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Building and Environment 43 (2008) 12701277


www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv

Laboratory performance comparison of the elastomer-modied


asphalt mixtures
Halit Ozena,, Atakan Aksoyb, Sureyya Tayfurc, Fazl C
- elikb
a
Department of Civil Engineering, Yldz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
b
Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
c
ISFALT Asphalt Company, Istanbul, Turkey
Received 2 May 2006; received in revised form 23 February 2007; accepted 10 March 2007

Abstract

In this study, permanent deformation test results on the cylindrical samples produced with the Marshall compaction were compared
with the wheel-tracking test results. Three different elastomeric polymer modiers (OL, EL, and SB) were used. Repeated creep and
LCPC wheel-tracking tests were realized at different loading conditions and temperatures. Repeated creep tests at 40 1C temperature do
not correlate well with the LCPC wheel-tracking test results at high temperature (60 1C). Performance level of the elastomeric-modied
asphalt mixtures can be different for same mixtures at different performance approaches. The evaluation of the dynamic creep test
showed that the test can be used as an indicator of potential rutting, but the results in these cases should be conrmed with other more
reliable tests. Also it is thought that gradation changing is more effectual than compaction effort types in view of evaluating efciency of
rutting test methods.
r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Asphalt mixture; Polymer; Elastomer; Repeated creep; LCPC wheel-tracking test

1. Introduction Also there is a continuing trend towards higher tire


pressures. Asphalt pavements have experienced accelerated
On the majority of the worlds roads and airports, deterioration. In recent years, more interests are concern in
conventional penetration grades of bitumen perform the use of polymer modiers for asphalt cements. For a
perfectly satisfactorily as the binder for asphalt mixes. polymer to be effective in road applications, it should blend
However, the working environment of our roads is with the bitumen and improve its resistance (to rutting,
becoming more complex and severe, year on year, and abrasion, cracking, fatigue, stripping, bleeding, aging, etc.)
includes factors such as: increased trafc densities, at medium and high temperatures without making the
increased loads, increased axle pressures, shortage of good modied bitumen too viscous at mixing temperatures
quality aggregates, and the effects of high and low ambient or too brittle at low temperatures. In other words, it
temperatures. The increasing punishment being given to must improve the overall performance of the pavement.
our pavements is taking its toll and the most common Many polymers have been used in the modication
manifestations of pavement distress include: permanent process but thermoplastic elastomers are enjoying wide
deformation, fatigue cracking, stripping, fretting, and acceptance as road bitumen modiers, whereas polyolens
reective cracking [1]. are used mostly for the preparation of waterproong
Properties of the asphalt materials depend on the nature membranes, however, many other polymers are available
of the crude oil and on the renery processes employed. and suggested [2].
These asphalts do not necessarily conform to the end Polymers, which are long-chain molecules of very high-
specications of pavement and industrial grade asphalts. molecular weight, used by the binder industry are classied
based on different criteria. One method classies polymers
Corresponding author. into two general categorieselastomers and plastomers.

0360-1323/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.03.010
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H. Ozen et al. / Building and Environment 43 (2008) 12701277 1271

The mechanism of resistance to deformation is the basic was sampled from Omerli-Orkisan rock quarry in Turkey.
difference between these two categories. The load-deforma- Some properties of the used aggregate are given in Tables 1
tion behavior of elastomers is similar to that of a rubber and 2. 6070 penetration asphalt cement produced from
band such as increasing tensile strength with increased Izmit Oil Renery (TUPRAS) was used. Standard labora-
elongation, which may reach 1300% of the original length, tory test results for asphalt cement are incorporated in
and ability to recover to the initial state after removal of Table 3.
load. Plastomers, on the other hand, exhibit high early A typical heavy trafc gradation for hot-mix asphalts
strength but are less exible and more prone to fracture (HMA), designated as wearing coarse (type II) in the
under high strains than elastomers [3]. Turkish specications, was selected. The used gradation
When a load is applied to the surface of an asphalt and specication limits are presented in Table 4 and Fig. 1.
pavement it deforms, but because the asphalt is a visco- Stony skeleton mixtures were used in an earlier research
elastic material, when the load is removed the vast majority for comparing LCPC wheel-tracking test and repeated
of the deformation recovers. However, there is a minute creep test results. The gradation curve is also illustrated in
amount of irrecoverable viscous deformation which re- Fig. 1 [5].
mains in the asphalt and which results in a very small Three different modiers were selected. All the modiers
permanent residual strain. Accumulation of millions of were elastomeric polymers (OL, EL, and SB). Dening
these small strains due to axle loading results in the surface modication process of the modiers was applied carefully.
rutting familiar on heavily trafcked pavements. Labora- OL is a very cohesive product. This additive sticks
tory tests that attempt to measure the stability, i.e. the aggregate particles very well and the produced thicker
resistance to permanent deformation of an asphalt mix, asphalt lm is durable. The pre-added asphalt cement
are: the Marshall test, static and dynamic creep tests, could be stored in conventional units that were already in
wheel-tracking tests, and laboratory test track tests [1]. situ. Additive was blended into asphalt cement at 170 1C at
Although, generally, wheel-tracking tests appear to be a ratio of the 5% of bitumen content.
well correlated with rutting in the eld, there are at present
no quantied relationships to link wheel-tracking test
results to rutting in the eld under variable trafc loading Table 1
and environmental conditions. For this reason, wheel- Some physical properties of the crushed aggregate
tracking tests cannot as yet be used to provide a Properties Test method Value
quantitative estimate of rutting in the eld. The test does,
however, provide a reliable estimate of the rutting potential L.A. abrasion (%) ASTM C-131 26
and, hence, can be used to rank mixes according to rut Soundness in NaSO4 (%) ASTM C-88 1.53
Flakiness (%) BS 182 (part 105) 28
potential. Wheel-tracking tests are particularly recom- Stripping resistance (%) ASTM D-1664 5565
mended for the evaluation of rutting performance of
stone-skeleton mixes, or mixes that include modied
binders. Experience has shown that these mix types cannot
be properly evaluated by means of conventional tests such Table 2
as the unconned uniaxial static or dynamic creep tests [4]. Specic gravities of aggregates (g/cm3)
LCPC wheel-tracking test and repeated creep test gave Properties Coarse Fine Filler
similar results for selected SMA mixtures. In terms of
rutting tests, it was thought that repeated creep tests may Specic gravitydry (g/cm3) 2.693 2.671
be a good indicator of SMA mixtures or else stony skeleton Specic gravitysat. (g/cm3) 2.707 2.697
Specic gravityapparent (g/cm3) 2.732 2.743 2.787
mixes [5]. The purpose of this research was to make a Water absorption (%) 0.531 0.986
comparison between the LCPC wheel-tracking test results
and traditional tests and to present an approach for
preventing or minimizing rutting problem in context with
the performance tests for the continuous gradation. Con- Table 3
ventional and three elastomer-modied asphalt mixtures The results of tests performed on asphalt cement (AC 6070)
were evaluated with different temperatures and loading Test Method Unit Value
conditions.
Specic gravity (25 1C) ASTM D-70 g/cm3 1.024
Flash point (Cleveland) ASTM D-92 1C 300
2. Experimental methods
Penetration (25 1C) ASTM D-5 0.1 mm 64
Ductility (25 1C) ASTM D-113 cm 100+
2.1. Materials used and specimen manufacture Heating loss-163 1C % 0.05
Heating loss penetration/ ASTM D-5 % 57.8
Used materials and experimental procedures in this original penetration
Ductility after heating loss ASTM D-113 cm 51.5+
study were following. Aggregate combination, asphalt
Softening point ASTM D-36 1C 55
cement, and three different additives were used. Aggregate
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1272 H. Ozen et al. / Building and Environment 43 (2008) 12701277

Table 4 longer pavement service life: the rutting life increased by a


Gradation in this study and gradation limits factor of at least 10 [1]. SB additive was mixed to the 6070
Sieve size (mm) Percentage passing (%) Lower Upper SMA [5]
penetration asphalt cement 5% by weight of bitumen in
this research. It is added to bitumen between 3% and 7%
19.00 100 100 100 100 by weight of bitumen. Mixing was realized with high-speed
12.50 90.3 83 100 100 stirrer.
9.50 77.7 70 90 72.5
Marshall mix design procedure was applied with 50
4.75 46.5 40 55 30
2.00 29.2 25 38 21.5 blows on each side of cylindrical samples (ASTM D1559)
0.43 13.3 10 20 15 and the optimum asphalt contents of HMA mixture
0.18 9.4 6 15 11.5 were determined (Wa 4.41%). Some properties of the
0.08 6.7 4 10 10 Marshall specimens for conventional and modied mix-
tures for repeated creep tests are presented in Table 5.

100 2.2. Repeated creep tests


90 used gradation
lower values Strength of the bituminous mixtures to the plastic
80
deformation may be determined with the repeated creep
Percentage Passing, %

upper values
70
SMA gradation [5]
test. Test equipment is the same as the static creep test but
60 repeated load is applied differently. Efciencies of
some selected chemical modiers are especially evaluated
50
with the repeated creep test, also rutting investigation
40 of asphalt mixtures are done. Experiments were realized
30 at 5, 25, and 40 1C test temperatures during 1000 ms
20
pulse period. Samples were exposed to 780 N (100 kPa)
starting load. Average 1100 N (138 kPa) was loaded
10 duration of test. Loads and permanent deformations were
0 saved at least 20 h. Figs. 24 show the repeated creep
0.01 0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 curves.
Sieve Size, mm Repeated creep tests on all of the mixtures demonstrated
Fig. 1. Gradation curve of used aggregate and limits.
that the addition of modiers enhanced the permanent
deformation resistance at moderate temperature (25 1C)
but different relations are concern at low (5 1C) and high
EL product is a reactive elastomeric terpolymer. It is (40 1C) temperatures. Repeated creep tests at 40 1C
added to the asphalt cement between 1.5% and 3%. temperature do not correlate well with the LCPC wheel-
Asphalt cement reaches generally lower penetration value tracking test results at high temperature (60 1C). Relative
and higher softening point with the modication. Asphalt performance of modied mixtures at different temperatures
cement was heated. Additive was mixed to the binder at can be different.
180 1C temperature with a speed of 5 g/s. Additive ratio
was selected as 1.5% of bitumen content. Modied binder 2.3. LCPC wheel-tracking tests
was mixed at Marshall mixer during 6 h with a speed of
80 rpm. Rutting test was veried with the LCPC method. This
SB product is a styrenebutadienestyrene block copo- test has been used in France for over 20 years to
lymer. When SBS is added to hot bitumen, it absorbs some successfully prevent rutting in HMA pavements. In
of the maltene components from the bitumen which recent years, the test has been used in the United States.
extends (softens) the polymer and causes it to swell. The This test is capable of simultaneously testing two HMA
absorption of the maltenes by the polymer is affected by slabs. Slab dimensions are typically 180 mm wide, 500 mm
several factors which include: the nature of the bitumen, long, and 20100 mm thick. Research indicates good
polymer type, polymer morphology, temperature, and correlation between LCPC test results and actual eld
dispersion of the polymer (efciency of mixer/mixing performance [6,7].
process). The uptake of the maltenes generally amounts Samples were prepared at 500 mm length, 180 mm width,
to some 69 times the weight of the polymer forming the 100 mm height. Test temperature was 60 1C. Samples were
polymer-rich phase. The blend of bitumen and SBS is kept at least 12 h at this temperature. Each tire was applied
not always homogenous and on cooling a two-phase 5000 N load. Tire pressure was 0.6 MPa (87 psi). Samples
system will become apparent. The second phase, composed must be compacted as a determined degree of compacting.
of asphaltenes and the balance of the maltenes, is termed Test briquettes were compacted at 98% eld compacting
the asphaltene-rich phase. In laboratory simulation tests scale. Before the temperature was reached at 60 1C, pre-
asphalt mixes made with bitumen/SBS binders lead to compacting (1000 cycles) was made. Pre-conditioning
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H. Ozen et al. / Building and Environment 43 (2008) 12701277 1273

Table 5
Some properties of the Marshall samples and test parameter denition

Sample no. Asphalt Percent Height Weight in Weight in Volume Mix density Test Temperature
cement add. (%) (mm) weather (g) water (g) (cm3) (g/cm3) (1C)
(Wa) (%)

Conventional (NR) mixtures


6 4.41 0.0 63.2 1197.9 702.9 495.0 2.420 Repeated 25
7 4.41 0.0 63.1 1185.7 694.5 491.2 2.414 creep test 25
8 4.41 0.0 62.6 1195.0 700.7 494.3 2.418 5
9 4.41 0.0 63.2 1199.5 703.7 495.8 2.419 5
11 4.41 0.0 61.8 1192.1 706.7 485.4 2.456 40
13 4.41 0.0 61.9 1193.3 707.5 485.8 2.456 40
OL mixtures
7 4.41 5.0 62.3 1194.2 705.5 488.7 2.444 Repeated 5
8 4.41 5.0 62.8 1199.3 707.5 491.8 2.439 creep test 5
11 4.41 5.0 62.4 1192.1 704.9 487.2 2.447 25
13 4.41 5.0 62.5 1194.0 706.4 487.6 2.449 25
17 4.41 5.0 62.0 1193.6 707.4 486.2 2.455 40
18 4.41 5.0 62.8 1197.9 709.8 488.1 2.454 40
EL mixtures
4 4.41 1.5 62.9 1199.0 705.5 493.5 2.430 Repeated 5
5 4.41 1.5 62.1 1198.8 705.1 493.7 2.428 creep test 5
10 4.41 1.5 62.7 1193.9 701.0 492.9 2.422 25
17 4.41 1.5 62.4 1198.6 707.4 491.2 2.440 40
21 4.41 1.5 63.1 1197.8 705.5 492.3 2.433 25
22 4.41 1.5 61.7 1195.7 705.2 490.5 2.438 40
SB mixtures
6 4.41 3.0 62.3 1201.5 709.5 492.0 2.442 Repeated 25
7 4.41 3.0 61.6 1195.9 708.1 487.8 2.452 creep test 25
12 4.41 3.0 61.8 1201.3 711.7 489.6 2.454 40
13 4.41 3.0 61.8 1200.0 713.3 486.7 2.466 40
14 4.41 3.0 62.3 1200.5 707.8 492.7 2.437 5
15 4.41 3.0 62.1 1199.0 711.2 487.8 2.458 5

4000 7000
NR NR

3500 OL OL
6000
EL EL
3000 SB SB
5000
Permanent deformation

Permanent deformation

2500
4000
2000
3000
1500

2000
1000

500 1000

0 0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Log loading time (seconds) Log loading time (seconds)

Fig. 2. Number of cycles versus permanent deformation (5 1C). Fig. 3. Number of cycles versus permanent deformation (25 1C).

temperature was regulated and values were saved. After the LCPC rutting test results for conventional and modied
values were saved rutting was calculated. Two identical mixtures are shown in Fig. 5. Conventional mixtures show
samples were used for each alternative. the highest permanent deformation in this test.
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12000 12.00
NR
OL

Permanent Deformation 10-6 in/in


10.00
10000 EL
NR
SB 8.00
AP
Permanent deformation

8000
6.00 SE
PE
6000 4.00
BE

2.00 SB
4000

0.00
2000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000
Number of Load Cycles

Fig. 6. LCPC wheel-tracking test results [5].


0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Log loading time (seconds) 12000
Fig. 4. Number of cycles versus permanent deformation (40 1C).
Permanent Deformation 10-6 in/in 10000

NR
6 8000
NR AP
OL 6000 SE
5
EL PE
SB 4000
BE
Permanent deformation

4
SB
2000

3
0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Number of Load Cycles
2
Fig. 7. Number of cycles versus permanent deformation (25 1C) [5].

1
18000

0 16000
Permanent Deformation 10-6 in/in

0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 14000


Number of load cycles NR
12000
Fig. 5. LCPC wheel-tracking test results. AP
10000
SE
8000
PE
3. Evaluation 6000
BE
4000 SB
In this research performance known mixtures were
2000
used. Permanent deformation problem was evaluated
with repeated creep tests and LCPC wheel-tracking 0
tests. Many identical samples were prepared with great 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
care and specic gravities were observed. It is known Number of Load Cycles
from the literature that repeated creep test for cylindri-
Fig. 8. Number of cycles versus permanent deformation (40 1C) [5].
cally compacted and laboratory-prepared samples and
wheel-tracking tests for slabs may be used for evalu-
ating rutting developing. The misleading or controversial From an earlier study rutting problem was evaluated
results are also concern in literature and researches are with the same tests for stony skeleton (SMA) mixtures.
going on. Harmonious results were obtained from this investigation.
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H. Ozen et al. / Building and Environment 43 (2008) 12701277 1275

Rutting curves are given in Figs. 68. More performance mended for the evaluation of rutting performance
developing was obtained from various polymer-modied of stone-skeleton mixes, or mixes that include modied
mixtures (NR-conventional mixtures, APSEPEBESB binders. Experience has shown that these mix types
polymer-modied mixtures). Identical samples were pre- cannot be properly evaluated by means of conventional
pared with great care because of angularity effects of used tests such as the unconned uniaxial static or dynamic
rock combination [5]. creep tests [4].
Although different polymer modiers were used such as The usual testing methods (Marshall test, wheel-tracking
elastomeric or plastomeric polymers, drainage inhibitors, test, repeated load uniaxial test) are inadequate for the
mostly higher-performance levels were observed in all tests characterization of the resistance to the permanent
[5]. Repeated creep tests on Marshall samples may be used deformation of asphalt. This is not to say that these tests
for explaining permanent deformation [8]. would be unsuitable for other applications, for example, in
Repeated creep curves and wheel-tracking test results are a mixture design procedure within given composition
given in Figs. 24. Repeated creep tests on all of the limits. However, reliable comparisons of the deformation
mixtures demonstrated that the addition of modiers behavior of various sorts of mixtures are not possible on
enhanced the permanent deformation resistance at moder- the basis of these tests [9].
ate temperature (25 1C) but different relations are concern By evaluating asphalt mixes and pavements from a
at low (5 1C) and high (40 1C) temperatures. Repeated functional point of view, the possibility to develop better
creep tests at 40 1C temperature do not correlate well with products that better stand up to demands of today and
the LCPC wheel-tracking test results at high temperature tomorrow will increase. To be able to use demands on
(60 1C). Relative performance of modied mixtures at functional properties there is however a necessity for
different temperatures can be different. It was understood functional methods of measurement that fulll demands on
that this difference may stem from the gradation changing. good relevance, high exibility, and low cost. The rst step
For the laboratory mixes, it was the intention to assess in the development of functional methods of measurement
most HMA mix types currently used in South Africa. is to have for certainty samples with a good afnity to real
These included both stone-skeleton mixes (stone-mastic conditions on the road. A study made in Sweden has
asphalt and semi-open asphalt with bitumen-rubber proven that the traditional Marshall method is not suitable
binder) and sand-skeleton mixes (gap- and continuously in this regard. The unsuitability of the Marshall method of
graded asphalt). Porous asphalt was not included. The compaction has also been proven by several other
Transportek wheel-tracking test gave reasonable results, investigators in other countries. A study for alternatives
and is recommended for all high reliability projects. The has emphasized the importance of a kneading ingredient in
test is appropriate for all mix types, including mixes the compaction effort, which is in accordance with
containing modied binders and stone-skeleton mixes. For methods like rolling wheel and gyratory compactor. The
stone-skeleton mixes, the test must be performed at the same study showed that a sample compacted in the
refusal air void content otherwise the mix could deform laboratory, at the same degree of compaction, usually gets
excessively, which is not expected if the mix is well better mechanical properties (indirect tensile stiffness
compacted in the eld provided that it is designed modulus, dynamic creep test, and indirect tensile test) than
correctly. Because the dynamic creep does not correctly a sample compacted in the eld and that the difference
determine the rutting resistance of all mixes, and the between laboratory and eld is not the same for different
performance ratings do not agree with the the Transportek types of mixes [10].
wheel-tracking test, the dynamic creep test is not recom- The dynamic creep test is an interesting alternative to the
mended for assessing the rutting potential of HMA other wheel-tracking test for measuring the sensibility for
than sand-skeleton mixes manufactured with unmodied permanent deformations, but there is some doubt about
binders, unless evaluated in conjunction with other rutting the ability of the traditional method to be able to work as a
tests. The evaluation of the dynamic creep test showed that functional method of measurement and to distinguish
the test can be used as an indicator of potential rutting, but between different types of mixes. Enlarging the sample to a
the results in these cases should be conrmed with other diameter of 150 mm while the platen is kept at normal size,
more reliable tests [4]. i.e. 100 mm, accomplishes a limited lateral pressure, which
Although, generally, wheel-tracking tests appear to be gives more justice to mixes, which get their stability not so
well correlated with rutting in the eld, there are at present much by forces of cohesion but much more so by the inner
no quantied relationships to link wheel-tracking test friction of the aggregate. Trials have shown a much better
results to rutting in the eld under variable trafc loading coefcient of correlation (0.91) with the wheel-tracking test
and environmental conditions. For this reason, wheel- for the modied model (diameter of sample 150 mm and
tracking tests cannot as yet be used to provide a diameter of platen 100 mm) than for the traditional model
quantitative estimate of rutting in the eld. The test does, (0.36) with the same diameter for sample and platen [10]. In
however, provide a reliable estimate of the rutting potential this research 100 mm diameter Marshall samples were
and, hence, can be used to rank mixes according to rut tested in dynamic creep test and controversial results were
potential. Wheel-tracking tests are particularly recom- obtained from these two tests. Unlike this the same
ARTICLE IN PRESS
1276 H. Ozen et al. / Building and Environment 43 (2008) 12701277

diameter was used in earlier study but logical trends were temperatures. Repeated creep tests at 40 1C temperature do
obtained for SMA mixtures [5]. not correlate well with the LCPC wheel-tracking test results
The failure of the Marshall test to describe rutting at high temperature (60 1C). Relative performance of
resistance of asphalt mixes is demonstrated where the modied mixtures at different temperatures can be different.
Marshall stability is plotted versus the rut depth at 50,000 In this research performance known mixtures were
wheels passes as determined in a laboratory test track tested. Obtained data were compared with the earlier
experiment. Several conventional and polymer-modied research [5]. Unlike this research continuous gradation was
binders were used in the experiments. From these results it offered and the result was that repeated creep test and
is clear that no relation exists between the Marshall wheel-tracking test did not give parallel result. The
stability and rutting under actual wheel loading in the evaluation of the dynamic creep test showed that the test
LTT. The Marshall test should therefore not be considered can be used as an indicator of potential rutting, but the
relevant to characterize the resistance of mixes with results in these cases should be conrmed with other more
polymer-modied binders. Fortunately, this fact has nowa- reliable tests. Also it is thought that gradation changing is
days been recognized by authorities who aim to implement more important than compacting efforting types in view of
rational performance-based specications in the SHRP in evaluating efciency of rutting test methods.
the USA and in Europe in CEN specications [11].
It is well recognized from the literature that the Acknowledgments
aggregate interlocking greatly occurred in the coarse
aggregate. The image evaluation of aggregate morpholo- ISFALT Asphalt and Dogus- Construction Companies
gical characteristic demonstrated that a stable aggregate are gratefully acknowledged for their laboratory capabil-
skeleton resulted in more internal resistance. Traditional ities. The authors are also indebted to Mr. T. Erol and Mr.
tests such as Marshall stability and the indirect tensile N. Bugan for assistance in laboratories.
strength are considered to be inadequate to measure the
internal resistance in HMA [12]. References
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