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GRIVAS PUBLICATIONS 2008

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a Senior Editor: Lesley Jones
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Claudia Milza
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e-mail:info@grivas.gr
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Printed July 2011

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO THE MICHIGAN ECPE 5
ART GRAMMAR / VOCABULARY
Word Building, Tenses, Related Words, Confusable Words, Idioms,
Lesson A GCVR 8
Special Language Points, Vocabulary Expansion
UNIT 1

Word Building, Special Grammar Points, Preposition Usage, Idiomatic Pairs,


Lesson B GCVR 14
Special Language Points, Vocabulary Expansion
Lesson C Speaking Listening Part 1 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (Opinion) 20
Lesson D Vocabulary Practice & Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical order) 26

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1 1 Vocabulary Consolidation 2 Further Grammar Practice
ractic
ractice 32

ANIMAL KINGDOM GRAMMAR / VOCABULARY


LARY
Conditionals, Derivatives, Related Words, Confusable
onfusable Words
Words,
Lesson A GCVR 44

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Special Language Points, Idioms, Vocabulary Expansion
UNIT 2

Special Grammar Points, Preposition Usage,


sage, Confus
Confusable Words,
Lesson B GCVR 50

Lesson C
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Special Language Points, Idiomatic
ic Pairs, Vocabulary Expansion
Speaking Listening Part 2 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (D
(Descriptive) 56
Lesson D Vocabulary Practice & Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical
habe order) 62

2 1 Vocabulary Consolidation
nsolidation
nsolidatio 2 Further Grammar Practice 68
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NATURAL WORLD GRAMMAR / VOCABULARY


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Nouns,
ns, Related Words
Words, Preposition Usage, Confusable Words,
Lesson A GCVR 80
Special
ecial Language Points,
Po Vocabulary Expansion
UNIT 3

Special Gra
Grammar Points, Preposition Usage, Confusable Words,
Lesson B GCVR 86
Special
pecial Language
Lang Points, Idiomatic Pairs, Vocabulary Expansion, Idioms
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Lesson C Speaking Listen


Listening Part 1 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (Problem Solving) 92
Lesson D Vocabulary Pr
Practice & Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical order) 98
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3 1 Vocabulary Consolidation 2 Further Grammar Practice 104

SCIENCE / TECHNOLOGY GRAMMAR / VOCABULARY


Vocabulary Expansion, Comparison, Related Words, Derivatives,
Lesson A GCVR 116
Special Language Points, Confusable Words, Idiomatic Pairs, Word Building
UNIT 4

Vocabulary Expansion, Related Words, Special Language Points,


Lesson B GCVR 122
Special Grammar Points, Preposition Usage
Lesson C Speaking Listening Part 2 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (For and Against) 128
Lesson D Vocabulary Practice & Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical order) 134

4 1 Vocabulary Consolidation 2 Further Grammar Practice 140

3
HEALTH / MEDICINE GRAMMAR / VOCABULARY
Collocations, Related Words, Confusable Words, Special Language Points,
Lesson A GCVR 152
Idioms, Infinitive / Gerund, Vocabulary Expansion
UNIT 5

Special Grammar Points, Infinitive / Gerund, Preposition Usage, Confusable


Lesson B GCVR 158
Words, Related Words, Idiomatic Pairs, Idioms, Vocabulary Expansion
Lesson C Speaking Listening Part 1 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (Descriptive) 164
Lesson D Vocabulary Practice & Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical order) 170

5 1 Vocabulary Consolidation 2 Further Grammar Practice 176


LANGUAGE / EDUCATION GRAMMAR / VOCABULARY
Preposition Usage, Inversion, Adverbs, Confusable Words, Related
elated Word
Words,

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Lesson A GCVR Idiomatic Pairs, Special Language Points, Borrowed Words,
rds, Vocabulary 188
Expansion
UNIT 6

Special Grammar Points, Confusable Words, Related


ated Words,
Words
Lesson B GCVR 194
Preposition Usage, Idioms, Special Language Points,
oints, Vocabulary Expansion

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Lesson C Speaking Listening Part 2 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (Problem
blem Solvin
Solving) 200
Lesson D Vocabulary Practice & Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical
al order) 206

6 1 Vocabulary Consolidation
PA 2 Further Grammar
Gramma Practice
Gram 212

SOCIAL ISSUES GRAMMAR


AR / V
VOCABULARY
Idioms, Related Words,
ds, C
Confusable Words, Special Language Points,
Lesson A GCVR 224
Special Grammar Points
Poin
UNIT 7

Vocabulary Expansion,
n, Preposition Usage, Compound Adjectives,
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Lesson B GCVR Special Language


uage Points, Related Words, Confusable Words, Idiomatic Pairs, 230
Clauses, Vocabulary Expansio
Expansion
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Lesson C Speaking Listening


ning Part 1 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (For and Against) 236
Lesson D Vocabulary Practice & P
Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical order) 242

7 1 Vocabulary C
Consolidation 2 Further Grammar Practice 248
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HISTORY
RY GRAMMAR / VOCABULARY
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V
Vocabulary Expansion, Confusable Words, Special Language Points,
Lesson
nA GCVR
CVR 260
Idiomatic Pairs, Preposition Usage, Participles, Related Words
UNIT 8

Special Grammar Points, Preposition Usage, Confusable Words,


Lesson B GCVR
G 266
Related Words, Special Language Points, Idioms
Lesson C Speaking Listening Part 2 & Part 3 Writing - Essay (Opinion) 272
Lesson D Vocabulary Practice & Phrasal Verbs (in alphabetical order) 278

8 1 Vocabulary Consolidation 2 Further Grammar Practice 286


Information for Speaking Tests 299
Speaking Functional Language 303
Writing Guidance 305
Grammar Reference 309

4
Introduction to the ECPE
SECTION TIME DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF
ITEMS
Speaking 25-35 minutes 5 stages [see pages 6 and 7 for full
specifications for the new Speaking Test,
effective June 2009]

Writing 30 minutes Examinees write an essay based upon one of 1 task


two topic choices.

Listening 35-40 minutes Part I (multiple choice) 50

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A short recorded conversation is accompanied by
three printed statements. Examinees choose the
statement that means about the same thing as
what was heard, or that is true based upon the
conversation.

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Part II (multiple choice)
A recorded question is accompanied
companied by three
t
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printed responses. Examinees
appropriate response to
xaminees choose
ch
o the question.
the

Part III (multiple choice)


Three recordeded talks,
t such as those that might
be heard on the radio,
r are each followed by
recorded comprehension
comprehensio questions. Examinees
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choose
se the correct answer
a from the printed
answer
wer choices.
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Grammar, 75 minutes Grammar (mu(multiple choice) 40


Cloze, An inc
incomplete sentence is followed by a choice
Vocabulary, of wo
words or phrases to complete it. Only one
Reading choice is grammatically correct.
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C
Cloze (multiple choice) 20
After reading a passage from which words have
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been removed, examinees must choose one of


four words that best fills a missing word slot in
terms of grammar and meaning.

Vocabulary (multiple choice) 40


An incomplete sentence is followed by a choice
of words to complete it. Only one word has the
correct meaning in that context.

Reading (multiple choice) 20


Four reading passages are followed by
comprehension questions.

5
New Speaking Test*
Format of the Speaking Test
Type of Task: Candidates participate in a decision-making task. A candidate works with one other
candidate in the paired format or with two other candidates in the three-way format. Each administration
of the Speaking Test is organized to have an even number of candidates to ensure the use of the paired
format. However, in the event that one candidate of a pair is absent, the three-way format is used. Each
candidate is given descriptions of two different options. Candidates collaborate to decide on, to
present, and to defend a single option.

Stage 1 Introductions and Small Talk (3-5 minutes)


es)

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Examiner 1 begins with introductions and then initiates a conversation on
general topics (e.g., hometown, leisure activities) with candidates.
andidates. Candidates
Candid
are expected to actively participate in the conversation by providing expanded
ex

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responses and also by asking each other and Examiner 1 questions.
questions

The goal of Stage 1 is for Examiner 1 and the candidates


ndidates to introduce
intro themselves
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and for candidates to become comfortable interacting withw each other.

Stage 2 Summarizing
g and Recommending (5-7 minutes)
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For this stage, each candidate is given an information


in sheet with descriptions of
two options (for a total al of four different
diff options in the paired format).
Candidates are allowedwed to keep theth information sheet during the test and
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can take notes on n their information


informati sheet if they wish. They do not have to
memorize the information.
informatio During Stages 2 and 3, candidates are NOT
permitted to seee their partners
par information sheet. Candidates are given 2-3
minutes to o read through tthe information.
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Candidates
idates then take
tak turns summarizing the descriptions of their two options
to
o each other. Candidates
Can should summarize the information and NOT just read
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the list of features under an option. They must listen carefully to each other
during the summarizations because afterwards candidates will make a
recommendation
recomm to their partner of the best option from the two options
presented
resen by their partner. Candidates may take notes while their partner is
summarizing.

After candidates have presented an oral summary of their information and


received a recommendation from their partner, they silently choose one of their
own options and think of reasons why that option is the best. There is not
only one correct answer all of the options are possible. At this point in the
paired-format test, four options have been narrowed to two.

The goal of Stage 2 is for candidates to learn what all the options are, to make
a recommendation to their partner, and to choose silently one of their own
options as the best.

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Stage 3 Consensus Reaching (5-7 minutes)

For this stage of the Speaking Test, candidates report to their partner which
one of their own two options they think is the best. The candidates then
compare and contrast the options they have individually chosen and discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of each option. Candidates are still not allowed
to look at each others piece of paper.

The goal of Stage 3 is for the two candidates to come to an agreement on one
single option.

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Stage 4 Presenting and Convincing (5-77 minutes)

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For this stage of the test, candidates formally present nt the option
opti they have
chosen to Examiner 2, who takes on the role of a person of relatively high
status (for example, Examiner 2 may be the principal of a school
PA sc that needs to
hire a new teacher). Candidates are given n 2-3 minutes
minute to collaborate and plan
the short presentation. At this point, theyy may look at each
e others paper if they
wish. Each candidate presents two different reas
reasons for deciding on a particular
option and explains why those reasons
rea are important.
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The goal of Stage 4 is for thee candidates to


t present and to convince Examiner 2
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that the option they have


ve chosen is the best one.
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Stage 5 Justifying
ustifyin and Defending (5-7 minutes)
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During
ring this stage, Examiner 2 questions the candidate about the decision they
havee made and about the reasons for that decision.
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The goal of Stage 5 is for each candidates to address Examiner 2s challenges


and to justify and defend the reasons for the decision.

Number of Examiners: There are two examiners present during the entire test. Examiner 1
conducts Stages 1 through 4. Examiner 2 participates during Stage 4 and Stage 5. Throughout the
majority of the test, the participation of the examiners is minimal. During Stage 1 and Stage 5, the
examiners will be participants in the speaking activity. However, examiner involvement during Stages 2
through 4 does not extend beyond giving directions and answering questions pertaining to test directions.

* We would like to thank the staff at the English Language Institute,


University of Michigan for granting us permission to reproduce this information.

7
[GCVR]
UNIT 1 Lesson Masters of Art
A
1 DISCUSSION
What is your opinion of this painting?
Do you know who painted it?
Which other famous artists do you know of?

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2 CLOZE / READING PRACTICE
t, Pablo Picasso.
a Choose the correct words to complete this short text about the famous artist,

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Even though his name is usually associated ed ((1) to
o / with C
Cubism, Picasso did in fact
produce a wide variety of works throughout his long life lif (he lived to be 92 years old).

(3) None / Few painters have been


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Acknowledged as being the most gifted painter of the twentieth
/ indicated a talent for sculpture and poetry.
poet
n as prolific
p
twen century, he also (2) displayed

as Picasso, who was a self-confessed


workaholic. It is (4) estimated / assessed that
at he produced in excess of 13,000 paintings!
Despite this enormous output,out Picasso was able to avoid repetition in his work by
(5) transferring / altering his style. It seems that each change represented things that he was
being influenced by at that at (6) particular
particul / certain time. The somber (7) nature / character of the
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artists paintings during his Blue Period


Pe (8) distracted / reflected the human misery he saw on
the streets of Paris. When he began gan to paint circus scenes, which he (9) obviously / mostly enjoyed, he used
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predominantly pink tones. This was known as his Rose Period.


Next came Cubism. This was as an analyt
analytical style of painting which Picasso developed with Braque, a fellow artist.
It involved (10) breaking / splitting
tting down aand analyzing the form of the paintings (11) object / subject in terms of its
shape. In the beginning,, the paintings were
we monochromatic; only later did the artists experiment with color. The style
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ugh a process of trial and (12) error / mistake, and Cubism - as we know it today - was born.
was perfected through
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b Answer
werr the following q
questions. c Choose the correct answer according to the text.
1 What did Picasso
Pica do in order not to 1 Picasso created
ny of his earlier work?
repeat any a 13,000 paintings.
b more than 13,000 paintings.
2 What affected Picassos work? c less than 13,000 paintings.
2 Picasso was recognized as being
3 How would you describe the a more talented than other painters of his era.
difference between Picassos b an extremely gifted sculptor.
Blue and Rose periods? c solely responsible for the introduction of Cubism.
3 In Cubism, for a subject to be analyzed it would be
a painted in one color.
b broken.
c separated into smaller parts.

8
3 VOCABULARY CHECK 5 GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Tenses / Modals
Choose the correct definition of the word in color.
Choose the correct answer.
1 She changed her last name because she didnt
1 The buses in this town ____ on time.
want to be associated with her ex-husband.
a are usual to run c usually run
a connected c supported
b are running usually d usually are running
b combined d aligned
2 He refused to acknowledge that she had left him. 2 This is the first time I ____ a crocodile.
a notice c accept a see c have seen
b view d confess b am seeing d can see

3 Having written over thirty novels, she was one of 3 Due to last weeks terrible tsunami, entire villages
the most prolific writers of her generation. ____.
a plentiful c rich a are wiped out c have wip
wiped out
b productive d fruitful b wiped out d have been wwiped out

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4 Nothing can alter the fact that you are to blame. 4 I ____ on doing this
is today, but Im glad
gl Ive done
a reform c convert it though.
b revise d change a havent
tt planned c hav
havent been planning
ha
5 Instead of being his usual comical self, he was in a b had
d planned
lanned d hadnt planned

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really somber mood.
5 Id like
ke to go to the mo
movies tonight; I hope you
mov
a serious c indifferent
____ working late.
____
b cheerful d angry
PA a not c havent been
6 The residents of this area are predominantly of b wont
on be d wouldnt be
Spanish origin.
a greatly c mainly 6 I vvisited Stonehenge while I was in England.
b productively d usually Really? I wonder how ____.
Rea
Really
a was it built c it was built
b has it been built d it has been built
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7 I wonder what the world would be like if the


4 WORD BUILDING
computer ____ invented.
Form adjectives from the verbs below. a was never c has never been
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b had never been d would never have been


VERB -ive -al
8 Greg has simply disappeared. I wonder what ____
1 repeat repetitivee to him.
a can happen c have happened
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2 produce
b could happen d could have happened
3 influence
9 It didnt rain after all. I ____ my umbrella.
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4 represent
sent a neednt bring c needed to bring
b neednt to bring d neednt have brought
5 analyze
lyze
10 Jane failed the course.
6 experiment
nt
She ____ very disappointed when she found out.
a must be c must have been
b has been d would
11 I finally decided to mow the lawn, something I
should ____ several weeks ago.
a be doing c do
b have been doing d have done
12 Hes usually quite a sensible boy, but today ____
really silly.
a hes c hed been
b hes being d hed be

9
6 RELATED WORDS 8 IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS
Words to do with causing damage to a surface / object. Fill in the correct idiom.
Choose the correct word.
put sb in the picture paint a grim
1 The heat caused the paint to blister / crease. picture be the picture of despair
2 How did you dent / fade the bumper? get the picture

3 This material wilts / creases easily. BILL: You (1)__________ certainly


_____________________ this
4 It looked like someone had scraped / scorched the paint off the
morning. Is there anything going
side of the car.
on I should know about?
5 The flowers are wilting / grazing because they havent been
JANE: Well, to (2)___________________
___ ,
watered for days.
one of the paintings
ntings fo
for tomorrows
6 The sun chipped / faded the curtains. exhibition seems
ems to be m missing.

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7 She scorched / crumpled her skirt with the iron. BILL: What! Oh, I (3)
(3)________________
)________
_____
8 One of the glasses I bought was dented / chipped. - you
ou stolen! So
u mean its been st
what now?
9 The paint is flaking / fading off that door.
JANE: Lets not jump tto conclusions.
10 Her dress was so worn that it had blistered / frayed at the seams. There
ere could
cou be some other

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11 He was lucky that the bullet only chipped / grazed his leg. explanatio
explanation.

12 The manager flaked / crumpled up the application form and LL:


BILL Lik w
Like what? Just make sure the
threw it away. PA pre
press doesnt get hold of this -
you know how reporters love to
(4)_____________________ of
7 CONFUSABLE WORDS everything.

1 Choose the correct answer.


1 Could you _____ the attacker in more detail?
etail?
tail?
a depict c illustrate 9 SPECIAL LANGUAGE POINTS
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b portray d describe Fill in the correct words.


2 The book _____ the actor as a selfish person.
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a displays c demonstrates
emonstrates no sense of taste very good taste
A
b portrays d exhibits
xhibits everyones taste

3 The painting _____ a scene


ne of country
countr life
li in the 19th century. 1 Sarah has _________________ in art.
a depicts c outlines
outline Thats probably why she works at
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b describes d sketche
sketches the museum.
4 The auctionn house would not _____
_ the price at which the 2 This style of art is not to
een sold.
painting had been _________________ .
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a reveal
revea c uncover
3 Ive got _________________ with this
b unveil d exhibit
awful cold.

2 Fill in the correct


orrect
rrect word.
w
(un)imaginable b imaginary (un)imaginative
B view of view on view to
1 The story is set in an ______________ world, which is brought 1 Whats your ____________ this
to life by the authors vivid descriptions. matter? Do you think hes right?
2 The extent of their wealth is almost ______________ . 2 In ____________ the bad weather, the
3 He is the most ______________ writer I have ever come party will be held indoors.
across. His books literally put me to sleep. 3 Were painting the house with a
4 In her private collection, she had works of art by almost every ____________ selling it.
artist ______________ .
4 They had a great ____________ the
5 These action figures provide children with ample opportunity ocean from their hotel room.
for ______________ play.

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10 WORD BUILDING
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in capitals.
1 CREATE 4 USE
a To be a writer you need to be very ____________ . a The current English ____________ of the word
b I wouldnt class that awful ____________ as art. critic is derived from the Greek word for judge.
b His ____________ of color has ruined what would
2 ART
otherwise have been marvelous work.
a This work shows that he has great ____________
ability. 5 EXPRESS
b The exhibition will feature local ____________ and a ____________ is a style of painting concerned
sculptors. with the expression of feelings.
b She has a wonderfully ____________ style of writing.
3 PERCEIVE
a That art critic always gives a highly ____________ 6 DEFINE
analysis of the hidden meaning of a painting. a The book has been described
ibed
ed as the
b How can we change peoples ____________ of phy
hy of Picasso.
____________ biography Picass

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modern art? b Not everyone agrees
es on the ____________
_________
________ of art
nowadays.

11 WHAT ARE THEY?

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Label the pictures.
brush sketch pad palette canvas
as easel

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(1)_______________ (2)_______________ (3)_______________
(3)____________
(3) ___ (4)_______________ (5)_______________
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12 CLOZE Exam Style


PL

The original meaning of art


art was skill of any
a kind. The modern usage of the word art, ___(1)___
sculp
particularly to painting, drawing or sculpture, emerged in about 1700. ___(2)___, the present-day
mportant form
concept of art as an important for of ___(3)___, and of the artist as a kind of creative genius, did not
develop ___(4)___ later.
r
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tury, the word art


By the 19th century, a was associated with the creative production of objects ___(5)___ no
useful function. definition of art changed ___(6)___ in the 20th century. New forms, such as film
ction. The definitio
and television,
on, challenged the traditional notion of art. Indeed, these new forms ___(7)___ such issues
as what
hat criteria should be used for perceiving an object or performance as art.
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Thee work of som


some 20th-century artists in the ___(8)___ of drawing, painting and sculpture has also
challenged
allenged our views on ___(9)___ constitutes art and how an audience should react to it. The
modernrn definition
defin of art something which is beautiful or expresses ideas sounds just as abstract
as ___(10)___ of the works now hanging in galleries.

1 a referring b in c meaning d and


2 a When b Even c However d Despite
3 a construction b creation c production d discovery
4 a but b much c until d by
5 a concerning b for c that d with
6 a yet b again c once d more
7 a brought b appeared c raised d held
8 a areas b scales c fields d types
9 a that b which c how d what
10 a some b one c all d those

11
13 DISCUSSION POINT
Art does not progress, but only changes form.
What do you understand by this quotation?
Do you agree with it?
What do you think makes art good?

14 WORD BUILDING
a Form nouns from the verbs below. b Fill in the correct noun.
1 There is a striking ________________ between
ettwe
w e the two
Noun
Verb paintings.
- ance - ence
2 His ________________ on alcohol
ol had a negative effect on
accept his work.
depend 3 The ________________ of photography
p otography as an
a art form has
inherit become widespread.
prefer 4 He received a large ________________
______________ when his father died.
resemble 5 When it comes to art, I have a(n) ______________ for
Surrealism.

15 WHAT DO THEY MEAN?


PA
Choose the word that is most similar in meaning to the word in color.
olor.

1 perusal approval reading estimate


mate translation computation
2 adulation approach echo
o flattery gift imitation
3 prolific meager obedient
ient productive hardy conspicuous
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4 avid eager gglowing indifferent lax potent


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5 lucrative debasing fortunate influential monetary profitable

16 VOCABULARY EXPANSION N
1 Match the adjectives with
th ttheir synonyms and
a antonyms.
an
M

SSynonyms Antonyms
1 religious ____
___ famous, renowned
re ____ hesitant, indecisive
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2 prominent
ent _____ clear,
cl evident ____
1 impious, godless
3 adamant
nt ____ po
poverty-stricken, destitute ____ unknown, obscure
4 apparent ____
1 devout, spiritual ____ hidden, concealed
5 penniless ____ determined, persistent ____ wealthy, affluent

2 Tick () the word that best completes each sentence.


1 Gavin is the sole _____ to his fathers fortune. 4 His sudden _____ was attributed to his artistic
heir heirloom. temperament.
outburst outbreak
2 The use of only black and white is the artists _____.
trade name trademark 5 The artist accepted _____ from a well-known
tycoon.
3 The designer spent her _____ years in a small
commissions emissions
village.
formal formative

12
17 READING Exam Style

This short biography of Rembrandt comes from an art magazine.

1. Rembrandt was famous for ...


Rembrandt, one of a his depictions of animals.
the greatest painters b techniques he learned from
of all time, was also a one of his tutors.
deeply religious man. c his studies of other paintings.
Born on July 15, d his inspiration.
1606, he was the son
of a prominent miller 2. Which of the following
wing is stated in the
and spent his
passage?
formative years in the
a Rembrandts
randts wife was well-off.

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small Dutch town of
b Rembrandt
embrandt had an argument
ar
Leiden. Rembrandts
ith the Prince of Orange.
with
father was adamant
c Rembrandt re remarried after
that his son should go
his first wif
wife died.
into political office,

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d Rembrandt
mbr had one child.
and to this effect he
sent him to the
Municipal Latin School PA 3. Which of the following is mentioned
with a view to his later attending university. However, er, about Rembrandt?
political events forced Rembrandt to leave the school in a He quit school to study art.
his last year, and he was immediately apprenticed to b He worked as a miller before
Swanenburgh, an experienced painter. becoming a painter.
Under Swanenburghs guidance, Rembrandt brandt learned
le c He did not follow the career his
how to seek inspiration from other forms ms of art and to father had wanted.
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make studies of stuffed animals. After a few years he d He left school because of his
became apprenticed to another artist, Lastman, from political ideology.
whom he learned to paint still ill lifes and portraits
portrai as well
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as biblical and mythological al scenes. Many of the skills 4. Before moving to Amsterdam,
and techniques Rembrandt andt learned from Lastman were Rembrandt ...
apparent in his work and d later became
bec his trademarks, a was paid to do specific paintings.
earning him the respect
espect and adulation
adula of other artists. b became friends with Uylenburg.
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When his apprenticeship ended, e Rembrandt entered c studied under the Prince of
into partnership
hip with another
anoth artist, and by 1629 the two Orange.
painters were accepting commissions
c from the Prince of d met the woman he would later
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Orange Hague. This lucrative partnership and the


nge in The Hag marry.
commissions
missions ended
end in 1633, when Rembrandt moved
to Amsterdam.
msterdam. There, he struck up a friendship with a
5. Which of the following is not true?
successful
ful painter,
pa Uylenburg, and was later to marry his
a Rembrandt died in poverty.
sister who bore him a son, although she tragically died
b Rembrandt was financially
soon after in 1642. Despite inheriting her wealth,
unstable.
Rembrandt fell heavily into debt, and with the outbreak of
c Rembrandt lost his son in 1668.
war in the Dutch Republic in 1652, he turned to his
d Rembrandt lost most of his
commonlaw wife and his son to protect him from his
money during the war.
creditors. In 1668, Rembrandts son died. A year later, in
1669, penniless and with his only heir a child borne to
him by his commonlaw wife, he himself died at the age
of 63.

13
[GCVR]
UNIT 1 Lesson GRAFFITI Art or Vandalism?
B
1 DISCUSSION
What is your opinion of this picture?
Why do people do graffiti?
How does graffiti affect the community?

ES
2 CLOZE / READING PRACTICE
a Choose the correct words to complete this short text about graffiti.

The word graffiti is (1) derived / deduced from an Italian word meaning scratched
cra d and
d and refers
ref
ef to anything from
Grraf is
casual markings to elaborate wall paintings scrawled on visible surfaces. Graffiti is perceived
perc
erc (2) to / by many as
unsightly damage or vandalism.
Graffiti has existed since ancient times, with examples going back to ancient Greece and the Roman Empire.
Another (3) notional / notable example of graffiti from the pastt is Lord Byrons
Byron inscription of his own name on one
of the columns of the Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion n in Greece.
Greec
Modern graffiti art (4) evolved / founded in New York, with spray
pray paint and permanent markers (5) being / having
the most commonly used materials, and subway trains tr a very popular
opu target. The trend caught on in the 1960s
following the appearance throughout the city of TAKI 183. This was the tag of a Greek-American youth named
Demetrius who drew widespread media attention ntion to himself,
hims thus causing graffiti to gain in popularity.
Although mostly used by kids to gain personal recognition
recognitio amongst their peers, graffiti is sometimes employed
to (6) converge / convey political messages
ages and raise social
so issues. To some, it is a valid art form associated with
the youth subculture and an outlet let for creative self
self-expression. (7) Likewise / However, the general consensus is
that graffiti defaces the urban environment, with w governments (8) occurring / incurring huge costs for clean-
(9) up / away and prevention. on. In momost countries, defacing property (10) without / by the owners consent
punish
constitutes vandalism, an offense punishable by law.
Despite the widespread read
d conviction that graffiti is a violation of property rights, there is an avid minority who
affi
ffiti
ti is a valid
maintain that graffiti vaalilid
li artarrt form
f that often demonstrates artistic talent worthy of display.
SA

b Answerr the
he following qu
quest
questions. c Choose the correct answer according to the text.
1 Whatt influence did
di Demetrius have on modern-
d 1 Graffiti dates back to
ffiti?
fiti?
day graffiti? a New York during the 1960s.
b ancient times.
c Lord Byrons era.
2 What is the purpose of graffiti?
2 What is a tag?
a the color, form and style of graffiti art
3 Why does society generally view graffiti as
immoral and unacceptable? b a large multicolored work
c a scribble of an artists signature

4 Why do you think subway trains might be a 3 The main difference between graffiti and
favored target of graffiti artists? legitimate art is
a permission obtained by the artist.
b the materials used.
c the waste of government funds.

14
3 VOCABULARY CHECK
1 Fill in the correct noun. markings consent recognition consensus violation

MARK: I strongly believe that there should be some (1) ______________ of graffiti as an established art form.
JANE: Not in my view. Apart from anything else, ninety-nine percent of graffiti is done without the property
owners (2) ______________ . That includes the ugly, random (3) ______________ on my freshly-painted
wall.
MARK: You have a good point, but there is a general (4) ______________ among artists that some graffiti shows
real talent.
JANE: I disagree. As far as Im concerned, its nothing more than a (5) ______________ of the law!

2 Match the adjectives with their antonyms. 3 Choose the correct meaning.
1 casual ____ a attractive a hide
idee
1 perceive

ES
2 elaborate ____ b void b notice
no
3 unsightly ____ c formal a communicat
communicate
commun
2 convey
4 valid ____ d undeserving b gather
5 worthy ____ e simple a dam
damage

G
3 deface
face
b sketch
a produce
PA 4 constitute
nstitute
b be considered to be

4 WORD BUILDING a show how to use


5 demo
demonstrate
b change to improve
Complete the table.
ADJECTIVE(S) ABSTRACT NOUN CONCRETE NOUN

1 political
E

2 vandalism
nd
3 (in)offensive / offending
PL

4 person
5 practice
pr
AM

5 GRAMMAR PRACTICE:
RACTICE:
ACTICE: Special Grammar Points
Choose the correct
orrect
rrect answer.
1 I need
ed
d a copy of this report.
re Can you have ____ ? 5 ____ her hard work, she still failed her exam.
a it seen to c seen to it a In spite c For all
b it seen
een d to see it b Although d Nevertheless
2 What you did
id was terrible. I hope you ____ better 6 Lets cross our fingers and hope that everything
from now on. goes ____ planned.
a to behave c will behave a as c as that
b to behaving d are behaving b as what d that has been
3 If you continue to steal things from the office, Ill 7 Ive known him for ____ years.
be in the difficult position ____ you to the boss. a a great many c a great deal of
a to have to report c to reporting b a lot d lots
b of having reported d of having to report
8 He has been seeing a counselor ____ week for the
4 High production costs led to the companys ____. past year.
a bankrupt c bankruptcy a each and all c each and every
b bankrupting d having bankrupt b every and each d every and any

15
6 VOCABULARY PRACTICE: Preposition Usage
Choose the correct answer.
1 Some of the committee members asked him to 6 I bought it on _____ and now regret it.
_____ on his proposal. a impiety c impact
a elaborate c amplify b impertinence d impulse
b clarify d embellish
7 He neglected to make _____ for something going
2 His theories had an important _____ on my way of wrong.
thinking. a provocation c providence
a consequence c repercussion b provenance d provision
b force d impact
8 They started out as an amateur acting group, but
3 She _____ in getting into the slowly _____ into a theatricall company.
university. a evaded c evicted

ES
a accomplished c managed b evoked d evolved
evolve
b succeeded d achieved
9 Prolonged ______ to the sun can cause
cau premature
4 I think shes quite _____ to new ideas. ageing.

G
a recumbent c receptive a disclosure
osuree c exp
eexposure
b raucous d ravenous b revelation
evelation
velati d uncovering

5 This model is definitely _____ to the other one.


a informal
b inferior
c inoperable
d indecent
PA 10 Robert
obert _____ at mat
a excels
b surpass
ssurpasses
math and physics.
c exceeds
d beats

7 IDIOMATIC PAIRS
E

trial and error (trying different methods Fill in the correct iid
idiomatic pair.
till you find one that is 1 Try doing it her way for a change. Marriage is all a matter of
PL

successful) ________________ .
_____

heart and soul (with a lot of energy


ergy and 2 The sculptor was _______________ in New York.
enthusiasm) 3 Ever since the exhibition, shes been getting offers
________________ .
M

left and right (from many different


sources)
s) 4 It was through ________________ that
she came up with the perfect combination
born and bred (born and raised)
of colors.
SA

give and takee (willingness to listen to 5 He threw himself ________________


c
others and compromise into the work he had been commissioned to
nec
when necessary) produce.

8 WHAT DO THEY MEAN?


Choose the word that is the most similar in meaning to the word in color.

1 atrocity endurance courage session abomination hatred


2 consensus agreement project insignificance crevice sheaf
3 embellish respect embarrass balance adorn equalize
4 repercussion consequence restoration resistance magnificence acceptance
5 subsequently continually factually farther incidentally later

16
9 WORD BUILDING
Complete the table below.

VERB NOUN VERB NOUN


1 depict 6 encourage
2 origin 7 unification, unity
3 explore 8 (in)significance
4 represent 9 succeed
5 popularity 10 variety, variation

10 WHAT ARE THEY?


Label the pictures.

ES
caricature landscape modern art silhouette portraitt

G
(1)_______________ (2)_______________ (3)_______________
PA ____
___ (4)_______________
(4)
4)______
__ (5)_______________

11 DISCUSSION POINT
Art produces ugly things which frequently become beautiful
autiful w
with time.
me.
What do you think this quotation means?
Do you agree with it?
Why do you think people pay large sums ms off money for works
wo
w of modern art?
E

12 CLOZE Exam Style


PL

The Abstract Expressionist movement


ovement of the mid-twentieth
mid
mi century became popular ___(1)___ it freed artists
from the ___(2)___ of conventional
ventional representation.
represent Instead of concentrating on the depiction of actual objects,
artists were encouraged ed to express themselves
them ___(3)___ through the use of form or color. Depending on
which style the artistst showed a preference
prefere for, he would be characterized as either an action painter or a color
M

fference being tthat the style of the formers work ___(4)___ the physical action involved in
field painter. Thee difference
painting, while
ilee that of the latter
latte explored the effects of pure color on canvas. ___(5)___ this difference, the
movement nt remained
mained unified by the artists shared approach to their work. ___(6)___ of their paintings
SA

ted of abstract
consisted abstrac images,
ima composed of lines and various shapes, and art was now believed to be the
spontaneous
ntaneous assertio of the ___(7)___ . The movement originated in New Yorks Greenwich Village in the
aneous assertion
940s and w
mid-1940s wa
was ___(8)___ the New York School. It was significant for being the first American school to
overse artists as opposed to the other way around. In fact, ___(9)___ was its success that it even
influence overseas
caused New York to replace Paris as the ___(10)___ of the art world.

1 a instead b had c because d however


2 a uses b privilege c limits d freedom
3 a present b actually c solely d even
4 a emphasizing b emphasized c emphasize d emphasizes
5 a Therefore b Despite c While d Later
6 a Neither b Most c Majority d Those
7 a individual b somebody c theory d talent
8 a known b called c founded d identified
9 a much b so c mostly d such
10 a core b center c top d peak

17
13 SPECIAL LANGUAGE POINTS
Fill in the correct words.
1 all in all all along all the same 2 well as well well as
1 _________________, the exhibition was a great 1 As _________ being angry, he was very upset.
success.
2 Its just _________ you didnt buy it it was a
2 Hes exhausted, but _________________ hes forgery.
coming with us.
3 There's nothing to do here; we may as
3 I knew _________________ who the artist was; _________ go home.
I just decided not to say anything.

14 VOCABULARY EXPANSION

ES
1a Match the adjectives with their synonyms.
1 conventional ____
2 subversive ____
3 rebellious ____ a educated, mental e destructive,
structive, revolutionary
revolu

G
4 intellectual ____ b relaxing, healing f poetic,
tic, cultural
cultura
5 revelatory ____ c barbaric, horrific g disobed
disobedient, defiant
6 literary
7 therapeutic
8 atrocious
____
____
____
d standard, traditionalPA h informa
informative, enlightening

b Complete the table.


ADJECTIVE(S) ABSTRACT
STRACT NOUN
NOUN(S) CONCRETE NOUN
E

1 conventional
2 subversive
PL

3 rebellious
4 intellectual
5 revelatory / revealing
M

6 literaryy / (il)literate
7 therapeutic
erapeutic
SA

8 atrocious
ocio

2 Fill in the correct


rrect word.
orrect w

comeback emergence core conflict potential


1 He has the ________________ to become a great designer.
2 The early twentieth century was marked by the ________________ of Surrealist art.
3 Although the movement became less popular after the war, it made a(n) ________________ in the 1960s.
4 The artists work reflects the ________________ between the various influences in her life.
5 A change in social attitudes was at the ________________ of the movement.

18
15 READING Exam Style

This passage about Surrealism comes from a textbook.

1. According to the text, the importance of


The Beginnings of Surrealism Surrealism ...
a was limited to the years
Surrealism, an intellectual movement that originated in the immediately after World War II.
early 1920s, reached its height during the years between the two b was global in nature.
World Wars and enjoyed a brief comeback in the post-World c was restricted to the years between
War II years. France, and particularly the city of Paris, had always World War I and II.
been the spiritual home of the movement, but during the 1920s d did not survivee until
unti the 1960s.
and 1930s Surrealist groups emerged in many other European
cities before reaching the shores of the U.S.A., Japan and Mexico.

ES
2. What do we learn
earn about Breton?
Breto
Breton
By the 1960s, the movement had practically died out, after a He was an associate of Freud.
having first spread its influence throughout the world. b Hee had an interest in psychoanalysis.
Many of the movements first supporters had belonged to an c He served in the armed forces
earlier movement known as Dada. Although this pre-dated during
ring the Fi
Fir
First World War.

G
Surrealism, for a short period the two movements coexisted. d He was tth
the first to hypnotise
They both denounced conventional bourgeois attitudes and psychi
psychia
psychiatric patients.
aimed to bring about great changes in cultural practices, but
PA ut
adopted distinctly different strategies. At the core of the Dada 3. B
Breto
Bretons interest in techniques such as
movement lay protest, subversion and rebellion, whereas as the hy
hypnotism ...
Surrealists embraced a psychoanalytic approach so as to bringring a extended beyond the field of
about a more intellectual revolution. medicine.
The word Surrealism was coined by the French Fren writer b was short-lived.
Apollinaire, who used it to describe a production of Jean c was restricted by the rules of
E

Cocteaus ballet Parade. He felt the workrk revealed a truth b


beyond society.
the real and called this a kind of sur-realism. The T term, d found disfavor among Freudian
PL

however, was soon to be adopted d by Andre Breton, also a French psychologists.


es of a new literary
writer, to describe the activities lite and artistic
movement. Breton can be viewed as the founding father of the 4. What do we learn about Dada and
Surrealist movement ass certain personal experiences of his were Surrealism?
he underlying ideology
ultimately to shape the ide of Surrealism. a They condemned all existing
M

Unlike many off his generation, Breton


B had not seen active duty cultural practices.
in World War I. All the same, the conflict had not escaped his b They sought to bring about
SA

ser
attention as he had served as a medical orderly in a psychiatric different changes.
ward where
here he encountered
encoun patients suffering from shell shock. c They had similar goals.
His workk introduced him to the theories and beliefs of Freud, the d They belonged to separate times.
father of psychoanalysis.
ychoan A perusal of Freuds work afforded him
insights from early attempts, through such techniques as 5. What do we learn about Apollinaire?
hypnotism, to unlock the inner workings of a tormented mind. a He adopted an expression which
had been coined by Breton.
The Freudian psychologists valued these techniques as a part
b He thought that Surrealism went
of their therapeutic treatment. For Breton, however, they were
more than a means of alleviating the suffering of the mentally beyond Cocteaus imagination.
scarred casualties of an atrocious war. He was more fascinated c He is recognized as having
by this potential method of accessing a new kind of reality - the established the Surrealist
reality of the inner mind - which he felt sure would be more movement.
intense and less controlled by the strictures of society. d He aptly interpreted one of
Cocteaus works.

19
[SPEAKING - LISTENING - WRITING]
UNIT 1 Lesson Reviewing the Masters
C
1 PRE-SPEAKING
Preparation for Stage 1
Answer the following questions.
Do you like this kind of painting? Where would you expect to see it?
Do you know who painted this picture?
If you had painted this picture, what title would you have given it?

Preparation for Stages 2-3


Imagine that you and your partner have promised to take your twelve-
year-old cousin to a museum this weekend. You both live in town and
your parents will give you $40 spending money, but they cant drive
you there. Paraphrase / summarize the information about your choice
of museum for your partner. Together, compare and contrast your
choices and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of
them. Then decide which place would be the most suitable. You both
oth
h
must come to an agreement on one single place.
P
Student A Art History Student B Modern Art
Museum Museum
Mu

keep cousin interested


E

low / high entrance fee


learn about the past
far from town Id rather visit
PL

... than ... because ... Even


though the ... offers ..., the
entrance fee is ... If youre
On the outskirts of town, free
ree Dow
Downtown,
Do near going to be charged ... then you
transportation to and fromom
m subway; $7 entrance
su
M

should ... Therefore, I would


museum; $7 entrancee fee - children fee - free posters for choose ... because ...
under 14 half-price;
ce; interactive under 7s; cafeteria.
activities; cafeteria.
teria.

Preparation
ion
on for Stages 44-
4-5
Present your choice
oice of m
museum to your teacher, giving one reason each as to why you decided on that particular place.
Then, answer thee que
questions based on your final choice. Use the vocabulary / structures in the box to help you justify and
defend your choice.
ART HISTORY MODERN ART
Why choose this museum when it is much Why choose this museum when it will cost you more?
further away?

How will you keep your cousin entertained?


Will you have sufficient money?

One of the reasons / The main reason why I chose ... is because ... I believe that this museum is ideal
for children because ... ... have the opportunity to take part in ... / it might there is ... and ... It may cost
us more but it looks / seems much more interesting than ... and there are also ... Forty dollars is / should
be more than enough to ... I dont know as we may want to buy something from ...

20
2 Fill in the correct verb in the appropriate form.
mention reproduce portray anticipate know
equal branch base focus

Weve all heard of the popular book, The Da Vinci Code, which (1) ________________ the internationally renowned
Leonardo da Vinci as an unrivaled genius. This may not be far from the truth as his insatiable curiosity was
(2) _____________ only by his powers of invention.

Although two of his paintings, the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, are among the most famous, most widely
(3) _____________ and most thoroughly analyzed works of all time, Da Vinci did not (4) _____________ solely on
painting and sculpting. Having received the best education that the city of Florence could
offer in those fields, he then (5) _____________ out into mathematics,
mati
matics
tics anatomy, writing
and engineering, to (6) _____________ but a few.

As an engineer, Da Vinci is now (7) ______________ to have been


een ahead
ahe of his time.
His notebooks contained schematic diagrams forr flying objects
object - not dissimilar to
helicopters - which were (8) _____________
__ on the principles
principle of aerodynamics. As
a matter of fact, many of his studies (9) _____________
_________ the developments of
modern technology.

3 SPEAKING [See Functional Language at back of book.]


P
STAGE 1: Introductions and Small Talk STAGE 3:3: Consensus
C Reaching
Answer the questions. For this stage you will
1 Have you ever been to a museum? Which h one(s)? tell each other which exhibition you have chosen
E

2 What kind of art do you like? Why? from your own two options.
3 Which famous painters do you know w of?
o compare and contrast your choices.
4 Should more emphasis be placed ed on the arts in discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each
PL

schools? Why? choice.


5 Does the government in your country do enough come to an agreement on one single option.
ain.
to promote the arts? Explain.
STAGE 4: Presenting and Convincing
M

STAGE 2: Summarizing g and Recomm


Recommending Your teacher will now take on the role of a person of
Imagine that you and your partner are
a teachers at a local relatively high status such as the principal of your school.
high school in town
wn and you have
ha to decide which art You and your partner must
SA

exhibition to take a grou


group of students to next week. Four collaborate with each other to formally present the
exhibitions
ns have made it to the final selection and option you have both agreed upon, giving two
relevant information
nformation has been provided. Each of you has different reasons each. You may now look at each
information about two of the four exhibitions. This others information sheets, if you wish.
information can be found on page 22 (Student A) and convince your teacher that the exhibition you have
page 299 (Student B). agreed upon is the best choice.
Do not look at each others sheets.
Summarize (paraphrase) the information you have
STAGE 5: Justifying and Defending
been given about the exhibitions to each other - do In this final stage, your teacher will question you about the
not just read the list of information under each
decision you have made and the reasons behind it. You will
exhibition. You may take notes while your partner
both address your teachers questions. Your goal here is to
is speaking.
justify and defend your decision.
Recommend one of the exhibitions that your
partner has presented to you.
Regardless of which exhibition your partner
recommends, silently make your own choice as
well.

21
Information Sheet STUDENT A

CHOOSING AN EXHIBITION

Taki 183 Graffiti Art Exhibition Rembrandt Exhibition - Classic Period


The following is a list of information and comments The following is a list of information and comments
regarding location, costs and features of the museum. regarding location, costs and features of the museum.

Located 15 miles outside of town, parking, close Located in town center, no parking, close to
to train station subway station
Open every day from 9 a.m. - 6 p.m. Open Friday through Monday 12 2 noon - 4 p.m.
Transportation by train, rental bus - $5 per Transportation by school bus orr subway

ES
passenger 30 minute journey by bus,, 20 minutes by subway
s
1 hour journey Entrance Fee - $10 per person, group rate $7 per
Entrance Fee $4 per person, no group rates person
Features restaurant, location maps provided Features gift store,
re, small cafeteria, guided tour,
throughout museum ex
media center - can also view exhibit of sketches

G
no gift store, no guided tour drawn by the artist for extra $5

Notes on your partners options


PA Notes o
on your partners options
E
PL

4 PRE-LISTENING
It is important to pay attention
ttention
ention to grammat
grammati
grammatical structures as they indicate when an action occurs. Read the dialogues
M

below and choose thee correct


rect answer.
1 You look worried.
ried. Whats up?
up
u 4 Shouldnt you go talk to her?
SA

Im having serviced this weekend - and


aving my car service I guess Id better.
that isnt
snt cheap. a Hell see her now.
a Its being serviced
servi
serv now. b He already saw her.
b It will
ill be serviced
se soon.
5 Werent you supposed to call me?
2 Did you say Hank might have to cancel? I would have, had I had any credit on my
Thats right. cellphone.
a Hank may cancel. a He wasnt able to call.
b Hank already canceled. b Hell call later.

3 Sue is quite sick. 6 Maybe I should go see the doctor.


So Jack told me. I wish I could do something to If I were you, Id have gone days ago.
help. a She went to see the doctor days ago.
a He wasnt able to help her. b She should have visited the doctor sooner.
b He would like to help her.

22
5 LISTENING - Exam Style Part 1 - Short Conversations
You will hear short conversations. From the three answer choices given, choose the answer which means the same as
what you hear, or that is true based upon what you hear. You will hear each item only once, so listen carefully.

1 a She didnt call him. 8 a Her sister doesnt have time to go shopping.
b He just called her. b She didnt have time to get a present.
c He didnt call her. c She never gets her sister a present.
2 a She thinks he should tell Chris. 9 a He is going to tell Jane to leave.
b He told Chris what he saw. b Jane has already left.
c She was honest with Chris. c She cannot take Jane home.
3 a John lost his temper. 10 a She is Mr. Jones only relative.
b He almost lost his temper. b She will tell Mr. Jones what to
o do with
wi the money.
c He regrets losing his temper. c She wishes she was a member ber
er of Mr. Jones
Jon family.

ES
4 a Chuck is at the dentist. 11 a Luke lost his wallet.
b Chuck doesnt want to see them. b Lukes car was broken en into.
in
c They probably wont call Chuck. c Luke was robbed on the he beach.
bea
5 a Mark was fired. 12 a She wishes she
hee could listen to the
t music.
b The boss will fire somebody. b He turned thee music off.

G
c Mark will fire her. c He turned
ed the music dow
down
down.
6 a He didnt want to go to the movie theater. 13 a Shee doesnt
esnt need to h
help.
b He had already rented the DVD.
c They prefer to watch DVDs.
7 a He could have seen Tom.
PA b She will help her m
c He did all the jo
14 a She le
mother and sister.
jobs earlier.
left the door unlocked.
b He must not see Tom. b Hee lef
left th
the door unlocked.
c He must have been mistaken. c He was found guilty of theft.
E

6 PRE-LISTENING
Numbers are often important duringg radio programs, anand can be quickly and easily noted down while you listen using
PL

abbreviations. Fill in the missing numbers or words b


below.
3rd C A.D.
1 ___________________ = the third century
ce A.D. 4 7th C B.C. = _________________________________
2 750 = _____________________________________
_________________
________________ 5 _________________ = one hundred (and) forty-four
M

3 ___________________
_______
______ = nineteen
ninete (hundred and) 6 1900 - 1999 (dates) = _________________________
fourteen (date)
fou
fourt
SA

7 LISTENING
TENING - Exa
Exam Style Part 3 - Radio Program
r
You will hear a short radio talk. When it is finished, you will hear five questions. From the three answer choices given,
wh best answers the question. You will hear the talk and questions only once, so listen carefully. As
choose the one which
you listen, you may want to take notes to help you remember what was said.

1 a The British army had been searching for them. 4 a It is the furthest to the west.
b It happened by chance. b It was built before the others.
c It took hard, physical labor. c It is 40 feet long.
2 a There were separate groups over different time 5 a shrines
periods. b monasteries
b They were trying to hide from Buddhists. c murals
c They had recently deserted the caves.
3 a Only the sculptures are impressive.
b They were made over several centuries.
c They took over a thousand years to produce.

23
8 WRITING
Choose the correct word.

Can Art Be Taught?

The issue as to whether art can be taught is quite a (1) considerate / controversial one in the contemporary art
world. Some believe that it is (2) feasible / practical, whereas others are adamant that art is purely a matter of
talent. Personally, I feel that it all depends on what you class as art.

To begin with, art involves far more than the production of a pretty picture. In fact, the dictionary itself (3) defines /
specifies it as the ability to use the imagination to express ideas or feelings. This suggests that art
rt has less to do with
genius than it does with creativity. This is where the

S
teaching of art comes in. Here, the student is shown
how to open his mind to visual (4) provocation /
stimulation. In other words, he can be taught to see,
even if his ordinary way of seeing is inadequate.

This brings us back to our original question. Can


those who only dabbled in childish drawing at school
learn art? It is often argued that few adults ever
progress beyond this (5) stage / section since art
instruction usually comes to a(n) (6) abrupt / brief
end once a student finishes school. It would seem
nd
that while the mechanics of picking up a brush and
t,, the
splashing color onto a canvas are important, t
E

capacity to (7) savor / flavor visual delights takes


ake
kes
an
nccee of good
precedence over this. Hence the significance d
instruction.

d,, on
In the professional art world, on the
t e other
o h
hand,
art to
ar
there are those who attribute art t nothing
not less than natural ability. Not having been schooled in their area
of discipline, they refuse to eve (8)
o even
ev 8) enterta
entertain / occupy the notion that art can be taught. To support their argument,
they point to the inspiringg works
wo
w rkks of
orks o self-taught artists such as Rousseau and Van Gogh which are, after all,
(9) noticeably / prominently
ominently dis
displayed
d
di
is in the worlds finest art galleries. To my mind, however, these artists are
among the fortunate
una m
un mi
minority
ino
ino
nori
rt w who
h have managed to perfect their art unassisted.

To sum up,
p, while
p, hile
hile I recognize
rrec
eecco that certain people do have a flair for art, I take great (10) acceptance / exception
to the snobbery
b thatt prevails
p in the art world. As far as I am concerned, some people are naturally talented while
others need help
lp
p to
to master the skills. However, since both are able to use their imagination to express ideas or
feelings, they should both be classed as artists and their success is limited only by their imagination.

Now, read the text again and answer the following questions.
1 According to the opinions expressed by the writer of the text, would it be possible to teach somebody to
paint a picture as good as this?
2 Say whether you agree with the writers opinion and why.

24
9 WRITING SKILLS 2 Fill in the correct noun.

1 DEVELOPING YOUR IDEAS disapproval refusal removal


a Look at these basic ways in which you can develop proposal portrayal
your ideas at sentence level. 1 He was best known for his _____________ of
a By paraphrasing the main idea to make it urban life.
clearer.
b By giving an example to clarify a point. 2 It was his _____________ to conform that
concerned them most.
c By introducing an opposite viewpoint.
3 My _____________ to set up an art center for
b Now match the sentences below to the way the teenagers was turned down.
writer has developed the main idea. 4 The old man shook his head
d in _____________.
Young people are not interested in art. 5 The police officer ordered
ed
d the _____________
_____
1 However, this is not a view that is held by of the automobile fromm the scene.

ES
everyone. ____
2 Art galleries, for instance, seem to attract only
older people. ____ 3 Fill in the correct
ect prefix to form the antonyms.

3 In other words, they rarely stop to admire il ir


i un dis
d im in

G
works of art. ____ 1 _____acceptable
____acceptable 6 _____responsible
2 _____legal
___legal 7 _____justice
2 EXPRESSING AN OPINION
Fill in the correct verb to complete the sentences.
PA 3 _____obedi
_____obedient
_____ob
4 _____b
_____believable
8 _____rational
9 _____interested
feel share disagree strike seem
5 _____moral 10 _____cooperative
1 I ________________ very strongly that art should
hould
not be taught in schools.
E

2 It ________________ me that no onee really cares


about art history. WRITING TASK
3 I ________________ the opinion ion
on that young people
peo
peop Topic
like to express their creativity
vity in a unique way.
way
wa While some people believe that graffiti is a form of
4 It ________________ too me that we have
h lost sight art, there are those who only see it as an act of
of what constitutes art.
art vandalism and wish to fine retailers who sell
graffiti tools to minors.
5 I strongly ________________
____________
_______ with
wi the idea of
encouragingg youngsters to deface
defa other peoples In your opinion, should graffiti be seen as a
property. form of self-expression or as a crime for which
SA

offenders should be prosecuted?


Discuss, giving specific examples to support your
10 VOCABULARYULAR point of view.
1 Fill in the correct form of the word in capitals.
1 Graffiti is often classed as a form of Write your essay in about 250-300 words.
_____________ . VANDAL
[See back of book for help and guidance.]
2 His remarks were deeply _____________ to a
large number of people. OFFEND

3 Teenagers often do _____________ things.


MISCHIEF

4 When she went outside, she discovered that


someone had scrawled _____________ on her
garage door. OBSCENE

5 If only she would draw something that was at


least _____________ to the eye. PLEASE

25
UNIT 1 Lesson Vocabulary Practice 1 [in alphabetical order]
D
Match the words (1-4) with the definitions (a-d). Then choose the correct word to complete the sentence.
VERBS
4 I accepted their job offer with ____ .
1 Police now believe that the businessman was 1 alacrity ___ a assumed name
____ . 2 alias ___ b eagerness or enthusiasm
1 abdicated ___ a take sb away by force, 3 alibi ___ c evidence that sb was
kidnap elsewhere and could not
2 abducted ___ b end sth by law mit
have committed a crime
3 abolished ___ c give up the position of 4 alimony ___ d money given to t a divorced
being king / queen spousese (as decided by court
4 abridged ___ d make a book / play etc. of law)
aw
aw)

ES
shorter
5 The soldiers swore ______ to their country.
2 He is an excellent student who ____ new 1 allegation ___ a union of countries
count
cou
information quickly. 2 allegiance ___ b loyalty
oyalty to a ggovernment /
1 absolves ___ a treat sb / sth badly ruler
2 absorbs ___ b free sb from responsibility 3 alliance _
___ c money given to sb regularly

G
3 abuses ___ c succeed in doing sth 4 allowancece ___ d unpr
unp
unproven accusation
4 accomplishes ___ d understand, take in

3 What percentage of the budget is ____ for PA CTIVE


CTIVES
ADJECTIVES
education each year?
1 alleged ___ a permit, let sth be done 1 Oh, no! Ive to
torn this page. Could you pass me the
tor
2 allied ___ b state sth without giving ____
__ tape?
t
proof 1 adept
dept ___ a not anchored, floating
3 allocated ___ c give for a particular purpose
se
2 adhesive ___ b unfavorable, opposing
4 allowed ___ d give support, unite
3 aadrift ___ c sticky
4 The cost of the court case will ____ to over
er $5,000. 4 adverse ___ d highly skilled in / at sth
1 amount ___ a praise
2 amplify ___ b make lively 2 She gave me an ____ answer, so I dont know what
3 animate ___ c add up to sth she really thinks.
4 applaud ___ d make louderuder 1 ambiguous ___ a having a desire to succeed
2 ambitious ___ b not clearly stated
5 He has been ____ a very difficult
ifficult
fficult task. 3 amiable ___ c friendly
1 assaulted ___ a attackck sb / sth violently
vviolen 4 ample ___ d adequate or more than
2 assessed ___ b help or support enough
3 assigned ___ c give sb sth to do d
4 assisted ___
_ d judge the valuevva of
3 The climb was extremely ____, but all the
NOUNS mountaineers made it to the top.
1 archaic ___ a able to express oneself clearly
1 He had d his first beer after
a five years of ____ . 2 arduous ___ b man-made
1 abbreviation
reviation
viation ___ __ a great quantity 3 articulate ___ c involving a lot of effort and
2 absence
ce ___ b state of not being present energy, demanding
3 abstinence
cee ____ c short form of a word 4 artificial ___ d outdated, from an ancient
4 abundance ___ d act of refraining from doing period of history
sth
4 You need to speak up and be more ____ , Sam.
2 The witness gave the police a detailed ____ of what
1 assertive ___ a confident of ones abilities
had happened.
1 accessory ___ a agreement 2 assorted ___ b expressing opinions with
2 accomplice ___ b description confidence
3 accord ___ c an extra piece of equipment 3 assumed ___ c false, pretend
4 account ___ d sb who helps a criminal 4 assured ___ d varied

3 The accusation was an ____ to his honesty and 5 Hes very ____ and not at all afraid to take risks.
dignity. 1 audacious ___ a daring
1 affection ___ a wealth 2 audible ___ b genuine
2 affliction ___ b a remark / action that 3 austere ___ c loud enough to be heard
offends / insults 4 authentic ___ d severe and morally strict
3 affluence ___ c sth causing suffering or pain
4 affront ___ d feeling of love and fondness
26
Phrasal Verbs 1 [in alphabetical order]
PHRASAL VERBS
1 Complete the newspaper headlines with the correct
back down: accept that you cant win an argument phrasal verb.
back off: used to tell someone to stop doing
something that is annoying you 1 DOWNTOWN SHOPPING MALL
back out (of): withdraw from sth ________________ BY TERRORISTS!
back up: support sth / sb
be down with: have or catch an illness 2 FAMOUS COUPLES MARRIAGE
be up to: be doing sth (usually sth wrong) ________________
blow up: 1 cause to explode
2 enlarge (photograph) 3 ___
___ PR SIDENTS
_ PRE
___
CONGRESS ____________
break down: 1 (of machinery) stop working
ROPOSAL
PRO

ES
2 come to an unsuccessful end
break into / in: enter by force
break off: bring a relationship, negotiations, etc. 4 PEACE TALKS ____________ IN MI
DDLE EAST
to an end (usually suddenly)
break out: start suddenly (e.g. epidemic, war)

G
break out of: escape from a place
5 ON
break up: come to an end (e.g. a relationship)
RD
UR
MU ER
DE R _________ PRIS
ER
RE
PA
E

2 Fill in the correct particle(s). 3 Choose the correct answer.


PL

1 Rick is ________________
____ the flu and
a wont
wo 1 This is the third time thieves have broken
y.
be in school today. in / into our house.

2 Some countrieses backed ________


________________ the
_______ 2 She refused to back up / down
M

latest environmental
onmental talks.
ronmental and decided to take her employer
to court.
3 My little
ttle brother
other has been
bee awfully quiet;
SA

d better go and see what he is


Id 3 Many people fled the country
________________
______________
_____________ . when war broke out / up.

4 We had
ad the photographer
p blow ____________ 4 He broke off / up his friendship
by photograph.
our babys with them when he found out
that they had robbed a liquor store.
5 Hey, back ________________ ! I know what
Im doing.
6 Well have to get a new fax machine; this one
keeps breaking ________________ .

27
Vocabulary Practice 2 [in alphabetical order]

Match the words (1-4) with the definitions (a-d). Then choose the correct word to complete the sentence.

VERBS 3 Unemployment figures provoked a ____ against


the government.
1 The child ____ on for hours. 1 backlash ___ a examination of cells / liquids
1 babbled ___ a confuse 2 bearing ___ b act of disloyalty
2 baffled ___ b forbid by law 3 betrayal ___ c sudden, strong reaction
3 balanced ___ c talk nonsense 4 biopsy ___ d relevance
4 banned ___ d make steady
4 The ____ of the work has already been
be done.
2 Many political activists were ____ to Siberia. 1 brand ___ a product off a par
partic
particular
1 banished ___ a ask for sth in a pitiful way companynyy
2 beaten ___ b hit again and again 2 bulge ___ b swelling
ling on surface o of sth

ES
3 beckoned ___ c silently gesture sb to come 3 bulk ___ c objects
bjects fastened toge
together
nearer 4 bundle ___ d the main or larges
largest part
4 begged ___ d send sb away (usually from a
country) as punishment 5 The company iss on the ____ of fin
financial ruin.
fina
1 bow __ a edge of st
___ sth circular
His honest face ____ me into trusting him.

G
3 2 breath ___ b act of bbending forward
1 begrudged ___ a charm, trick 3 brim ___ c point close to sth dangerous /
2 beguiled ___ b do sb good ex
exciting
3 benefited ___ c surround sb / sth with soldiers PA 4 brink ___ d air inhaled or exhaled
4 besieged ___ d feel unhappy about having to
do sth
ECTIV
ECTIVES
ADJECTIVES
4 The defendant ____ as the charges were read
to the jury. 1 all found his comments rather ____ .
They all
1 bewildered ___ a whiten with chemicals 1bbaggy ___ a loose
2 bewitched ___ b confuse sb 2 banal ___ b unable to pay ones debts
3 bleached ___ c have a magical effect
ect on 3 bankrupt ___ c damaged and broken
4 blushed ___ d turn red with embarrassment
mbarrassment 4 battered ___ d ordinary, not interesting

5 The troops will have to ____ themselves


mselves for the 2 She ate too much and felt ____ .
next attack. 1 bland ___ a wide
1 blend ___ a mix together
ogether 2 bleak ___ b swollen with food or liquid
2 bluff ___ b prepare;
repare;
e; make sth stronger
str 3 bloated ___ c tasteless and uninteresting
or firmer 4 broad ___ d cold and unpleasant
3 brace ___ c trouble
rouble sb with sth (weather), exposed (place)
4 burden ___
___ d try to make sbs believe you will
wh
w
do sth which you have no 3 His behavior was so ____ that I thought hed been
intention
intentio of doing drinking.
1 benevolent ___ a obvious
NOUNS 2 benign ___ b kind, gentle (people), not
dangerous (tumors)
1 He is in custody
ustody
stody awaiting
aw trial, and ____ for his 3 bizarre ___ c kind-hearted and generous
ee set at $100,000.
release has been 4 blatant ___ d very strange, weird
1 badge ___ a state of being in mourning
2 bail ___ b money paid as guarantee 4 To keep in shape, I take a ____ walk every day.
that accused person will 1 blunt ___ a quick, active, vigorous
show up for trial 2 bold ___ b cruel, severe
3 battle ___ c metal emblem worn by sb 3 brisk ___ c not sharp (knife, etc.),
4 bereavement ___ d fight between enemy forces impolite
4 brutal ___ d brave, adventurous
2 Demonstrators were held back behind police ____ .
1 backing ___ a temporary barrier built quickly 5 The plank of wood was ____ enough to keep him
2 banners ___ b animal (usually dangerous) from sinking.
cruel person 1 boastful ___ a able to float
3 barricades ___ c help or support 2 bony ___ b full of praise for oneself
4 beasts ___ d long piece of cloth with a 3 bulky ___ c large, heavy, difficult to move
message on it 4 buoyant ___ d very thin
28
Phrasal Verbs 2 [in alphabetical order]
PHRASAL VERBS
1 Fill in the correct particle.
bring about: cause to happen
a carry - away, on, out
bring around: cause to regain consciousness
1 Hes all talk. He never carries __________
bring up: 1 raise a child
his threats.
2 mention / introduce a subject
bump into: meet by chance 2 Sheila carried __________ with her fathers
burst into: suddenly start (laughter, tears, fire, research work after his death.
etc.) 3 He always gets carried __________ when
call for: 1 demand sth TV
he watches basketball on TV.
2 need or deserve sth
4 The psychology department
partment
artment is ca
carrying
call off: cancel __________ research
earch into how children
chi
ch are

ES
call on sb: visit sb (usually formally) ivorc
ivorce.
affected by divorce.
get carried away: get very excited
carry on (with): continue b call - off, on,
n, for
carry out: 1 fulfill (a duty, threat, promise, etc.) 1 Thiss situation calls ___
_______ immediate
2 conduct (an experiment, research,

G
action.
n.
etc.)
catch on: become popular 2 May I call ____
_______ you tomorrow at
PA around nine oclock?
catch up on: do what is necessary in order
to get up to date 3 The
he concert
con was called _______ because of
catch up with: reach the same level / standard / rain.
n
position as sb 4 A hot day calls _______ a cold soda under
an umbrella on the beach.

2 Fill in the correct particle(s).


E
PL

I bumped (1) _________ an old


ld friend at the supermarket
sup yesterday. We stood in the produce aisle for
at least twenty minutes, catching (2) _________ old times. You see, we hadnt seen each other since
college. When we finally got around to
t swapping addresses, we couldnt help ourselves and burst
M

(3) _________ laughter.


hter. We not only
on lived in the same area, we were practically neighbors!
SA

3 Choose the correct answer.


a

1 They have
ve brought their children _____ to be 4 We threw some water on the girls face to bring
respectful. her _____ .
a around b up a around b up

2 During the early 90s, grunge fashion and music 5 Roger made a note of all the points he wanted
really caught _____ . to bring _____ at the meeting.
a on b up on a around b up

3 Shirley is so far ahead in the book that no one 6 The new manager has brought _____ many
can catch _____ her. changes.
a up on b up with a up b about

29
Vocabulary Practice 3 [in alphabetical order]
Match the words (1-4) with the definitions (a-d). Then choose the correct word to complete the sentence.

VERBS NOUNS

1 As I was sick, I had to ____ my appointment. 1 Lets ride the horses to the bottom of the ____ .
1 cancel ___ a divide into groups 1 canyon ___ a heading / title
2 capitulate ___ b face up to and deal with 2 caption ___ b sb who works with wood
3 categorize ___ c give in, surrender 3 caricature ___ c exaggerated picture / description
4 confront ___ d call off of sb
4 carpenter ___ d very deep, narrow w valley
2 He was ____ by her beauty.
1 captivated ___ a lovingly stroke sb 2 The doctor will take off the ____ tomorrow.
omorrow.
2 caressed ___ b remove inappropriate 1 carton ___ a small paperaper / plastic box o
or

ES
content (books, movies, etc.) container
ainer milk, yogurt, etc.)
iner (milk,
3 censored ___ c sing or say sth repeatedly 2 cascade ___ b group oup
up of soldiers on horseback
4 chanted ___ d attract sb greatly, charm 3 cast ___ c protective / coveri
coverin
covering for a broken
li b
limb
3 The gym offers exercise classes that ____ to all 4 cavalry ___
__ d small
mall waterf
waterfall

G
fitness levels.
1 catered ___ a come together for a meeting 3 He refuseded to accept ____ from
fr anyone.
2 challenged ___ b run after
1 chapter
pter ___ a horse-drawn
ho
hors vehicle
3 chased

4 convened
___ c provide things that people
want
___ d question whether an action
PA
2 chariot
ariot

4 charity
harity
___
__ b help
h given to people in need
3 charisma ____ c special, personal charm
____ d period of time in sbs life or in
/ statement is right
history, section of a book
4 Can you ____ some more wood for the fire?
4 used ____ to make the model.
She us
1 charge ___ a ring (of a bell or a clock)
ck)
2 cherish ___ b ask for money for sth; accuse 1 car
cargo ___ a group of things of the same kind
E

3 chime ___ c love very much;; treasure 2 clay ___ b heavy stick used as a weapon
4 chop ___ d cut sth into pieces
ces 3 club ___ c heavy, sticky earth used to make
things (e.g. pottery)
PL

5 He ____ his fists in anger. 4 cluster ___ d goods carried by ship, plane, etc.
1 cleansed ___ a closee (fists) / hold sth tig
tightly
2 clenched ___ b makee a short, sharp
sh sound 5 The ____ can only seat two people.
3 clicked ___ c fall suddenly, fail completely 1 cockpit ___ a box used in burials
2 coffin ___ b sense of right and wrong
M

4 collapsed ___ d clean, purify


3 conscience ___ c sb competing in a contest
4 contestant ___ d space where the pilot sits in a
plane, etc.
SA

ADJECTIVES
ES
S
3 Measles is a highly ____ disease.
1 Her ____ remarks
emarks rreally hurt my feelings. 1 compassionate ___ a showing sympathy
1 capable ___ a sarcastic, bitter 2 conspicuous ___ b easily caught / spread
2 capricious ___ b meat-eating 3 constant ___ c unchanging
3 carnivorous ___ c changeable, 4 contagious ___ d noticeable, easily seen
unpredictable
(people) 4 The two statements he made were ____ . They cant both
4 caustic ___ d able to do sth be true!
1 congenial ___ a conflicting, not consistent
2 Shes so ____ that shes always breaking 2 conservative ___ b suitable for ones needs
3 contradictory ___ c friendly, pleasant
things.
4 convenient ___ d against change, conventional
1 cautious ___ a famous
2 celebrated ___ b awkward and
5 She was ____ when she found out she had failed.
ungraceful
1 chubby ___ a pleasantly fat
3 celestial ___ c of the sky, heavenly 2 courteous ___ b disappointed and sad
4 clumsy ___ d careful, not taking 3 credulous ___ c too eager to believe, easy to trick
risks 4 crestfallen ___ d polite, respectful
30
Phrasal Verbs 3 Consolidation
Choose the correct answer.

1 I refused to _____ his false claim of being sick. 9 Fighting broke _____ between rival gangs in the
a back down Bronx.
b back out a down
c back up b up
d back off c out
d into
2 As soon as we leave, the kids will _____ no good.
Im certain of it. 10 They _____ a series of experiments
men in order to
a be up to isolate the problem.
b be down with a carried out

ES
c back out of b came across
d back down c backed out off
d burst into
3 Will you please _____! Youre really beginning to
annoy me. 11 Youll never
err guess who I _____
___ at the bus station.
a back out a burst
urst into
int

G
b back up b bumped into
c be down c caught up o on
d back off
4 The strike was _____ when the workers demands
were met.
PA d broke out
12 I may need to buy a new car as this one keeps
_____ all the time.
__
a called for a bbreaking off
b called off b breaking out
c called on c breaking up
d carried on d breaking down
E

5 She rarely _____ the subject of her


er time in 13 The President _____ the directors immediate
Germany during the war. resignation.
PL

a brings about a called off


b brings around b carried on
c brings in c called for
d brings up d carried out
M

6 Rap music _____


___ quickly in the 1990s.
1 14 Someone broke _____ the school and smashed
a carried
d out
ut up the science lab.
SA

b caught
aught on a up
c bumped into b out
d carried on c down
d into
7 Susan had
ad
d dinner
dinn and then _____ studying for the
exam. 15 No one knows what _____ his change in attitude.
a caught on a brought up
b burst into b brought about
c called off c caught up with
d carried on d backed up
8 Tim and Clare _____ their engagement last week. 16 Karen was so happy she _____ song.
a backed off a brought up
b blew up b burst into
c broke up c called for
d broke off d caught on

31
1

Words, Words, Words!


1 Do you know the meaning of the words in bold?
Adept at copying sculptures, John accepted a job at a museum and was assigned the arduous task of
reproducing authentic artwork from the archaic period. He worked under the alias of A.J., an abbreviation of
the assumed name Apple Jack. Soon his copies of famous sculptures were being assessed and sold for
thousands; the director allocated John an ample allowance which, allied with his austere lifestyle and
abstinence from alcohol, led to his affluence. This wealth, in conjunction with his audaciaudacious, assertive
manners, accounted for his co-workers absence of affection for him and also for the alacrity
crity with wh
which they
believed allegations of doubtful accuracy that he had assaulted and abducted a copyist
pyist from a rival museum.
m
Such an affront to its reputation the museum would never tolerate. John now w teaches pottery at a the state
Prison.

2 Choose the correct answer.

1 Capital punishment has been _____ in many 8 The boat race was can
canceled due to the _____
countries. weather
her condition
conditions.
a abolished c celebrated a adept
dept c adverse
b collapsed d battled b contradictory
tra d congenial

2 These wild flowers are found in _____ in the 9 A(n) _____ of theft has been made against him
forests of New England. by his manager.
a bulk c bulge a alibi c bail
b absence d abundance b allegation d category

3 The man was _____ of blame by the court. 10 The amount of $10,000 has been _____ by the
a absolved c assessed
ses board for school equipment.
b absorbed d abdicated a catered c allocated
b alleviated d convened
4 The two countries are in _____ with
wi each other
over the need
d to reduce arms. 11 He gave us his _____ that he would pay back
a allegiancee c ac
accord the money in six months.
b backin
backing d accomplice a alimony c assumption
b alacrity d assurance
5 He was accused of _____ and battery.
a accessory
essory c backlash 12 Mr. Jones has been _____ to the task.
b beating d assault a amplified c assigned
b applauded d assisted
6 The meal was delicious, but I felt _____
afterwards. 13 We have a(n) _____ supply of chopped wood to
a boastful c bloated get us through the winter.
b ambiguous d conspicuous a benevolent c cautious
b ample d affluent
7 The drought has _____ many parts of Africa.
a caressed c affronted 14 Shes very popular because shes so _____ .
b afflicted d canceled a amiable c brutal
b banal d authentic

32
Words, Words, Words!
Although he was the subject of caustic ridicule by conservative art critics during his lifetime, the celebrated
Vincent Van Gogh is today cherished as much for his captivating paintings as for his personal charisma. Critics
are capricious. It may be convenient to simply charge them with being banal and unimaginative and leave it at that.
In any case, a new chapter in contemporary art history opened when less cautious commentators, to whom the
kind of art that caters to our taste for the irrational was more congenial, became conscious of Van Goghs
influence. Even now, there are clumsy attempts to categorize his work as Expressionist or Post-Impressionist,
st-Imp but
these easily collapse when challenged. Only when we confront Van Gogh not as a crank, ank, but as a man of
contradictory impulses in constant conflict, can we benefit from his vision.

15 The speaker was barely _____ in the large 22 It was very _____ of her to wear
we such a short
conference hall. skirt to the office.
offic .
a assured c assertive a b
bleak c bold
b audible d audacious b blunt d bony

16 She was relieved to find out that her tumor was 23 You
ou haven
havent _____ your hair, have you?
_____ . a bleached c braced
a arduous c benign b chopped d abridged
b contagious d adhesive
24 Newspapers often contain amusing _____ of
17 I am _____ by Bens sudden resignation. I public figures.
thought he enjoyed working here. a caricatures c characteristics
a babbled c balanced
ced b cascades d clusters
b baffled d banned
anne
25 This magazine is _____ by the government.
18 Kings had the power to _____ anybody
anybo they a capitulated c censored
considered a threat.
at. b abbreviated d articulated
a banish c beck
beckon
b blush d b
benefit 26 They _____ the time they have together during
the summer.
19 I feltt _____
_ when he
h revealed my secrets. a chant c cherish
a betray
betrayed
d c clumsy b chase d chime
b caustic
ustic d ambiguous
27 She knew she was going to hit the other car, so
20 First, you have to _____ the ingredients she _____ her teeth and waited for the impact.
thoroughly. a challenged c clicked
a bundle c blend b clenched d charged
b bland d brand
28 Having a supermarket at the end of the street is
21 The city was _____ by the rebels for many really _____ if you havent got a car.
months. a compassionate c convenient
a beguiled c bewitched b conservative d courteous
b besieged d bewildered

33
2
Choose the correct answer.

1 The word television is often abbreviated ___ 9 Hes ___ America in order to promote his new
TV. album.
a to a touring
b into b touring to
c with c touring in
d for d touring over

2 The movie ___ is on this weekend. 10 After you ___ the topic, you may begin writing
a I told you about your essay.
b that I told you a are reading
c about which I told b will read
d which I was told you c will have read
d have read
3 I deeply regret ___ .
a to telling her my secret 11 I earn $8 ___
__ at work.
b having told her my secret a the ho
hour
c to tell her my secret b in an hour
d of telling her my secret c per
er the hour
h
d pe
per hour
4 Its no use ___ them at the moment theyre
on vacation. 12 Although she hadnt been looking forward to
a call ___ , she enjoyed herself in the end.
b to call a go
c calling b going
d called c having gone
d be going
5 The best time ___ is on the weekend.
end
a for us doing the housework
ework 13 The test was ___ harder than I had expected.
b for a housework a so
c that we can do housework b more
d to do the housework
ework c much
d very
6 He worked too hardard for many years,
ye ___
serious health
th problems. 14 I have an old copy of the book, ___ all torn.
a has resulted to a the cover which is
b to result
ult in b that the cover is
c resulted tto c whose cover it is
d resulting in d the cover of which is

7 Theres a wonderful
won museum here. Many 15 ___ the house that I realized I had forgotten my
people ___ the area come to see it. wallet.
a visit a Only upon my leaving from
b are visiting b Just when I had left
c who visited c Not only did I leave
d visiting d It was only after I had left

8 Ive found an interesting ___ offer in the 16 Lets do something tonight. How about ___ the
newspaper. movies?
a job a going to
b jobs b we go
c jobs c to go
d jobs d that we go to

34
17 The partys next Saturday. I hope you ___ . 24 In this neighborhood there are more people
a would come with pets ___ are without.
b will come a than
c are to come b than they
d could come c than there
d who they
18 ___ any qualifications, all he can do is wait
tables. 25 Do the students here live on cam
campus?
a Not have Some do but ___ do not.
b Not having a some other
c To not have b another
d Not to have c others
d the other
her
19 What is the ___ situation?
a today 26 We need too think about and ___ a new plan of
b nowadays attack.
c present-day a to decide
d present-days b decide
ecide
c de
decide of
20 What time will your brother be home? d dec
decide on
Im not really sure, but ___ midnight.
a sometime before 27 Im sorry about ___ to see you, but I was out of
b a time before town.
c before the a not coming
d the time before b I didnt come
c not to come
21 I dont like doing chores, but my parents
paren ___ d not to have come
do them.
a make me 28 What did you think of Florence?
b require me Never have I seen ___ city.
c tell me a so beautiful
d say me to b so beautiful a
c such beautiful
22 The seminarr was nothing ___ what I had hoped. d a such beautiful
a as
b like 29 Hes the hardest-working employee in this
c much as company. ___ , hes a very likable person.
d as such a Yet
b In addition to
23 There was ___ long line at the bank that I spent c Moreover
more than an hour waiting. d In spite
a so
b such 30 George ___ been at work this morning because
c so a hes away on a business trip.
d such a a oughtnt to have
b mightnt have
c shouldnt have
d cant have

35
31 Hes shown a great deal of improvement ___ 39 She may be small in size, but she can fend for
his work. ___ .
a in a her
b with b herself
c at c hers
d about d she

32 What did the lawyer advise? 40 It was ___ he decided to turn down their offer.
He suggested that Ross ___ guilty to the a with regret that
charges made against him. b regretful so
a will plead c from regret
b he plead d no regret
c plead
d is pleading 41 After a few years, ___ that he was
w just a rogue.
a become
come known
33 Six oclock is ___ for me to wake up. b it became
ecame known
know
a too early c becameme known
know
b more early d it came to know
c much earlier
42 My French is so good I ___ any mistakes.
d so much early
a am making hardly
b hardly make
34 He left without even ___ his coffee.
c make not hardly
a having drunk
d hardly have to make
b to have drunk
c drink
43 There was a dangerous bend ___ the road and
d to drink thats why the accident occurred.
a at
35 I thought ___ he hadnt come home yet. b on
a it strangely c in
b it strange d to
c he was strange
d that was the
he strange 44 If you rent an apartment in this area, youll pay
more money but youll also be close to the
36 Mikes a stockbroker,
ockbroker, isnt he?
h office.
Yes, and itss a job ___ he has really excelled. ___ that way, I think its worth the extra money.
a for which
hich a Looking at
b in which b To look at
c which c Look at it
d that d Looking at it

37 I had hoped ___ late. 45 I never thought George would be ___ pleased
a her not to arrive with my work.
b she was arriving not a that
c her not arriving b more
d she would not be arriving c as much
d as
38 Their theory has not been satisfactorily ___ .
a prove 46 My grandfather spends most of his time in his
b proof ___ chair.
c proving a rocker
d proven b rocked
c rock
d rocking

36
47 I cant go home yet. Theres still a lot of work 55 The personnel department insists that all staff
___ . ___ in the project.
a to do a to participate
b to be doing b would participate
c to have done c will participate
d to have been done d participate

48 Both parties must abide ___ the courts 56 I was completely absorbed ___ what
w I was
decision. doing.
a to a by
b by b in
c with c from
d at d with

49 I find her continual questions extremely ___ . 57 The cost of servicing the car turned out to be
a annoyance ___ less
ess than I had exp
expected.
b annoying a quite
c annoyed b plenty
d annoy c a lot
d by far
50 ___ the danger, people ran to the scene of the
accident. 58 Nev
Never ___ in that situation, I have no idea what
a As a result I would have done.
b Since a to be
c However b have I been
d Despite c I had been
d having been
51 Under no circumstances ___ the children alone.
alone
a you would leave 59 I havent decided yet ___ him what happened
b should you leave
ve or not.
c you had to leavee a to tell
d did you leave
eave b whether telling
c to tell whether
52 Did you dye
ye your hair yourself?
yourse d whether to tell
No, I ___ at the hairdressers.
hairdress
a had done it 60 She said shed come, so why didnt she?
b gotot to do iit I dont know. She didnt tell me why ___ .
c got it done a did she change her mind
d had it b her mind had changed
c her change of mind
53 I apologized for ___ , but she was still angry. d she had changed her mind
a not calling
b not to call 61 Only authorized personnel have access ___
c not having to call these computer files.
d having not call a of
b to
54 There are two office buildings next to each c for
other, ___ is the one where I work. d over
a the tallest of them
b the taller of which
c the most tall of these
d the more taller of these

37
62 I cant understand why she quit her job. 70 ___ one of you deserves a vacation for your
Neither can I. Why ___ is beyond me. hard work.
a did she that a Each of every
b she would do that b Every of each
c would she do that c Each and every
d does she do that d Every and each

63 George looks exhausted. 71 ___ discovering that their homeme had been
Thats because hes been ___ lately. burglarized, they called thee police.
a working hard a On
b hardly working b With
c worked hardly c In
d hardly worked d At

64 What should I do with these old clothes? 72 John is a bit indiscreet at times.
t
___ them away is probably the best thing. nt want to meet
___ , I dont m him.
a Having to give a Knowing that
b Giving b To o know it
c Give c KnKnowing it
d Given d To know that

65 ___ to work every day will keep you fit. 73 I th


think Ill do all my errands today ___ have
a By cycling tomorrow
om free.
b To cycle a as to
c Cycle b so as to
d Cycling c for to
d that Ill
66 He gave a first-hand account ___ what had
h
happened. 74 We should be going now, ___ you want to or
a for not.
b of a whether
c around b should
d to c anyway
d either
67 ___ he been fired for what he did, I wouldnt
have been at all surprised.
surprise 75 Provided you ___ careful with your expenses,
a Should you should be able to save a little money every
b Unless month.
c Had a have been
d If b will be
c are being
68 Im looking for someone ___ the house once a d are
week.
a that can clean 76 ___ than try to finish the work tonight, you
b cleaning should get some rest and finish it tomorrow.
c for cleaning a Rather
d she cleans b Better
c Instead
69 She was pleased to be given a ___ role in the play. d Contrary
a supportive
b supportable
c supporter
d supporting

38
77 In the end he was acquitted ___ all charges. 84 When I was younger, my parents ___ me
a from camping every summer.
b of a were taking
c for b would take
d off c had taken
d used to taking
78 If you ___ decide to accept the offer, give me a
call. 85 If you could send me more information,
inform I would
a might be very ___.
b would a appreciable
c should b appreciativee
d could c appreciate
d appreciated
eciated
79 The two countries are ___ signing an
agreement. 86 I asked Mary
ry how much ___ .
a due to a costt her n
new
w coat
c
b on the verge of b her new coat cost
c going to c did
id her new
n coat cost
d about to be d ha
has cost her new coat

80 It took a few minutes for my eyes to adjust ___ 877 G


Georgia is really upset after losing her job.
the darkness. ___ there myself last year, I understand her
a to completely.
b with a To be
c about b Being
d in c Having been
d To have been
81 I already have two apartments,
ts, so its unlikely
___ another one. 88 I arrived a day ahead ___ everyone else to make
a that I ever buy the necessary preparations.
b that Ill ever buyy a from
c me ever buying b of
d ever that Ill
ll buy c to
d over
82 Greg is supposed
osed to organize
organ everything, but
Im not
ot sure he ___ . 89 Youd better leave soon ___ youll be late for
a would rely on class.
b has been rrelied a otherwise
c can be relied on b on condition that
d iis relying on c in case
d providing
83 Mr. Smythe hasnt paid the rent in three
months nor ___ to. 90 Only when they had gotten to the station ___
a does he intend they had forgotten their tickets.
b is his intention a have they realized
c he intends b they had realized
d will he intend c did they realize
d they realized

39
91 The program is aimed ___ a teenage audience. 99 Lets go out for a drink.
a at I cant go anywhere ___ this work.
b for a until Ill have finished
c to b since Ive finished
d about c until I finish
d until I will finish
92 Im sorry ___ , but its very important that I
speak to you. 100 The Johnsons have a large collection
ollecti of books,
a to disturb ___ theyve actually read.
b having you disturbed a only some
c having disturbed you b only a few off which
wh
d to disturb you c only few of which
d just a few of them
93 Im pleased to say that I knew quite ___ people
at the party. 101 A good employer
ployer should kn
know how to allocate
a a lot is employee
work ___ his employees.
b plenty of a in
c a few b to
d many c abo
about
d be
between
94 Id love to drop by for a visit, but Im allergic
___ your cats. 102 The copier is ___ . Well have to make
a to photocopies
ho somewhere else.
b with a not in order
c of b out from order
d by c out of order
d without order
95 I didnt like her very much ___ , but I changed
my mind when I got to know w her better.
103 Ill always be by your side, no matter how bad
a first of all
things ___ .
b at the first
a will have been getting
c at first
b will be getting
d firstly
c get
d would get
96 This is the building ___ the exhibition
ex will take
place.
104 He chose the course which ___ his needs.
a whwhich
a suited
b when
hen
b it suited
c in whic
which
d that c is suited
d suitable
97 The store closed down ___ in business for fifty
years. 105 Make sure you lock all the doors before you ___ .
a while being a leave
b since being b leaving
c had it been c will leave
d after having been d have left

98 I was told you rarely go out. 106 Hes a brilliant musician. ___ anyone so gifted.
___, I go out every weekend. a I hardly am seeing
a Nevertheless b Rarely have I seen
b By comparison c If I ever saw
c Besides d Seldom did I see
d On the contrary

40
107 As their teacher, he had to answer ___ his 115 I dont have time to watch television, ___ go to
students behavior. the movies!
a for a leave alone
b to b let alone
c about c but alone
d over d only alone

108 His staff assured him ___ their support when he 116 Our lawyers will appeal ___ a higher
high court to
decided to run for mayor. reverse the decision.
a about a to
b of b with
c to c for
d for d at

109 I moved to this neighborhood ___ near work. 117 The computer ter has overh
overheated. ___ fool must
a in order for being have left it on all night.
b in case I am a A
c so I could be b One
d that I will be c So
Some
d AnAny
110 The title of the book was: A Tour ___ England.
a in 118 A lot
lo of the people ___ in this area work at the
b to nearby factory.
c of a live
d about b are living
c living
111 Last week I worked mornings, butt this week d who living
Im working the ___ shift.
a nights 119 I wouldnt believe her ___ she says.
b nights a however that
c nightly b as regards to
d night c no matter how
d no matter what
112 You never told
old me you were h having trouble.
___, I would have helped yyou. 120 We havent set a date for the wedding yet;
a Had I know
known when we do, youll be the first ___ .
b Should
hould I know
k a who knows
c Did I know b to know
d Would I know c will know
d that knows
113 They were anxious ___ their daughter to call.
a for 121 I fell twice during the race. Needless ___ , I lost.
b about a to say
c that b saying that
d if c saying it
d to say it
114 ___ one thing and another, I havent had any
free time this week. 122 I left home at seven and so got to work in ___ time.
a What if a early
b What about b short
c What with c brief
d What for d plenty of

41
123 ___ of my guests offered to help me clean up 130 Officer Lawrence told the young policeman to
after the dinner party. take the robber ___ .
a Hardly some a in custody
b Almost no b to custody
c Nearly any c into custody
d Not one d for custody

124 ___ the candidates, Mary Gray was the most 131 Would you like to go out forr a drink
d after
qualified. work?
a Of all Id ___ .
b All from a like
c All of b love to
d From all c prefer not
d rather
er to
t
125 Do you feel ready to take your driving test?
Not really, but ___ Ill give it a try. 132 Lung cancerr is often as
associated ___ smoking.
a although a to
b no matter b with
c all the same c of
d however d by

126 She smelled something ___ in the kitchen. 133 Im too tired to do any more work. I ___ as well
a to burn quit
uit for the day.
b burning a might
c to be burning b should
d to start to burn c could
d had to
127 Is Susan having problems at home?
Not ___ . 134 What did you think of the play?
a that I know of ___ my great disappointment, I found it
b that I know boring.
c I know fromm a At
d from which
ch I know b For
c In
128 Would you be so kind ___ to hold the door for d To
me, please?
a tha
that 135 I was planning to stay home and relax, but I
b so went out with some friends ___ .
c as a although
d if b in spite of
c instead
129 Could I borrow your car for a couple of days? d instead of
Mine ___ .
a is repaired 136 My doctor recommended that ___ a blood test.
b is being repaired a I will get
c had to repair b I get
d is about to repair c to get
d getting

42
137 Do you have any aspirin? 144 Its difficult for her ___ about the death of her
Im ___ . sister.
a afraid so a talking
b afraid not b having talked
c so afraid c have talked
d not afraid d to talk

138 Maybe I should take an umbrella. It ___ like 145 The ___ department has arranged
anged a series of
rain. seminars for the staff.
a seems a personnel
b appears b personal
c looks c personally
d forecasts d person n

139 How about going out? 146 I have somee business to attend ___ .
Sorry, but I have ___ much work to do. a about
ut
a too very b to
b too many c for
c far too d wwith
d so too
1477 Ple
Please make sure that all doors and windows
140 Oh, no! I dont have any money on me. I ___ are properly ___ .
my wallet at home. a secure
a can have forgotten b insecure
b should have left c unsecured
c must have left d secured
d must have forgotten
148 His work ___ , he went to his friends house.
141 They dont need ___ a place
ce now; there are still a having done
plenty of places left. b doing
a reserving c done
b to be reserving
erving d has done
c reserve
d to reserve
eserv 149 Going back to school was the best thing ___ .
Im proud of you.
142 Theyre
re very attached __
___ their children. a you should do
a to b you could have done
b with c that you would do
c by d it was ever done
d att
150 The government is launching a crackdown ___
143 ___ my family is my main concern. tax evaders.
a To have protected a on
b Protectively b to
c Protecting c at
d Having protected d over

43
ON COURSE for the MICHIGAN ECPE offers a systematic approach to the
acquisition of the English language at proficiency level. The book contains
comprehensive coverage of the four sections (GCVR, Writing, Speaking and
Listening) which comprise the Michigan ECPE, providing students with:

topic-related, level-appropriate Cloze and Reading texts, designed


to elicit maximum student response in the areas of comprehension,
textual analysis and linguistic content.

extensive practice in advanced lexical items such as derivatives,


vatives,

ES
related words, confusable words, idioms, prepositions, phrasal
hrasal verbs,
verbs
synonyms, antonyms and collocations.

vocabulary exercises to aid students in what is considered


onsidered to be the
th
most demanding part of the Michigan examination,on, as well as a special
sp

G
section presenting vocabulary in alphabetical order.
der.

grammar sections that enable studentss to review k key grammar


phenomena with particular emphasis
PAis on difficult grammar
gram points.

carefully planned writing sectionss including full-length


fu essay tasks
giving sufficient help and guidancee to enable
en students to convey their
ideas fluently and effectively.

ample opportunity too practice the multi-stage, semi-structured speaking


activities described in the new specifications.
sp
E

sufficient exposure
posure to naturally-spoken
natural American English to enable
students to cope with the demands
d of the listening section.
PL

Each lesson has


as been designed to build on and recycle students knowledge,
helping them build up the
t confidence to use English with accuracy and fluency.
M

Afte completing ON COURSE for the Michigan ECPE,


After
tudents sh
students should continue with the New Generation Practice Tests for the
SA

Michiga
Michigan ECPE. This book will assist candidates in consolidating the material
they have been taught while providing them with a thorough
preparation for the examination.

Components: Students Book Teachers Book Companion Test Booklet CD

ISBN 13: 978-960-409-514-8