
in the True.
boxto helpyou. Yes,I suppose you'reright.
charmingchic chitd-friendly contemporary drab Yes,I hadn'tthought ofthat.
fullof characterfunctional impersonalold-fashioned
quaint soulless stateof theart trendy Workin pairs.Eachchooseoneplanfromexercise 2 and
thinkaboutits merits.Thinkaboutthe drawbacksof your
$) r.z+ Listento two peopletalkingaboutthe changes partner'splantoo.Considerthe questionsbelowandmake
thatarebeingproposed in picture2. Whatbenefitsand notes.Youranswers to exercise
4 witthelp.
drawbacks forthe newbuildings do theymention? 1 Whichwouldbe betterfor (a)youngpeople(b)famities
(c)etderty
people?
$ r.z+ Complete theseexpressionsfromthe dialogue. 2 Whichis visuallymoreattractive?
Thenlistenagainandcheck.
1 (tha0wouldseemtikethebest- to me. 8 the planswithyourpartnerusing
Discuss
2 Tomy a carpark...
, building yournotesfromexercise7. Giveyouropinionandreactto
3 That'snothow| - it at all. yourpartner's
pointsusingexpressionsandphrasesfrom
4 That'sa-ooint. exercises
5 and5.
5lcouldn't-more.

-
b,.

Workin pairsanddiscuss
thequestion.
Thinkaboutthetopics Readthe writingtip. Matchfiveof sentences a-f withthe
in the boxbelow. gapsin the modelessay. Whichtopicfromexercise 1 does
the othersentence match?
How might the world be different
a Assuming thattheprocessing powerof computers
a hundred years from now? continues to increaseat its currentrate,theirimportance
in theworldwi[[alsogrow.
clothes communications computerseducation b Withina hundred years, scientistswillatmost certainly
environmentfamilylife food heatth language haveeradicated mostcommon diseases.
leisure money politics religion transport work c Theincreasing congestion on ourroadswilIhaveled
scientiststo develoo newformsof transoort.
Readthe modelessay,ignoringthe gaps.Matchparagraphs d lf I amstiltalivea hundred yearsfromnow,I imagine the
2-4 withthreeof thetopicsfromexercise
1. worldwill be a verydifferent placefromhowit is today.
e Broadly speaking, thekindsof changes thatI envisage
happening wilImaketheworlda betterplaceto Iive.
f I imagine that,a hundred yearsin thefuture, fashions will
havechanged hugely.

Workin pairs.Choose threetopicsfromexercise 1 which


arenot in exercises
2 or 3. Writea topicsentence
to begina
paragraph for eachone.

t ! Scienceand technologywill continueadvancrng


pace,and there will doubtlessbe Makeyourwritingmorefluentby usingthe following
at an ever-increasing
inventionsand discoverieseverydecadewhich will affect linkingwordsto joinideastogether:
every aspect of our lives. neither...nor... ...or even...
either...or ... both...and...
Z E n hundredyearsfrom now,they will in all probability notonly...butalso...
...ratherthan...
be far more intelligentthan humans.Consequently, our
attitudetowardsthem may change:we may regardthem
eitheras friendsor as potentialrivals!We will use them not Readthewritingtip.Thenfindan example of each
as only as sourcesof information,but also as sourcesof in the modelessay.
expression Whichtwoaresimilarin
wisdomand advice meaning?Explain the meaning
of the others.
a ! New forms of syntheticmaterialwill no doubt have
Rewrite
the twosentences as singlesentencesusing
been invented,and these could revolutionise clothingin the
expressionsfromthe writingtip.
same way that the inventionof both nylonand Lycradid in
the twentiethcentury.Havingsaid that, designershave a 1 Computers arebecoming morepowerful. They're
becoming
habit of looking to the past for inspiration,so in the twenty- cneaper.
secondcentury,peoplecould be wearingjeansor even 2 Sooncomputers maybeableto holdconversations with
nineteenth-century suits and dresses. humans. Tellingjokesmayalsobe possible.
3 Wemaynothaveto usea mouseor keyboard. Wemaybe
4 ! eartlcularlypopularwill be vehicleswhich allow
commutersto fly to work rather than sitting in a traffic jam.
ableto controlit withourmind.
The vehicleswill as likelyas not be poweredby magnetism 4 Computers maydemand bettertreatment.
Theymay
or some other force which neitherrequiresfuel nor creates demand equalrights!
pollution. 5 Somepeoplemaintain thatcomputers wil[neverthink
like
people.Theysaythatcomputers willneverhaveemotions.
5 ! However,some may make it worse lt is impossible
5 Super-powerfuI computers willbe incredibly
useful.
Or
to predict the future with any certainty.There will be many
perhaps they'llbe incredibly
dangerous to mankind.
unforeseendevelopmentsin the world and some of these
willmorelikely.nIl:, FfihHlmfd Workin pairs.Discussthe questions,then
T:r_r::
compare yourideaswiththe class.
1 lf a newkindof materialforctothing
wereto be invented,
Eac hpar agr aphin a n e s s a ys h o u l dc o n ta i na ' to pi c whatdo youthinkit mightbe tike?
sent enc e'whic he x p re s s eth s e ma i n i d e ao f th a t 2 Whatnewkindof vehicle wouldbe mostuseful. in
p ar agr aph.
T hisu s u a l l yg o e sa t th e b e g i n n i n gT. opi c youropinion?
sentencesmakethe essaveasierto fotlowfor the reader. 3 Doyouthinkit matters if computersbecome more
intettigent
thathumans? Givereasons.

Unit4. Chang e s
I can w ri tc a
distursive essay

Workin pairs.Planthe following


es-'
f) f .ZS Listento twoteenagers
discussing
whatlifemight
be likea hundredyearsfromnow.Number How might the world be differe" : - - - : -!: ii : --r -
the ideasin the
orderthat your hearthem. 1 U seyourtopi csentencesfro- = ' = -::: - -- Li* -
a Hum ansm ightha v ec ro s s -b rew d i th a l i e n sa n d P aragraph1: Introducti on
P aragraph2:
d ev elopedgr eens k i n ,s c a l e sa n d a n te n n a e . T Paragraph
b Hum ansm ightha v eb e c o mee x ti n c t. tr Paragraph
3:
4:
c A chip in the brain mightallow 2417 lnternet P aragraph5: C oncl usi on
a c c es sin y ourhea d . I i deasfor eachparag' = -: .- : .: : - +-
2 B rai nstorm :
d H um ansm ightha v emo v e dto a n o th e rp l a n e t. I the essaypl an.D eci dehow l i ke . :]r- i i -- : - : -
e H um ansm ightbe b a l d a n dv e ryp a tea s a re s u l t ooi ni on.
o f liv ingin s pac e . T
f Car sm ighthav eb e e nb a n n e dc o mp l e te l y . T
g Childr enm ightbe a b l eto p l u gs o m e th i n gi n to
th eirbr ainins t ea do f g o i n gto s c h o o l . tr
Workin pairs.Decide whichideasin exercise
1 arethe most
andleastliketyto happen,in youropinion.Orderthemfrom
1 (mostlikely)to 7 (leastlikely).

Wecanusea rangeof expressions forspeculating


abouteventsin thefuture, dependingon howliketywe
believethemto be.
It could/mighthappen.
It maywellhappen.
It'sboundto happen.
It'sverylikelyto happen.
It will (olmostdefinitely)happen.
It willprobablyhappen.
There's a (faint)chanceit mighthappen.
There's(olmost)no chanceof it happening.

Readthe Learnthis!box.Putthe phrases


in approximate
(Someexpressions
orderof likelihood. arealmost
synonymous.)

Rephrase the ideasfromexercise1 usingsuitable


expressionsfromthe Learnthis!box,dependingon how Workingindividually,
writean essayof 200-250words
likelyyouthinkeacheventis. yourplan.Remember
following to usesuitableexpressions
fromthe Learnthis!boxandexercise5.
There's
a faintchancethathumans
might
havecross-bredwithaliens. Workin pairs.Swapessays
andcheckyourpartner's
work.

Lookbackat the modelessayon page44.Complete these Hasyourpartner


wordsandphrases whichall mean'(very)probably'. ! theessayplancorrectly?
fottowed
1 -less ! writtenthecorrect
numberof words?
2 as-as- I usedexpressionsfromtheLearnthis!box?
3 more--not
! usedlinkingwordsfromthewritingtip on page44?
4 no-
5 - probabitity ! checked andgrammar?
thespelling

aAz.
LITGUAGE;{ffl q, ,-4 **
Vocabulary Grammar
1 Completethe sentenceswith a suitableform of the verbs , Completethe sentenceswith the presentperfectsimpleor
in the box. continuousform ofthe verbsin the box.

'ffur pay resolve return speak suffer clean go know rain retire stay

Dor ahad had e n o u g ho f p e o p l eo tte r' ,n h e,ir a d v i ceon how to 1 My boyfriend to the gym recentlyto get fit.
br ingup her s o n . 2 We eachothersi ncew e st ar t edschool.
1 K ier an' sr ela ti o n s h i p a s e tb a c krecentl y. His 3 S arah out her cupboard sso her clot hesar e
girlfriendhas beentransferred to Boston. all overthe floor.
2 W henc hoos i n gfu rn i tu refo r a n e w h o u s ei t' s i mportantto 4 My parents to theirsecondhomeon the coast.
y o u rmi n d a n d m a k ea i o i n t d e c i si on. 5 lt everydaythis weekand the forecastfor
3 Las ts um m e ro u r n e i g h b o u rs w a te re do u r g a rden.W e tomorrowis also prettybad.
t h e fa v o u rb y l o o k i n ga fte rth e i rd og. 6 | w i th a cousi nw hi teI l ookf or a f lat .
4 T hedis put eo v e rc u s to d yo f th e c h i l d re n- l ast
weekin c ou rt. EE! ]tr
5 Tinagetsfuriouswith her boyfriendbecausehe never
a tte n ti o nw h e ns h ete l l sh i m w h a tto do. 6 Complete thesentences withthe correct
formof theverbs.
1 Heclaims (play)basketbaltwith
KobeBryant.
Etr! ]tr 2 Thetravelling isn'tmuchfun,butI don'tmind-
(takeout)fordinnerwhenI goawayon business.
2 tvtatch (1-5)withtheiropposites
the adiectives (a-e). 3 Thedetective's firstimpression wasthatthevictim
1 well-connecteda old-fashioned appeared . (push)
2 affluent b drab 4 lgnore her.She'sonlypretending - . (cry)
3 chic c thriving 5 | trulyadmireIngridBetancourt. lmagine- (keep)
4 picturesque d sou[less hostage in thejungleforsixyears!
5 rundown e remote
6 futlof character f deorived EE! ]tr
EE! ]tr 7 Choosethe correctadverb.
1 Hefinished theracein justundertwentyseconds.Hewas
t Completethe sentenceswith a suitablepreposition. easily/ by a milethefastest.
There'sa new Asianrestauranta stone'sthrow 1- my 2 Footbatlisa longway/ a gooddealmoretiringthancricket.
hous e.T hank s2- a n e ffe c ti v ea d v e rti s i ngcampai gn, 3 Webeatthemby 10-1.Ourteamwasthebestfarand
it wast eem ingI - p e o p l eo n th e o p e n i n gni ghttast awayI by miles.
week .lt c at er s4 - a l l ta s te si n A s i a nfo o d - C hi nese. 4 A broken / quitemorepainfulthan
ribis onlymarginally
T haia n d Vi e tn a m e s-e a n d th e o w n e rtakespri de
J apanes e, justbruising it.
5- greetingall the guestsas they arrive.
@w
EE! ]tr
8 Completethe sentenceswith the correctform of the verbs.
4 Completethe sentenceswith the nounform of the verbsin lf I d had(have)my car serviced,it worr\dn'1 down(not
havaL,roKen
the box. breakdown).
adapt affi convert modify transform 1 Thatacci dent (not happen)if you -
(took)at the road!
t he ha l t,h e ma d ea s m a l la { u s i ma nto
E nt er ing t hi s ti e. 2 l f peni ci l ti n (notdi scover)
people
1 T het own c en treh a d u n d e rg o n a
e c o mp te te (sti tldi e)fromsi mpl ei nfecti ons.
s inc eI wast h e rel a s t. 3 S upposi ng oi t- (runout),ho wwill elect r icit y
2 T her ehasbe e na s m a l l to th e p l a nsfor the new (generate)?
s t at ion. 4 People (use)carslessif more
3 lt wast he au th o rh i ms e l w
f h o w ro teth e s ta ge- (i nvest)i n pubti ctransport.
of t he nov e[ . 5 H adthe area (notevacuat e)m, or epeople
4 I'm lookingfor a firm to carryout the toft- . - (die).

EEI ltr EE! ]tr


t@
Language R e v i e w 3 -4
I

t SrcLtS $gmw"
I-4

Reading 3 S ayw hethersentences 1-7 are trre


1 S tuartcoul daffordbetteracc:* - --.
1 Doyouthinkyouwouldbe an easyor difficultpersonto
2 H e usedto l i vei n a smal lfl a: - -= . ,
sharea flatwith?Givereasons.
3 S tuartand hi s gi rl fr;E3- - -
Ini ti atty,
'
4 S tuartbel i eveshi s si tuati oni s . = -. :'
2 Readthe text. In what way is FlatNight Feversimilarto a
5 A t Fl atN i ghtFever,peopl er,,' i :---, -
speed-datingevent?
for somew here to [i ve.
6 Fl atN i ghtFeveri s a ' ti ve'versr - :' . : ' , ,. ,
happensetectron i cal l y.
7 K ari mGoudi abyarguesthat cr r: s - : : - :' -
t fi ndi ngthe ri ghtrr,,i i:'e ' -:.:" -
di ffi cul as

Listening
4 O r.ze Listen to a dialogue Ecgz's: - : :^ = :'.-.'
between
peoplein hisnewflat.Whoarethey?Ci'c:s='-:-
a bankempl oyee a housemate a . E -: : - -
the tandtady the l etti ngagent the p,;:-= -
StuartKelly,51,earnsf28,000a year,yethecan'tfindanywhere
decent to livein London. 'Back homein Edinburgh I'dberich, 5 f) r.ze Li stenagai n.A re the sentences i ' -i - : - <i
butheremymoney goesnowhere,' helaments. 'l started answernot stated?
outrenting a grubby roomwithnolockin anoldmansion in 1 MostofE dgars' possessi ons aresti i - -. 1
Lewisham, thenI moved to Belgravia,whereI hadproblems 2 Tomashasbeenl i vi ngi n the housei c' - -' = " , '
withthelandlady. l amcurrently paying f800permonthfora 3 Thebankw on' t l et E dgarsopenan a.:. --' -
rather smallsingle roomin Whitechapel. Intheprocess, I have formati ob offeri n w ri ti ng.
lostaboutf500in non-returned deposits andthelike.Now 4 E dgarshasto paya l argerdeposio-r t :' = --: - : = - . - : =
mygirlfriend wantsto comedownto London butshewontbe doesn' thavea bankaccount.
earning anymoney to startwith,andI lustcanlfinda double 5 Tomashasnot had any probl emsw i th t' e -: ; - : : - - r
roomwecanafford.l'm in prettydirestraits, to behonest.' 5 The[andl ordsometi mescal l sbv unexD ::: -
Whichiswhyheisspending theevening atSound, a WestEnd 7 E dgars'l etteri sfromthe personthat i nte-. - - -
nightclub in Leicester Square, thevenue fora newandunusual - , ", =
typeof eventcalledFlatNightFever.
Speaking
Thisistheproperty world'sversion of speed-dating. People
withrooms to letputon orange-coloured namebadges andsit 6 Workin groupsof four.
attableslabelled north,south,eastor west,according to thepart o S tudentsA andB :Y ouareftatmates. l ooki -a'- ' - - = *: '2
of townwheretheiraccommodation islocated. Those whoare
tenant.
looking for places to live(whitenamebadges) circulate round o S tudentsC and D : Y ouare both orosoecti '.:,:e- =- . =.
those tables, in thehopeof convincing theirorange-badged
keento sharew i thstudentsAand B .Y ouca - - . : - : - e, ', '
counterparts thattheywouldmaketheidealflatmate. personas.
'lt worksbothways, of course,'explains theevent's organiser, . S tudentsA andB : l ntervi ewstudentsC ano D i- . . '- e
PaulCurry,of accommodation website easyroommate.co.uk. 'The ti me.A skthem questi onsaboutthei rperso - a : , . : - e '
person looking fortheroommightnothitit offwiththeperson habi tsand anythi ngel sethat occursto vo- - - : - : : .
offering theroom,either. Thatisthepurpose of thisevent: to aboutthetw o candi dates and agreew hi ci -: - : . : : : : . 3:
prevent having to dothatthingwe'vealldone, whichistrek
halfway across London to seea flatyouhate,livedin bypeople
youwishyou'dnever met.' Writing
'Thisisn'tanevening wemakeanymoney outof,'says 7 Readthe task belowand makenotes.
EasyRoommate's founder KarimGoudiaby, whousually charges
Y ouhavebeenaskedto w ri tea shortarti cl efor a t r avel
for thisintroduction service viaemail,withsubscribers getting
magazi neaboutthe di fferentareasof yourtown and wher e
thecontact details of theflat-seeker or flat-owner theywantto
the bestol acesto rentw oul dbe.
see.'Thisshows wearemorethanjusta property bulletin board:
wewantto ensure thatthepeople wematchuparecompatible. 8 W ri teyourarti cl e.R emember to i ncl udeone or t wo
Justasyouwouldchoose a wifewithgreatcare,soyoushould recommendati ons and gi vereasonsfor them.
choose a flatmate withgreatcare,too.'
a C heckyour progress:p i -i
EXAM 4
Youare goingto reada text called Readthetext.Decide whether theinformation
in each
'Tr opic aI . oy o u th i n k i t w i tt be mai nl y
weat hera t th e P o l e s ' D (1-8) is true,falseor notstated.
sentence
about the futureor the past?Givereasonsfor your answer. TrueFalseNotstated
1 and hi s menw ere
S hackteton
Readthe text in the Readingexamtask quicktyand check surprised
tofindcoatat
theAntarctic.tr tr tr
your answer. 2 Thefossilsthat theyfoundcouldonly
havebeencreatedin a warmerclimate.I tr I
3 S hackl eton achi evedthe mai n
Alway sr eadt r ue/fa l s es ta te me n tsb e fo rere a d i n gthe obj ecti veof hi s expedi ti on. I tr I
te x t c los elyT. hatw a y ,y o u k n o ww h a t i n fo rma ti o n you 4 Mostsci enti sts bel i evethat
a re [ ook ingf or . Re m e m b eth r a t i n o rd e rto b e ' tru e 'or conti nental dri ftexpl ai nsthe fossi l s
'fat s e' t, he inf or m a ti o ni n th e w h o l es e n te n c eh a sto match thatwerefoundinAntarctica. I I tr
e xac t lywhat is in th e te x t o r b e e x p ti c i tl yc o n tra di cted by 5 Thedi nosaursthat usedto l i vei n
i t. lf neit heris t he c a s e ,c h o o s e' n o t s ta te d ' .D o n o t be A ntarcti ca
becameexti nctw henthe
mi s t edby indiv idu a tw o rdas n d p h ra s e s . climate much
became colder. tr tr I
6 TheA rcti cw as oncei nhabi tedbv
t Do the Readingexamtask.
freshwatercrocodiles. I tr I
7 j ohn Tardunoi s a C anadi an sci enti st
empl oyedby a uni versi ty i n N ewY ork. trt r tr
are not exactl vsurew hat
8 S ci enti sts
Tropical
weather
atthePoles a chamososaur l ooked[i ke. trT tr
WHENErnest Shackleton andhismenmarched towards theSouthPole
in December 1908,theycameacross somethingentirely
unexpected.
Afterscaling
thevastBeardmore glacier
ontheedgeof thepolarplateau,
theyfoundseams of coalamidthesnowandice.Theyalsofound D o not be throw nby unknow nw ords.Y ouc an of t enuse
impressionsof leavesin sandstoneboulders
nearbyandevenfossilised the contextto guessthei rmeani ng,ei therpr ecisely or
woodfroma coniferous tree. a p p roximate[y.
Theconclusion
wasextraordinarybutinescapable:
Antarctica
wasonce
warmandforested,conditions
thatcouldhardlybemoredifferent to the 4 R eadthe examti p. Thenfi nd w ords1-3 i n th e t ext and
far-below{reezing
midsummer weather thatforcedShackleton's
teamto choosethe meani ngw hi chmakesmostsensein t he cont ext .
theirgoal,Howwasthispossible?
turnbackbeforereaching 1 'scaling': a finding b climbing c leaving
Fouryearslater,AlfredWegener putforwardhistheoryof continental 2 'balmy': a worm b cold c freezing
driftwhich,it waslaterrealised,
couldexplain thebalmyclimate: 3 a'gharial' is a type of: a lake b bone c reptile
Antarctica hadbeenwarmerbecause it wasoncemuchcloser to the
equator. Eventoday,someschoolchildren aretaughtthatcontinental , Do the Useof Englishexamtask.
driftprovides a completeexplanationfor a warmer Antarctica.
However, thefossiltreesShackleton's
teamdiscovered grewaround
250millionyearsago,whenAntarctica wasbarelycloser to theequator C ompl etethe secondsentencei n eachpai r so t hat it
thanit istoday. What'smore,thecontinent reached itscurrentposition
meansthe sameas the fi rst.
roughly100millionyearsago,andanever-growing listof fossil
findsdatefrom100to q0 million years ago.During thistime,when 1 W e' dhavearri vedon ti me i f our car hadn'tbr okendown.
dinosaurs roamed thealmostsubtropical forests
of an ice{reeAntarctic, Had arrivedon t im e.
conditions ontheothersideof theplanetwereevenmoreremarkable: 2 A s I spendmoreti me onl i ne,I' m fi ndi ngit easierand
theArcticOcean wasa gigantic
freshwater lakeinfested withcrocodile- easi erto usesearchengi nes.
likereptiles. Themore to usese ar chengines.
Themostevocative imageof a warmArctichasemerged fromthework 3 I' l l meetyou i n tow n unl essi t' s rai ni ng.
of JohnTarduno of theUniversityof Rochester, NewYork.Formorethan Provided In IOW n.
a decade, Tardunohasbeenhunting for fossils
onAxelHeiberglsland 4 | onl y recogni sedGeorgebecausehe w aswear ingt he
in theCanadian justwestof Creenland.
Arctic, Theisland
wasalready j acketI' d gi venhi m.
wellwithintheArcticCircle 90 millionyearsago.Histeamhasfound l f Gpnr op recognised him .
bonesandevenpartial skeletonsof a crocodilelike
creature
called
5 S ki i ngi s moredi ffi cul w
t henthe snowi s ver ysof t .
a champsosaur fromthisperiod. Thechampsosaur wasa fish-eating
reptileupto 2.4metres longthatprobably lookedmuchlikethegharials It i sn' t is verysoft.
of India.Becausethesereptileswouldhavereliedon theirenvironment 5 S hew ri tessongsand pl aysseverali nstr um enttsoo.
to staywarm,conditions in thefarnorthmusthavebeenfarhotterthan N ot onty i nst r um ent s.
today.
TH IS UNI T I NCT UD ES . "
Vocabulary r rysy31dwaridioms. verb-noun collocations.sexualdiscrimination . phrasesfor
stlucturing a presentation . personal qualities. wordformation(1). linkingwords:addition
Grammar . for + noun/pronoun . ellipsisoeducedinfinitives,
+ inRnitive omissionofverbs)
Speakingr 131p;ng uboutarmedconflict. discussing familytensions. discussing
sexualequality
. a presentalton
W r i t i n g . 6 de scri p ti oonfa p e rso n

i c a t i t , ', l l < ) , b : ! \ l
nl i li 1., r'), ( L.t1,lli ( L
Warandpeace

Workin pairs.Discuss themeaning of the 4 O Z.Of Listento an account


of the Battleof the Sommein
quotations
andsayings. Doyouagreewiththem? the FirstWorldWar.Complete
the missinginformation with
Why?/Why not? no morethanfourwords.
1 'Oneman'sterrorist is another
man'sfreedom fighter.'
2 'Thepenis mightier thanthesword.'
3 'Thedirectuseof forceis sucha poorsolution
to any
problemthatit is generally
employedonlybysmall
children
and[argenations.'
4 'Wemakewarsothatwecanlivein oeace.'

Complete
thetextwiththewordsin the box.
alties coalitioninsurgentsmassdestruction
securitysuicidebomberstroops violation
weapons inspectors 1 Thewar had started yearsbeforethe battlebegan.
2 Thel and betw eenthe tw o armi esw as cal l ed
3 Thespeakerexpresses greatsurpri sethat som eBr it ish
and Frenchsotdi ersw eretol d w hent hevadvanced
tow ardsthe Germanl i nes.
4 Thebombardment di dn' tki ttmanyGermansoldier s
becausetheyhad hi dden
5 A t fi rst,B ri ti shgeneral sdi dn' t knowhow manym en t hey
had l ost becauseof-.
5 Germanresi stance i n the w eeksafterthe bat t leor event ed
the B ri ti shand Frenchfrom maki ng
7 In the autumn,the w eathermadei t i mpossibt teo - .
8 - coul dsaythat they hadw on the ba t t le.

Th e Ir aq W ar begani n 2 0 0 3 w h e n a m u l ti n a ti o n al' - 5 Completethe collocationsfrom the listeningexercisewith


of forcesled by the USA invadedIraq.The reasonfor the the verbsin the box.
i n va s ionwas A m er ic aa n d Bri ta i n ' sb e l i e fth a t Sa d dam cal l up cl ai m i nfl i ct break gi ve gri nd launch
H u ss einpos s es s ed 2-
an d w a s d e v e l o p i n wg e a p o n so f make put up suffer
(n u c learbiologic
, ala n d c h e mi c awl e a p o n s )i n r-
o- 7 -a breakthrough 6 - casualties
o f a 1991 agr eem e n t. In th e e v e n t,U N fo u nd
n o e v idenc e of s uc hw e a p o n sT. h e Ira q i m i l i ta ryfo rces 2 - an attack 7 - losses
we requic k lydef eate db y Ame ri c aa n d h e r 5 - , ano
3 -the stalemate 8 - reinforcements
th o us andsof I r aqi o - w e rec a p tu re da n d d i s a rmed. 4 - orders 9 -toahatt
However, the victory was short-livedas 7- beganto 5 -resistance 10 - victory
attack the occupyingforcesin an attemptto liberatethe
6 Flil:titKlffd f) z.Or Workin pairs.Retellthestoryof the
co u n t r y f, r equent lye mp l o y i n gro a d s i d eb o m b sa n d 8
Battleof the Sommeusingthe collocations
in exercise
5 to
Th e US G ov er nm ensta i d i t w o u l dw i th d ra wi ts tro oosonce
helpyou.Thenlistenagainandcheck.
d e m oc r ac yand e- h a d b e e ne s ta b l i s h e d .
7 Workin pairsor smallgroups. Thinkof:
3 Findwords in the text in exercise2 that havethe opposite
1 twosetsof circumstances in whicha country
wouldbe
meaningto the wordsin the box. justified
in goingto warasa [astresort.
advance(v) arm (v) defeat(n) defend enemies 2 twosetsof circumstances whena declaration of war
civitian(adi) occupy release(v) wouldbe uniustified.
.' Vocabulary 5.1:ldioms:p.133
Builder
/G'-\
[-.i I'll te nSlons

tfIilKItrd Discussthese questions:Doyou think it is I


good to argue?lf not, why not?lf so, why and in what
for + nounI pronoun+ infinitive
1 Weusethisstructure whenan infinitive
needsitsown
circumstances?
subi ect.
) Readthe text. HowwouldTabithaHolmeshaveansweredthe It's importontfor Janenot to foil her exams.(Janeis
the subjectof the verbfail.)
ques t ionsin ex e rc i s e1 ?
It i s frequentl yusedafteradj ecti ves and nouns.
t2 l'm unhoppyfor the childrento missschool.
It's time for us to go.
There
moybenothing
worse
lhonslommed 3 It can be the subi ectof a sentence.
Forhim to apologisewould be unthinkable.
doors,
roised
voices
ond 4 lt is often used in placeof a fhof-clausewith should
feors
but,occording
lo or the subj uncti ve and i s l essform a[ .
newreseorch, It's essentialthot Sue ring her dad.
It's essentialfor Sue to ring her dad.
,, r, iiJi ;;l

ir,:' "'r,tu ;..,.Insleod ofcousing olienolion, (onflidcon sfrengthen


porenl-odolescenf relolionships, soys I0bilho Holmes, 0 specioli$ in Readthe informationin the Learnfhisl box.Thenrephrase
odolexent developmenl. 'll woso (omplele surprise lometodiscover the sentencesusi ngfor + noun/pronoun + inf init ive.
duringmyreseoruh lholteenogers lhemselves sowheoled 0rgumenls 1 l t' s i mportantthat she saysorry.
0ssomething thotbrought lhemrloser lotheirporenfs,' soidHolmes. 2 My i deai s that w e shoul dl eavebeforedawn.
'Whereos 3 | w as anxi ousthat he shoul dn' feelt offended.
fieirporenlslolked oboul howupsetting onddeslruclive
4 l t w outdbe a di sasteri f w e l ostthe mat ch.
orguing wilhfheirchild wos, lheodolesrenls were obleloseehow 5 l t w on' t snow- i t i sn' tcotdenough.
locking hornshelped themlo underslond theirporenfs' poinhofview
morecleorly. They wereolsoveryowore fiot o goodrowforced them O Z.OZ Listento three peopletalkingaboutfamity
t0fiinklhrough, orliculote onddefend their opinions onddesires.' arguments.WriteM (Mandy),5 (Simon)or T (Tina).Who:

Aaording toHolmes, il islhedoy{o-doy conflicts - fie veryones 1 feel sthat experi enci ng argumentshasbr oughtbenef it s?
2 doesn' tthi nk i t' s surpri si ng
that fami l iesar guea [ ot ?
fiol conbesodroining - lholoremost conslruclive: lheendless rows
; 3 hasa theoryaboutw hy boysand men a r e quit et iket yt o
over homework, clolhes,curfews ondfriends. ' '
arguew i th one another?
' : colm discussion oronimoled debole does notcount. 4 feel sthat bei ngsi mi l arto anotherfam ilym em bergives
?dolescents soid theyonlybldtheirmofiers whot theyreolly felt ri seto arguments?
ondthought whentheywereforced todefend theirposition.lf your 5 had a competi ti ve rel ati onshiw
p i th a s ibt ing?
leenoger isrowing wifiyou,il'socluolly 0 m0rk0frespecl,' Holmes 6 usedto try to stopfami l ymembersarguing?
soid.'h shows fteyvolueyouenough you
totell fieir genuine feelings 6) Z.OZ Completethesediscoursemarkers,which indicate
ondthoughts.'To bepositive, conflicts hove tobehondled inthe the speaker'sattitude.Thenlistenagainand check.
rightwoy,Holmes odmitted. Porenls need lo listengenuinely totheir
doubtless fortunatelv I - enough 2 frankly
lee n o g e r 'sviewpoinl;' : :.' r- honestty 4 to my anno yance
,, :,n,,: . ,,' : ., .,-: ll,"- .,;Ondthey need no 5- 6-
surprisingly thank7-
lo berespectful,togoinlofherowocknowledging thottheirchild's to be8- honest to mye- astonishment
poinf ofviewisworthwhile.
Whichdiscourse markers indicate
thatthespeaker:
1 believestheyarebeingsincere?
Comparethesesentenceswith the sentencesin , in the 2 is surprised?
text. What structureis usedin the text to expressthe same 3 thinkssomething is probable
butnotcertain?
ideas?
4 approves of something?
1 P ar ent swho w a n tto b e c l o s eto th e i rte e n a g echi l dren 5 disapproves of something?
s houldac t ua l l yh a v ea ro wa d a y .
2 lt ' s v it alt hat co n fl i c tss h o u l db e h e a te d . FfiF{RI'Tf Recountan argumentthatyouoncehad,or
3 P ar ent sneedt o b e a b l eto m o d i fyth e i ro w n p osi ti oni n witnessed.Tryto usediscourse
markersto showthe attitude
t he t ightof wh a tth e i rc h i tdte l l sth e m . of the peoplewhowerearguing,
or yourattitudeasthe
witness.

Unit5. B at tl e s
Whatdoesthegraphbelowshow?Howdoesyourcountry 3 C anyou expl ai nthe motto,' D eedsnot w or ds''
compare Whatis yourreaction
withothers? to the statistics? put thei rcampaignor - I :
4 W hydi d the S uffragettes
in 1.91,4?
p la r lia m e n( sin
S h a roefw o m e inn n a tio n a ts g le /lo we
h oru se )
5 W hatw as strangeaboutthe posi ti onof w om enM Ps
50 lr97 zoot) between7978 and 1,928?
40
f) Z.Of R eadand l i stento the song.D oyou t hink t he song
v. )o i s anti -men?
W hy?/W hynot?S um up the me ssageof t he
20 song in a few words.
10
(hc Eurythmics)I
Sistcrsare doingit for themsclvee
0
Nou,ihere vus a tinrewhe-n
ihcy Lrse.d
io sa1
Complete thetextwithappropriate
words.Useoneword {hai behindeve.qgreaiman
onlyin eachgap. Thr.rehad 1obe a greatr^roman
,v.'-. Y 1\-j...ji.'".]:.l::.i:)!.))i1l'i].j'..-,:'a';\,.',,.ji:|li,:)li);(:jry!rc ;r,1-- -rlitiry:.*lr.!.\4v Lirrl rr lhrsltinresof change.
Fronr the middlt' of'the nineteenth YouKnow.lhatil's no \ongerlrue
(cntur\ nlan\ nomen cantlldened io lre're.romin' ollt of the Kifrhen
p c:tr tfr r lh t( , o l) ta in ' -
..1
ri ql rr 'Lart;r lhere'ssomeihin'\.,reforgolio bal to Jorr
to \-ote in British cler tions Ther
Wesay,sislersdre dlin' il for themselves
o r g a n ise dth e m sclr e sin lo groups.
)tandtn'on lheir owntwofael
h e ld r n cctir r g s,
scn t p e titi onsto
Parlianrent and tricd to persuade
Antlringin'on their ownbells
AaaDIii
0a IU5:! \IPs to ch:rngethe l:nl to enable Stslersare dori it Jor themselves
'- to r o te Ho u c rcr. tl rc Now,ihis ii a song\o co\obralo
-[hr conscioLrs libe.ralron
of the fema\es.late
Mothers,daughle.rs and ihe.rrdaughtars too
th e r ig h t o 1 ' r r o m cn to \I)tc t()()k $lonr:lr.tov,rolran,vre'rosingin'vrilh1ou
4
an Inll)()rl.lt)l Itr'\\ t1ilil.
The rnferrorrer hasgol a nou artaror I

vlf'vf rlol doctors,\aw1crs. po\iti.ian-a


ioo
t- ivtrybod1,taKaa looKaroLrnd
anc l P oliric i r Il I n i o n i n \ I a n t l r t' stcr
o-
th e lr r o tt( )' f) t' cd s r r o t uorcl s'.
Lan loLrsae., .rn JoLr$00,.an .iousee i
f'her net c r c l i ' n ' e c l ir sllic' Su fll- a s- e tte s' .' I' hPa
t-
e n kltr tr sts anclthei r t
sul)lx)rtersdcclared that rhe situ:rtion ,r,ra seriousthat ther uorrlcl There'sa womanrighl nexl io JoLr? I

;
h:nt' to pursut' extrenre ln(':rsrrr('sof civil disobedient t' 'l'he1'camparigned LItorLn
t-:rthierc
tirelesslr:rncl sonretinresriolenth their ainr: r haining Nov.rwe.aint nraKlnriories
thenrs ehe st o t h e r a i l i r r g so u t sid ePa r lia n r cllt.d isn r l) tin glr o litica ln r ct'ti rrgs And waaln'tla1in'p\ans
arrclcrt'n comrnitting ncts o1':rrson \lanr lorrrt'rr '- imprisorred an<I.
Donl loLrknowihal a mansti\\\ove.s
a wonran
* ht -t r (hc r \ r ( ' n t o n h u n s e r s tr ikc.r r t' r t' fir r ce - Ib dIn
. l9 l3 l) r r ih Davi son di ccl
to-. And a womanslr\\love.ra man
lirr the c:ruse. nt a hor sc r:rcc. slrt' rtrsheclout on to ur( ( ()rrrsczlnd
JLrslthe same
s t c ppedin l r o n t o l ' t l i e K i n g ' s lr o r sc.
11-
In lt ll-l t lr t ' I r i r s t\ \ i r r l c l \ \ a r l r .,,k.' In th c in tcr cstso l' n ati ol :rl
tt nit r t lie S u f i i : r g c t t c s t r s p c n d cdth e ir ca n r p a ig no f' d ir t- ctcir il :r ttion hrstt:rd FEI:fiTK[lfdWorkin pairs.Discussthe questions.Justifyyour
t'- opi ni ons.
thcv Ltrgccl\r'omen to t;rkt' orcr nrt-l's.jobs.,,, tht- nrerr r orrlclg<r
ancl {ight irt the rr':rr.\\irmen rrcrt' :rlrlt' to l)ro\rehorr indisltcnslble thcr rrcrc 1 S houtdhusbandsand w i vessharethe hou sewor k?
in the lielclsand arnr:rrrrcursf)rctorics 2 D o you thi nkschoolcl assesshoul dbe si ng le- sex
1 ]-
or
Ir r NI : rrrh 1 9 l B t h e g o \ c l l r r l l (' n Ig ,,r a iu tlr t' p r e ssu r ea. ncl1r:rssccl
:r mi xed?
l al gir irrg \ \ ( ) n l c n o v e l 3 0 t h c r ig lr t to r r r r e .L :r te r th a .t\c:lr - it
. a llo r rt-dnonrcn
3 W oul dyou prefera mal eor a femal eboss?
o rer 2 | t o b e ro n r t ' \ [ c n r l r e r s of Pa r lia tn t' r r t.llr t th e v still co L r lcL rr' totc i n
15- 4 W oul dyou empl oya manto l ookafteryourchild?
clc t 't irrnsif t h c r l e r c ' o - 3 0 1It ta ke a lL r th cl te lr \r':l rs t()
5 In w hat otherw aysaretherei nequal i ti es
bet weenm en
antend lhc :rge rlualilication an<l prrt nrt'n und \\'onren ()n an crlu:rl lirotine
and w omeni n yourcountry? W hydo suchi nequalit ies
exi st?U sethe i deasbel owto hetpyou.
Readthe text and answerthe questions.
di scri mi nate agai nstsb equalpayand condit ions
1 W hatwast he r es u l to f th e n i n e te e n th -c e n tucry
a mpai gnto
gl asscei l i ng materni tyl eave rol emod els
g a int he v ot ef or w o m e n ?
opportuni ti es for promoti on posi ti veac t ion
2 H owdid t he S uf f r a g e ttecsa' mp a i g nd i ffe rfro mth e
sexdi scri mi nati onsexi ststereotypi ng
met hodsus edbe fo re ?
i ( t n n n d e , r s t q n d q t t c i r , - , ', t !
Itfrry.w
. '. . . '. l t t l t , , t b a t r /. t t 1 1 1
,, . ,.
Wildlifewarrior
Workin pairs.Describewhat is happeningin the
photo.Why is the man actingin this way,do you think?What
d o you t hink of his b e h a v i o u r?

2 F{iElltKltrd Work in pairs.Answerthe questions.


1 Do y ou enjoywa tc h i n gw i td ti fep ro g ra mmeosn W ? W hat
d o/ don' ty ou lik ea b o u tth e m?
2 W out dy ou enioys e e i n ga s h o wti k eth e o n e i n th e photo
a t a wit dlif epar k?W h y ? /Wh n y o t?

, Readthe text, ignoringthe gaps.


1 Howdid SteveInrvindie?
2 Howdid he bec o meri c h ?
3 W hatbus ines sdi d h e ta k eo v e rw h e n h i s p a re n tsreti red?

4 MatchsentencesA-H with gaps 1-7 in the text.Thereis one


sentencethat you do not need.
A But the 44-year-old, who is believedto havesufferedan
i ns t antc ar diacarre s t,w a s p ro n o u n c e d e a db y m edi cal
s t af fat aboutno o nl o c a lti m e .
B l t ' s a s ham et hat a u d i e n c e n
s e e dth a t to b e a ttracted
to wit dt if e.
C A t t houghlr winw a s o n e o f A u s tra l i a ' mo
s s ts u c c e ssful
exports,he provokedmixedfeelingsat home.
D A t hem epar kf am o u sa ro u n dth e w o rl d ,i t h a sm o rethan
1 , 000anim alson 6 0 a c re so f b u s h l a n da n d e m p l oys360
p eopr e.
E H e appear edt o h a v en o fe a r.
F In s pit eof t his , lru v i n 'dse a thw a s re p o rte dw i d e tyi n the
pressand on W.
G lr r epr es s ibly
ebu tl i e n t,h e th ri v e do n h i s d e a th -d efyi ng
enc ount erwit s h w i tdti fe .
H He s im pt yc ouldn o t u n d e rs ta n w d h a tth e fu s sw asabout.

Answerthe questions.
1 W hywer epeoples u rp ri s e d th a t In ru i h
n a d b e e nki l tedby lN' Vocabulary
Builder5.2:Verb-noun p.133
collocations:
a stingray?
2 Howdid he r eactw h e n p e o p l ec ri ti c i s e dh i m fo r exposi ng 7 Explainthe meaning of thesesentences.
his babys ont o d a n g e r? 1 Stevelruvinwasa manin tunewithhissurroundings.
3 W hydid m anyA u s tra l i a nhsa v em i x e dfe e l i n g sa b outl rw i n? (tine3)
4 W hydid s om epe o p l eo b j e c tto In rv i n 'te
s levision 2 Nothing fazedhim.(line9)
pr ogr am m es ? 3 Andit was,perhaps, thatsenseof invulnerabitity
that
kittedhim.(line14)
6 Choosethe correctverbsto completethesecollocations 4 Animals werein lrwin'sblood.(tine33)
from the text and the sentencesin exercise4. 5 Hewasa natural showman. (tine61)
1 provoke/ sparkoff mixedfeelings 5 | getcalledan adrenalinejunkie.(line8a)
2 drop / shakeoff an image
3 take / makea risk 8 Workin pairs.Discuss
the questions. your
Justify
4 acquire/ take fameand fortune opinions.
5 l aughof f / laugha n i n c i d e n t 1 DoyouadmireStevelruin?
5 a nnounc e/ pr on o u n c e s o me b o d yd e a d 2 Doyouagree thatTVhasbecome 'gladiatorial
and
7 take out / take overa business voyeuristic'?
8 a dm inis t er/ is s u ea h e a rtm a s s a g e 3 Doyouagree that'somethingsin nature
shouldbe
9 create/ causepain leftalone'?

Unit5 . Batttes
Unlike most Australians,who shrink from the tropical he went too far, cradling his baby son, Bob, in one arm
sun and shudder at the dangerous creaturesthat while feeding a large, snapping crocodile with the other,
surround them, Stevelrwin was a man in tune with his there was an uproar and lrwin apologised. He later
surroundings.A true environmental warrior and lifelong insisted, however,that boy had been in no danger, and
animal rights advocate, he founded Wildlife Warriors in later interviewslaughed offthe incident. o! h was all
Worldwide, which protects habitat and wildlife, sets up about 'perceived danger' he said, claiming that 'in front
breeding and rescueprogrammesfor endangered species, of that crocodile I was in complete control, absolute and
and leads scientific researchto aid conservation. complete control.' One commentator blamed his death
Nothing fazed him - not the sharks or killer jellyfish, on the demands of an increasinglyvoyeuristic brand
nor the man-eating crocodiles, nor the dozens of of television.But lrwin was only doing what had come
snakesand spiders capable of delivering a fatal bite. For naturally. He was a natural showman. tl-l
lrwin, Australia'sanimalswere 'like a magnet',and he The British television presenter and survivalexpert, Ray
acquired fame, and considerablefortune, by getting up Mears, said his death proved that 'some things in nature
closeto them.1! And it was,perhaps,that senseof should be left alone'. He said of lrwin: 'He clearly took a
invulnerabilitythat killed him. lot of risks, and television encouraged him to do that.
uf]You leave
The warrior who wrestled crocodiles and handled dangerous animals alone becausethey
pythons without a scratch was diving in the warm waters will defend themselves.'Mears,too, condemnedsome
of Queensland'sGreat Barrier Reef when a stingray shot wildlife programmes as'voyeuristic',saying:'Television
its poisonous barb into his heart. According to a witness, has become very gladiatorial, and it's not healthy. The
lrwin swam too close to it. Triangular-shapedstingrays, voyeurism we are seeing on television has a cost, and it's
which glide through the water on their wide, flat bodies, that cost Stevelrwin's family are paying now.' However,
are usuallyplacid, lashingout with their long tails only scientistswho study stingrayssay that lrwin was extremely
when they feel threatened or are trodden on. lrwin was unlucky. Unprovoked attacks are virtually unheard of, and
believed to be only the third person killed by a stingray in although a stingray'svenom will cause agonising pain, it is
Australian waters. rarely fatal.
t!
lrwin, whose television show Crocodile Hunter made him tik" Kylie Minogue, he was not taken entirely
an international celebrity and a superstar in America, was seriously in Australia, and appeared to be more valued
filming an underwater sequencefor a documentary called abroad. Urban Aussieswant to shake off the image
Ocean's Deadliest at the remote Batt Reef. The crew of embodied by the brash,blond lrwin, and to havetheir
his boat called the emergencyservicesand administered modern,'multicultural nation portrayed overseasin
heart massageas they rushed to a nearby island to meet a rather more sophisticated fashion. Whatever one
a rescue helicopter. 'I thought of lrwin, his passionfor life could not be denied,
nor the 100 per cent enthusiasmthat he brought to
Animals were in lrwin's blood. At the age of six he was
everythinghe did. 'l get called an adrenalinejunkie
given a four-metre python for his birthday. When he
every other minute, and I'm just fine with that,' he once
was eight, his father, Bob, a plumber with a passion
remarked. On another occasion, he claimed never to have
for reptiles, moved the family from Melbourne to
experienced 'fear of losing my life'.
Queensland'sSunshineCoast, where they opened a
small wildlife park. By the time lrwin was nine, he was
catching crocodiles, and in his twenties he worked for the
Queenslandgovernment as a crocodile trapper, removing
problem animals from populated areas. In 1991, when
his parents retired, he took over the business- originally
called the Queensland Reptile and FaunaPark, and now
known as Australia Zoo - and developed it into a major
45 tourist attraction. 3|-l
lrwin told the ABC documentary: 'l've got animals so
genetically inside me that there's no way I could actually
be anything else.' Visitors came in droves to Australia
Zoo to watch lrwin hover perilously close to untethered
crocodiles, often leaping on to their backs. But in 2004

Unit5. Battles
cat L,tJedevlces
avaid repetitLon.

2 Readthe Learnthis!box,thencomplete the sentences usinga


1 6) 2.04 Readandlisten.Whatwordshavebeenmissed
reduced infinitiveanda verbfromthe boxin the correctform.
followingthewordsin redin the
out,or areunderstood,
lf morethanoneansweris possible, explainyourchoice.
dialogues?
be able hope intend notlike love want
notmean useto

1 'Doyouwantto join usfor a biteto eat?'


'Yes,l- .'
2 'YoubrokemynewMP3player!'
'Sorry, | -.'
3 'Did you gofora strollalongthebeach?'
'No,| - , butI wasfeeting a bit undertheweather.'
'l
4 think you shouldapologise to Jean.'
't_.'
5 'Doyouthinkyou'llgettheiob?'
't_.'
6 'YoucouldhaveaskedKateif she'dlendyouhercar.'
'l know,but | - . l'm alwaysaskingherforfavours.'
7 'l washopingto cometo yourleaving do,butI'mafraidI

8 'Davedoesn'trunas muchashe- .'


Mum Harry,canyouturnoffthecomputer now,please? () Z.OSComptetethe dialogues
with appropriate
auxiliary
Harry | don'twantto. or modalverbs.Sometimesyouneeda negativeverb.Then
Mum Haveyoudoneyourhomeworkyet? tistenandcheck.
Harry No,I haven't.
ButlwillwhenI'vefinished
thise-mai[.
Dad You'renotgoingoutdressed tikethat!
Fred HaveyoudrunkatltheCoke? Alice why'- l?
Lucy No,I haven't. Dad Because you'llfreeze to death.
Fred Wellsomeone has.Therewerea coupleof cansin Alice 12
-! ft isn'tthatcold.Andanyway altmyfriends
thefridge
thismorning. dress[ikethis.
3-
Lucy Goandbuysomemore. Dad Maybethey , butI insistthatyouputon
Fred Whyshouldl?| boughtthe lastlot! something warmer.

Dad Didyouremember to postthatletterforme? Mum Neil,willyoutidyup in thebathroom,please?


Salty Er...No,lforgot. Neil 14- .
Dad 0h,Satly!You promisedyouwould. Mum You5-.You've leftyourclothes
in a heapon
Salty I knowI did.I'msorry! the floor.

I SandraWho'spinched myhairdryer?
6r Ellipsis Cathy 16-. MaybeEllie7- .
S Weoftenleavewordsout in orderto avoidrepetition. t-.
SandraNo,she Sheneverusesone.
$ 1 Wecanuseto insteadof a wholeinfinitive
$ (a 'reduced
infinitive'),
or sometimesthewhote Cathy lfyoue-, youcanborrowmine.

Preparea dialoguein whicha parentanda teenager argue


aboutsomething.Avoidrepetition by including
a numberof
auxiliary
verbsandreduced infinitives.Useoneof the ideas
belowor chooseyour own.
1 an argument
abouttidiness
the pronunciation
3 In ellipsis of theauxiliary/modat 2 aboutstaying
an argument outlate
verbsandto is usuallystrong. 3 aboutschoolwork
an argument
4 aboutthetelevision
an argument
.s-\\ Grammar p.122
Builder5.2:Eltipsis:
Workin pairs.Actoutyourdialogueto the class,
payingattentionto the pronunciation.

U n i t 5 . Ba ttte s
-:qF
F -.-

L Presentation
I c a n .qtvea pruentqtl on

1 EiifflKNfd Workin pairs.Discuss


the questions. 3 6) z.og Listenagain.Add the phrasesthe speakersuse for
1 Whatdoesthegraphtellusaboutmilitary spending? What structuringtheir presentations
to the chartbelow.
isyourreaction
to thisinformation? C hangi ngthe subi ect
2 Lookat theposter. Howdo thearmedforces people
recruit I'll now turn to ...
in yourcountry? I' d now [i keto deal w i th...
3 Whatarethepeople in thephotodemonstratingagainst? 7_ 2_
Areproteststikethesegenerally Why?/Why
effective? not?
Acknowledging an opposingview
I freelyadmitthat ...
Globat
distribution
of military
expenditure Otherstake a differentview.
3_ 4_
D i smi ssi ng
an opposi ngvi ew
I don' tacceptthere' sany meri ti n the argumentthat . . .
I entirelyrejectthe notionthat ...
5_ 6_
Referringto somethingsaid earlier
Returning to (the issueof ... /the point about ...)
To restatethe main argument,...
7_ 8_
Yri$
J8ltr c0llt{TfiY'$
A$il'fr
G{\tr s,llt:'ltll:l t(l{g 4 Completethe sentenceswith the correctform of the wordsin
the box.

defend destroy eradicate have spend too much

povertythroughheal thand educati onwouldm ean

rrN
,t/ r(,
warswouldn'tbe necessary.
2 E veryone shoul dbe abl e thei rcountry.
3 a si ngl egl obaIsuperpow eri s saferthan having
tw o or three.
Thereare morei mportantthi ngsfor youngpeo ple
thei rti me on.
pow eri n the handsof a si ngl estatei s a
dangerous thi ng.
6 E veni f al l w eapons therew oul dsti tlb e disease
a presentation
Giving and poverty.
1 Presentyourstrongestargumentfirst. Matchthe sentencesin exercise4 with the statements
2 Acknowtedge viewandthengivea counter-
theopposing below.Whichare argumentsfor the statements,and which
argument yourownopinion.
or restate are argumentsagainst?
3 Whenyouarethinkingwhatto saynext,usefillers.
a N ati onalS ervi ceshoul dbe compul sory.
4 Whenyoudon'tknowtheEnglish forsomething,tryto
paraphrase. b' E verycountryshoul dreducemi l i taryspendi ngand spend
Tryto the moneyi nsteadon humani tari an causes.
5 Lookat theexaminer andspeakloudlyandctearly.
c The USAposesthe biggestthreatto world peace.
soundconfident.
6 Workin pairs.Chooseone of statementsa-c above.Decide
$ z.Oe Readthespeaking tip andthetaskbelow.Thenlisten if you agreeor disagreeand brainstormtwo or three
to twostudents
doingthetaskandanswer thequestions. addi ti onaIargumentsto supportyouropi ni on.Includeat
1 Towhatextentdo thespeakers fotlowtheadvice? leastone opposingargument.Make notes.
2 Whicharguments doyoufindthemostpersuasive? Why?
Giveyour presentationto the class.Speak
'Tobe a pacifistis to be a coward.'Do you agreeor for a maximumof three minutes.Followthe advicein the
d i sagr ee? y o u ro p i n i o n ,g i v i n ga rg u me n ts
P r es ent speakingtip and use someof the phrasesin exercise3.
to su ppor yt ourv iew .Sp e a kfo r a ma x i mu mo f th re e
.ninutes.

Unit5. Battles
I can v^,ri tean qrtl cLe
cl escri btnj.taw teane
I adnti re

thisquotation
Explain Doyouagreewith
aboutadmiration. Readthe article.Findpassages
wherethewriterhas:
it?Why?/Whynot? 1 addressed thereader.
2 useda rhetoricaIquestion.
We alwayslove those who admire us, but we
3 used:(a)a chatty,personal
style(b)a moreformatstyle.
do not alwayslove those whom we admire.
Topof the listof peopleI
greatlyadmirecomesmygreat-
frandfather, who,at the age
of 97,i s sti l ll i vi nga ful land
Whenwritingan article, it is importantto consider activelife.If youwereto meet
1 thetargetaudience, i.e.whoyouarewritingfor. hi m,youw oul dn'bel t i evehe' sonl y
2 the purpose of the article(e.g.to entertain,
to persuade, threeyearsshortof a hundred
to inform,etc). Throughout hi sl onf l i fehehas
3 theappropriate style(e.g.format,informal,'chatty'and battledaSainst adversity and
personal;theuseof headings, bulletpoints,etc.). misfortuneHelostbothhisparents
beforehistwelfthbirthday, andontop of that hiselderbrother
di edi n the Fi rstW orl dW arA sa youngmani n the 1950s hewas
Readthewritingtip andthetaskbelow.Whatis thetarget outofw orkfor l ongperi ods andreal l ystruggl et d o supporhis t
Whatis the purpose
audience? of the article?
Whatstyle youngfami l y. Then, j ustasthi nS sbegan t0 go bet t erf or him ,he
wouldbe mostappropriate? w ascal l edupto fi ghti n theS econd W orl dW ar Hejoinedt heRAF
andw asshotdow noverFrance i n 1944N otonl ywashebadly
Someone ladmire i nj ured, buthew asal socaptured andspentthe r estof t hewar in
Writean articte
aboutsomeone youadmire. lt couldbe a prisoner-of-war campAfterthewar,he opened a smallgarage,
someone youknowpersonally or a publicfigure. doi ngrepai rsandservi ci nf, andsel l i ngsecond - hand car s,and
r Includeinformation
abouttheirlife. throu$hsheerhardw orkbui l ti t up i ntoa successfbusiness ul
o Include H ow ever, thebusi ness ran i ntodi ffi cul ti es
duri n ga r ecession and
information
abouttheirachievements.
. Explain hewentbankruot
whyyouadmire them.
A l lthi sw asl ongbeforel w asborn,of courseB utwhat 'sher eally
willbe published
Thethreebestarticles in theschool likeas a person? Intheyearsthat I haveknownhimhe hasshown
magazine nextmonth. othergreatqual i ti es besi des thecounage anddet er m inat ionwhich
hel ped hi mthrough thedi ffi cultitmesH e' ski nd,willingt 0 list en
Theopeningof the articleshouldgrabthe reader's
attention andoffera wordof advice - but he neverforcesit on you What's
anddrawthemin.Whichof theseopenings worksleastwell? more,he'sgreatfunto bewithandverywitty
why? He'soneof thewisestandmosttolerantpeopleI know,andl'm
veryluckyto havehimas mygreat-grandfather
-fh&re are a number of puple I advwire' but
An articleneedsa good title. Choosethe best title for the
@ ow perslw stands lut frow aLIthe othzrs' articlein exercise4.
1 A long life 4 My great-grandfather
?alieace, wisAo^ an/ 3n9rosity are three 2 A [ovelyold man 5 S omeoneI adm ir e
@ +(ali+ies th a t I va l*e Sr g a ily, a n J - y 3 Batttingagainstadversity
{rienJ S*San haS all +hree i^ ab*nJance.
In the article,findtwoof the nounsin the boxandthree
adjectives formedfromnounsin the box.
peyso,tlT adnire y,uosfis mT e!.der brtlla"er,
6y
v {osepr". altruism amiabititycharm couragedetermination
He,sa rea!.16 adnirabd perso+..
devotion generosityhonesty intelligenceloyalty
patience reliabititysensitivitysinceritytolerance
trustworthinesswisdom wit
lf .there'tongPersonthai embodies
a\\ that I
@ admirain a humanbeing,ii's m1Aunt Linda Formadjectives
fromall the othernounsin the box.

oN Vocabulary (1):p.134
Builder5.3:Wordformation

_ What makesus admirepeople?Often it is Workin pairs.Makea listof fivewell-known


@ beca.use
theyhaveadmirablb
qriiiiirr'-iirn peoplewhomyouadmire. Whatarethe qualities and
wedon't ourselves
possess. achievements thatyoufindadmirable?Usethenounsand
adjectives
in exercises
6 andTto helpyou.

Unit5. Batttes
,/
"-..|Q

i cqn \rilt "tri trticlt


, , J c ; c r i b i t t t t J a t y a L t i ( | i t t 't i t i r t

Lookat the pictures.


Whatachievements arethe people .l akehasgot both a greatsenseof humourand gr eatdeal
famousfor?Whatdifficulties
did theyhaveto overcome? of charm.
In addi ti onto
My grandmother l ookedafterfi ve chi l drenand she looked
afterher ow n si ckmother.
My grandmother prus
7 Peteownsa fl at i n Londonas w el las a housein t he
country.
Apartfrom

Readthe task.Planan article,makingnotesfor the sections


below.

Heroes
W ri tean arti cl eaboutsomeoneyou admi rebecauset hey
haveovercome adversi ty.l t coul dbe someoneyou know
personal lory a publ i cfi gure.
EmmelinePankhurst r D escri bethe probl emstheyfaced.
. D escri bethe qual i ti esthey havethat maketh em specia[ .
Ch e ckt he m eaningof th e w o rd sa n d p h ra s e su s e dto Thethreebestarti cl esw i tt be oubti shedi n the school
expressadditionin the Learnthis! box.Whichtwo wouldyou magazi ne
nextmonth.
only expectto see in a formalcontext?Findfour more in the
a rti cl eon page55 and p u t th e m i n th e c o rre c p
t l a c ei n the
Learnthis! box. Openingparagraph:(lntroduce
thetopic.Grabthe readers'
attention. to thequestion,
Refer butdo notcopyit.)
L i n k er sf or addit io n Mainpart:(Adversities
thattheyhaveovercomeandthe
personal
qualities
thatmakethemspecial- oneor two
a l ongs ide besides, ... paragra
phs.)
a l ongwit h furthermore (Briefly
Finalparagraph: sumup.)
apartfrom ...intothebargain
a s w e[ [as moreover Workin pairs.
1 2
1 Lookat yourpartner'snotesfromexercise
4 andwrite
i n addit iont o ...to b o o t downat leastthreequestions whichyou'dliketo ask
prus 3
abouttheperson.
2 Askyourpartnerthequestions younoteddown.
apartfrom b o th ...a n d ... 3 Useyouranswers to yourpartner's
questionsto addmore
a s w ell as 4 to yourarticleplan.
details
b e s ides
Thinkof a goodtitleforyourarticle.
i n a ddit iont o

. Writea first draftof the article.Writebetween200-250


Vocabulary
Builder (1):p.134
5.4:Linkers
wordsfo[[owing yourplan.
Complete thesecondsentence
sothatit means
thesameas yourworkusingthe list below.
Check
thefirst.
1 Wendy isverydetermined
andshe'salsoveryambitious.
Be s ides Haveyou
He n r yt r av elledup t h e A m a z o na, n d s o m eo f h i s fri e nds
I the plancorrectly?
fottowea
w e n twit h him .
ilenry ! writtenthecorrect
numberof words?
a to n gw i th
3 L i a mis a f ine paint e ra n d h e ' sa g o o dp i a n i s tto o . I grabbed in thefirstparagraph?
thereaders'attention
Liam to boot. I usedsomelinkers foraddition?
4 My mum hasa f ull- t i mei o b a n d d o e sa [[th e h o u s e w ork. checked andgrammar?
thespetting
!
My mum a sw e l la s

Unit 5 " -i
EHn 5
Wo rki n p a i rs .An s w e rth e q uesti ons. oarentale-in homework hasbeenshown10
1 Hav ey ou ev erw i tn e s s e do, r h e a rda b o u t,a ro a drage the strongest of bettergrades.
predictor Reportauthor
W hath a p p e n e d ?
inc ident ? DrSusanHallamsaid:'Parents havethe mostoositive
2 Doy ou ev err oww i th a n y o n e ? W h a td o y o u a rgueabout? influencewhenthegoffermoralsupport, make
appropriateresourcesavailableanddiscussgeneral
2 Do the Speakingexamtask. issues.Thegshouldonlgactuallg helpwithhomework
whentheirchildren askthemto.'
specificallg
l A atmosohereB mood C atti tude
Com par eand c on tra s th t e p h o to s .W h y a re th e p e opl e D cl i mate
do
a rguing, y ou t h i n k ? 2A w hi l e B eventhough C supp osing D if
3A damage B i nl ury C destr uct ionDhur t
4A exceed B overbal anceC outweigh
D r nm nen<:tp fnr

5A bri ng B do C make D grow


5A proceed B deri ve C ri se D ar ise
7A go w i thout B mi ss C tack
D are depri vedof
8A ameno B adapt refi ne
D convert
9A i nvol vementB contri buti on col l a bor at ion
D connecti on
10A bei ng B havi ngbeen as b eing D t o be

Do you knowwhy the year 1066 is


W or kin pair s .A s k a n d a n s w e rth e q u e s ti o n s . i mportanti n B ri ti shhi story?
1 Canr owsbe be n e fi c i a lWh? y ? /Wh yn o t?
2 W hat ' st he bes tw a yo f a v o i d i n gfa mi l yro w s ? 6 O z.oz D o the Li steni ngexamtask.

4 Do the Useof Englishexamtask.

Li stento the radi oprogramme. D eci dew h et hert he


i nformati oni n eachsentence(1-7) i s true,f alseor not
Choosethe bestword or phrase(A-D) to completeeach stated.
g ap. TrueFalseNotstated
1 E veryone i n B ri tai nknow sw hat
'Homework
at rootof mangfamilgarguments' h a p p e n in
e d1 0 6 6 . I tr I
Homework cancausefrictionbetween oarentsand 2 In hi storyl essonschi l drenhaveto
children, in middle-class
espec iallg familieswhere learn
toomany
dates. tr tr tr
concerns abouta child'sfuturecanleadto a dangerous 3 N o countryhas i nvadedB ri tai n
t- of pressureto succeed,according to a recent since1o66. tr I I
report.Homework canalsocreateanxietg, boredom, 4 S omepeopl ethi nkthat the E ngti sh
fatigueandemotional exhaustionin children,
whoresent C hannelhasdefendedthe country
theencroachment on theirfreetime,'- thegthink fr ominvasion.
homework helpsthemdowellat school. Theresulting
tr I I
J t(.u t\hr ros p
noe rr ocrn f- ' ' fg la ll0 n Sn lp L 5 Otherbattl eshavechanqed hi storv
-H asti ngs to
r re- u
' h llO m a U. -
the extentthat B attteof di d. t r I I
angeducational advantage homework mag'-,
6 TheN ormansystemof government
the Institute
claimed. Thereportfoundthatproblems
canu- whenparents try to helpwithhomework, w as superi orto the A ngl o-S axon model. I E tr
7 A fter 1066, the w hol e popul ati on
of
especiallgwhenthegfeeltheg'-the knowledge
orthetime.Parents maginhibittheirchildren's B ri tai nw as forcedto speakFrench. I I tr
effectiveness in doinghomework bgtrgingto control
the homework environment - tellingchildren whenand
whereto do homework ortrgingto eliminate distractions
- insteadof helping them"- it to suittheirlearning
stgles,the bodgsaid.0n the plusside,the reportsaid,
T HIS UI{ I T I NCT UDE S
Yocabutary . synonyms of predict. expressions "for plansand predictions. adjective-adverb/verb-noun
: r o c a t i o n s . d e p e n d e n tp re p o si ti o ns( 2) .r egister .collocationswithsleep.synony m s ofpr i z e
. lioms for expressing ioy . concession and counter-argument . reporting
verbs
66mmar. talkingaboutthe future. phrasalverbs:particles andtheirmeanings . reporting
structures
+aking . tatkingaboutpersonal ambitions. talkingaboutsleepand dreams. talkingaboutthe EU
. : no t o c o m p a nso n
friting . 3 519O

1 can tpecuLqteand ntake


predLcttowabout the fut ure.
Lool<ing
intothefuture
11 ... achievemy - (o/+ gerund)
12 | hope| - i n (+ gerund)
13 | may towardsthat.
14 | don' tseethat happeni ngi n the - futu r e.
15 I' l tbe i n a better-to... (+ baseform)

. ' GrammarB ui l der6.1:Tatki ngaboutthe fu t ur e:p. 122

4 Wheredo you seeyourselfin ten years'time?Make notes


undertheseheadi ngs.

1 Workin pairs.Describe
the photoandanswer Studywhat?Where? What?Where?
thequestions.
1 Whatdoesthewomando? Yesor no?When? Where?
Whattype?
2 Haveyoueverhadyourfortunetold?lf not,wouldyoulike Howmany?
to?Why?/Why not?
3 Whydo peopte wantto knowtheirfuture?
4 Doyouthinkit is possible
to predict
thefuture? Whereto? How important?
5 Do youknowanyfamous prophecies?Didtheycometrue?
Workin pairs.Makepredictions
aboutyour
o* Vocabulary of predict:p.735
Builder6.1:Synonyms
partner's
future.
2 O 2.08 Listento sixteenagersanswering the question: 6 Workin pairs.Lookat eachother'snotesin exercise
4 and
Wheredo youseeyourselfin tenyeors'time?Answer the
asksomequestions aboutthe predictions.
Addyouranswers
questions.
Givereasons foryouranswers. to yournotes.
1 Whohasthemost/least interesting
ambitions?
2 Whois themost/least about
optimistic futfilting
their
ambitions?
3 Doyouhavesimilar to anyof thespeakers?
ambitions 7 Prepare
to presentyour
ideasusingsomeofthe expressions
3 in exercise
3 andthe boxbelow.
O 2.08 Comptete withthewordsin the
the expressions
box.Thenlistenagainandcheck. Expressing doubtanduncertainty
come counting determinedeverythingforeseeable It'sdifficuttto say,really.
fulfit goaI hopes likely myself position realise I guessI'll...
sights succeedwork | (don't)suppose I'll .../l (don't)imagineI'tl...
I would(n't) saythat...
1 | thinkit's- that... I doubtif I'tl...
2 | can(not) see- (+gerund) It'suntikely thatI'tl...
3 I'vesetmy- on (+noun) Assuming that...
4 I'mnot- on it. I may/might well...
5 Assuming that| - myambition... It depends whether/how/what, etc....
It'sanyone's guesswhat/when/where, etc....
5 lf myplans- to nothing,
...
I couldgoin a number of directions.
7 I'm- to (+ baseform)
8 I'llgiveit - I'vegot.
8 Workwitha differentpartner.
Tellhimor her
9 - my dream (o/+gerund)
you
aboutwhere see yourselfin tenyears
fromnow.
10 I'm(not)pinning my- on (noun/gerund)

U ni t6. Dr eam s
I can taLk qbaut the
sLgnifi.canreaf drearnt
Themeaning
of dreams

life?
thisquestionin pairs:Howdo dreamsdifferfromreal
Discuss 5
Ul
Phrasalverbs: particles
andtheirmeanings
E Particles oftenadda specificmeaning to a phrasalverb.
the bestword(a-d)to complete
Choose eachgap. Mostparticles havemorethanonemeaning.
c,
-
<i back= 1 repeating2 lookingintothe past
BI
Thesecretary readtheletterbacktoher boss.
Have youever1_ whywe
Thisbuildingdatesbackto1650.
dream? lt seems suchaneasy down= 1 recordin writing 2 reducing
question, butit isverydifficult to I jotted downthephonenumberon a scrapof poper.
answer. Mostscientists agree Waittillyour coffeecoolsdown.
thatwedon'tyetknow what off : l departing 2 ending
purpose dreams 2_. Given Thethievesmadeoff withf 1 millionin cash.
Sambrokeoff hisengagement to Tilly.
theamount oftimewespendin
on= 1 continuing2 attacking
a dreaming'_, thismayat My bossdronedon for agesat the meeting.
firstseem baffling.However, it Pickon someoneyourownsize!
isn'treally when
surprising we out= 1 disappearing 2 solving,searching
consider thatscience isstill4 Dinosaurs diedout about60 millionyearsogo.
theexact purpose andfunction I couldjust makeouta ship on thehorizon.
over=l visiting 2 considering, examining
ofsleep itself.
Scientists haveputfonvard a number.of theories
as
Let'spop overto Jamie's.
towhywedream, butasyetno u_ consensus hasemerged. Alwayslookoveryour workbeforeyou hand it in.
Some experts areoftheopinion thatinalllikelihooddreaminghas up:lapproach 2improve
norealpurpose. Theymaintain thatsleep probably hasa biological Don'tcreepup on me likethat!
function(allowing thebodyandbrain torecuperate), butthatdreaming I'm going to eveningclossesto brushup my French.
ismerely a mental u_, nothing buta sequence ofimagesand
Studythe Learnthis! box.Thencompletethesesentences
feelingsexperienced '_sleeping. Other scientists,
ontheother fromthe listeningwiththe particles
in the box.Which
hand, believe thatdreaming isessentialtomental, emotionaland meanings in theLeornthrslboxdo the particles
convey,
! or 2?
physicalwell-being. Theysuggest thatdreams are8_ triggered by
back down off on out over up
thefeelings weexperience while weareawake, suchasfear,anger
orlove. Thisiswhydreams aremore frequent andintense following 1 | remember thewolfcoming to thehouse.
powerful emotional experiences, especiallystressful 2 I'venevertriedto work- whatit means,though.
ortraumaticones.
3 | throwmyselffonvardandI take
According tothistheory, suchdreams allow themindtomake senseof 4 Soin orderto carry- flying,I haveto believeI can
theemotional experiences, n_ suggests thattheyhelpusbothto ftv.
reduce thedistress caused bythehauma, andtocopebetter iffurther 5 Graduatly I calm- .
traumatic orstressful events occur. 6 Mostlymydreamsarejusta rehashof eventsof the day,
coming in muddtedform.
7 lt'squiteamusing sometimes to go- thedreamin
1 awondered bthought cspeculateddreflected
yourownhead.
2 a serve b carryout c complete d do
3 acondition bcircumstancecposition dstate os Builder
Grammar 6.2:Particles
andtheirmeanings:
4 aunwinding bunravelling cseparatingduntying p.123
5 asingle bsole csingular dsotitary
6 aact bactivity caction dprocedure Workwitha partner.Discuss thesequestions.
7 aon bin cduring dwhite Tryto usesomephrasal verbsin youranswers.
8 asomewhat bsomehow canyhow danyway 1 Howoftendo youdream? Doyouoftenremember your
9 athis band cthat dwhich
dreams? Doyouhaverecurring dreams?Whathappens?
2 Doyouthinkyourdreams cante[[youanythingaboutyour
3 f| Z.OeListento threepeopletatkingaboutdreams.
Answerthe questions in yourownwords. truestateof mind?lf so,what?
3 Doyoubelieve thatdreamscanforetellthe future?Why?/
1 Howdid Belinda's dreamrelateto herlife?
Whynot?
2 In hisdream,whatmakesHarryableto fly?
4 Haveanyof yourdreams evercometrue?lf so,what
3 Accordingto Christine,whatfunction
do dreams
serve?
happened?

Unit5 . Dreams
I tarr Lrndcrstatul and rcact
1a .u' ,.:,1:.l c,tbattlS al tl i r" ,

Testyourknowledge of the EU.Trythe quiz,thenreadthe


textandcheckyour answers.
1 Inwhichdecade wastheorganisation thatwasto become
the EUformed?
2 Canyounamethreeof thesixoriginal members?
Drigins and growth 3 Howmanymember statesaretherenow?
: --:e aftermath of the 4 In whichtwocitiesdoestheEurooean Parliament
meet?
:r:-.nd lVorld War, some
:': -:ical leadersin Western
Complete words.Useoneword
thetextwithappropriate
:::ope believed that the
onlyin eachgap.
::--, -- to avoid war
=.: conflict in the future
Readthetextandexplainin yourownwords:
. .Li to unite the countries of theEUhopedthatit wouldachieve.
1 whatthefounders
-r Europe in an economicand political union. So, in 1952 six 2 what'pooling
sovereignty'means.
:-''.:ntries - France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands 3 howtheEuropeanCommission, of theEUand
theCounciI
r-l Luxembourg - formed '- was to evolve into the theEuropeanParliamentaremadeup,andwhattheir
:-:ropean Union (EU). Since then ut-21 countries have rolesare.
,::ned the organisation, bringing the total population of the EU fear.
4 whatEurosceotics
:-- over 500 million.
Findthesenounsin thetextandcomplete
thecollocations
How does it work? withthe correct
verbs.
o-
.he EU is not a federation the United States.The
I - an organisation 5 - an el e ct ion
=ember states of the EU remain independent sovereign nations
2 -powers 6 -benefi ts
:ui they pool their sovereignty in certain areas of policy. Pooling
t- 3 - newlegislation 7 - peaceand st abit it y
:overeignty means, practice, that the member states
4 -alaw 8 - control
.ieiegate some of their decision-making powers to shared
nstitutions they have created, so that decisions "- specific fromthetextwith prepositions.
thesephrases
Complete
:natters of joint interest can be made democratically at European
1 evolve 2 consist 3 vote
level.
The three main decision-making instifutions are: as Vocabulary prepositions:
Builder6.2:Dependent p.135
. the EuropeanCommission,consisting of 27 commissioners, one
chosen by each member state. The role of the Commission is O z.f o Listento fourpeopletalkingaboutthe EU.Match
to propose new legislation, but it cannot pass IawsT- eachspeakerwithonebenefit(a-d)andonedrawback
itself. (e-h).
. the Council of the EU, consisting of one govemment minister Speakerl
I tr Speaker3! T
from each country. The Council is the EU's main decision-
making body. It votes on legislation proposed by the
Speaker2
I tr Speaker+[ T
Commission. Benefitsof the EU
. the EuropeanParliament,based in Brussels and Strasbourg, and a TheEUgivesEuropean countries a voicein worldaffairs.
consisting of 785 MEPs directly elected by the citizens of the b TheEUhasmadeit mucheasier to travelaroundEurope.
EU. Elections are held 8- five years. Like the Council, c TheEuropean is a realsuccess.
singlemarket
the Parliament votes on and passeslaws proposed by the d TheEUprovides economicaidto thepoorer regions
Commission. of Eurooe.
Controversy Drowbocksof the EU
The British have a very uneasy relationship with the EU. e TheEUshouldleavemoredecisions to national
British Europhiles claim that the EU continues to bring govern
ments.
tangible economic and political benefits to the UK, and that andmanyof thelawsit passes
f TheEUis over-bureaucratic
it has delivered peace and stability to Europe for over half a areunnecessary.
century. Eurosceptics,however, who are probably e- a g Thefreemovement problems.
of labourhascreated
majority in the UK, are concerned about the direction the EU is h TheEUis undemocratic.
taking. They believe that it is fundamentally undemocratic and
unaccountable, and maintain that the real aim of the EU is to
Discuss 5 anddecide
in exercise
thestatements
create an enormous federal state in which individual member
if youagreeor disagree youropinions.
withthem.Justify
states will exerciselittle controi 10- their own affairs. )) Discuss
theEUat www.europa.eu/debateeurope

U ni t6. D r- ea^':
I cart nnderstandard react la c,n
adtcLc abc^t the tntpartancecf sleep
Sleep-deprived
teenagers
1 Workin pairs.Describe the photos.Thenaskand
answerthesequestions.
1 Whattimedo youusually goto bed?
Letsleepingleenqgerslie
2 Doyouhavea computer or a TVin yourbedroom? Why is it thot mony teenogers hove the energy to ploy
3 Doyougo straight to sleep?lf not,whatdo youdo? computer gomes untillote ot night but con't find the
4 Doyoueverlie in at weekends? Untitwhattime? energy to get oul of bed in time for school?According
to q new report, todoy's generotion of children ore in
2 neadthe text.Whichexplanation notgetting
for teenagers donger of getting so little sleep thot they ore putiing
enoughsleepdoesthewriterfavour? theirmentol ond physicolheolth ot risk.Adultscon eosily
1 Teenagers think they catchup with sleepat weekends. surviveon sevento eight hours'sleepo night,whereos
s ' e sd o n o t p ro d u c ea h o rmo n ethat makes
2 T eenager bodi teenogersrequirenine or ten hours.According to medicol
t hem s leepyunt i l th ee a rl yh o u rso f th e mo rn i n g. experts,one in five youngstersgets onything between two
Teenagers engagein [ate-nightactivitiessuchas playing
IO ond five hours'sleepo night lessthon theirporentsdid ot
theiroge.
c om put ergam e sa n d w a tc h i n gW i n s te a do f g o i ngstrai ght
to s t eep. Thisroisesseriousquestionsobout whether lock of sleep
is offecfing children'sobility to concentrote of school:
3 Answerthe questions. The connection between sleep deprivotion ond lopsesin
7 In whattwowayscanlackof sleepaffectteenagers? t5 memory, impoired reoction time ond poor concentrotion
2 Whydo someexperts believe
thatactivities
suchas iswell estoblished.Reseorchhos shown thot losingqs little
ptayingcomputer gamesbeforebedaremoreliketyto os hqlf on hour'ssleepo night con hove profoundeffects
prevent fromsleeping on how childrenperformthe next doy. A good night's
teenagers thanreading a book?
sleep is olso cruciol for teenogers becouse it is while they
Whatevidence doesthewriterproduce to supporthis/
ore osleep thot they releoseo horrnone thot is essentiol
herviewthatit is normalforteenagersto goto sleeplater
for their 'growth spurt' (the period during teenoge yeors
thanadults?
when the body growsot o ropid role). lt's true thot they
4 Scanthetextandunderline
all the examples
of the noun con to some extent cotch up on sleepof weekends,but
sleep.Lookat the wordss/eepcollocates thot won't help ihem when they ore dropping off to sleep
with in the text.
in closson o Fridoyofternoon.
Howmanyof the collocations canyoufindin the extract
from the OxfordCollocations
Dictionary? So why qren't teenogersgetting enough sleep?Some
expertssuggestthe presence of televisions,computers
sleep noun
ond mobile phonesin children'sbedroomsmoy be to
1 conditionof rest
blome. Insteodof reoding o book ot bedtime,children
rof deepI fightI much-needed
o lhr olJto bedforsome
much-needed- | adequate I REM ore going to theirroom ond ployingcomputer gomes,
vrRB + srErp drift into, drift off to, drop off to, fall back to
surfingthe web, textingond messoging,or wotching
\AnA, get to, go to o Shc turned over and went back to - |
cry yourself to I cat(h, get, snatch o Closyour eyesand get television.As these new childhood pre-sleepoctivities
.some r norv. o I snatched a few hours' - in the afternoon I
need I survive on o They seem to suruive on only o Jew
hove become more widespreod, so more troditionol
hours' - a night I induce, promote o They use drugs to ones such os reoding hove declined.Dr LuciWiggs,o
induce - | full sb to, send sb to o The quiet muslc soon sent
her to - | drift in and out of o He drifted in and out of - aII
reseorchfellow qt Oxford University's Sectionof Child ond
nrght I fose (often figurative) o Don't lose - over it-we'Il sort AdolescentPsychiotry soid, 'One
everything out tn the morning. I disrupt, disturb, interrupt
I catch up on o I used Sarurday to catch up on my -. I leign
of the problemswith these
o I fetgned - u,hen the nu se came around pre-sleepoctivitiesis thot
stttP + vtRB Come o Slecp come to her in snafches. I
overcome sb, overtake sb o SLeepfinally overtook me.
they ore unstructured,
srIrp + NouN cycle, pattern, schedule (esp.AmO I i.e.they do not hove
deprivation, loss I disorder I apnoea/apnea I aid (esp
AmE) o the nofronls nrosr comntonly prescrtbed - aid cleorly defined stort
enre during q ond end times.'
- o d,ecrcused heart rate during - | in your
-
o He often rvalks cnd talks in his -
p HR A srsa fa ck o f o l was sulfer ingfr om aLack of- | a Shewent on.
-
wink of - o I A,on't get a wtnk of - with that noise 'Thisis the first
do rrns fd ir.s
2 period of sleep
generotionof
nol long I little, short I dead, deep, heavy,sound I childrento foce
uninte.rupted I good, restful I light I disturbed, such o plethoro
exhausted,fitful, restless,troubled, uneasyo I wokeup
earlyafteradisturbed .. I dreamless,peacefulI drunken I of olternotives
beauty o Sorry,but I needmy beaury- to going to sleep
v t R B* s r t t p n e e d I h a ve cDidyo u h a vea g o o d - ? I b e in o /
wasin a deep- whenthephonerzng I drift into, fall into, ond the long-term
sink into o I immediatelyfeII into a dead.-.. I awake (sb) consequencesin terms
from. awaken(sb)from, wake (sb)from o He wokeJrom a
fitful - with a head.ache
pH R ^ s ra5 g o o d ,p o o r ,e tc. n ig h t' s- o Yo u ' IIfe e lb e tte r r
tJte
a gooclni.ghts-

Unit6 . Dreams
Usethe examplesin the dictionaryentryto help you identify
w hi chcol l ocati ons
havemeani ngs1-5.
1 w orryaboutsomethi ng w i th the resul tthatyou ar en'table
to sl eep
2 get a l i tttesteepi n a shortavai l abl e
ti me,usuallydur ing
the day
3 whileyou are sleeping(tvvophrases)
4 makesomebodygo to sl eep
5 pretendto be asl eep

6 Completethe sentenceswith collocationsof sleepfrom the


dictionary.Sometimesmorethan one answeris possible.
1 Themomenther headtouchedthe oi l l owsh e- int o
a doon <loon

2 Teenagers havedifferentsleep from adults.


:' o h vs ic olqnd m ent olh e o l thfo r b o th th e c h i l do n d 3 A fterspl i tti ngup w i th her boyfri end,
shew e nt hom eand
--e i rfo m ilyc on only be g u e s s e do t. Wh o t w e d o k n o w i s herselto f sl eep.
--ct impoiredsleepquoliiyor quontitymoy compromise 4 l ' m goi ngto get an earl yni ght.I needto - on
:-i l d re n ' sphy s ic olheol th ,o c o d e m i c o c h i e v e m e n tso n d my sreep.
--e n to lheolt h. ' 5 H e dranka w hol ebottl eof w i neand fel l i nto a -
;eseorch hos shownthot teenogershove differentsleep steeo.
::tte rn s f r omy oungerc h i l d re no n d o d u l ts A . ti mi n g 5 | w okeat 3 a.m.and coul dn' t to sl eepf or ages.
--echonismin the broin reguloiesour bodilyfunctions S l eepfi natty me at aboutfi veo' cl oc k.
- .er o 24-hourperiod.At night,the heort rote folls,blood
:'essureis loweredond urineceosesto be oroduced. 7 Matchthesewordswith the moreformalequivalentsin red
''.-en the sun rises,fhe body beginsto woke up. One in the text.
^-co rto ntc honge t hot o c c u rso t n i g h iti m e i si n c re o sed 1 need (v) 5 happen
=. e 1 so f t he ' dor k nes hs o rm o n e 'me l o to n i nw, h i c h h e l ps 2 a bi g i mpact 6 a verylargenumber
- -o foll osleep. Most odults stori io produce melotonin 3 control(v) 7 stop
:- cb o ui l0 p. m . W hente e n o g e rsw e re s tu d i e di n o 4 carryout
=ep loborotory,reseorchers discoveredthot they only
::Jo n t o pr oduc et he h o rm o n eo f I o .m . l t i s p o s s i b l e o...tl Vocabutary p.135
Builder6.3:Register:
-- :' thisdeloy in melotoninproductioniscoused by
--: behqviourof teenogers.Ployingwith electronic I tri]:lTKnfdWorkin pairs.Answer the questions.
Give
;::gets lqte ot night stimulotes the broin ond exposes reasons foryouranswers.
--e teenogersto brightlightswhich could couse the lqter
': eose of melotonin.A more likelyexplonotion,however, 1 Doyouthinkyougetenough sleep?
2 Doyousometimes feeltiredandunable to concentrate
at
. -^ct the hormonolupheovolof pubertyis pushingthe
--: otoninreleosebock, in which cose teenogersore
schoo[?Whyis that?
3 Wouldyouprefer it if school
startedandfinished later?
:: rg kept owok e by t h e i rb o d i e s- i h e y s i mp l yc o n ' t
- : c theirpeculiorsleepingbehoviour.Althoughit isn't 4 Whatwouldbethedrawbacks of startine
schoollater?
^-co ssible to g o to s l e e pb e fo re l 1 p .m.,
f or odoles c e n ts
:'e ve n t o be oler tin t h e mo rn i n g th , e i rb o d i e smo k e i t
: " cult for them, ond in some cosesneorlyimpossible
-- s is borne out by studiesconducted in the US,where
-: ^re schoolshove deloyed the stortof theirclosses
-r J've iheir ieenogerssome extrotime in bed Mony
-=::hers reoortedthot siudentswere more olert ond
=,. moody. One schooleven noticed o significont
-- crovementin the educotionoloerformqnceof its
.--fe n ts
.: -e s su r r ounding s leep- w h o n e e d sh o w m u c h q n d
-:. - ore usuollygiven shortshriftin effortsto improve
. - - :ent qchievement.Butmodern broin reseorchers soy
- : - me thot more schoolswoke up to the biologicol
-::'s ond stortedlessons of o time better suitedto their
-=:-cg e s t udent s .
I can repartairect speech

Reporting
structures tw a varietyaf way.

1 neadthe text.Haveyoueverhadan 'anxietydream'likethis? 5 Rewrite


thesentences 4 usingtheverbsyoudid
in exercise
notuse.
I hadthe strangest dreamthe other M1dad*gge#edthait ahouldgetanearllnight
niht.I washavinfbreakfast andmy
mu mre mi n d eme d th a tth e s chool : 1 Weoftenuseadverbs withreportingverbsto convey
u'!
examsstartedthatday Sheaskedme thetoneor emotional contentof theoriginal
words.
i f I h a dd o n ee n o u g h
re v i s i oand
n I tol d R 'l'vehod enoughof yourinsolence!'
herthe examsweren'tfor anotherthree q Heshoutedangrilythathe'dhad enoughof her
weeks,andpromised to revisefor them. insolence.
ButwhenI Sotto school, I foundthat 2 Wecanreportspeechwithoutgivingthe precise
myclassmates hadalreadystartedthe wordsthatwerespoken.
E n g l i sLhi te ra tu re
e x a m.I a p ol ogi sed
beinglate.Theteacherrnstructed me
for -N 'Fancyseeingyou here!'saidJames.
Jamesexpressedhissurpriseat seeingme there.
to sit downandstaftwritinf,butwhen
I o p e n ethd ee x a mp a p e r,I c o ul dn' t 6 6) Z.fr Listento the sentences
andaddan adverbfrom
a n s w ear n yo f th eq u e s ti o nIscl ai med the boxtoconveythe emotions
ofthe speaker.
notto havereadanyof the books,but bitterty callously defiantty resignedty
th ete a c h eirn s i s teth
d a tI s h o ul ddothe sarcasticallysharply sympatheticatty
examlt wasat that pointthat I wokeup.
1 'Unfortunately,
there'snothing
we cando aboutit,'she
said- .
Whatdo youthinkwerethe originalwordsspokenbythe
neverreatlylovedme,haveyou?'shesaid
2 'You've
peoplein the dream?
3 'Thatwas reallyclever,wasn'tit?' said Sarah- .
frN, Grammar
Builder
6.3:Reporting p.124 4 ' Y oucan' tstop me fromseei ngw hoeverI like! 'saidSam
structures:
5 'Mindyourownbusiness!' saidFrank
Reportthe sentences
usingtheverbsin the box.
6 'lt'snotmyproblem. Sortit outyourself,'saidJohn
recommendbeg {aim congratulateinsist 7 'Youmustbefeeling terrible.lf there'sanything
I cando,
promise threaten warn iust let me know,'
said Christine
1 'l'veneverhada nightmare,' he said.
& Zn Listento eightextracts andmatchthemwitha-h.
Hec\aimvd noverlo havyhaAa nighlmarv
2 'l thinkyoushouldgoto thatrestaurant. good,'
lt'sreally
a Sheexpressedhergratitude for ... l
saidBento Lee. b Sheboastedof herabitityto ... I
3 'Please, ptease don'twearthoseoldjeans,'saidJoto lan. c Sheenquiredafterhergrandfather's ... l
4 'lf youdon'tstoptalking, l'ilgiveyoua detention,' saidMr d Sheexpressedhersincere apologies for ... l
Medway to hisclass. e Shecomolimented himon ... t:
5 'Don'tswimtoo faroutto seaasthe currents areouite f Shedeclined
theinvitation to ... l
strong,'saidJoto Tom. g Sheconfirmedherwillingness to... l
6 'Wel[doneforpassing yourdriving test,'saidSueto Chris.
7 'l'[[neverlieto youagain,' saidSteveto Vanessa.
h Shetotdhimoffforbeing... I
8 'Youmusteatyourvegetables,' saidLiamto hisdaughter. $) z.rZ Listenagainandcomplete
eachreporta-h above
in a suitableway.
Choose the correctalternatives.
Thenchangethe sentencesto
directspeech. Workin pairs.Tellyourpartnerabout1-8 below.
1 Mydadsuggested / advisedmeto getan earlynight. Usereportingverbsandadverbs thatconvey the toneand
2 Harryrefused / deniedthathe hadcheated in theexam. emotionalcontent.
3 Daveasked/ insisted thatI shouldhetphim. 1 something yourparentsforbade youto do
4 Kateagreed/ proposed to buya newcar. 2 something youcomplimented somebody on
5 Fredordered/ remindedhissonthathe hadto turnoffthe 3 somethingyou apologisedfor
compurer. youdeclined
4 an invitation
6 Robbie blamed/ accused hisbrother
fortheaccident. you
5 something wereblamed for
7 Therobbers admitted/ agreedto stealthegotdbullionfrom 6 somethingyou remindedsomebodyto do
thesecurityvan. 7 something youexpressed surprise at
8 something yourefusedto do

Unit5 . Dreams
( d , 1 ( 6 M P q r c , c0ntrq[t,

Photocomparison ant/ rcact tc photas.

Findoneof theseitemsin the photos.Explain


thedifference
in meaningbetweenthesixwords.
award honour medal prize reward trophy

Haveyou,or anyoneyouknow,everwonanyof
1?Whatwasit for?Howdid you/they
thethingsin exercise
feel?

Q Z.ff Listento fourpeopletalkingaboutachievements.


Matchthe speakers withfourof the peoplebelow.Howdid
theyfeel(a)whentheywonthe awardor prizeand(b) now?
1 asportsperson 4 ascientist
oNEMtLLtoN,
FrveHulloneonruol-
2 a filmstar 5 an explorer l-l
3 apolitician 6 alotterywinner stxTyETGHT
ItlousANo,Two HUNDRED
ANDTWETVEPOUNDS
l: I
Speaker
r ! Speaker3!
Speaker
2! Speaker4!

f) z.rr Match1-8 witha-h to complete the expressions.


Thenlistenagainandcheck.
1 | wasover a o u r [u c k .
2 | coutdn't believe b to bits.
3 ltw asa c for joy.
4 | feltas if I waswatking d o f th e w o rtd .
5 lt is such e d re a mc o metru e .
6 | wasthrilted f o n a i r.
7 I'mon top g th e mo o n .
8 Theyarejumping h a n h o n o u r.

Workin pairs.Readthetask.Compare andcontrastthe


photosusingthe promptsbelow.Usethe expressions in
exercise 6 on page21,to helpyou.
4, andin exercise
1 Where arethepeople andwhattheyhavewon?
2 Howdoyouthinktheyarefeeling? 8 Rewrite the sentences usingthewordsin brackets.
3 Howsimilar aretheirachievements? Sometimes youwill needto maketwosentences intoone,
andviceversa.
Th e s ephot oss howpe o p l ew h o h a v ew o n s o m e th i n g.
1 I'd tiketo be rich.Nevertheless,
I'm notpreparedto waste
t e p h o to s .Sa yw h a ty o u th i n k
C o mpar eand c ont r a sth
mymoneyon lotterytickets.(muchas)
mo ti v at edt hem ,wha tth e yd i d to a c h i e v es u c c e s sa, n d
2 Hehardlydidanyrevision forhisexamsandyethe
how it mightaffecttheir lives.
managed to pass.(eventhough)
3' MuchasI admirehisachievements, he'sneglected his
the secondpartof
f) z.r+ Listento a studentanswering familyin hisquestforsuccess. (atthough)
thetask.Doyouagreewith heropinions? Givereasons. 4 Atthough she'sworkedreatlyhard,she'sneverreallygot
the recognition shedeserves.(nonetheless)
Whichof thesephrases
for concession
andcounter- 5 Eventhoughshe'swidelyacknowledged to bethe best
argument doesthespeakeruse?Whichareadverbs
and actress of hergeneration,
she'sneverwonan Oscar. (yet)
whichareconjunctions? 5 Thewinning goalmayhavebeentucky, buttheydeserved
Concession andcounter-argument
althougheventhough muchas a[[thesame o'N Vocabutary
Builder6.4:Concession
and
andyet granted evenso havingsaidthat p. 136
counter-argument:
in spiteof this it'struethat mindyou nevertheless
nonetheless though yet 9 Turnto page742anddo the examtask.

unit6.Drears
(\
Workin pairsor smallgroups.
Thinkof a bookor N\ Rewrite the sentences usingthe adverbs andadverbphrases
filmthatyouall likeanddiscuss
whatmakesit a goodstory. in brackets. Youmayneedto changethe punctuation.
Sometimes morethanoneansweris correct.
Readthis extractfroma story.Doesit exemplifyanyof the 1 Weusedto go skiing.(atthistimeof year/ often/ in
ofa goodstorythatyouidentified
features in exercise1? France / in the past)
2 | gofor longrides.(stitt/ alongthe river/ nowandthen/
on myown)
3 | couldn't havedoneit. (soquickty / certainly/ without
yourhetp)
4 lt's raining.(heavily/ today/ quite)
5 Your (here
letterarrived. / yesterdaymorning / oddty
enough / only)
6 Hedidn'tunderstand whatyousaid.fust now/ futly/
clearly)

Putthe adverbsandadverbial phraseson the rightintothis


extractfroma story,on the samelineastheyappear. You
mayneedto change the punctuation.Sometimes morethan
oneansweris correct.

Gemma marchedinto the caf6. angrily


Where was Ryan and why hadn't he
phoned? Shehoped he had got her teirt earlier
reminding him to meet her. here
Shewould wait for him and no for 15 minutes
more. Shewalked to the far side of moodily
the caf6 and threw her bag onto in a fit of pique
the table furthest from the door.
Shegot herselfa coffee,sat down and took
her phone out to check aSarn
for messages. Nothing. Sighing, loudly
she tried his number again,but it went
onto voicemail. She didn't straight,like before
leavea message.She felt very suddenly
upset. It had all been going wrong. Ryan lately
was not himself, but what at the moment
was the matter, and why wouldn't
he talk about it? Shehad finished ever,rust
Underline the adjectives, andadverbphrases
adverbs in her coffee and was getting up to wearily
the story. go, when in he walked.

Findthreepairsof adiectivesin the story.Complete a\*\ Grammar


Buitder
5.4:Adverbs p.125
andadiectives:
the
Learnthis! boxwith oge,colour,opinion,size.
f) z.f S Checkthe
meaningofthe reportingverbsin the
''-*
.i\\
boxandfindtwoofthemin the storyin exercise
2. Then
Orderof adjectives
listenandmatcheachverbwiththe directspeech.
Beforea noun,adjectives
usually
comein thisorder:
shope - origin moterial gasp groan mutter sigh shriek whine
Numbers
usually
comebefore
adjectives. whisper yelt

r,f* Vocabulary
Builder6.5:Punctuating
reported
':irr, .r, p.
SpeeCh; 136
Correctthe mistakes orderin thesephrases.
in adiective
1 an oldwonderfulltalian painting
Workin pairsor smallgroups.Discuss
howthe
2 twoleather enormous blacksuitcases storyin exercise2 mightcontinue.Writethe secondhalfof
3 a Siamese greystupidfatcat
the storyin 100words.Includesomedirectspeechanduse
4 a souare modern sma[[house someadverbs andpairsof adiectivesto makeyourwriting
5 a [inencreambeautiful suit moreinteresting.

Unit6 . Dreams
--orro//", r--
wt
I
h I c att r,rttc a ttcry

Youaregoingto writea story(200-250words)abouta dream,


endingwiththewords,'l wokeup.lt hadall beena dream.'
Theoutlineofthe storyis totdin the pictures,
butthe end
of thedreamis missing.Workin pairs.Readtheoutlineand
discusswhatthecharacters arelikeandhowthe dreamends.

Makeyourwritingmoreinteresting byusing:
. a varietyof adverbsandadverbphrases.
. a varietyof adjectives.
r directspeech, witha variety
of reporting
verbsand
adverbs. 1 lwas neading
in bed lt waslate I hearda stnange
noiseoutside
Readthewritingtip, thenwritethe firstparagraph
of your
story.Usethefirstpictureandthe sentences belowit, andthe
questionsto hetpyou.
,Vhatkindof bookwasit?Howoftendo voureadin bed?Were
,'oufeeling
sleepy?

Writethe secondparagraphof yourstory,usingthe second


picture, belowit andthe questions
the sentences to helpyou.
,'ihatdoesthewindowoverlook? Whatwastheweather [ike?
-ow didyoufeel?Didyoucallout?
Writethethirdparagraph of yourstory,againusingthe 2 lgot up andlookedout 0f the windowlcouldn'tsee
sentences andthequestions to helpyou.Usedirectspeech whatwasmakingthe noise.
fortheconversation.
l''asyourbrotheralready
awake? Howdid he react?Had
-e heardthenoisetoo?Didhetryto reassure you?Who
.-ggested goingoutside?

Writethefinalparagraph of yourstory,againusingthe
sentencesandthequestions. Addtheendingyou thoughtof
in exercise
1. Finishwiththewords,'l wokeup.lt hadall been
a dream.'

Countthewords.lf therearefewerthan200,addsomemore
detai[,eventsor directspeech.
lf youhavewrittenmorethan
250words,lookfor unnecessary repetition,
or cutsomedetail
or events. 5 | wentto mvbnother's
roomWediscussed
whatto do

Nowwritea finalcopyof yourstory.

Haveyou
] usedadverbs andadverb phrases?
] useda varietyof reporting
verbsandcorrect
punctuation
withdirectspeech?

correctorder?
_ checked andgrammar?
thespetting
writtenthecorrect
numberof words? 4 WewentoutsideThedoor"
closedbehindus Whot
happensnext?

U ni t5. D rea-
Vocabulary Grammar
1 Comptete the sentences
withthe correctformof theverbsin 5 Rewrite the sentences usingthe construction for ...to ...
the box.Theanswersmaybe activeor passive. It'stimethatweadmitteddefeat.
break grind inftict make put up It'stimefor ur lo admtldoloai
1 Scientists a breakthrough in theirquestfora 1 lt'simportant thatathletes
shouldtrainhard.
cureforcancerrecently. 2 Theaimis thatweshouldlearnPolish in sixmonths.
2 Thestalemate lastnightbythe offerof a tOYo 3 Inthepast,womenwearing trousers wasscandalous.
-
payrise. 4 Themanager is unhappy aboutstafftakingtimeoffwork.
3 Negotiations
between unionsandthemanagement 5 lt is vitatyoureadthe instructions beforeswitching on.
to a haltyesterday.
4 Overa thousand casualties uoonthecivil"
Etr! ]tr
population
sofarin theconflict. 6 Choosethe correctformof ellipsis.Sometimes
morethanone
5 Residents resistanceto the newparkinglaws answeris correct.
introduced
bythecitycouncillastweek.
1 | apologise yourfeelings,
forhurting
Etr! ]tr a I di dn' t. b I di dn' t mean. c I didn't m eant o.
2 Youcanparkin thegarage
2 Writethe nounformof theseadjectives. a if youwant. b if youwantto. c if youwantit.
1 wise 2 altruistic 3 courageous4 sincere 5 amiable 3 She'sreattytight-fisted
now,but
a shedidn'tuse. b shedidn'tuseto. c shedidn'tuseto be.
EE! E 4 Wedidn'twinthematch, but
a wecould. b wecouldhave. c wewereable.
3 Choosethe correctwords. 5 She'sworried. Herboyfriendsaidhe'dcall,but
1 Paulahassethergoals/ sightson winningthegotd a he hasn't. b hewouldn't. c hewasn't.
medalintheOlympics.
2 lgorhopesto getthejob,buthe'snotrealising / counting
EE! E
on it.
7 Complete withthe particles
the sentences in the box.
3 | can'tseemyselfgettingmarriedin theforeseeable /
likelyfuture. back off on out up
4 Doyouthinkhe'ileversucceed / fulfithisambitionof
playing for ReaIMadrid? 1 Mymotheris hunting a costumefortheparty.
2 Shehasto smarten- if she wantsto be oromoted.
5 They're notpinningtheirhopes/ dreamson victory, but
they'regoingto giveit everything 3 A colleague
rounded herunexpectedty in the
they'vegot.
meeting.
EE! ]tr 4 Theyhadn'tunderstood,
soshewent overtherules.
5 Wewantedto seeourvisitors properly,sowe
4 Complete
the sentences
withtheverbsin the boxand accompaniedthemto theairport.
punctuate
themcorrectly.
EE! ]tr
gasp mutter sigh whisper yelt
8 Reportthe sentencesusingthe verbsin the box.
1 He- to heryoulookgorgeous
2 Slowdownherhusband we'regoingto crash blame claim feffiif,d suggest threaten warn
3 | supposesoshe
' D on' tforgetto emptythe bi n,' Ji m' smothertold him .
4 Lookat yourleg- GraceI thinkit's broken
l'im'rmotharramindad him1oamptv thabin
5 Whydoesn't hejustgetto thepoint- Dan
1 ' l thi nkw e shoul dconsul tan expert,'sai dAm y.
Etr! ]tr 2 ' l ' ve nevercri edat the ci nema,'sai d H arriet .
3 ' My i P od' sbrokenand i t' syourfaul t!'sai dM ia t o Ryan.
4 ' l f you don' t pay,I' ttsetl thephotos,'she said.
5 ' D on' ttakethe motorw ayas there' sbeena n accident ,he '
tol d hi m.

Etr! ]tr
t@

4t Lansuase
Revrew
5-6
,/
F
L
Listening Scientistshavedeveloped
1 In pairs,thinkaboutwhathashappened to Edgars
sofar. a mind-reading technique
Whatproblems is he currentty
facing?Howshouldhetackle whichcouldone dayallow
them,in youropinion? them to take picturesof
memoriesand dreams.By
2 S) z.re Listenandchoose the correctanswers. comparingbrainactivity
1 Edgars scans,they were ableto
won'tformally
complainaboutbeingofferedthe
job andthenrejected correctlypredictwhich of
because
120picturessomeonewas
A it wasprobably
a misunderstandinganyway.
focusingon in 90 per cent of
B hedoesn'thaveanyproof.
cases.Thetechniquecould
C hedoesn't havethemoney to pursuea complaint.
D hedoesn't one day form the basisof
havethesamerightsasBritishemployees.
a machineto projectthe
2 Whatis Edgars'reactionto Tomas' comments about imagination on to a screen.
dreams? Professor JackGallantled the Californianresearch
A HethinksTomas maybe right. team.Writingin the journalNature,he said:'lt may
B Hefindsit hardto understand whatTomasis saying. soon be possibleto reconstructa pictureof a person's
C Hepretends to agreeat first,
butthendisagrees. visualexperiencefrom measurements of brainactivity
D He'ssceoticalaboutTomas' comments. alone.lmaginea generalbrain-reading devicethatcould
3 TomasinvitesEdgars reconstructa pictureof a person'svisualexperienceat
to
A gooutwithhimandhissister. any momentin time'
B havedinnerwith
himat hissister'shouse. Twoscientistsvolunteeredto look at 1,750images
C ioinhimandhissisterfordinner. whiledatawas recordedfromtheirbrainsand linked
D havedinnerwith
him,hisbrotherandhissister. mathematically to the "points"that makeup a 3D
thoughtimage.Thislink betweenbrainactivityand
4 Edgars is speechlesswhenRitaarrives
because imagewasthen usedto identifywhichimageswere
A he recognises herfromhisdream. seen by eachvolunteerfrom a new set of 12O,just by
B shefulfilsallhisromanticdreams. lookingat theirbrainscans.
C he realisesthatthey'vealready
met. The researchevokessci-fifilm MinorityReport,where
D he'spretending to beamazed. policein the futurereadpeople'smindsand arrestthem
for 'thoughtcrimes'.But sucha situationis a long way
Speaking off,as the techniquecurrentlyonly workson viewed
images,not imaginedones,and it takeshoursfor the
3 mint aboutyourowndreamsforthefuture.Makenotes scanners to takethe brainimages.
about(a)threepersonalambitions
and(b)threehopesfor Professor Gallantsaid:'lt is possiblethatdecoding
theworldin general. brainactivitycould haveseriousethicaland privacy
implicationsin 30 to 50 years.We believestronglythat
I ln groupsof threeor fourgivea shortpresentation
to the no one shouldbe subjectedto anyform of
groupaboutyourdreamsusingyournotesfromexercise 4. brain-readinginvoluntarily,covertly,or withoutcomplete
informedconsenti

Reading
5 Readthetextquickly.Explain
theconnection
between
the Writing
textandthe photo.
7 Readthe questionandmakenotesfor an essay.Usethe
paragraphplanbelow.
6 Answerthesequestions aboutthetext.
1 Usingcurrent technology,
whatcanscientists tetlabouta
Whatwouldbetheoossible usesandmisuses of a
person'sthoughtsby lookingat brainscans?
thatcouldreadpeople's
machine thoughts anddreams?
2 Whatmighta moreadvanced versionof thistechnology
Doyouthinkit wouldbea goodor badthing,on batance?
allowthemto do in thefuture?
Whatethicalisspeswouldariseif thistechnology were Paragraph
1: Introduction Paragraph
3: Possibte
misuses
successfullydevetoped? Paragraph
2: Possible
uses Paragraph
4: Conclusion
WhatsafegufdsdoesProfessor Gallantsuggest to
preventmisdseof thetechnology? 8 Writean essayof 200-250words,followingyourplanfrom
exercise7.

s k iu s Ro un d - u p 1 - 5
EHrn 6
Wo r kin pair s .W ha td o y o u k n o wa b o u tfo rm e rU S P resi dent H he had had the dreambefore
Ab r ahamLinc oln? Sh a rey o u r i d e a sw i th th e c l a s s . I unti the arri vedat the E astR oom
J w hi chaw okehi m from hi s dream
2 D o t he Readingex a mta s k . K w ho w eregri evi ngas i f thei rheartsw ouldbr eak

3 Dothe Useof Engtish


examtask.
Readthe text. Completethe text with the phrase(A-K)that
bestfits eachgap.Thereis one phraseyou do not need.

A famous dream C ompl etethe secondsentenceso that i t meanst he sam e


Although Abraham Lincoln is as the fi rst. U setw o to fi ve w ordsi ncl udi ngt he wor d
today one of America's best- gi veni n brackets.D o not changethe form o f wor d given.
loved oresidents.that was not
alwaysso. During cheAmerican 1 ' l di dn' tstealthe money!'sai dW i l ti am.(denied)
Civil War he was hated by W i tti am tne m oney.
Southernersfor abolishing 2 ' D on' tforgetto w ri tethank-youl ettersfo r yourpr esent s, '
1- sai dMandyto her daughter.(remi nded )
slavery,and that he
fully expected to be murdered Mandy thank- you let t er s
by his politicalopponents,and for her presents.
had resignedhimselfco his fate. 3 ' l ' l t payfor the meat,'sai d,| ake.(i nsi sted)
Jake for the m eal.
According to a close friend of
' l ' l l sendyou to yourroomi f you speakt om e liket hat
his,chree daysprior to his assassination,
Lincoln recounted
agai n,'sai dGeorgeto hi s son.(threatened)
a dream hed had to his wife and a few acquaintances,
t -. George to his r oomif he
In th e d ream ,he was ly ing in bed in t heW h i t e
spoketo hi m ti kethat agai n.
House in Washington,and there seemed to be a death-like
5 ' Y oubrokemy MP 3pl ayer!' sai dS al tyto To m .( accused)
stillnessaround him.Then he beganto hear quiet sobbing,
t- SaLly her M P3player .
. He got out of bed and wandered downstairs.There
' l w on' ttel I anyonew hatyou' vetol d me,'said Fr ed.
the silencewas broken by the same picifulsobbing,but he
(promi sed)
couldn't see who was makingthe noise.He went from room
o-. Fred w hat I 'd t ot d him .
to room but they were all deserted, lt was light in
' Thankyou so muchfor everythi ng you' vedone, 'said
all the rooms and every object was familiarto him; but where,
Martha. (grati tude)
Lincoln wondered,were all the people t- ? He was both
Martha ever yt hing I 'd
puzzledand alarmed.What could be the meaningof all this?
oone.
Determined to find the cause,he kept on walkingu- , which
8 ' l ' m defi ni tel ygoi ngto appl yfor the j ob,' saidBen.
he entered.Therehe mec with a sickeningsurprise.Before him
(i ntenti on)
was a platform,'-. Around it were stationedsoldiers
B enconfi rmed for
who were acting as guards;and there was a crowd of people,
the fob.
some gazingmournfully upon the coffin,others crying bitterly.
' Wh o h as die d in theW hit e Hous e?'Linc olndem and e do f o n e
4 Dothe speakingexamtasl(
of the soldiers.'ThePresident,'came rhe answer.
'He was killed by an assassin.'Then there was a loud
*-
exclamation of grief from rhe crowd, .
Some peoplehave ascribeda powerful meaningto his dream, C ompareand contrastthe photosof tw o ' dr eam 'hom es.
claimingthat '- . Others point out that, given the facc W hat mi ghtthe ow nersof thesehomesbe t ikeand which
that he fully expected that someone would try co assassinate photo morecl osel ymatchesyour i deaof a 'dr eam 'hom e?
1o
him , }.*''1:\x\$',
at t hought he s a mem o u rn fusl o u n d so f d i s tre s smet hi m
as he walk edalo n g
B as if a num bero f p e o p l ew e rec ry i n g
c in whic hhe f or e s a wh i s o w n d e a th
D it is har dt ys ur p ri s i n th
g a t h e d re a mto f h i s o w n death
E Linc oLn k newt ha t h e w a sa b o u tto d i e
F on whic hr es t eda c o ffi n
G s uc hwast heira n ti p a th yto w a rd sh i m
T HIS U NI T I I { CLUDES
h@bulary . i nformallanguage. phrasalverbs' with O run andwolk . synonymsof journeyand wolk. phrases
-:' softening' ideas. nounsrelatedto phrasalverbs. nounsuffixesr easilyconfusedwords. linkers:other
:+role'sexpectations.benefltsand drawbacks . cause,purposeand result. formallanguage
Erammar.'mg formsafterpreparatory lt . emphasis
Spcaking . talkingabouttravel. presentation: . talkingaboutimmigration
touristdestinations . presentation:
--i ) e n e f i t so f to u ri sm
triting . a letterof complaint

I can talk about dtfferew


kindt af traveland jourrc.y.
Travelling
about
1 Workin pairs.Describe the photos.Wouldyou Matchtheverbsandparticles to makephrasal
verbsrelated
enioythesetypesof journeyor trip?Givereasons. to travet.Theyareall fromthe listening.
1 stop a round
2 showsb bup
3 touch c off (at)
4 get d away
5 hold e oown

6 Complete with phrasalverbs


the sentences fromexercise
5
andfromthe box.
checkinto dropoff pickup putup seeoff stopby
stopover

Theguyw ho - the pal acehad somefascinat ing


stori esaboutthe hi storyofthe pl ace.
Thiseveningthe taxi - you in the town centre
and - you - at the hotel .
My uncle'sreturninghometo the Statestomorrow.I'm
goi ngto the ai rportto - hi m - .
My pl ane and I di dn' tarri veunti lafterm idnight so
,
|- a hotelnearthe airport.
5 Do- in if you'reeverin London.
Wecaneasily
Discussthe differencein meaning
between thesewords.Use you_.
yourdictionaryto helpyou. 5 Lastsummer we- in Greece
on ourwayto lsrael.
1 a break 5 anouting
2 an expedition 7 a pilgrimage r,l* Builder7.2:Phrasalverbs
Vocabulary with run and
3 an excursion 8 a trip walk:p.737
4 a journey 9 a voyage
5 a tour 10 travels 7 Makenotesabouta memorable etc.
trip,excursion,
iourney,
thatyou havemade.Usesomeof the wordsfromexercises
$) Z.rZ Listen.
Whatarethefourspeakersdescribing? 2,4 and5, andtry to includesomeinformal wordsand
Matcheachspeakerwith a wordfromexercise2. phrases.
Speakerr! Speakerz! Speaker3E Speaker+I 1 Wheredid yougo?
t 2 Whathappened?
$l Z.tl Listenagain.Whatinformalequivalents
did the
speakersuseinsteadofthesewords? 3 Whywasit memorable?

Speaker1 Speaker3 I Workin pairsandtellyourpartneraboutit.


l complain 7 dirty
2 verycrowded 8 food f*. .\lBss6ulary s forwolk:p.737
Builder7.3:Synonym
3 makesb paytoomuch 9 spend

Speaker
2 Speaker4
4 nervous 1 0 h o te to r re s ta u ra n t
5 exhausted 1 1 ra i nh e a v i l y
5 sleep 12 sell

oe Vocabulary p.136
Builder7.1:lnformallanguage:

UnitT.J our nev s


I cawtalk about tht
reasowpeaplega an holtlay
Thetravelbug
1 Lookat the chart.Doanyof the statistics you?Why?
surprise Readthe informationin the Learnthis! box,then complete
the sentencesfromthe listeningwiththe -rngformof the
verbsin the box.
]::
kip lug see backpacktrek attempt pay
I Fronce Zf.r I 6 UK 307
2 Spoin 58.sl: 7 Germony 23.6 1 Formeit'dbe a placewellworth- a visitbecause
I'mreallyinterested in doingoutdoor activities.
3 U SA 5l.r 8 Mexico 21.4
2 lt's alwaysfascinating - howotherpeople[ive.
4 Chino 49.6 N 9 Austrio 2O.3 3 I'd findit reatly exhilarating through themountains
5 ltoly 41.1f t0 Russio 2O.2 at highaltitude.
4 lt'shardwork- allyourequipment withyou.
Matchthe photoswithfourof the countries
in the chart. 5 Obviously it'd be crazy- to getto everycountry
Whatdo youknowaboutthe placesin the photos? Would insidea month.
youliketo visitthem?Givereasons. 5 | actually thinkit wouldbe fun- on myown,a real
adventure.
7 lt'sa bit of a pain- on thetrain,butI'llsurviveI'm
sure.
e s* Grammar Builder7.7:-ingformsafterpreparatory
lf, nounsandadjectivesrp.125

In informal speech youcansoftenideasor makethem


lesspreciseby usingthefotlowing wordsandphrases.
a bit (ofa) in a way in onewayor another
justkindof sortof or something alongthoselines
or thatkindof thing or some(thing) likethat
or whatever
I justkind of wantto visitsomewherereallyremote.
In a way,I'd sortof preferto go on a package holidayor
3 f) z.re Listento threepeopletalkingaboutwherethey thatkindofthing.
wouldliketo visitandwhy.Matchthreeor fourof the
reasons below(1-10)to eachspeaker.
6) Z.rs Readthe speaking tip. Whichof the phrases
did
7 -Speaker
Speaker 2 -Speaker 3 usein the listening?
the speakers Listenagainandcheck
1 architecture 6 [andscape youranswersto exercises 4 and 5.
2 atmosphere 7 to improvelanguageskills
3 cultural
activities 8 to meetpeople 6 Readthesesentences
aloud,addingsomephrases
fromthe
food outdooractivities speaking tip.
4 9
5 history 10 personalchallenge 1 Paris, RomeandMadridaregoodplaces to visit.
2 l'd tiketo travelroundthewortd.
-.
g
I
-ing formwith preparatory ft 3 Tomwantsto backpack or hitchhike roundEurope.
/tcan be usedas a preparatory sublector objectfor an 4 We'replanning to visittheSeychetles or theMaldives.
a -ingform,especially in informaI
style. 5 Thaitand has to be top of my tistof holiday destinations.
o{
It wasamozingwalkingalongthe GreotWoll.
UI
Workin groupsof three.Decideon threeplaces(e.g.a
It'sfun travellingwith friends.
country,a city,a touristsite)that youwouldliketo visit.
It'sno goodjust stayingin hotels.
Makenoteson whyyouwouldliketo visitthoseplaces,
I'd find it strangebeingon my ownin a foreigncountry.
usingthe ideasin exercise 3 to helpyou.
It'd be tiring travellingnon-stopto thesouthof ltaly.
ln thisstructure
withworth,theobjectof the -ingform 8 Present yourideasto the class.Tryto usesome
canbecome thesubject
ofthesentence. ofthe structuresin the Learnthis!boxandthe phrases in
It'swell worthvisitingParis. the speakingtip.
Parisis well worthvisitino.
Takea classvoteon the mostpopulardestination.

a--,-7 unrrT.,ourneys
I cqn underctqndand react
l o att adttl e abattl uti ol r,tl i a,t

F{TilKllfd Workin pairs.When,approximately,


did the 3 ,|ulius
Caesarleda successfulinvasionof Britain.
groupsof peopleon the mapinvadeBritain?
Markyour 4 TheAngto-Saxon invaders livedpeacefulty
alongsidethe
answers on the map.Theinvasions
arenumberedin existingpopulationof Britarn.
chronological order. 5 Despite manyfrequent attempts bytheDanish to invade
theynevergainedcontrol.
Britain,
6 Theexistingpopulation welcomed theNorman invaders.

Writethe compound nounsrelatedto thesephrasalverbs.


Theyarea[[in the listening.
(
1 comeout oulcome 4 pultout
z
2 riseup 5 falldown
Had an 5
3 takeover 6 makeup
F
+
^cw Completethe sentenceswith nounsformedfrom the
'+ M verbsin bracketscombinedwith a prepositionfrom the
.6 )
'?-
box.(Sometimesthe verb comesfirst, sometimesthe
v'*
?
s'o preposition.)
London
\ back off out out over up

1 Therew as an i n the numberof peopl ef leeingt he


country.(surge)
2 Fol l ow i ng
the - of w ar,the B ri tonsl aunchedan
attackon the Romans.(break)
3 TheCetticlanguagesmadea foltowingthe
Whatlegacydid the invadersleavebehind?Matchthe departureof the R omans.(come)
p h o to st o f our of t he gr o u p so n th e ma p . 4 TheN ormansrul edB ri tai nfol l ow i ngthe - of t he
Anglo-Saxon nobitity.(throw)
5 Therewas a - betweenthe defendersand the
i nvadi ngforces.N ei thercoul dgai nthe upperhand.
(stand)
6 Fotl ow i ngthe N ormani nvasi on,the - fo r t he Anglo-
Saxonpeoplewas bleak.(took)
aN VocabularyBuilder7.4: Nounsrelatedto phrasal
verbs:p.137

Makenounsfrom thesewords.Theyare all in the listening.


1 succeed(: follow) 5 know
2 migrate 6 conquer
3 attempt 7 resist
Welcome to 4 i nvade 8 supreme
W E ST SU SSEX Os Vocabutary (2):p.138
Builder7.5:Wordformation

Workin groups.Discuss the questions.


1 Whoweretheeartiest settlersin yourcountry?
2 Werethereanysubsequent invasions? Whoby?When?
f) z.re Listenandcheckyour
answers t and2.
to exercises Wastheremuchresistance?
3 Whatlegacy did thesettlers
andinvaders leave,if any?
f) Z.fe Listenagainandexplainwhythesestatements (e.g.cuttural, politicat,
[inguistic, etc.)
mustbefalse. 4 Whenwasthe lastuprising in yourcountry? Whatwasit
1 Foreign
influences
on theBritish
identity
beganin the about?
nineteenthcentury. 5 Hastherebeenan upsurge of migration in the pastfive
2 Inthedistantpastpeople
couldn'tmigrateto Britain
unless years?lf so,whydo youthinkthathasbeenthecase?
theycamebysea.

unitz.lournevs
(\
w- '"'..Wral-'u2'wtr'W"
2:;s-
w i c a t r L t n d c r s t q n c ia n d r c L , ( l !
: t r t a r t i c l c q b c u l t t n t t l t " t ',r i .

FTTAK[[fdWorkin pairs.Answerthe questions.


r
1 Doyouknowanystories or fitmsin whichthecharacters
time?
travelthrough [--r---]
I A I l Justover100yearsago,i n 1895, H G Wells'classic
2 Doyouthinkit willeverbe possib[e to travelthrough
time? storylhe TimeMachine wasfirst published As befitsthe
Why?/Why not?
sub'1ect matter,thatwasthe 'minustenth'annrvensany of the
Readthetext.Whichsentence bestsumsup theopinionof fi rstpubl i cati on, i n 1905,of A l bertE i nstein's special t heony
thewriter? of rel ati vi ty l t w asE i nsteias n, everyschoolchild knows, who
fi rstdescri bed ti meas ' the fourth -
di mension'andeveny
1 Timetravelrunscounter to common senseandmust
thereforebe imoossible. school chiilsdw rongA sa matterof facti t wasWellswho
wrotein fhe fimeMachinethal 'theneis no difference between
2 TimetraveImayonedaybe possible becausethelawsof
sciencedo notruleit out. Ti meandanyof thethreedi mensi ons of S p ace, except t hat0ur
3 Timetravelis impossiblebecause of theinherent consci ousness movesal ongi t'
oaradoxes. I B I l E versi ncethen,w ri tershavebeenf ascinat ed
---T-----t byt im e
travel,andespecially bythe paradoxes that seemto confront
3 Matchheadings 1-5 with paragraphs
A-F. anygenui ne ti metravel l er (somethi ng thatWellsneglect ed t0
1 Theimpossibility of timetravel i nvesti sate) Thecl assi exampl c ies theso-called
2 Limitations ' granny paradox' w,herea ti metravel l er i nadver t entcauses ly
3 Canwetrustourcommon sense? the deathof hi sgrannyw henshew asa l i t t legir l,s0t hatt he
4 Versions of reality traveller's mother,andtherefore thetravellerhimself, were
5 A schoolboy error neven born Inw hi chcase,hedi dnotS obackin t im et o kill
6 A writercomesto theaidof thescientists hi srel ati ve, andso on A l essgruesome ex am ple was
entertainingly provided bythe science-fiction writerRobert
Heinlein in hisstoryByHisBootstraps Theprotagonist
stumbl es aross a ti me-travel devi ce brou ghtbackt 0 t he
presentbya visitorfromthe distantfuture Hestealsthe
devi ce andtravel sforw ardi n ti me H econ st antwor ly r ies
aboutbei ngfoundbytheol dmanfromw h omhe st olet he
ti memachi ne - unti loneday,manyyearsl at erhe , r ealises
thathe hi mselifs nowthe ol dman,andcar ef ully ar r anges
for hi syounfer sel fto ' fi nd'and' stealthe ' tim em achine.
r---r----"1
I C I l A stheseparadoxesshow us,possibilit t he yof our
bei nIabl eto travelthroughti mei s cl eanly ir r at ional and
runsc0unter t0 common senseTheoroblem is t hatcom m on
sensei s notal w ays the mostrel i abl means e of assessing
sci enti fitheoni
c esT0takeE i nstei n'ow s nth eor ies aain,it is
hardl ycommon sensethatobj ects getbothheavier and

q shorterthe fastertheymove,or that movinfclocksrun slow


Yetbothofthesepredictions of relativity theoryhavebeen
borneoutmanyti mesi n experi ments Infact ,whenyoulook
closelyat the Seneral theoryof relativity - the besttheoryof
ti meandspacew e have- i t turnsoutthatther eis not hing in
i t to rul eoutthe possi bi l i ty
ofti metravelThet heor yim plies
thattimetravelmaybe exceedinIly difficult, but not
i moossi bl e.
T---r---
I D I l P erhaps i nevrtabli ty,w asthroughscience f ict iont hat
seri ous sci enti sts fi nal l yconvi nced themselves t hatt im e
travelcouldbe madet0 workbya sufficiently advanced
W hathappened
ci vi l i sati on w asthrs,C arlSagan, a well- known
astronomer, hadw ri ttena noveli n w hl chhischar act er s
travel l ed througha bl ackhol efroma poi n tneart he Ear t ht o

UnitT.Journeys
/
3 p0intnearthe starVegaAlth0ugh hewasawarethathe 4 Are the sentencestrue or false?In which paragraph(s)
did
,va sb e nding t heac c epteru d l e s0 f p h y s i cth
s , i sw a s ,a fte r you find the evidence?
a l fi cti onNev er t heles a ssa, s c i e n ti shti ms e lS f,a fa nw a n te d 1 Mostsci enti sts di smi ssthe i deaof di fferentwor lds
:n esci encin e hisnov el t o b ea s a c c u ra te a s p o s s i b l se0, co-exi sti ng al ongsi deone another.
"e a skedK ipT hor ne, an e s ta b l i s h e d x p e rtrng ra v i ta ti o n a l 2 l t w on' t be possi bl eto traveIthroughti me unt ilwe ar e
:n e o ry,
to c hec kit outanda d v i s 0 e n h o wi t m i g h b te abl eto fi nd and controlbl ackhol es.
rn p ro v edA f t erlook ingc l o s e layt th efi c ti o n aelq u a ti o n s , 3 H .G.W el l sdemonstrated the probl emsthrow nup by t he
Th o rn reealis ed t hats uc ha p a s s a gth e ro u g hs p a c e -ti m e conceptof ti metravel .
rro mo neblac kholet o an o th e(a r ' w o rm h o l ea' c) tu a l l y 4 Thepossi bi l i ty of taki nga short-cut throughspaceled
co u l de x iswit
t hint hef r am e w o rk o f E i n s te i nth' se o rySa g a n sci enti sts to real i sethat ti me travelmaybe the or et ically
gratefully accepted Thorne's modification to hisfictional 'star possi bl e.
gate',andthewormhole dulyfeaturedin the novel, Czntact, 5 E i nstei n'theori
s esareval i datedboth i n sci ent if ic
cu b l i shed in 1985 experi ments and by commonsense.
E | | Thestargate,however, stillonlyactedas a shortcut
, Readthe second,sixth and final paragraphsagainand
:n n 0 u gh s pac eS c ient issts0 0 nre a l i s eth d a t,th e o re ti c a lal y ,
explainin your own words:
ivormhole couldjust as welllinktwo different flrnesastwo
p/ocesWhileit is hardto seehowanycivilisation 1 the ' grannyparadox' .
oifferent
2 the theoryof paral telw ortds.
co u l db uilda wor m hole t imem a c h i nfro e ms ra tc h ,i t i s
rn u che a s ier t o env is afteh a ta n a tu ra l l0yc c u rri nw g o rmh ol e 6 Findone word from eachpair in the text.Thentranslatethe
n i $ h tb eadapt ed t o s uitt h eti m e -tra v e l l innef e d so f a pairsof wordsinto your language.
su ffi ci e ntadv ly anc ed c iv i l i s a ti oSnu, ffi c i e n atldy v a n c eth
d ,a t 1 cl assi c/ cl assi cal(l i ne1)
rs to b eablet 0 t r av elt hr o u fhs p a c eb yc o n v e n ti o nme a l a n s, 2 unreasonabl/ ei rrati onal(ti ne30)
a n dl o cat e andm anipul abtel a c kh o l e sEv e th n e nth , e re ' s0 n e 3 possi bi ti ty (ti ne40)
/ opportuni ty
sn a gl t s eem ys 0uc an' tu s ea ti mema c h rnt0 e g 0b a c ki n 4 i mpty/ i nfer(l i ne40)
rrmeto a pointbef or e whi c hth eti m ema c h i nw e a sb u i l tYo u 5 excessively / exceedingly (tinea1)
ca ng o a ny wherin e t hef u tu rea, n dc o meb a c k tow h e rey o u 5 borne/ born(l i ne94)
started, but nofurtherWhichratherneatlyexplains whyno
o\\\ VocabularyBuilder7.6: Easilyconfusedwords:p. 138
trmetravellers yet
fromourfuturehave visitedus because -
th eti mem ac hine s t illhas n 'bt e e ni n v e n te d !
F | | So,wheredoesthat leavethe panadoxes, and I
iit Linkersthat referto the other person'sexpectations
co mmon s ens e? A c t ually t h,e rei s a w a yo u to f a l l th e
= os o motter of foct (paragraphA)
d i ffi cu l t ies
but , y oum ayno tl i k ei t.It i n v o l v easn o th e r
i in fact(paragraphC)
e f r oms c ien cfiec ti o np: a ra l l ewl o rl d sT h e s a
fa vo u r itidea e re
E actuolly(paragraphs D and F
i h e 'a l ter nat ivhis e t or iesw' ,h i c ha ree n v i s a g eads i n s o me
5 the plain fact is (paragraphfl
se n sel ying' alonS s ide' ourv e rs i o o n f re a l i tyA c c o rd i nt0g th e to tell the truth
th e o ry, e ac hof t hes epar a l l ewl o rl d si sj u s ta s re a la s o u r
own,andtheneis an alternative historyfor everypossible
outcome Readthe Leornthis! box. Findfour ofthe linkersin the text
of everydecision evermadeAlternative histories
and then matchall five linkerswith their uses.
b n a n ch o utf r omdec is iopno i n tsb, i fu rc a ti nen d l e s slliyk e
th eb ra n c hes andt wigsof a n i n fi n i te tre e Bi z a rre th 0 u g hi t 1 usedw henadmi tti ngsomethi ng
so u n d st his
, ideaist ak ens e ri o u s b l yya h a n d fuol f s c i e n ti sts 2 usedto showa contrastbetw eenthe truthand whatt he
An di t ce r t ainly f ix esallt h eti m etra v epl a ra d o x eAc s c o rd i n f otherpersonbel i eves
to th eth eor yof par allel
w o rl d si,f y o ufo b a c ki n ti m ea n d 3 usedfor tal ki ngabouta factthat somepeopl edo not
prevent yourownbirthit doesn'tmatter,because acceptor maynot l i keto hear
bythat
4 usedto gi veextradetai l saboutsomethi ng
d e crsi 0ynouc neatae newb ra n c ho f re a l i tyi n , w h i c hy o u
5 usedto add a comment,of i nterestto the othe rper son
wereneverborn Whenyougoforwardin time,youmoveup
th en e wbr anc handf indt h a ty o un e v edr i de x i s t,i nth a t o,i, Vocabutary
Builder7.7: Linkers:p.739
re a l i tyb;uts inc ey ouwereb o rna n db u i l ty o u rti mem a c h i n e
in the realitynextdoor,thereis no paradoxHardto believe? 8 Workin pairs.Discussthe questions.
C e rta i nly Count er t 0 c ommo sne n s e0?f c o u rs eBu tth e p l a i n 1 l f you coul dtravelbacki n ti me,w henand w her ewould
fa cti s th atalloft hisbiz a rre b e h a v i o ui sra t th ev e ryl e a s t you travelto? Givereasons.
p e rmi tt ed byt he lawsof p h y s i c a s ,n di n s o m ec a s e sre q u i re d 2 H owmi ghti t changeyourvi ewof the w orl d?
b yth o s elawsI wonderwh a tH G W e l l w s o u l dh a v em a d eo f 3 W outdyou try to changeanythi ngi n the past?What ?Why?
it all

U ni tT.Jou r ne.
I can use a varity af
structuresta c4ddentphatrs.
Addingemphasis

Fly-driuecommuting
a a a a a o a a a a o a aa o o o

Fordecadesscientists havedreamedof buildinga carthat


canalsofly,but ifs onlyin the pastfew years,with the
development of light-weight constructionmaterialsand
highlyefficientengines, thatthe dreamhasbecomea reality.
I recentlyvisitedthe headquarters of a companycalled
Tenafugia in Massachusetts. 'Whatyou aregoingto see,'said
the youngmanwho showedme around,'will revolutionise the journeyto yourdestination by road.But not onlyis it very
the waywe travelaround.'He led me into a hangar.BEfore versatile, it'salsofairlyeconomical, travellingl3 km per litre
me stoodthe 'Transition', brainchildof a groupof young of unleaded petrolin the airand l7 km on the ground.The
graduates from the Massachusetts lnstituteof Technology. lt Transition hasattracted a hugeamountof generalinterest,
waswhiletheywerestudyingat MITthattheycameup with but the questionis,is therea market?Whatmayput a lot of
the idea,but not untilthey'dleftcollegedid theybuildthe peopleoff is the price-tag: $148,000. Thecompanydoesn't
prototype.Youcandrivethe Transition to the airport,extend anticipate hugesalesin the firstyearor so,but it doesbelieve
its wings,takeoff,fly up to 800 km and landat another that it's onlya matterof time beforehybridcar-planes
airstrip.Then,havingfoldedup the wings,you cancomplete replaceconventional cars.

1 Readthe text.Whatis unusualaboutthevehicle? 4 Rewrite


the sentences
to makethemmoreemphatic,
using
thetechniques
in theLearnthis!box.Morethanoneanswer
2 Readthe Learnthis!boxandunderline
nineexamples possible.
is sometimes Compare youranswerswitha partner
of waysof addingemphasisin thetext.Whatis being andexplainanydifferences.
emphasised in eachsentencein the Learnthis!boxT
ldon'tlikethedesign. lt'rthadaaign
I don'tlira
1 | don'thavea car,butI havea bicycle.
Addingemphasis
s:\::
1 Cleftsentences
2 I'veneverreadsucha thought-provoking book.
s-' 3 | don'tlikehisattitude to women.
I don't understandhowthe Transitioncantakeoff.
ss >>WhotI don'tunderstand 4 | can'tafforda newcar.That'sthe problem.
is howthe Transitioncan
\\ 5 A manin a yellowjacketcameroundthecorner.
takeoff.
Thecostmayput a lot of peopleoff.
O Z.ZO Listen.Howdo the speakers
makethe following
> lt'sthecostthatmayput a lot of peopleoff. sentencesmoreemphatic?
2 Fronting phrases 1 Whatareyoudoing? 5 Whydidyoudo that?
a negative andlimiting expressions 2 | knowI'mwrong. 6 Takea seat.
I'verarelybeenso impressed by a newinvention. 3 Theweather'snicetoday. 7 You're wearinga nicetie.
>>RarelyhaveI beenso impressed by a new 4 You'vedonewell.
invention.
b adverbial expressions of place Makethefollowing sentences moreemphatic.Saythemout
Thepilot sat in the cockpit. loud,payingattentionto the stressandintonation.
t>ln the cockpitsat thepilot. 1 Wherehaveyoubeen?
c Phrases suchas Theproblem/trouble/truth/fact/ 2 Youshouldapologise to me,notto him.
questionis,... 3 Hescoreda fantasticgoal.
3 Useof do/does/didfor emotiveor contrastive 4 Hetpyourselfto morepotatoes.
emphasis 5 | wasjustdozingoffwhen,|ack burstin.
TheTransitionlookselegant!
> TheTransitiondoeslookelegont! Completethe sentences
in an appropriate
way,
I don't like the colour,but I like the design. usingan emphatic
structure.
Compare youranswers with
>>I don'tlikethecolour,but I do likethedesiqn. yourpartner.
1 Whatrealtybothersmeis ...
f '\ Grammar
Builder p.125
7.2:Emphasis: 2 RarelyhaveI seen...
3 lt'snotjustmethat...
3 Readthe first,third,fourthandfinalparagraphsofthe text 4 WhatI'vesetmysightson is ...
on pages74 and75 andfind examples of waysof adding 5 | don't...,butI do ...
emphasis.

Un itz.Jo u rney s
xw"','3wta*
cdtl gL\e t prctentattott
Presentation
1 Fm{WmG Lookat the photosandthegraph.Whataspects aN cause,purpose
VocabularyBuilder7.8: Expressing
of foreigntraveldo theyshow? and result:p.139

4 Match1-10 to a-i to makecompletesentences.Lookat the


collocationsin bold.
1 Increased carbonemi ssi onshavecl earl vhad a
detri mental
2 C l i matechange,then,i s a mai or
3 Tourismcan havea negative
4 B i g hotetsspri ngup al ongthe coast,usua[[yto t he
5 The increaseddemandfor water,for example,can pose
6 | don' tthi nkthe benefi tsto l ocaIpeopl eoutweigh
7 Localpeoplebenefit
8 W henthe purposeof traveli s to l earnabouto t her
cultures,it's clearlyof mutual
Miltions Numberof passengers
flyingfromUKairports 9 | don' tthi nkw e canavoi ddoi ng
250 10 W e shoul dendeavour to mi ni mi sethe damage
200 a from the moneythat touri stsspendw hi l etheyar eon
150
hoti day.
b effecton the earth'satmosphere.
100
c a threatto riversand lakes.
50 d benefi tto the touri stand the l ocaIpeopl e.
0
e the damagethat touri smdoes.
1953 1962 1980 t9a9 1998 f detri mentof the l ocaIenvi ronment
g w e causeto the envi ronment.
6l Z.Zt Listento two peopleanswering
the question h concern,but by no meansthe onl yone.
below.Whichof theiropinionsandsupportingargumentsdo i harm altogether.
youfindmostpersuasive? j i mpacton the physi calenvi ronment.

Should people be encouraged to travel 5 Completethe phrasesfor generalising


with the wordsin the
box.
abroad on holiday, or discouraged?
broadly by in in on to
6) Z.Zr Completethe first gap in these sentencesfrom the
listeningexerciseusingthe wordsin the box. lf there is a Generalising
secondgap, use a preposition.Thenlistenagainand check. thewhole and[arge
co n s equenc esdue l e a d s me a n p u rp o s e re sul ted a greatextent mostcases
the reason this reason general speaking
1 A vas tinc r eas e in t h e n u m b e ro f fti g h tso v e rre c e n years
t
h a s- i n c re a s e cda rb o ne mi s s i o n s . 6 Readthetaskbelow.Makenotesaboutyouropinionand
2 An i nc r eas ein t he n u mb e ro f v i s i to rsi n e v i ta b tv argumentsthatsupportit. Includeat leastoneopposing
ex pans ion a n d d e v e l o p me n t. argument.Thinkaboutthe environment, economicbenefits/
3 Th eloc alenv ir onm e nwt a s- th e re s o rt' s drawbacks,qualityof lifeforyourcompatriots,
andthe
p o pular it yin t he f ir s tp l a c e . imageof yourcountryabroad.
4 Mo r ehot elsand m o rere s ta u ra n ts i n e v i ta b l y - more Towhatextentdoestourismbenefityourcountry?
strainon the locaIinfrastructure. Shoutdmoretourismbeencouraged? Givereasonsfor
Th e- - m o refti g h tsw i l l b e i n c re a s e cdli mate youropinions.
cn ange.
Fo r- , I t hink i t' s p a rti c u l a rliymp o rta nfo t r p e opl e
Preparea presentationof no morethan three
to travel.
minutesusingsomeof the phrasesand collocationsfrom
Cl i m at ec hangeis p a rtl y c a rb o ne m i ssi ons
exercises3,4 and 5. Thengive your presentationto the class.
fro m planes .
Th e- tra v e li s to l e a rna b o u to th e rc u l tures.

Unit7. Journe,.,s
i'";**;t#h*kr',.,,''

dfur,s*N;

F{I[fiVfnn Describe the photos.Whatdo youthinkthe


customer is saying?Whatdo youthinkthe callcentre 33 CharlesRoad
Morecambe
assistantis saying?Usethe ideasin the boxto helpyou.
LancashireLA34 5GH
slow/poorservice faultygoods poorworkmanship 24th Auqust 2009
wronglypricedgoods overcharging CustomerServicesDept.
Sunny Day Hotidays
P 0 B ox 342

$
Birmingham889 6GH

DearSir or Madam,
Bookingreference:SD3467PH-7

N I havejust lgot back / returned from a hotiday organised


by your travet companyand 2I'm writing / I am writing to
SifilKIIfd Answerthe questions. complainin the strongestterms about 3a number of / quite
1 Haveyoueverwantedto complain aboutsomethingyou a few things.
afirst of alt To start with, on your website5you say the
bought? Why? /
2 Didyouactuallycomplain?lf not,whynot?lf so,what hotel is / the hotet is described as being'a short walk
from the beach'.6but actually / whereas in fact it took us
happened?
nearly fifteen minutes to get there. walking briskly. ?What
Readthe letterof complaint.
Choose
the mostformal is more, / 0n top of that, the beachitself was dirty and
there were a number of submergedrocks near the shore
expressionsto completeit. 8which made swimming hazardous which meant it was
/
dangerousto swim.
Answerthe questionsaboutthe letter.
My secondcomptaint concernsSunny Day'srepresentative
1 Wheredoesthewriterput(a)herownaddress? (b)the in the resort. eOnour arrival, we were informed by your
recipient's
address? (c)thedate? representative / When we got there your rep told us
2 lf thewriterknewthenameof therecipient,
howwould that the excursions'9we'd/ which we had pre-bookedhad
she(a)greetthe person?(b)signoff? been cancelledand that we would have to 1lmake our own
arrangements / sort it out oursetvesif we wanted to see
Findlinkersin the letterwiththe followingfunctions.
How the local sights. 12Tomake matters worse, / Even worse,
manymorelinkerscanyouaddto the lists? she 13madeno apology for this / didn't say sorry and was
1 makinga contrast generallybrusqueand unhelpful.
Vindtvvo)
2 orderingpoints(findtwo) Finalty,I should like to 'adraw your attention to / point
3 makingadditionalpoints(findtwo) out the quatity of the food at the hotel. 0n the whote,
4 g (findone)
generalisin breakfastand lunch were '5fine / great. However,dinner
was of a very poor standardand '6we were not offered /
Matchwords1-6 with theirmoreformalequivalents
in the they didn't offer us a choice of main dishes.
box. Alt this has spoilt what should have been a wonderful
hotiday, 17andI woutd therefore like a partial refund / so
with numerousourchase
address conform I want some money back. I suggest50% of the cost of the
respond seek hotiday.
I look forward to hearing fiom you.
1 m at c h 3 repty 5 many
Yours faithfully,
2 askfor 4 buy 6 deatwith

Completethe sentences usingthe formalwordsfrom


Vlelenfuoodwerd
6 in theircorrectform.
exercise Helen Woodward

1 Despite catlsto youroffice,up to nowno one


mycomplaints.
2 | am wr it ingt o c o m p l a i na b o u ta C Dp ta y e rth at I
from vour store.
3 Asthe hotidaydid not thedescription in the
brochure,
I shalt- legaladvice
frommysolicitor.
4 Shoutdyoufaitto - to myletter,I shat[haveno
optionbutto initiatecourtproceedings.
o Vocabulary p.139
Buitder7.9:Formallanguage:

,a - - r 7 u n it/.jo u rney s
rr1 1..
r' i 1..a l ttter
af rantpl ai tt,

F{*ilKIIIA Workin pairs.Lookat the holidayphotos.What


complaints mightthe holidaymaker maketo the travel
company? Usetheideasin theboxto helpyou.
badptumbingviewovera construction site
unbearablylongdelays at theairport
btand.inedible
food oolluted beach
lastminutechange to thedateof departure
unexpected additionalfeesandsurcharges

Readthe task,andthe advertisement


andnotes.

Youhavejustreturnedfroma shorthotiday in London


and
areverydisappointed.
Writea letterof 200-250words
to thecustomer
servicesdepartment of thecompany
complainingaboutthehotiday andthewayin whic hthe
advertisement
misledvou.

Getaway Breaks
Twonightsin Londonat bur\y,
friendly
the comfortable, Lrnhe.ipfir\
staff
4 **** King'sHotel
:FeoYaro micviewsof the city
:\'.\ingDins Onlya shortwalkto London's
9us wariaiaTour
itra tor tour of the city
Sightseeing
70 ning
onil \astad
p\and, Only130perperson,
.id tbod including
meals
Booknow to avoid
disappointment.
Writethe middlesectionof yourletter.Puteachmajor
complaint paragraph.
in a separate Usesomeof the
sentencesfromexercise3.
Turnthe notesfromexercise 2 andsomeof the complaints
in exercise1 intofutlsentences usingthe phrases
below. Writethe finalparagraphof yourletter.Saywhatyouexpect
the company to do.Finishwithan appropriateset phrase.
1 | wasdisappointed that/to(find)...
2 lt is reallyunacceptablethat... Onceyouhavewrittena roughdraft,checkyourworkusing
3 Thebrochure ctaimed that...However,... the checklist
below.Thenwritea finalcopyof the letter.
4 | wasappalted that/by...
5 WhatI foundtotallyunacceptable was...
5 To ourhorror,... Haveyou
7 Seldom haveI ...
! includedallthenecessaryinformation?
8 Onemajorproblem was...
I taidoutyourlettercorrectly?
of yourletter.Saywhyyouare
Writethe firstparagraph startedandfinishedthe lettercorrectly?
!
writing.
I usedformallanguage, andlinking words?
! checked thespeltingandgrammar?
|_l writtenthe correct
numberof words?

Unit7. Journe,.,s
Exnrn7
Whatreasons do peoplehavefor suddenly 4 Dothe Useof Engtish
examtask.
leavinghomeandstartinga newlifeabroad?

2 aboutthe photosusingthe wordsin the box.


Makesentences Completethe text. Write one word only in eachgap.
removalvan load(v) ramp stack(v) strap (n) Forsucha smallseabird, thesoogshearwater hasan ambitious take
t-
possessionsprecariouslybalanced theworld.'- itsdiminutive size,it thinksnothing
of flyingfromNewZealand t- pursuitof an endless
to Alaska
summer.
, Dothe Speaking
examtask. Foryears,ornithologists haveknownthatsoogshearwaters breedoff
thecoasts of NewZealand andChilein thesouthern hemisphere, and
thencrosstheequator to therichsummer feeding grounds of theNortr'
Pacific,a-
Compare the photos.
andcontrast the questions
Answer stretchfromCalifornia to Japan. Nowa studyhas
abouteachphoto. shownthatthisepicfeat5- performed overa singlebreeding
season, withindividual birdstravelling o-
asfar 62,400km in
justoneyear.
It isthelongest migration routeundertaken by individualanimals that
hasbeenrecorded by scientists,
according '- ScottShaffer,a
research biologistattheUniversity of California,Santa Cruz,wholedr=
teambehindthestudy.'The'- birdspecies knownthat
rivalthemigrations of thesootyshearwater wouldbethe
arctictern,whichbreeds in theArcticandmigrates to Antarctica,'Dr
to-
Shaffer said.'Butwedontknow theydothatin a single
season, because nobody's evertracked them.'

R eadthe sentencesin t he List ening


examtask.W hat do you thi nk the l i steni ngis about ?

6 $l z.zz DotheListening
examtask.

Listento part of a radio programme.Choosethe correc:


opti on(s)to compl etethe sentences. A t l e astone of t he
opti onsi s al w ayscorrect,and someti mesbot h opt ions- =,
be correct.
1 H umpbackw hal es
A travelfurtheri n one go than any othe ranim aL
B are born i n w armw atersoff the coas tof Cent 'a
A meri ca.
2 The marki ngson the w hal es'tai l s enab ledt he
researchers to
A i denti fythe samew hal ei n enti rel ydif f er ent, . . . . '. - - :
B i denti fyw hi ch catvesbel ongedto w hich m ot - : ':
3 B abyhumpbackw hal es
A spendthe fi rstyearof thei r Ii vesi n war mv, , a: . '
1 W hy ar e t he peo p l emo v i n g ,d o y o u th i n k ? B someti mestravelthousandsof ki l om et r esi. : - , - .
2 W her edo y ou t h i n k th e y a re g o i n g ? breedi nggroundsoon afterthey are bor n.
3 H ow ar e t heirex p e ri e n c edsi ffe re n t?
4 The researchers empl oyeda satel l i te
A to establ i shhow w armthe w ateri s wher et - : : =:
w hal esare born.
Completinga textwith appropriatewords B to trackthe w hal es'j ourneyacrossth e ec- a: - -
o Mostof the missingwordsin thistypeof taskwiltbe 5 One resul tof the researchi s that sci en t ist sr : , , , . - :
'grammar words'(artictes,
auxitiaryverbs,pronouns, A w hi chtype of w hal esmi gratesthe fu r t hes:
prepositions,
etc.). B w hy humpbackw hal estrave[[ednorthac: : s- . - .
o Donotwritemorethanonewordin eachgap. eoual or.
THIS UNI T I 1{ CT UD ES .8 ,
Yocabulary.clothesand styles. two-panadjectives . colloquiallanguage.foodrelatedwordsand
: - rases. phrasesfor describing statistics,graphs,chartsandtrends. phrasesfor givingestimates
. o e r i p h r a saisn de u p h e ml sm.co n n o tation
GEmmar. would. modalvetbs
Speaking . 1311;ng 6boutattitudesto food. talkingaboutyouthculture. stimulusbased-discussion
Writingo 3 1spsft

I c a n t ql k abaut
c l o th e sand fa.rhi on
Fash
ion
FnhAKIIfd Discuss
this quotationby Englisheccentric tip.Workin pairs.Matchas manyof the
3 Readthe speaking
QuentinCrisp.Whatdoesit mean?Doyouagree? Arethere wordsbelowas possible
to the photographsin exercise
2.
otherreasons
forwantingto befashionable?
Generat
Fashionis whatyou adopt when chic dishevelledelegant neat scruffy shabby
you don't know who you are. smart stytish trendy unkempt well-dressed
Specific
tril:tlfilllG Lookat the photos.Doyouthinkthesepeople garments: bandana corset cravat waistcoat
partsof garments:
buckle button collar cuff laces
lookfashionable Whichclothesdo you
or unfashionable?
designs,materials,
etc:check denim fishnet ripped
likemostandleast?
stripy studded tartan
hair:bob dreadlocksextensionsgoatee ptaits
stubble
accessories:bangle chain piercing

4 onephotofromexercise
Describe 2. Followthe
structure
suggested
in the speaking
tip.

O f.Of Listento fourteenagers talkingaboutclothes.Are


the sentences trueor false,or is the answernotstated?
1 Speaker 1 talksabouta boyfromschoolandrecalls that
casuaI clothes werehisthing.
2 Speaker 2 wasmadeto wearan outfitthat,if it hadbeenup
to her,shewouldn't havebeenseendeadin.
3 Speaker 3 thinksthatthestyleof ctothing wornbyChandter
in Friendsquitesuitshisbrother.
4 Speaker 4 complains abouthaving to wearclothes
with
logoson thefront.

6 6) f.Of Complete
thesetwo-partadiectives
withthewords
in the box.Tryto remember
whichnounstheydescribe.
Then
listenagainandcheck.

fitting length neck piece sleeved tight toed up

7 three- 5 loose-
2 futl- 6 long-
3 open- 7 skin-
4 8 zip-
os Vocabulary idioms:p.140
Builder8.1:Clothes

Whendescribinga photo,it is oftenhetpfulto structure Workin pairs.Tellyourpartnerwhetheryouagree


yourdescription
in thisway: or disagree
withthe statements, andwhy.
-) specific
general -) speculative 1 Women aremoreinterested in fashion
thanmen.
Forexample,
if describinga person's
appearance,
startby 2 Someclothes onlysuityoungpeople.
sayingwhethertheylooksmart,casual,etc.Thendescribe 3 Youneeda lotof moneyto alwayslookfashionable.
theirappearancein detail.Thenspeculate
aboutwhothey 4 Someclothes do notlookgoodon anybody andshould
mightbe,wheretheymightbegoing,etc. neverDeworn.

Unit8 . Tastes
c^n taLkabautdffirent
atttt^det to food.
Foodor fue[?
Youaregoingto readpartof an articlecalled 6 fromthe listening
O f.OZ Complete theseexcerpts with
Whatkindof meatdo youthinkit
'Meatfor vegetarians'. thewordsin the box.Thenlistenagainandcheck.
couldbe?Discuss yourideasin pairs.
craved foodie fuel gorge lived menu tooth
Quicklyreadthe articleandfindthe answerto exercise
1. touched treat
1 lt wasa real-, goingto the localtakeaway.
2 Lotsof thingsareoffthe
3 Asteenagers, we nothingelse.
It is the ultimate conundrum
4 | prettymuch- on chocolate andsweets.
for vegetarians who thinkthat
5 | hardly a pieceof fruit.
meatis murder:a revolution
6 Myfriendsreckon| - on chocolate.
in processed foodthatwill
7 | iustdon'thavea sweet
seefreshmeatgrownfrom
8 | suppose I treatfoodas-.
animalcellswithouta single
9 Mysister's a reat-.
cow,sheepor pigbeingkilled,
Researchers havepublished Studythe followingexcerptsand matchthe usesof wouldto
detailsin a biotechnology journaldescribinga newtechnique types1-5 inthe Learnthis!box.Whichexample is difficult
whichtheyhailedasthe answerto the world'sfood shortage. to match?Explain the meaning of thatexample.
Lumpsof meatwouldbe culturedin laboratory vatsrather 1 | wouldhavebeenaboutfourteen at thetime.
thancarvedfrom livestock rearedon a farm.
2 | wouldn'teatswordfish, for example.
According to researchers, meatgrownin laboratorieswould 3 I'd saythereareveryfewfoodsthataresafeto eat!
be more environmentally friendly
and could be tailoredto
4 Mydadwouldn'tletus havesugarwhenwewerekids.
be healthier thanfarm-reared meatby controlling
its nutrient
5 Buthewoutdsaythat,wouldn'the?
contentand screening it for food-bornediseases.Vegetarians 6 She'dinsistthatwetry it, though.
mightalsobe temptedbecause the cellsneededto grow
7 I wouldguessshe'shopingto makea career outof it.
chunksof meatcanbe takenwithoutharming the donor 8 | wouldloveto sampletheireveryday dishes.
animal.
for NASA, I
Experiments the USspaceagency, havealready
6l Wecan usewould
shownthatmorselsof ediblefishcanbe grownin petridishes, i 1 with verbslikesay andthinkto makea statementless
thoughno one hasyet eatenthe food.Now researchers have = definite.
takenthe prospect of 'culturedmeat'a stepfurtherby working = 2 to talkabouthabitual actions in thepast.
out howto produceit on an industrial Theyenvisage
scale. =-/ 3 to talkaboutwiltingness (orunwiltingness) to do
musclecellsgrowingon hugesheetsthatwouldbe regularly something in the past in
or the hypothetical future.
k
stretched to exercise the cellsastheygrow.Onceenough W 4 withverbslikelove,Iikeandratherwhentalkingabout
cellshadgrown,theywouldbe scrapedoff andshapedinto preferences.
processed meatproductssuchas chickennuggets. 5 to makea logicaldeduction (similarto must).

o. Grammar 8.7:would:p.727
Builder
Findexamplesof wouldin the text in exercise2. Howwould
the meaningbe slightlydifferentif thesewerechangedto
Rewritethesesentences usingwould.
will?
1 Mydadalways usedto cookIunchon Sundays.
In pairs,discussthesequestions aboutthe text. 2 I'm notprepared to eatgenetically
modifiedfood.
Givereasonsfor youranswers. 3 He'stryingto loseweight,probably.
4 Spending a yeartravelling
hasbroadened hertastesin
1 Wouldyoueat'cultured meat'?
food,probably.
2 Doyouthinkmanyvegetarians wouldeatit?
5 My motherrefused to buySouthAfricanfruitbecauseof
3 Doyouthinkthemassproduction of 'cultured
meat'would
apartheid.
be a goodor badthingfortheworld?
4 In general,do youthinkit is goodto trynewandunusual Workin pairs.Askandanswerthe questions.
kindsof food?
1 Doyouconsider foodto be fuel,or areyoua bit of a
'foodie'?
Justifuyouranswer.
O f.OZ Listento fourpeopletalkingabouttheirattitudes
to food.Doeseachspeakereata wideror narrowerrangeof 2 Howhaveyourtasteschanged overtheyears?
foodnowthanin the past?Why? 3 lf youhadto liveentirely
on threedifferentdishes,what
wouldtheybe?

Unit8 . Tastes
t E &IFU ' !: ':

,' :l rl ,/r'r/( .'bi trl ,'ettl r.


r'./r,, .;,t.' /. /'..'t.

Flllil![trlTffdWork
in pairs. Describe
whatthe people
in the photoare
A Hrffit
WhotheyareTheymaycareabouttheenvironment butthiscreware
wearing. Dosome
lessalienated
thantheirearly1990s counterparts. the
Theydon'trelect
youngpeople
modern world- theyembrace it to change
it.
dresslikethis
WhereyoufindthemNoses buriedin ecology books;
organising
in yourcountry? onlinepetitions.
Whattheirlookis Sweatshirts fromHowies; dreadlocks
or undercuts.
Whattheylistento Jungle{olk bandVampire Weekend;drum'n'bass
DJMechanical Organic.

Lookquicklythroughthe textOurgang.Whichof the five B URBAIIIil


stylesdoesthe photoin exercise
1 show? WhotheyareStreet kids,butnotasyouknowthem- imagine
mini-entrepreneurs
whoareridiculously clued-uponart,fashionand,
Forquestions1-10, choosefromthe fivestytes(A-E). of course.
music.
WhereyoufindthemIntheday,spotthemskiving in theirlocal
Whichgang
recordshop,looking
forrare1990s tracks
to remix.
Later,it'severyone
1 is interested
in creating
music? T place
overto a mate's to hearhislatest
demo.
2 atways dressesimmaculately? tr Whattheirlookis Hoodies fromSupreme or Bathing
Ape;limited-
in 'green'issues?
3 is interested tr edition
trainers.
4 oftenwearsveryhighshoes? ! Whattheylistento Dubstep,
hip-hop.
moremeaningful
a heavier, branchof
5 tendsnotto mixwiththeopposite sex? T
6 prefers
thecinema to thetelevision? r c Aleo tndie,
7 hasa keensenseof business? tr WhotheyareInstead
isaboutpushing
of ruthlessintrospection,
eachotherhomeintrolleys andthenposting
kids
lifeforneo-indie
the
8 enjoysprovoking
negative
reactions? T photosonline.
9 oftenwearsdistinctivemake-up? T WhereyoufindthemTravelling around packs;
townin single-sex
10 is moreinterested
in funthanreflection? tr queuing fortickets
to seebands.
Whattheirlookis Whatever it is- Topshop andAmerican Apparel,
wordsin redin the textwith
Matcheightof the colloquial mostly- it mustbeperfect.
definitions
1-8.Thenwritesimilardefinitions forthe Whattheylistento Theirfavourite band,of course.WeSmoke Fags
othersix.Usethe contextto helpyouanda dictionary, if andTheEnemy arehot.
necessary.
(adi)having
1 r.rannabe. to be something
an ambition
D [u 6rauo
2 - (v)avoiding work/school WhotheyareGoths, butflamboyant Theyloveto bedifferent
ones.
3 - (adi)verytight andlapuptheattention theygetfromshocked relatives.
4 - (phrv) seeingorwatching (a show,etc.) WhereyoufindthemFindthematnu-grave nightsin grungyvenues
(adi)dirty,notsmart likeKorsanBarin eastLondon.
5 -
(adi)knowtedgeable,wetl-informed Whattheirlookis Theytakeinspirationfromthedarker sideof high
6 -
(phrv) acceptgratefully fashion.
Addwet-lookhair,blacklips,patentleather
trench coats and
7 -
20cmplatforms.
8 - (n)a groupof friends
Whattheylistento Good-looking youngnu-gravebands suchasThe
yoursixdefinitions
Compare 4 withyour
fromexercise Horrors
a'i{ lpsoFacto.
Doyouagreeon the meanings?
classmates. E FAUXHNK
Workin pairsor groups. WhotheyareArtstudents andwannabe wholiveforcreativity,
actors
loveandtheirfriends.
Donotmistakethemforrealpunks.
1 Decide stylethatis common
on a distinctive amongyoung Whereto findthemWatching bands attheDotto Dotfestival
in
peoplewhereyouIive.Inventa nameforit, if it doesnot Noftingham;
reading 'zines
underground suchasthePiX;takinginfilms
haveone. byGregg Arakior GusVanSant;
actively
notwatchingtelly.
2 Makenotesaboutthestyleusingthesamesubheadings Whattheirlookis Likeoldpunks,butmuchbetter-looking.Yellow
astheonesin Ourgong. DMs;super-skinnyjeans;
McQvests;bikerjackets.
3 Writea textaboutthestvtesimilar to theonesin Our Whattheylistento Goodlooking,well-dressed
newbands suchas
gang.Usecolloquial language wherepossible. andLateofthePier.
Gallows
I caw uMerctattd dnd rcact
to an adi cLeabout faad screrye
Foodof thefuture
1 neadthe newspaper
cuttingandanswerthe Technology developed to keepcooking oil freshcouldhelp
questions. theworld'spoorestpeopleby
a increasing theirconsumption of nutrients.
1 Whatarenano-particles andwhatpotentiaI
benefits
do
b preventing fishfromgoingofftooquickty.
theyhavein relationto food?
2 Whyaresomepeopleconcerned c alertingthemwhenwatersupplies become contaminated
aboutnano-particles
in food? d enabting themto purifywatermoreeasily.
At its mostadvanced, nano-technology mightenabte
consumers to
104products on shelvesalready a experience previouslyundreamed-of combinations of
contain toxic nano-particles, tastes.
b makeanyfoodtheycanthinkof withouttheneedfor
warns Friends of the Earth conventionaI ingredients.
Potentially toxic chemicalsare being incorporatedinto food, c havea muchhigherlevelof proteinin theirdiet.
packaging,health supplementsand other productsby stealth,it d avoidfoodstheydislikealtogether.
is claimed.Manufacturersboastthat nano-particles,which are 5 Intheopinionof thescientist DavidBennett, howwillthe
thousandsof times thinner than a human hair, can deliver drugs pubticreactto nano-food?
or vitamins more effectively,kill harmful bugs in food or create a They'llgiveit a cautious welcome.
self-cleaningwindows.But scientists,consumergroupsand b They'ltbetoo concerned aboutthe dangers to welcomeit.
greencampaignersfear the technologyis being introducedinto c They'tteventually be wonoverbyall the potentiaIbenefits.
the diet, body and environmentwithout proper safetychecks. d They't[wantto decidewhether the potential benefits
outweigh the dangers.

Lookquicktythroughthe texton page85. Matchparagraphs 7 Howis thesizeof nano-particles retevantto theirpotential


dangers?
2-6 with fiveof the headings
in the box.
a Mostsubstances aretoxicat nano-scales.
Products now Create
available yourownflavours b Theyaretoosma[[forscientists to tracktheirposition.
Tinytoxins Healthier
andmoreexciting
food c Oncethey'reinsidethebody,theybehave likeviruses.
Publicprotests Unknowndangers d Theirmicroscopic sizeallowsthemto passthrough the
body'susualdefences.
1: Introduction
Paragraph
Paragraph
2: - 4 Findthesewordsin the text.
Paragraph
3t - Paragraph
1: twosweetdishesandtwosavoury dishes
Paragraph
4:,- Paragraph
2; fouradjectivesthatdescribe
foodor drink
Paragraph
5: - Paragraph
3: twothingsthatcanspoilfoodand makeit
Paragraph
6: - inedibte
Paragraph
4: threeof the elementsthatmostfoodcontains
Readthe textandchoosethe bestanswers. (suchascarbohydrate ...)
1 WhatdoesWiltyWonka's magical chewinggumhavein Paragraph
5: fourwords whichmean'danger'
common withtypesof nano-foodin development? Paragraph
6: fourorgansofthehumanbody
a Theybothcontainan excitingmixof tastes.
b Bothareappealingto youngchildren. Workin pairs.Writeas manywordsasyoucanunderthese
c Theybothallowtheconsumer to choose theflavours. headings Whichpairhasthe mostwords?
in threeminutes.
d They'rebothmadein a factory. 1 sweetdishes
2 Whichelements of 'programmable food'wouldconsumers 2 savourydishes
be ableto determine byzapping it? 3 adjectives
thatdescribe
foodor drink
a colour,consistency andnutritionalvatue 4 elementsthatfoodcontains
b temperature,colourandtaste
c taste,nutritionalvalueandcolour
6 Workin pairs.Discuss
the questions.
d texture,
tasteandcolour 1 Wouldyoubewitting to eatfoodwhichcontainednano-
particles?
Why?/Why not?
3 Untikeordinary packaging,'smart'packaging
2 Doyouthinkresearch intonano-foodshouldbe banned?
a keepsfoodfreshpermanently.
Why?/Why not?
b preventsanyoxygen fromreaching the food.
c hasyetto arriveon supermarket shelves. o* Builder8.2:Talkingaboutfood:p.140
Vocabulary
d canmonitor thecondition of thefoodit contains.

6 U nit8.Ia sr e s
/
Mostpeoplehaveheardaboutthe'smart' 'nanobiotechnologg', believes the publicwill

Nano-food
t WillgWonkais theFather of nano-food.
foodpackaging
oxggen
thatwillwarnwhen
hasgotinside,
off- research
or iffoodis going
onthatis complete andthe
almostcertainlg
of the perceived
assessment
rejectnano-food
perils.'Verg
because
littlerisk
hasbeendoneonthisarea,
Thegreatchocolate-factorgowner,gou'll products arearriving. Samsung hasfridges evenon someproducts alreadg entering
remember, invented a chewing gumthat onthemarketin AsiaandAmerica thatuse the market'.What'sto be afraidof.froma
wasa fullthree-course dinner.'lt
willbe nano-silverto killbacteria. Alsoavailablein technologg thatoffersso much- healthier
theendof all kitchensandcooking,' hetold American supermarkets is cooking oilthat,in food,fewer,better-targeted chemicals, less
thechildrenon histour- andproduced a theorg,canbe keptfreshforever- thanks waste,'smart' Iand thus less] packaging,
prototupesampleof Wonka's MagicChewing to nano-engineered molecules which andeventhepromise of a technological
Gum.Onestripof thiswoulddeliver tomato lockontocontaminants. Thesecouldalso solution to theoroblem of theonebillion
soup,roastbeefwithroastpotatoes and simplifgthe process of cleaning drinking people whodon'tgetenough to eat?'Matter
blueberrgpieandicecream- in the right water- potentiallg hugelgimportant for hasdifferent behaviour at nano-scales,'
order. thedeveloping world.InAustralia, Uoucan sagsDrKeesEijkelfromthe DutchTwente
bugbreadthatcontains undetectable nano- Universitg.'That meansdifferent hazards
a Far-fetched? Theprocessed-food giant
capsules of omega-3, a valuable nutrient areassociated withit.Wedon'tknowwhat
Kraftanda groupof research laboratories
foundnaturallg in oilgfishlikesalmon. theseare.'Forexample, somemetalswillkill
arebusgworkingtowards'programmable
n Foodmanufacturers includingUnilever bacteria at nano-scale - hencethe interest
food'.0neproduct thegareworkingon is
andNestl6planto usenano-encapsulation in usingthemin foodpackaging-butwhat
a colourless, tasteless drinkthatgou,the
to improve shelflifeandengineer taste willhappen iftheggetoffthepackaging
consumer, willdesignaftergou'veboughtit.
sensations in fat-based foodslike andintous?Could thegbea threatto our
You'lldecide whatcolourandflavourgou'd
chocolates, icecreamsandspreads. There health?Nooneseemsto know.
likethedrinkto be,andwhatnutrients it will
havein it,oncegougethome.You'll zapthe couldbe hugereductions in fatandsaltin s Thesizequestion is central to these
product witha correctlg-tuned microwave processed foods.Unilever believesit can concerns. Nano-oarticles thatareunder100
transmitter - presumablg Kraftwillsellgou reduce thefatcontentof icecreamfrom nano-metres wide- lessthanthesizeof a
that,too.Thiswillactivate nano-capsules - fifteenpercentto onepercent.Inthefuture, virus- haveuniqueabilities. Thegcancross
e a cho neabout2, 000t im e ss ma l l eth
r a nth e atomic-level encapsulation techniques will thebodU's naturalbarriers, entering intocells
widthof a hair- containing the necessarg getmoresophisticated. A chefmightdecide orthrough the liverintothebloodstream or
chemicals forgourchoiceof drink:green- thatsomeflavours in hisdisfnwould onlg eventhroughthecellwallsurrounding the
hued.blackcurrant-flavoured witha touchof be released to theeatera certainnumberof brain.'l'dliketo drinka glassof waterand
caffeine andomega-3, sag.Thegwilldissolve seconds or minutesafterchewing, orwhen knowthatthecontents aregoingintomV
whilealltheotherpossible ingredients will thegsipa glassof wine.Further ahead, stomach andnotintomg lungs,'sags Dr
p a ssu n us ed gou rb o d gi,nth e i r
t hr ough the industrgis looking at foodthatis pre- OasimChaudhrg of the Britishgovernment's
nano-capsules. engineered to caterforgourtastes,gour Central Science LaboratorU.'We aregiving
dislikesandgourallergies - orjust builtfrom vergtoxicchemicals theabilitgto crosscell
s Theendof cooking? Probablg not.But
scratch.Ultimatelg, it mightbe possible to membranes, to gowheretheg'venevergone
nano-food andnano-food packaging are
createanUmealgouwantat thepushofa before. Wherewillthegendup?lt hasbeen
ontheirwavbecause thefoodindustrg
button,usingnothingbut plantproteins. shownthatfreenano-particles inhaled can
hasspotted the chanceforhugeprofits:
5 ButDrDavidBennett,a veteran gostraightto the brain.Therearelotsof
according to analgsts,
the business willsoon
biochemist
nowworkingon a European concerns. Wehaveto ask- dothe benefits
b ewo rt h$20billion
annu a l l g
Yo. u 'fil l rs t
projectontheethicsof
Commission outweigh therisks?' i
meetnanotechnologg in foodpackaging. I

U ni t8. Tast es
I can use maolaLverbs

Modalverbs accurately and effecttveLy

Lookat the newspaper


cuttingandexplainthe 4 Lookat the photoof a
wordplay
in the headline.
Whatdo youthinkthesandwich dessertthatcosts
mightcontain? S25,000 andtalk
aboutit using
Howdoestnc[85sandwich thesephrases.

tasteflInaw01d:
rich It mustbe ...
It couldn't
be ...
It's not a You'dhaveto ...
gimmick, People should/
sayschef shouldn't...because
...
who
f) r.or Listento a
created it. conversationaboutthe dessert.
Whowouldliketo try it: the man
or thewoman?

O f.Of Readthe sentences fromthe conversation.Decide


whichmodalmakesbettersensein the context. Thenlisten
Readopinions1-7 aboutthef85 sandwich. Decidewhich againandcheck.
modalor modalsfit eachgap.Tryto explainwhythe othe(s)
1 Theymay/ musthavesoldhundreds.
do notfit.
2 Youmight/ mayhavetotdmeyouweregoingto NewYork
1 'lt - bea publicity
stuntbytherestaurant.' nextweek!
a c an b must c should 3 Youcould/ shouldtakehimoutfora meal.
2 ' A s andwic h- b e w o rthf8 5 , h o w e v ear mazi ng.' 4 Wemay/ mighthavebeenarrested.
a c an' t b mustn't c couldn't 5 Youmight/ shouldhavea betterevening thistime.
3 ' P eople s p e n ds o mu c ho n a s a n d w i c hw hen 6 lt couldn't
/ mightnof be anyworse!
ther e' spov er t ya n d h u n g e ri n th e w o rl d .' 7 Youcould/ maygivemea lift to theairportl
a s houldn' t b o u g h tn o t to c d o n ' t h aveto 8 Wetl,if youmight/ shouldtry it, tetmeknow!
4 ' lf y ou t hink it ' s a w a s teo f mo n e y y, o u - b u y i t.' Explain
howthe meaning of eachsentence
in exercise
6
a needn' t b mustn't c d o n ' t h a veto wouldchangeif the othermodalwerechosen.
5 'lf youhavethatmuchmoney you_
to spend, buya
sandwich forf 3 andgivef82 to charity.' Workin pairs.Decide whetherthe sentences arenatural
a haveto b oughtto c should Englishor not.lmprove thesentences whicharenot.
6 'Themoralis:You- believeeverything youreadin 1 Thisdessertis amazing. Youreallymusttry it!
thenewspapers!' 2 Thefoodthereis alwaysterrific,buttheservice couldbea
a mustn't b d o n ' t h a v eto c needn't bitslowsometimes.
7 'A totof people workfora wholedayor moreto 3 'CoutdI tryyourpizza?''Yes.
youcould.Goaheadl'
ear nf 85! ' 4 Customers mayonlyconsume drinkspurchased onthe
a m us t b haveto c should premises.
5 Mycreditcardbitlis astronomica[!| guessI oughtnotto
Lookat youranswers to exercise 2. Decide whichmodalswe havespentso muchon eatingout!
useto talkabout1-7. 5 lt'sonlyanother 30 kilometres.
Weshouldbetherein time
7 what we believeis right ( or _-) fordinner.
2 what we believeis wrong ( or --) 7 | prefer
eatingoutnowthatpeoplemustn't smoke
3 whatwe c anded u c ei s d e fi n i te l ytru e ( )
anywhere insidea restaurant.
4 whatwe c anded u c ei s d e fi n i te l yn o t tru e (_ or 8 Because mysisterworksin a restaurant,
shemustwork
) lateeverynight.
5 w hatwe ar e obli g e dto d o ( ) Workin pairs.Discuss
the question.
6 w hatwe ar e not o b l i g e dto d o ( o r -)
7 what we are obtigedor stronglyadvisednof to do ( wrongforpeopleto paythatmuchfora
ls it morally
)
restaurantdish,evenif theycanaffordit?Why?/Why
not?
a G r ar nm ar
B u i l d e r8 .? : Mo d a l s :o . 1 2 7

Unit8. Tastes
I can dercrtbeand respondto

Stimulus-based
discussion vtsualstiwtuli in a discnssiatr.

1 Workin pairs.Matchthe charts(1-4)withtheirnamesin the


3 6) f.O+ Listenagain.Ticktheexpression (a or b)thatthe
boxandtheirdescriptions(a-d)below.
speakers use.(Botharevalidexpressions.)
graph table barchart piechart 1 a Forme,themostinteresting aspect is ...
b Whatstrikes measmostinteresting is ...
1 - ideatforl 3 - ideatforE 2 a ...a sharorisein thetotaInumber of ...
2 - ideatforE 4 - ideatforE b ...a significant increase in thetotaInumber of ...
3 a ...a verylargeproportion of people...
a d i sp lay ing
s t at is t ic w
s h i c hto ta t1 0 0 %
b ...thevastmajority of people...
b sh owinghow a s it u a ti o nh a sc h a n g e do v e rti me
4 a Thecharttellsusthat...
c visualtycomparingtwo relatedsetsof statistics
b Accordingto thechart,...
d p res ent inga v ar ietyo f s ta ti s ti c ai n
l fo rm a ti o n
i n a c t earbut
5 a ...moreor lessthesamenumber of people...
n o n- diagr am m atf iocrm
b ...roughly equalnumbers of people...
Estimated
salesof Fairtrade
Droducts Regular
vs occasionaI products
buyersof Fairtrade 6 a ...seeing it in thisformreallybringshometo you...
35 b ...thewayit is presented helpsto emphasise ...
30 7 a There's a strongtendency to reject.../embrace ...
25 b There's a definitetrendawayfrom.../towards...
va 20
8 a ...theratehasremained ouitestabte...
75
b ...theratehasnotftuctuated verymuch...
10
5 I Regular 9 a Therehasbeena slightincrease/decrease in ...
0 I occ as i onal b ...hasincreased/decreased marginally.
10 a Thesignificance of thisisthat...
b Thisis significant because ...
) tn an averageweek,howoften
- do you eat at a fast-foodoutlet? 4 Explainthefollowingexpressions.
Uselanguage from
exercise 3 whereappropriate.
Ratesof obesityhave:
1 rocketed 5 plateaued
everyday 7"/o -
2 creptup 6 stumped
3 timesor more8o/o/ 3 pl ummeted 7 tailedoff
4 mul ti pti ed 8 stabilised

@ Salesof organicfood Completethe sentence belowusingexpressions


fromthe
boxin positiona or b. Whichexpression
couldgo in either
>Il position?
Whatotherwordscouldyouuseto meanthe same?
510
Fastfood consumptionhas risen (a) 10%
$8
(b)

$4
giveor takea percent in roundnumbers moreor less
in theregionof something like orthereabouts
0
2001

@ Healthyeating
Whenyouaretalkingaboutchartsandstatistics,
do not
simptyreporttheinformation Givea personal
theycontain.
reaction
too.Whatis surprising
or important
aboutthe
information?

6 Readthe speaking
tip.Whichexpressions
fromexercise
3
2 canbe usedto givea personal
reaction?
6) f.o+ Listento fourpeopletalkingaboutdifferent
charts.Foreachspeaker, identifywhatthegeneraltopicof
thecharttheyarespeaking aboutis. Talkaboutthe information
contained
in the
chartsin exercise
1. Useexpressions
fromexercises 3, 4
Sp e a k er1 S p e a k e3r and5 wherepossible.
Sp e a k er2 S p e a k e4r
8 Turnto page143anddo thetask.

Unit8 . Tastes
( tit1 VvfIt( q r(P A rt

Introduction for local talent, it's garnering quite a reputation among


The aim of this report is to give an serious music fans in the area Tickets are reasonably
insighl in[o the wide range of live priced, wrth concessionsfor students and the unemployed
music that is available in this area, The room is a little cosy, to say the least, but that adds to
and to single out one venue which the atmospherel That said, it does have a tendency to be
I would particulariy recommend very crowded on Saturday nights, perhaps unpleasantly
visiting so. Stage One is somewhat larger than the Cave, with an
Large venues advertised capacity of 350 as opposed to the Cave's 250
They tend to attract slightly better-known acts, but at
There are two llve music venues of
f25-30 a throw, tlckets aren't exactly cheap, and when
a reasonablesize: the Apollo and,the
bought over the phone incur
Hippodrome These attract headline
an additional booking fee of
acts from all pafis of the UK, and
f2.50 per ticket
occasionallyfrom overseastoo. The
Apollo has recently been refurbished Recommendation
and 1sclean, well-run and well-appointed. To my mind, If you only have time to
however, it is a little on the sterile side The Hippodrome is visit one venue, I would
the polar opposite: dark, grungy and chaotically-managed recommend its
- and it could certainly do with better air-condrtioning. But programme includes the best
what it lacks rn slickness. it makes uD for rn character! bands in the UK and whiie lt
Smaller venues may not be the most polished
gig you've ever seen, it should
If it's internationally-renowned performers you're looking for,
be a memorable evening
the Cave rsn't the venue for vou However. as a showcase

Compareand contrastthe photos.Whichgig Readthe writingtip. Thenfind examplesof periphrasisand


wouldyou ratherbe at? Givereasons. euphemismin the text with the meaningsbelow.
1 l t' s steri l e.
Readthe reportabout live musicvenuesin the writer'sarea. 2 l t needsbetterai r-condi ti oni ng.
Answerthe questions. 3 l t i sn' tsl i ck,but i t hascharacter.
1 ls the reportwrittenin formaIor retativelyinformat 4 TheC avedoesn' thavei nternati onal l y- r enowned
language? G iv ee x a mp l e sto s u p p o rty o u ra n s w er. oerformers.
2 W ho do y ou t hin kth e i n te n d e da u d i e n c efo r th e report 5 Theroomi s smal l .
m ightbe?G iv er e a s o n s . 6 lt's verycrowdedon Saturdaynights.
3 W hic hv enuedo e sth e w ri te rre c o m m e n dC? o mpl ete the 7 Ticketsare expensive.
g ap in t he r epo rt. 8 Thegi g w on' t be pol i shed,but the eveni ngshouldbe
memorabl e.
Findwordsor phrasesin the text which meanthe opposite
o f 1- 8. Softenthese negativecommentsusingperiphrasisor
1 u nk nownac t s 5 overpriced euphemi sm.
2 b adly - m anage d 5 empty 1 Theband i sn' tverysuccessfu[.
3 p oor ly - equipp e d 7 u n re h e a rs e d 2 Thedrummeri sn' tski l ful ,but he' senthu siast ic.
4 c lean 8 forgettable 3 Thesong isn'tveryorigina[,but it's catchy.
4 Thesinger'svoice is unattractive.
5 Thesi ngersometi mes goesout of tune.
l n or dert o s of t ena n e g a ti v ec o mme n t,w e o fte nu se 5 Thestagei s too smal l .
p er iphr as is( us in gm o rew o rd sth a n n e c e s s a ryo)r 7 Thesoundsystemsometi mesdoesn' tw o r k.
e uphem is m( r epl a c i n ng e g a ti v eo r o ffe n s i v ew o rd sw i th 8 Theroomi s too hot.
som et hingt es sdi re c t).
Periphrasis:Thisvenueis a little on the shabbyside. Discussthe questionsas a class.
(insteadof Thisvenueis shabby.) 1 W hatarethe advantages and di sadvant agesof list eningt o
Euphemism:Thefloor coulddo with a clean.(insteadof l i vemusi c,ratherthan recordedmusi c?
Thefloor is dirty.) 2 W hi chperformers w oul dyou mostl i keto seeper f or m ing
l i ve?Gi vereasons.

Unit8 . Tastes
ln pairs,thinkof wordswhichhavethe samecoremeaning
Workin pairs.Compareandcontrastthe asthewordsbelow,buta lessnegative connotation.
Usea
restaurants
in the photos.Whichwouldyoupreferto eatat, dictionaryif necessary.
andwhy?
1 bossy- asierlivg 5 scrawny
2 stubborn 6 arrogant
3 tactless 7 ftippant
4 out-dated 8 abnormal

A reportshouldbe laidoutin theclearest possible


form.
Unlikeotherformsof writing,
it is fineto usesubheadings
in a reoort.

Readthe writingtip.Then,in pairs,readthetaskanddecide


whatheadings to usefor sections 2 and3 of the planbelow.
Dividethevenuesaccording to size,styleof food,price,or
yourownidea.
A groupof foreignstudentsarevisitingyourtown for a
week.Writea reportgivinginformationaboutthe range
Readthese two descriptionsof the samerestaurantmeat.
of cafsand restaurants.
Incl udeat l eastone per sonal
Whichis more positiveabout the experience?
recommendati on.
A Lunchwas a relaxedaffair.I beganwith a light starterof
g ar licpr awnsT. hisw a sfo l l o w e db y ' C re o l eGu mb o' ,a 1 (theaimof the report)
Introduction
n o v elc om binat ion o f p o rk ,c h i c k e na n d s e a fo o dw h i ch 2 - (first
typeof venue)
ca mewit h a s idedi s h o f s u c c u l e nvte g e ta b l e sF. o rdessert, 3 - (second typeofvenue)
I o p t edf or t he m an g os o rb e t,w h i c hw a s p a rti c u l a rl y 4 Recommendation
sweet.
B L unc hwas a longa n d d ra w n -o uat ffa i r.I b e g a nw i th a Workin pairs.Talkaboutcaf6sandrestaurants
meagrestarterof garlicprawns.Thiswas fottowedby youknow(orinventthemifyoudon'tknowany).Addnotes
'Cr eoleG um bo' ,an o d d c o n c o c ti o o n f p o rk ,c h i c k e nand to the planin exercise
6. Decidewhichvenueto recommend.
se af oodwhic hc am ew i th a s i d ed i s h o f s o g g yv e g etabl es.
Fordessert,I opted for the mangosorbet,which was Workingindividually,writea reportof 200-250words
particularlysickly. yourplanfromexercise
foltowing 5. Remember to writein
an appropriatestylefor youraudience. Includeat leastone
example of periphrasis
or euphemism.
Wo rd swit h t he s am ec o reme a n i n gc a n h a v ev e ryd i f ferent
yourworkusingthe listbelow.
Check
co n not at ionst :hes eg i v eu s i n fo rm a ti o na b o u tth e wri ter' s
a tti tu de.

Readthe writingtip. Findwordsin the texts in exercise2 you


which sharethe samecoremeaningbut havedifferent - Have
! fottowedthe ptan?
connotations.
! writtenthecorrectnumberof words?
Findpairsof wordswith similarcoremeaningin the box ! included at leastoneexampleof periphrasis
or
below.Decide: euphemism?
a whet hereac hpair is mo s t ti k e tyto b e u s e dw h e n I usedwordswithpositive/negative connotations?
describinga restaurant's food, staffor interior. used correct grammarandvocabulary?
I
b whic hwor d in eac hp a i r h a sa m o rep o s i ti v ec o n n o tati on.

attentive bustling cloying cramped crowded


deserted formal hearty heavy hurried
insubstantial intimate intrusive taid back light
stoppy sour stiff swift sweet tangy uncrowded

rile.nlive r'taff 'attantiva'


- inlrusiva dercribrng i5 rrorepositrvo
Vocabulary Grammar
1 Comptete thesentences withphrasalverbsformedfroma 5 Rewrite thesentence withextraemphasis usingthewordsin
verbin A anda particlein B. Useactiveor passive. brackets.
A ehee|t drop get hold show stop I wasfirstattracted to hissmite.(it)
B around away into off over up It washisemila
thatI warfirrt aiiracled
Io
1 Weneedto knowwhentheirftightis due.(what)
Harrywas chec(ing
intothe hotelwhenI arrived.
2 Thenewheadteacher is charming,andshe'svery
1 Wearen'thaving a hotidaythissummer, butI'msurewe too.(onty)
professional
to somewhere nicein theautumn. 3 Heearnstoo littleto supporthimsetf. (truth)
2 Theyarrivedtwohourslatebecause they in 4 Yournewhaircutlooksnice.(does)
the rushhourtrafficleavingLondon. 5 | don'tunderstand whyhe'supset.(what)
3 Emma's taxiwaslate her_ at the 6 Youtoldeveryone mysecret.(it)
station,
so shenearly missed hertrain. 7 We'retost.(fact)
4 Duringourflightto Austratialastyearwe in 8 | rarelystoppedto thinkaboutherfeelings. (did)
Singaporeforfourhours.
5 She theexhibition bvtheartisthimself. EE! ]tr
EE! ]tr 6 tick ttreverbswhichcancomplete
the sentences
correctly.
(Sometimes botharecorrect.)
2 Complete thesentences usinga nounrelatedto the phrasal
1 Theyweregoingto callthismorning,so he_ aboutthe
verbin brackets. job by now.
1 Therehasbeenan- of flu.(breakout) a wouldknow b shouldknow
2 There wasa peasant - in 7977.(riseup) 2 I' m amazedthat she- vou ti kethat.
3 The- hascausedmanyjob losses.(takeover) a wouldtreat b shouldtreat
4 Thescandal ledto thepresident's - . (fattdown) 3 Theytook someextrabl anketsi n casethe y- cold.
5 BoybandTakeThatmadea - in 2006.(comeback) a would get b shouldget
EE! ]tr 4 We-
dinner.
to express youbothto
ourthanksbyinviting

a wouldlike b shoul dl i ke
, Complete thesentences withcompound adjectives
formed
5 l t' s essenti al
that everyone
- on ti me.
fromthe wordsin brackets.
a would arrive b shoutd
arrive
1 lt didn'tlookasif it wouldrain,sosheputon
her- (toe)sandals. Etr! ]tr
2 Mybrother is cultivating
histrendyimagebywearing
(skin)T-shirts
whereverhegoes. Complete the sentenceswiththe modalverbsin the boxand
3 Therewas a cold breezeand Jesswishedshe had worn a the correctformofthe verbsin brackets.
(sleeve)top insteadof a T-shirt.
can't maynot might must needn't
4 S inc es he' sbeenp re g n a n t,
my s i s te rfe e l sm o re
oughtnotto should
comfortablein - (fit)garments.
5 Jo s hwant edt o m a k ea g o o di mp re s s i o ns,o h e w orea 1 Candidates (leave)
theroomuntilthe
(three)suit to the interview. examinationis over.
2 Jane's
dadis furious withherforhaving a partywhilethey
EE! E hewasaway.Hesaysshe (ask)himfirst.
3 You (oke)if youthinkI'mgoingto lendyou
4 Givethe sentences
a morenegative
connotation
by replacing themoney formybirthday present!
the underlined
wordswithwordsin the box. (put)usedbatteries
4 People in their
cloying cramped crowded {rcayy sloppy householdrubbish.
5 He (telt)mehewouldn't be homeforlunch!
1 Theywereserveda heartvbreakfast.
plentyof timesowe
5 There's (hurry).
2 Wewereserveda sweetdessert. (see)Tomyesterday.
7 You He'sin China.
3 Thestreets
arebustlingwithshoppers.
4 Thetavernhadan intimateatmosphere. Etr! 1Z
5 Thewaitershavequitea laid-back
attitude. @
EE! Itr
Language
Review
z-8
,/
iffiffi:;i tW
Speaking physical
Dublin's appearance is misleadingbecause it
makesthecity
1 Choose
a capitalcitythatyouwouldliketo visit.Thinkabout A seempoorer thanit reallyis.
whyandmakenotes. B seemcolderthanit reallyis.
C seemlesslivelyandup-to-date thanit reallyis.
2 Workin groups.Present
yourideasto the othermembers
of D lookgranderandwealthier thanit reatly
is.
yourgroup.
Whathasbeentheeffectof European funding on Dublin?
A Thecityhasbecome veryexpensive.
Reading B Thecityhaschanged fasterthanthe restof lreland.
C Thecityno longerhasa strongsenseof history.
, Readthetext.Forquestions
1-4, choosethe bestanswer. D Thecityhasrebuittmanyof itsderelict
buildings.
population
ThefactthatDubtin's hasgrownrapidty
A is goodnewsforpeopleunder25.
B hashadpositiveandnegative consequences.
C hasdamaged theeconomy of otherregions.
D hasmeantsomepeople can'tfindhousing.
Thewriteradvises
visitorsto Dublinto
A seeboththeotdandthenewpartsofthecity.
B ignorewhatever theyprevioustythoughtaboutthecity.
C ignorethecity'sbadpoints.
D findoutaboutthe historyof thecitybeforetheyarrive.
Dublin o c s
Low-slung, grey,andsolid,lreland's premier citycan look Listening
surprisingly darkandgloomyat f irstglance.lts appearance
- the resultof its 19th-century architecture of lrishstone 4 $ l.OS Edgars,
Tomas
andRitaareon holidayin Dublin.
andgranite- is deceptive. Thetownitselfis anything but Listenandidentifythe threelocations
for thedialogue.
gloomy, and it's notthe stodgy, old-fashioned cityof the
late2Othcentury. Behindall thosesturdycolumns and f) f.Of Listenagain.Complete eachsentence witha
beneath all thatgreyis the real,modern, Euro-Dublin - an singleword.
affluentplacef illedwithtrendycoffeeshops,organic juice 1 Edgars saysthatthehotelreservation wasmade
oars,priceyfive-star restaurants, andexpensive designer 2 Edgars complains thathisroomlooksreally - .
routiques. TheEuropean moneythat hasfloodedin over 3 Onebadthingaboutthehotelrestaurant is thattheyare
:he lastdecadechanged manythingsin lreland, but it madeto
altered Dublinmostof all, catapulting this historic town 4 Bythetimethefoodarrives, Ritano longer feets
'romthe early20th century, whereit hadlingered too long, 5 Regarding hisnewbusiness, Edgars feels- .
ntothe 21st,whereit nowrevelsin its ownsuccess. 6 Ritawouldprefer to havetheirnextmealin the- .
Gonearethe dayswhenmanyvisitors to lrelandchose
:o skipDublinaltogether. Nowadays,a weekend in Dublin
s oneof the hottestcity breaksin Europe, as people pile Writing
ntoits old pubsandmodernbars,shopin its thriving 6 lmagine youareEdgars, Ritaor Tomas.
Makea noteof
narketsand malls,and relaxin its trendycaf6s.Because
thingsyouwereunhappy
threedifferent withat the hotelin
:f all of this,Dublin's population hasswollen to 1.5 Dublin.Inventdetaitsor useinformationfromthe dialogue.
'nillion;morethana thirdof the lrishpopulation livesin
:niscity,which,whilegoodnewsfor the economy, has 7 Writea letterof complaint
to the hotel.Say:
'esidual sideeffectsof overcrowding, highproperty prices, o whatyouarecomplaining aboutandwhy.
ard gridlocked traffic. lt hasalsohelpedmakeDublinone o whatyouwouldlikethehotelto do aboutit.
:f theworld'smostyouthfulcities,withan estimated 50%
:f the population under25 yearsold.
It is a contrary, amusing, complexsmallcity,andmy
alviceto thosewhohaven'tbeenherein a while,or who
-aveneverbeenhereis this:the firstthingyoushoulddo
> leaveyourpreconceptions behind.Thenyoucanseethis
- storic,modern, flawed,charming, andentertaining city
':r whatit reallvis.
Exnn 8
What are the advantagesand 4 Oothe Useof Englishexamtask.
disadvantagesof bottledwater,as opposedto tap water?
Whichdo you preferto drink?
R eadthe text and deci dew hi chw ord or phr ase( A- D) best
fits eachgap.

l. t

t\

I
Water for S5O a lihe
Claridge'shas taken luxury to a new '- by offering
its gueslsmore than 30'- o[ water- with prices
stretching to as much as f,,50a litre. The opulent hotel
in the heart of l-ondon has "- an extensive menu
*i
with water from places as far flung as Norway, Patagonia,
New Zealandand Hawaii.Customersare given advice
a- to what occasion.For
on which water is best
those suffering from exhaustionor trying to get overjet
l f y ou m is san answ e rd u ri n gth e fi rs tIi s te n i n gd, o n' t w orry lag, OGO spring water from the Netherlandscontains
n-
35 times more oxygen than water the
a boutit . M ov eon to th e n e x ts e n te n c eW . h e nv o u l i sten
drinker. The most expensiveon the menu is 420 Volcanic,
a gain,f oc uson t h e m i s s i n ga n s w e rs .
spring water from New Zealand,which can be bought for
921 for 42 cl - the equivalent of S50 a litre. Its low mineral
2 6) r.oo Do the Listeningexamtask. content and 'smooth sensationon the palate'comefrom
its journey from the '- at the bottom of an extinct
volcanothrough 200 metres of volcanicrock. Fiuggi from
Italy has o- been admired: Michelangelowrote
Listento the radio programmeand completeeach
about its restorative effects in 1554and it is said to be
sentencewith up to four words.
very popular with the Vatican. "- included on the
1 A boutone in f iv e re s ta u ra nctu s to me rs o rd e rb ottl ed list is Mahalo Deep SeaWater, from Hawaii, which is
wat erbec aus et h e yd o n ' tw a n tto L2l for 75 cl. Originally a fresh water iceberg,the ice
2 lt t ak es762gof o i l to ma k eo n e- . melted thousandsof years ago and sank to the bottom of
the oceanfloor becauseof its different temperatureand
3 W hendis c ar de dp l a s ti cb o ttl e sre a c hth e o c e a n they,
salinif. It is now " to the surfacethrough a 1,000
oec om ea _ .
metre pipeline. But among all the grandeur there is one
4 T heE as t er n G a rb a g ePa tc hi s a p a rti c u l a rlpyo l l u tedarea option which is free of charge - a glass of 'old-fashioned
of - . London tap water'.
5 P las t icbr eak sd o w n i n to o i e c e sw h i c hc a n b e s m al l er
t han- . l A hei ght B peak C summi t Dr at e
5 I n or dert o r eac hi ts c u s to me rsa,b o u ta q u a rte ro f al l 2 A vari eti es B di fferencesC vari ationsD oot ions
bottledwaterhasto - 3 A revi sed B advi sed C comori sedDdevised
7 W at er hous e, a n e w re s ta u ra ni nt L o n d o ni,s u n u sual 4 A appropri ateBsui ted C sui tabl e D t inked
bec aus eit won' t 5 A common B typi cat C ordi nary Dnat ur al
8 B ot t t edwat erha sh a d s o m u c hb a d p u b l i c i tyth a t 6 A revitatisingB revitalisedC is revitalised
ev ent ually peop l ew h o d ri n ki t c o u l dto o kti k e D to revitatise
7 A source B foundati onC basi s D beginning
8 A much B thoroughtyC once D long
3 Lookquicklythroughthe text in the Useof Englishexamtask
9 A Futhermore,B A l so C P tus, D M or eover
about Claridge's,a luxuryhotel in London.Findthe most
10 A dragged B haul ed C putl ed D pum ped
expensiveand the cheapestwater available.
T H tS U 1 {t T t it c t uDE S ..
Yo6bulary. gossipand secrets. givingandwithholding . colloquial
information . literal
omissions
:1d figurative language . vaguelanguage
Gnmmar. passivestructures.the causative . participl
phrases
Speaking . 1311;1g 6boutgossipandsecrets. talkingaboutspystories. talkingaboutconspiracy
--e o ri e s. d r a w i n g co n cl u si o n s
\ f rit in g . 3 n q t ; r ; . ..rr.t

I can understand and Ne th


lanq,taqe of news and gatstp.

1 Workin pairs.Describe
whatthe peoplein the
photosaredoing.Whydo youthinktheymightbe doingit?
Howmightyouexplaintheirexpressions? Usethewordsin
the boxto helpyou.

confide(insomebody)dropa bombshell
eavesdrop (ona conversation)
gossip(noun& verb) indiscreetoutraged rumours
scandal scandalisedscandalous

2 6) f.oz Listento threepeoplegossiping overthe phone.


Complete eachsentence youhear,
withthe information
usingup to fourwords.
1 KatetellsGerry thatHarryhasgot
2 SheurgesGerrynotto tellanyonebecause Harryhasn't
yet_.
3 Sheclaimsonlyto havetotdGerry thesecretbecause he
is-.
4 BriantellsJakeaboutsecret plansto
5 Hesuspects thatsomeof thepeopleinvolved in thedeal
witl-. 4 Rewritethesesentences
usingexpressions
fromexercise
3.
5 JutiatellsKarenabouttwofriendswhostarteda Morethanoneanswermaybe possible.
retationshioata-.
1 Don'ttellanyone whoyouheardthisfrom,butI thinkmy
7 Shereveals thatSueis verykeento keepthe relationship
brotheris gettingmarried.
secretfromher- . 2 | discovered tidbitsaboutherprivatelife,
a fewinteresting
8 Sheexpects thesecretwilleventuallycomeoutwhenthe butI won'ttella soul.Mylipsaresealed!
couple
3 Herplansfor nextyeararetop secret.
3 4 Forthetimebeing, they're
withhotdingtheidentityof their
6) 3.07 Choose thecorrect
wordin theseexpressions.
Thenlistenagainandcheck. newmanager.
5 I'lltettyoumysecretbecause I knowyouaren'ta gossip.
1 Haveyouheardthe latest/ newest? 6 Shetoldmeonereally fascinating
secret aboutTony.lf it
2 I'mteltingyouthisin thefirmest/ strictestconfidence. everbecomes common knowledge, he'tlbefurious!
3 lf word/ truthgetsout,it'll cause...
4 Harry's the heart/ soulof discretion.
5 Workin pairs.Discuss
the questions.Then
compareyourideaswiththe class.
5 Hehasn'tbreathed / whispered a wordto anybody.
1 Whatkindsof topicoftenformthe basisof gossip?
5 | knowit won'tgoanylonger/ further.
2 Whyareso manypeopleinterested in gossip?
7 | managed to glean/ cleansomeinformation. 3 Inwhatwayscouldgossipbedamaging?
8 lt'sfully/ highlyconfidentiaIat themoment. 4 Whatwouldbetheadvantages anddisadvantages of
9 Don'tquote/ repeatmeonthis,but... witha gossip?
beingfriends
10 I'vegotsomereallyfruity/ juicygossipforyou.
i\,..lfo..lulary Buitder9.1:Givingandwithholding
11 lt'saltveryhush-hush / hushup. \'r'\,S|,fnformation
: p.140
12 Theywon'tbe ableto keepit underhats/ wrapsfor ever.

U ni t9 . S ecr et s
I can we naturaL,
coLLoqutaL
Lanquage
confidence
Haveyou everfailedto keepa secret?lf so,
whatwerethe consequences?
tI Colloquial omissions
In informal,spokenEngtish, we oftenomitunstressed
F
= wordsat thebeginning ofthesentence (pronouns,
the textwiththeverbsin the box.
Complete
articles,etc.)providedthe meaningis clear.Forexampte:
trJ
betray boost crop drop fall feign get give go Can'ttalknow! (l can'ttalknow.)
hotd prise turn
J
ffi Speaklater. (We'[speaklater.)
ii.$ (Doyou needa tift?)
Needa lift?
formis sometimes
A negative replaced by not.
ffow to Re-e,p q s-eret
Nota cloudin the sky. (Thereisn'ta cloudin the sky.)
Justdon'ttellanyone!Avoid asmuch
thesubject asyoucan.Shouldit
t- upinconversationforwhatever
reason, ignoranee. Or-\ Grammar 9,1:Cottoquial
Builder p.128
omissions:
'-
Never3 thatyouknowa secret
hintsincompany butcan'tsay
whatit is.Thisislikea redragto a bull.Thepeople youarewithwill Readthe informationin the Leornthisl box.Thencrossout
tryto 4- theinformation you
outof and you probablywon'tbe anywordsin the dialogue thatyouthinkcouldbe omitted
ableto 5- out. in normal,colloquial
speech. (Youmayhaveto makeother
lf youfeelyourselfweakening, 6- yourmotivationbyfocusing minorchanges asa result.)
onwhyit'ssoimportant to keep theinformation secret.
lsittoavoid
Sam Areyouon yourwayhome?
ruining Orto protect
a surprise? a friend'sreputation?
Colin No.I'mjusthanging around.
4 Whenever you'retempted to 7- a friend's
secret,
remind yourself
Sam Doyoufancya coffee?
ofthelongterm damage thatthiscould dotoyourfriendship. Atthe Colin Sure.
same time,tellyourselfthatbeing trustworthy isa wonderful traitto Sam lt's myturnto pay.
have. Colin Thanks. So,howareyou?
t- youcantelljustoneother
5 Don't intothetrapofthinking Sam I'mgood.Howareyou?
person providedyouinsi$thatit should t- nofurther - it always Cotin I can'tgrumble.Haveyou
does! Andsooner orlater.vourlackofdiscretion will10- back to heardanygoodgossiprecently?
yourfriend. Sam I have,as it happens.
(, lf youknowyou're badatkeeping secrets,don'tencourage people Colin Well,go on then.Spitlthebeansl
themwithyou- oratleast tt- themsome warning of
toshare Sam Well,apparently BenandMo[[yhavesplitup.
yourtrack record! Colin You'rekidding!Reatly?
w4RNtNq! Sometimes it isbetterto pass if yoususpect
ona secret, Sam Buttheyhaven't toldpeopleyet.Sodon'tsaya word
theperson whotoldyoumaybeintrouble. Asecret can12- outto to anyone!
bea cryforhelp. Colin I understand.
Sam Doyoupromise?
3 Workin pairs.Decide
whetheryouagreeor Cotin Yesl
2. Canyouaddany
withthe advicein exercise
disagree Sam OK.Woutdyoulikeanothercoffee?
rnoreadvice? Colin No,thanks.I'd bettermakea move.
Sam OK.I'llseeyoulater.
Cotin Sure.lt wasnicetalkingto you.
It'softenmorenatural to usea phrase(verb+ noun)
instead verb,especially
of a single-word in informal 6 6) l.oe Listento the dialogueandcomparewhatyouhear
language. withyouranswerto exercise
5.
talk) havea talk decide) makea decision
Workin pairs.Role-playa dialogueusingthe
4 ReadtheLookout!box.Thenrewritethe sentences using outlinebelow.Includesomeco[[oquial omissions.
phrases insteadofthe underlined verbs. A: Youmeetyourold friendB in a caf6andstartchatting.
1 I'd loveto shopwithyouthisafternoon, butI needto B asksabouta mutualfriend,andyouhintthatyou
revise. knowa secret.Youareunwilling to shareit at first,but B
2 ThinkaboutwhatI'vesaidandcallmelater. persuades you.YoumakeB promise thatit won'tgoany
3 I'veconcluded thatwhatI reallyneedis to rest. further.
4 | lookedat herpainting andcomplimented her. B: YoumeetA in a caf6andstartchatting. Youaskabouta
5 | hintedthatI'd liketo be paid,butI didn'twantto offend mutualfriend,andA seemsto knowa secret aboutthat
byasking. to shareit.Youpersuade
friendbutis unwilling A to leton.

untlg'secrets
I catt ttttderstandand
rcdd to a lterary eKtrqct.

Workin pairs.Howmuchdo youknowaboutthe


writerJoseph
Conrad?Canyouname:
1 thecountryhewasbornin? Literarytextsoftenimptyinformation withoutexpticitly
2 thecountryheadopted as hishome? statingit. Togetthe mostoutof a text,youshouldbe
3 anyof hisworks? sensitive phrases
to this.Certain canconveyinformation
indirectly,ascantherepeated useof similarwords.
f) f.Oe Listento the information
aboutConrad.
Findthe
to question1.
answers 6 DoesthetextimplythatMrVerloc's
lifeis glamorous or
notveryglamorous?Findseveral
adiectives in thetextto
f) f .Of Listenagain.Arethesentences trueor false,or is supportyouranswer.
theanswernotstated?
1 Thethemesof Conrad's worksareveryrelevant to the MrVerloc, goingoutinthemorning, lefthisshop
probtems of themodern wortd. nominally in charge of hisbrother-in-law. lt could
2 Conrad livedin London andlaterin a village. bedone,because therewasverylittlebusiness
3 Special postage stamps wereissued to commemorate the atanytime,andpractically noneatallbefore
150thanniversary of Conrad's
birth. theevening. MrVerloc cared butlittleabouthis
4 Conrad's friendsneverreallyregarded himasEnglish. ostensible business. And,moreover, hiswifewasin
5 Conrad's contemporaries accusedhimof racism. charge of hisbrother-in-law
Readthe openingto the novelTheSecret AgentbyJoseph Theshopwassmall, andsowasthehouse. lt
Conrad. Howdoesit conveythefactthatMrVerlocis a secret was one of those grimy brickhouses which
agentof somekind?ls it: toexisted in large quantities before theeraof reconstruction dawned upon
a bydescribing theshadowy characters
whofrequent London. The shop was a square box of a place, with the frontglazed in small
hisshoo? panes. Inthe daytime the door remained closed; in the evening it stood
b bymentioning thepoliticatpropaganda displayed in his discreetly butsuspiciously ajar.
shoowindow? Thewindow contained photographs of moreor lessundressed dancing
c byimptying thattheshopis a frontforsomeother ts girls;nondescript packages inwrappers likepatent medicines; closed yellow
clandestineactivity? paper envelopes, veryflimsy, andmarked two-and-six in heavy black figures; a
fewnumbers of ancient French comic publications hungacross a string asif to
Readthe reading tip.Thenfindthesephrases in the extract.
dry;a dingybluechinabowl,a casket of black wood,bottles of marking ink,and
Whatexactlydo theyimply?Choose a or b.
rubber stamps; a fewbooks, withtitleshinting atimpropriety; a fewapparently
7 nominollyin chargeof hisbrother-in-law 20oldcopies of obscure newspapers, badlyprinted, withtitleslikelhe Torch, The
a Hisbrother-in-law wastheonewhoreallyrantheshop.
-
Gong rousing titles.
Andthetwo gas jets inside the panes werealways turned
b Hisbrother-in-law wasincapableof running theshop.
low,either foreconomy's sakeorforthesakeofthecustomers.
2 hisostensiblebusiness
These customers wereeither veryyoungmen,whohungaboutthe
a Theshopwasnothisrealbusiness.
window fora timebefore slippinginsuddenly; or menof a moremature age,
b Hewasashamed thattheshoowashisbusiness.
usbutlooking generally asif theywerenotinfunds. Someofthatlastkindhad
3 o squareboxof a place
thecollars of theirovercoats turned rightupto theirmoustaches, andtraces
a Theshopwasan attractive building.
of mudonthebottom of theirnether garments, which had the appearance of
b Theshopwasan uglybuilding.
beingmuch wornandnotveryvaluable. Andthelegsinside themdidnot,as
4 for thesakeof thecustomers
a general rule,seemof muchaccount either. Withtheirhands plunged deepin
a Hiscustomers wereashamed to beseenthere. m thesidepockets oftheircoats, they dodged in sideways, one shoulder first,
asif
b Hiscustomers werereallyspies.
afraidto startthebellgoing
5 whohungoboutthewindowfor a time
Thebell,hungonthedoorbymeans of a curved ribbon of steel, was
a Theyoungmenhadnothing elseto do.
b Theyoungmenneeded difficultto circumvent. lt was hopelessly cracked; but of an evening, atthe
timeto summon up courage.
i5 slightest provocation, it clatteredbehind thecustomer withimpudent virulence
6 withimpudentvirulence
a Thecustomers dislikedthetoudbelt.
b Thecustomers rangthebetlloudlyon purpose. 7 Oiscuss the questions withthe class.
1 Whydoyouthinkpeople areinterested in stories about
spiesandsecret agents?
2 Doyoutikethisgenreof fiction? Why?/Why not?
3 Doyouknowanywritersfromyourowncountry whowrite
spystoriesor mysteries?

Unit9 . Secrets
I cqn ,rndcrstqn/ and reqct ta
a tut abattt (ani ptri (y thtari u
Conspiracy
theories
Workin pairs.Discuss
Haveyouheardanyofthembefore?
them?
the conspiracytheories.
Doyoubelieveanyof $ON$PTNAC
1 TheUSmititary hasknownforyearsthatUFOs
hidingthetruthfromthepublic.
2 Ihe 7969Apollomoon[anding
existbutis

did notreallyhappen
wasfilmedin a W studioon earth.
- it
otre tLoY LuLt
3 EtvisPresley
did notreallydie- hefakedhisowndeath
because hewastiredof beingfamous.
4 TheHIV/AIDS viruswascreated byscientists.
5 TheUSgovernment werebehindthebombing of the.World
TradeCenteron 11 Seotember 2001.
6 PrincessDiana,whodiedin Parisin 7997,wasmurdered
on theordersof the Britishroyalfamily.
and wassplashedacrossthe mediareflectsthe
2 Readthe article,ignoringthe gaps.Whichof the conspiracy growingpopularityof conspiracy theories.I !
theoriesin exercise1 arementioned? AlthoughMr Meacheradmittedthat he got
much of his information from websites, he made
his claimin the respected BritishnewspaperIhe
Guardian. The newspaper laterpublishedlettersfrom
readersrelievedthat the truth had comeout. David
t5 Aaronovitch, a Guardian columnist, expressed alarm
that his newspaper had givencredibility to such
'rubbish'.
Accordingto DavidAlexander, authorof
Conspiracies and Cover-Ups - Whatthe Government
I lsn'tTellingYou,'There'sbeena tremendousincrease
t
\ in conspiracy theoriesaboutSeptember11.'In 1998
RichBuhler,an Americanradioshowhost,set up
Truthortiction.comto track and proveor disprove
hoaxes, urbanmythsand conspiracy theories. ,
E
Mr Buhlersaid:'The Internethas provena valuable
tool for conspiracy theorists- they exchange ideas
and fuel the stories.Theyhavea much largercanvas
than before.There'san impression that whatever
is writtenis more reliablethan what is said.When
it is writtendown,as it is on the Internet,it comes
packagedas truth.'
Yetthereare otherreasonswhy conspiracy
theoriesare gainingcurrency- in particularthe
complexityof our rapidlychangingworld.'A
conspiracy theorybecomesmorecompellingwhen
realitymakeslesssense,when life is besetby
problems, whenthe established ordersuddenly
changes- evensomethingas simpleas losinga job,
lf peoplecan't absorbwhat'sgoingon, conspiracy
theorieshelp us to makesense,'Mr Alexander said.
:
!'lf peoplejust knewa littlemore,they would
knowthe thing is false,'he said.
Peopleare becomingfurtherremovedfrom seats
of politicaland industrialpower.PatrickLeman,a
o'

,G U nitg.secrets
,/
3 Matchsentences a-g withgaps1-6 in thetext.Thereis one
sentencethat you do not need.
a Hisorganisation nowgets1,000suchstoriesa week.

Tlil$(tril$;Tli: b People weremoretikelyto believethattherewasa


conspiracy
unrnlureo.
behindit if hewaskitledthanif hewas

Andyet,it reallydoesexist:members

to get yo,L
agreenotto reveal
thecontents of theirdiscussions, andtheminutes of the
meetings arenotpublished for 50years.
Observers of thephenomenon, morepronounced in
psychologist at RoyalHollowayCollege, London, America thanhere,saythattheirincreasing prevalence
who has beenstudyingwhy conspiracy theoriesare is destabitisingvulnerableindividuals andundermining
so appealing, said:'Conspiracy theoriesfeed into a society.
feelingof disconnection with government. People Thatis howconspiracy theories gainmomentum, even
don't likegapsin theiraccounts;they havea need thoughthereis no realevidence to support
them.
to believethem.They inventfantastical thingsthat Oneheldthathe hadbeenspying fortheChinese,andwas
protectthem from the realworld.'In one experiment, spiritedawaybya Chinese submarine.
he showedpeoplefootageof a fictionalpresidentwho A timitedunderstanding of theworldmakesconspiracy
wasshot at, and providedfictionalnewspaper articles. theoriesseemmoreolausible.
' I H" concluded:'Peoplethink that a big event
must havea big cause,but oftenthrngsare causedby
4 Rephrase the underlinedpartsoftheseexcerptsfromthe
'nrstakeor accident,not consprracy.' articlein yourownwords.
Thousands of peopledie in Europeeveryyear 1 A bizarre conspiracytheorywassplashed across
themedia.
,n car accidentsresultingfrom fastdrivingand too 2 They...fuelthestories.
much alcohol.But when Diana,Princess of Wales 3 Whenit is writtendown...it comespackaged astruth.
died,many couldnot acceptthat suchan important 4 Thereareotherreasons whyconspiracy aregaining
theories
eventcouldhavesucha simplecause.Manybel ieved currencv.
that she was assassinated by the secretservices to 5 Peoplearebecoming furtherremovedfromseatsof political
stop her marryinga Muslim.In Australia therewere andindustrial power.
161 suspected drowningsbetween1961 and 1985 in 6 WhenHarold Holtdisappeared,conspiracytheories
whichthe bodieswereneverfound.But when Harold ranwild.
Holt.the PrimeMinister, disappeared whenswimming 7 Suchis thepublicappetite forconspiracy thereis
theories,
n 7967,conspiracy theoriesran wild.5 ! money to be made.
Suchis the publrcappetitefor conspiracy theories, 8 There's dangerin buvingintopatexplanations,
thereis moneyto be made.Bart Srbrelmakesmoney o* Vocabulary
Builder9.2:Literalandfigurative
sellrnghis videoclaimingthat the first moon landing p.141
language:
wasa fake.
Thereis no simpleway to determinethe truth
of a conspiracy theory.'Thedangerliesin buying
5 Givean example of:
overarchrng explanations of complexevents.That 1 a storythathasbeensplashed acrossthe mediavery
havingbeensard,there'sdangerin beingtoo recently.
complacent and buyinginto pat explanations of 2 something which,in youropinion, is fuelledby
extraord inary occurrences,' Mr Alexander said. thelnternet.
In otherwords,scepticismcan go too far.When 3 something whichis packaged astruth,butin youropinionis
storiesbeganto circulateaboutthe Bilderberg Group, not.
a secretive groupingof the world'spoliiicaland 4 an ideawhichis gainingcurrency in yourcountry.
businesselite,most peopledismissedit as just a 5 oneof the mainseatsof powerin yourcountry.
conspiracy theory.6 ! 5 a rumour whichhasrunwildin yourschoolbutwhichmay
Mr Alexander saysthat the growthof conspiracy notbetrue.
theor iesis not somethingjust to laughat. 'lt's 7 something whichthereseems to bea growing public
dangerousif your beliefsystemmakesyou seethe appetitefor in yourcountry.
world in a way that'sunreal.Conspiracy theoriescan 8 something whichyoupersonally refuse to buyinto.
affecta wholesocietyand makethe societymad.'
6 Discussthe questions
withthe class.
1 Describe
anyconspiracytheories to your
thatarespecific
owncountry.
2 Whydo so manyconspiracytheoriesinvolve
theUSA?
3 Areconspiracy
theoriesharmless
or damaging?Give
rea50n5.

Unit9. Secrets
I can use q w rdc range

Passive res
structu af passlveItrA (tA ru.

1 Complete passive
thearticlewithappropriate formsof the I
;' Useof the passive
verbsin the box.Whatis youropinionof thewayJoyce Hatto
S The choicebetweenactiveand passivevoiceis often
andherhusband behaved?
; madefor stylisticreasons,becausewe want a certain
bomb considercopy describehait inform issue Sf word to be the subiectof the sentencein orderto fit
make passoff perform record reduce show I with the topic and f]ow of the text. Compare:
uncover $ Ctrro Buttgave the firstperformanceof Elgar's 'Sea
.:'t pi61u7s5'.(in a text about the singerClaraButt)
Thefirst performonceof Elgar's'SeaPictures'wasgiven
by ClaraButf. (in a text about Etgar'smusic)

Readthe Learnthis! box.Thendecidewhich ofthe


underlinedclausesin the text belowwould be betterin the
passiveand rewritethem. Givereasons.
JovceH attoand her husbandl eft Londoni n t he 1920saf t er
doctorshad diagnosedJoycewith cancer.Awayfrom the
publ i cgaze,theyw orkedtogetheron recordings of som eof
the fi nestcl assi calpi ecesthat anvbodvhad evercom posed.
B ut i t soonbecamecl earthat her di seasewas ham per ing
Joyce' seffortsto produceoutstandi ngrecor dings. William
madethe fi rstel ectroni al c terati ons i n ordert o coverup
her cri esof pai n.A l thoughW i l l i amknewthat it waswr ong,
ClassicalpianistJoyceHatto wasborn in Londonin 1928 and a desireto protecthis wife's musicalreputationtriggered
rememberspractisingthe pianoas a teenagerwhile London hi s di shonestacti ons.H e si mpl yw antedpeoplet o giveher
r- in the SecondWorld War.As a performerin London the accl ai mw hi ch her di seasehad deni edher .Wast hat
duringthe 1950sand 50s, she 2- to be proficient so wrong?Atthoughpeoplenevertook iovce'srecordings
but not outstandingand she more or lessretiredfrom seri ousl vagai n,perhapsw e shoul dadmi reher cour age,and
professionalmusicin the 197Os.She had her piano moved her husband' sl oveafteral l .
from Londonto a smallhousein the country,and there she
livedwith her husband,WilliamBarrington-Coupe, a recording Doesthetextin exercise youropinionofJoyce
2 change
engineer.Over the nextthirty years,she performedat home, Hattoandherhusband? Why?/Why not?
and theseperformances - 104 ofthem in total -3- I
by her husbandand then 4- on his own recordlabel, ;1 phrases
Participle
ConcertArtists.They causeda sensation.Her performances N Remember thatwe cansometimes usea Dhrase
s- by musiccriticsas someof the finest recordings $ beginning (a participle
witha pastparticipte phrase)in
that 6- ever- and Hatto 7-as 'the greatest S placeof a passiveconstruction.
Compare:
instrumentalistthat almostnobody hasheardof'. ii me fraudwosexposed by a musicmagazineand it
But last month a musicmagazinediscoveredthat one
# brror" internationatnews.
of the recordings8- electronicallyfrom anotherartist's Exposed by a musicmagozine,thefraudbecame
CD. Sincethen, further fraudshaveemerged.At leastfive of internationalnews.
the piecese- in fact - by other artists,and more
fakesr0- on a daily basis.lt seemslikelythat in due Readthe Learnthis!box.Thenrewritethe following
course,all 104 pieces11- not to be genuine.Only textusingan appropriate mixtureof activeandpassive
yesterday,classicalpianistDavidOwenNorris 12- that constructions and participle
phrases.
his 1988 solo piano recordingof Elgar'sSymphonyNo 1 in A Miltionsin the USAwatched the cookeryshowDinner:
flat major 13- as Hatto'swork. 'l'm just very sad,'he said. lmpossible. BritishchefRobertlrvinepresented it. The
'l think it's patheticreallythat somebodyshouldla- to lrvineandshehadgivenhima castle
Queenhadknighted
this.' in Scotland - or so he claimed.Officiats
investigated
lrvinewhena business venturefaitedandtheyexposed
ar G r am m arB u i l d e r9 .2 :T h ep a s s i v ep: . 1 2 8 himasa fraud.lrvinehasfinatty admitted thetruth.Now,
angrycreditors arepursuing lrvineandtheTVchannel has
removed hisfictitiousbiography fromitswebsite.

Unit9 . Secrets
..-!
v
, (,ttl \l t(Ll ate abant, end
t ,' , (tti (!Lt.ri Ott.r
Drawing
co n clusron s tr' r' /rA nr, phC tA :
la

trif#tKIIIA Workin pairs.Thinkof threedifferentsituations


in whichsomebody mightwantto makethemselves
invisible,or verydifficuttto see.Thencompareyourideas
withthe class.

FfiI:|lKIlfA Workin pairs.Compare andcontrastthe two


photos.Answerthe questions.
1 Whydo youthinkeachpersonis attempting to hide?
2 Howsuccessful do youthinktheirattempts are?
3 Inwhatwaysdo thephotosemphasise thedifferences
between thetownandthe country?
4 Inwhatothersituations mightit be usefulnotto be
visibte?

5) f.ro Listento two studentstalkingaboutthe photosin


2. Howdifferentaretheirideasfromyourown?
exercise

6) r.ro Readthe phrasesin the boxandctauses a-m.


Thinkaboutwhichclausesbelongtogetherlogicatly. Then
listenagainandmatchthe clauses with gaps1-13.

Drawing conclusions
ludgingbythefactthat1I I'd saythat'?!
Thefactthat3 wouldsuggest thata!
6!
'I to obviously
It'sclearfromthefactthatt! thatt[
Thiswouldpointto the factthatef-l
'ol_l whichleadsmeto thinktnat"I
I takeit that121|
Forthatreason;assume that13!

a He'ssittingbehinda bush,
b he'splanning to bethereforsometime.
c thephotowastakenin a forestor somesuchplace.
d thiscouldbeTokyo or someotherlargecityin Japan. Vague[anguage
e he'sbothered to bringsucha largepieceof equipment Wordslikethingandstuffareusefulwhenit isn'tpossible
f he'ssomekindof photographer or cameraman. to be moreprecise
aboutwhatyousee.Youcanalsouse
g she'spulledthetop partup in orderto hide. phrasesIikesomekindof andsome... or other.
h therearebushes, longgrass,anda river.
i she'sin a backstreetratherthanon a mainroad.
j thepicture
6 Readthe speakingtip. Findexamples in
of vaguelanguage
wassetup,soto speak.
clauses 4. Thenusethe samelanguage
a-m in exercise to
k he'sgota camera
makethesesentences morevague.
t ThepeoplelookJapanese to me,
m hewantsto btendin withhissurroundings. 1 He'swearing a coatmadeof feathers.
2 Theohotowastakenin Brazil.
Usethe promptsto makesentences. Includephrases
for 3 He'sbored.
drawingconclusions fromexercise 4. 4 Sheworksas a privateinvestigator.
1 there'sa microohone -) it'sa videocamera 5 She'sin herthirties.
2 he hasa greybeard-J he'squiteotd 6 Shewantsto btendintothebackground.
3 he'schosen thiscareer-) he likesbeingalone
Turnto page143anddo the speaking task.Use
4 theboyis turningaround-) he'sseenthewoman phrasesfromexercise andinclude
4 for drawingconclusions
5 it doesn'tlookmuchlikea realvending -) it's
machine
vaguelanguagefromexercise 6.
iusta ioke

U ni t9 . Secr et s
'.

I c.-,t1 ',,,ri l c ;i tt
i P l l i l fLi L.ttl )',

Discuss thequotation
by academic Noam
ls it an argument
Chomsky. againstor in favourof
Doyouagree?
censorship? Passive structures withverbslikeregord,consider
andbelievemakestatements appearlesspersonal
If we don't believe in freedom of andaretherefore oftenappropriatein an essay.The
expressionfor people we desprse, ptainstatement: 'Censorship
is undesirable.' couldbe
we don't believe in it at all. rephrased in theseways:
Censorship is usuallyregardedas undesiroble.
Readthe essay. Whatis thewriter'sbasicanswerto the Censorship is generallyconsidered(to be)undesiroble.
questionin thetitle? Censorship is oftenseenes undesiroble.
It is widelyaccepted thatcensorship is undesirable.
It is oftensaid thatcensorship is undesirable.
Shouldfreedomof speech It is generollybelievedthatcensorship is undesiroble.
alwaysbe defended? Readthewritingtip.Howmanytimesis thistypeof passive
Thefirstamendment to theAmerican Constitution defends usedin the modeltext?Choose
structure oneothersentence
everycitizen's rightto freespeech, andmostdemocracies whichcouldbe rephrasedin thiswayandrewriteit.
around theworldpridethemselves ona lackof state
N\ {.i i .i ti 1si ,tr i -i r-i i i i j gr:i .:l : i }.i sS i ,.'i ::,i i i ti:i i J i r,r:.i
\,\i i i l
censorship. Indeed, the factthat newspapers andTV
rtrlri.\s'rittr,lrit'ii:i\', t:ir:.: g:. .i "iii
newsstations reportstories whicharehighlycriticalof
the government is seenasoneof the signsof a healthy
democracy. But howfar shouldthislackof censorship extend? Match1-6 with a-f to formcommoncollocations.Check
Is it possible to havea society whichplaces absolutely no youranswersby findingthemin the essayin exercise
2.
controls on information? 1 free a opr nrons
Freedom of speech is usually regarded asoneof the 2 state b security
cornerstones of democracy. It is essential thatthe contentof 3 personal c speech
newspapers/ for example, is decided by the newspaper editors 4 false d results
andnotby politicians or police.lf politicianswere allowed to 5 national e censorship
determine whatshould or should notbe printed,theywould 5 catastrophic f accusations
beableto suppress anyinformation whichdidnotputthemin
a goodlight.Corruption wouldincrease andtherewouldbe Complete withthe collocations
the sentences in exercise
4.
nowayof exposing politicians'wrongdoings. Moreover, it goes 1 lt wasfeltthatrevealing thegovernment's plans
nuclear
withoutsaying thatordinary citizens in a democracy should couldieopardise -
beallowed to voicetheirpersonal opinions withoutfearof 2 Whatever her- maybe,shenevercriticises
intimidation. heremployer in public.
Havingsaidthat,it is clearthattotal freedomof speech
3 Attempts to closedownthewebsite havebeenportrayed
is impossible, or at leastextremely risky.Thisis because
asan attackon -
sometimes it is necessary to limitfreedom of speech in order
to protectindividual members of societyor society asa whole. 4 Attowingpeople to stirup raciaIhatredcouldhave
An example of thiswouldbethe lawsagainst libel.These in a muttiraciatsocietv.
prohibityoufrommal<ing damaging anduntruestatements 5 In somecountries, prevents newspapers
aboutsomebody. Withoutthisprotection, people's livescould fromprinting thetruth.
be ruinedby falseaccusations. 5 Theminister claimed thathewasentirely innocent
and
It is widelyaccepted thatsomeinformation needsto hadbeenthevictimof-
be keptsecret for reasons of national security or crime
prevention. If a newspaper wasallowedto printdetailsof a trTitlllflel Discusswhetherit is moreimportant,in your
secretanti-terrorist operation, theremightbe catastrophic opinion,to protectfreedomof speechor to protectpeople
results. fromfalseaccusations. Givereasons.
Tosumup,I wouldsaythat freedomof speech shouldbe
defended in the majorityof cases. However, therewill always
be situations in whichthisfreedomwouldhavenegative
consequences. In thoseinstances, I believe that it is necessary
to sacrifice freedomin orderto protectpeople's lives.

,45 Unit
e. secrets
/
-4ur-

L
FlllttltlllfiClWorkin pairs.Discussthe proposition.Doyou Planan opinionessayaboutthe proposition
in exercise
1.
agreeor disagree? Givereasons. Makenotesfor paragraphs
2-4. Useideasfromexercises 1
and3.
The Internet should be more tightly Paragraph1 Introduction
controlled by governmenfs. Paragraph
2 Pointsin support
of theopposite
opinion
Readthe startofthreenewspaper
articlesaboutInternet Paragraph of youropinion
3 Pointsin support
controls.
Dotheychange youropinionaboutthe proposition
Paragraph
4 Further of youropinion
pointsin support
in exercise
1?Why?/Why not?
Paragraph
5 Conclusion

Cyber Bultying led Onewayof writingtheintroductionto an opinionessay

to Teen'sSuicide is to describe
restate
thecurrent
thequestion
asyouseeit andthen
situation
in yourownwords.
The parentsof a I 3-year-oldgirl lvho believetheir daughter's
:urcidelvasthe resultof a cruel cyber hoaxare pushingfor Readthewritingtip,thenlookat the Introduction
to the
measures to protectotherchildrenonline. modelessay on page100.Whichsentences describe the
current Whichsentences
situation? rephrase thequestion in
differentwords?
Terror websites could be
blocked in Eucrackdown Workin pairs.Writethe introduction
phrasesbelowto helpyou.
to youressayusingthe

-\ccessto websites that provide information on how


:o make bombs could be blocked by security forces in
an attempt to crack down on terrorists. Overthe pastfewdecades, theInternet ...
Wehavenowreached a pointwhere...
Newspapersarefullof storiesabout...
Onlineanorexia Microsoft
abruptlgclosed
downfourpro-anorexia
In somecountries
...whitein others...

sitesshut down ur oheitpq in Snain


"' "r - "'
Thekeyquestionis ...
fte ra c o mpl ai nt
U e s te rd aaU
amidclaimsthey th a tth e gw e ree n d a n geri ng
Whatit comesdownto is ...
Whatneedsto be decided is ...
girls.
glorifystarvation the livesof teenage Manypeoplearestarting ...
to wonderwhether

Compare withanotherpair'sintroduction.
yourintroduction
Shareideasto improveyourwork.
Bank details being sold over
the Internet for just f 1 2-5 of youressay
writeparagraphs
Workingindividually,
l-i .ts o t' t ' r et I it t ' lr lr I nru n l rt' rs .n a n )(' sa rttl a < l tl rc ' s scs
ar' ('
followingyourplan.Write200-250wordsin total.
1,,'i n gtrar lc r l a< ' r r r s tslre T rrtc rrre ltx c ri rri n a l s i rn o l retl
Checkyourworkusingthe list below.
i rr ID 1 i' ar r t l.it is r ' lair rre rlto tl a r.

FffiltllllGl Workin pairs.Decidewhetherthe fotlowing Haveyou


thingsshouldor shouldnotbeallowed on the Internet.
Then I fotlowedthe essayptancorrectly?
compare yourideaswiththe class. I writtenthecorrect
number of words?
1 aboutfamouspeoplewhichmaybe untrue
stories I included passive
phrases your
fordistancing
2 unauthorised people
photosandvideoctipsof ordinary opinions?
3 instructions
forwritingcomputerviruses I checked thespetlingandgrammar?
4 unauthorised
videofootageof rockconcerts
5 negative aboutthegovernment
opinions
6 adverts
foruntested medicines

U ni t9.5ecr er s
Exarn9
Describethe photograph.What is the role of the two people 3 Readthe text quickly,ignoringany extrawords.Why was an
i n t he phot o?W ha td o e sth e m a c h i n ed o ? U s eth e w ordsi n i nabi ti tyto l i e a bi g probl emfor thi s cri mi nal?
the box to help you.

b loodpr es s ur e d e c e i t d e c e p ti o n d e te c t d etecti on
4 Do the Useof Englishexamtasl<.

l ie det ec t or oul s e s w e a t

Somelinesof thetextarecorrect
andsomecontain an
extrawordwhichshouldnotbethere.Cross outtheextra
wordsandtickthe lineswhicharecorrect.
0 l t maybetoughfonA l el andro Marti nez to be
00 cl earhi mselof f charses thathe robbed a Las _L
1 V egas przzaparl ourafter" heal l efedllyeavrng
2 behi nd a cruci alpi eceof evi dence A ccordi ng to
3 prosecutors, the2S -year-ol Marti
d nez entered t he
4 parl our, ordered a pi eandrequested for a j ob
5 appl i cati on' Thecashi er i mmedi atel gave
y hi man
6 appl i cati onanda pen,sothathestanted fi l l i n git
2 O l.rr Dothe Listening
examtasl<. 7 out,'sai dC l arkC ounty P rosecutor FrankC ou m o-
8 ' Then, w henhethought themoment w asri f ht,he
9 l i ftedhi sshi rt,exposed thebuttof a fi r" earm , had
a nd
Listento a radio programme.Choosethe best answers 10 tol dherto S i vehi mal lofthe money'
(A-D). t7 H avi ng stuffed overthe$200i n hi spocket, Ma r t inez
1 Dur ingan ex peri m e ni tn toth e d e v e l o p m e notf d ecepti on 72 r" ushed outto a w ai ti ngcar'authori
, ti es
say Buta -
in c hildr en 13 w i tness w asfol l ow edthe gunman andw noteoown
A alm os tall of t h e th re e -y e a r-o l ldi e s d. 74 the numberpl ateA neasytraceofthatnumb er r nat
B abouthat fof a tl th e c h i l d re nl i e d . 75 l edto pol i cestrai ght to Marti nez, w homtheyf ound
C allof t he f iv e -y e a r-o l dl ise d . t6 si tti ngat homeN oneof thathasnotmadei t easy
D alt of t he t hr e e -y e a r-o l a dns d h a l fo f th e fi v e -year-ol ds t7 for the l aw yen w hohe hasbeengi ventheyobo f
t ied. 18 defendi nt Marti nez B uttheevi dence thatl eftbehind
79 coul drenderhi sl ob al mostas i mpossi blW e h en
t o r es e a rc hw, h a t p ro p o rti o no f e v e ryday
2 A c c or ding l i es
20 pol i cefeturned to the pi zzaparl ourafterthear r est ,
ar e not ident if i e da s l i e s ?
2t theyfoundMarti nez' s.1ob appl i cati on
sti l lw asont he
A four out of five C mo reth a n 8 o %
22 counterH ehadduti ful lfiyl l edi n w i thhrsneanam l e
B a t hir d D e i g h tp e rc e n t 23 andaddress' l ' dchal ki t upto ei theri nexpe r ience
3 Res ear cinth o ho ww e l l p e o p l ec a nd e te c tti e sh as 24 or pl ai nstupi di ty,' he
sai dP rosecutor C oumo u
s hownt hat
A peoplec anon tyte l t i f c l o s efa m i l yme mb e rsa re l yi ng.
B m en ar e bet te rth a nw o m e na t d e te c ti n gl i e s . , W orki n pai rs.D eci dei n what
C y oungpeoplea reth e b e s ta t d e te c ti n g[i e s . i f any,you mi ghtbe tempte dt o lie about :
ci rcumstances,
D onlya s m a[ [n u m b e ro f p e o p l ec a n i d e n ti fyIi es 1 somebody' appearance.
s 3 yourage.
c ons is t ent ly. 2 feeti ngunw etl . 4 youremo t ions.
4 P s y c hologis Pta u lEk m a nh a sd e mo n s tra teth d at
6 Oothe S peaki ngexamtask.
A judgesand ps y c h i a tri s ts l i e j u s t a s mu c ha s ro bbers.
B it ' s eas ier t od e te c ta l i e w h e ny o u w a tc hi t o n vi deo.
C it ' s har dt o de te c ta l i e w h e ny o u a re p a rto f a group.
D ex per t sar e no b e tte rth a n o rd i n a ryp e o p l ea t Readthefollowing
statement. Doyouagreeor disagree
d e fe rfi n o lipc the issuewithyourpartner,
withit?Discuss respondingto
5 ResearchbyProfessor CharlesBondsuggeststhat anycounter-argumentstheyhave.
peoplefailto detect[iesbecause lf youwantto succeed
in lifeyoushoutdbecome
a
A theydon'tlookintotheeyesoftheperson speaking.