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P U B L I S H E R S

2004
81.2-922
29
802.0(075.3)

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29 ? ,
, : , 2004. 208 .
ISBN 5-86866-265-2

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(08439) 9-10-09. E-mail sales@titul.ru.

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. . , , 2004
ISBN 5-86866-265-2 "", 2004

:
. THE VERB 5

:
. THE NOUN 92
. THE ADJECTIVE 111
. THE ARTICLE 120
. ADVERBS 140
. PRONOUNS 146
. NUMERALS 162
. CONJUNCTIONS 168
. PREPOSITIONS 171
. INTERJECTIONS 176
179

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. -

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( + ), -
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)
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6
( ). , -
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() .
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. - -
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.
. , -
.
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.

7
:
?

:
, ;
;
.

() : to go,
to like, to live, to fly.
-re, -dis, -:
to write, to rewrite,
to build, to rebuild,
to like, to dwlike, ,
to trust, to distrust,
to cover, to cover,
to tie, to tie,
-ify,
-ize, -en:
to s i m p l y
to spec/}^ ,
to summarize ,
to utilize
to widen ,
to blacken ,
, -
.
.
broad () to cast () -
broadcast ( ).
over () to do () to overdo, -
: , ,
.
. -
, ,
to overshadow ,
to overpower ,
to outstand ,
to outspread ()
to uphold ,
to uprise , ,
to upset

8
(, -
!) . :
to give in, to take off, to break out, to play out
. -
, , .
, , ,
(!)
, .
,
- .
to give
() to take ().
:
to give about ,
to give forth ,
to give in ,
to give up , , ,
to take aback , ,
to take after -
to take apart
to take in ,
to take off ,
to take out ,
to take down , , ()
to take up , ,
: -
(Phrasal Verbs).

, -, -
. ,
, to go, to cut, to bring, to put, to set .,
, .
, -
? .
-, -
.
to put , . -
:
put back, put down, put off, put on, put out, put together
He put down the revolt, , , ,
, to put ()
.
. , -
. -
. , -
.

9
. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

( -
).
.
-
.
,
, , .
, -
. , .
.
, -
( ,
, , ).
-
.
() -
(direct object, -
), (indirect object, -
) (prepositional object,
, ).
, .
... ( : ? ?)
( ) ( ).
:
gave (indirect object) an apple (direct object).
() -
. ( ).
Nick lives in London. He works hard.
lives works
(, . .), .
,
to live, to work, to run, to go, to sit, to come -
, , .
"?", "?"
,
:
.
-
(. . 2728).
.
to run -
. ,
(to run a factory, to run a bus, to run a
machine, to run an experiment).

10

(The Passive Voice).
() . -
. , , -
.
.

. Regular and Irregular Verbs

.
,

. , II III ,
.
(Principal forms of the verbs)
I, II, III, IV.
, , ,
, --
.

I II III IV

Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle Present Participle


(Simple) Participle II Participle I

()

?
.
.
, , ?
( ),
, ( ).
.
, , to live ()
. live v.,
verb, . .
. , v. -
II III .
write. wrote, written.
II III . -
. , II III -
.
IV , , -
( + -ing), .
?

11
II III ,
( to) -ed.
I II III
live lived lived
IV ( !), -
-ing.
I IV
live living
, II, III IV -
to live ? , -
.

:
- (,
), II, III IV
:
live lived lived living
, , II
III -ed, IV -
-ing.
stay stayed stayed staying
, ,
II III /, IV :
cry cried cried crying
study studied studied studying
ie, II III
d. IV ie ,
-ing.
tie tied tied tying
, -
, II, III IV
:
drop dropped dropped dropping
slip slipped slipped slipping
/, -
:
travel travelled travelled travelling
-
. . . -
,
.
, , , II
III . IV -
.

12
-ing ,
[g],
-ed -ed :
-ing [t] :
ask asked [ctskt]
[d] :
agree agreed ['], clean cleaned [kli:nd]
[id] [t] [d]:
decide decided [di'saidid], admit admitted [ad'mitid]

IV -
, IV , -
-ing .
? II III ,
, .
,
.
, , -
3 . .
.
:
(, );
(
);
II III ( ).

13

, , :
Present ,
Past ,
Future .

. , -
(3 4) :
,
,
.
,
, -
.
:


Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect
(Simple) (Progressive) Tenses Continuous
Tenses Tenses Tenses
()
()

J
, , . -
, (.
. 15).


()
The Group of Indefinite (Simple) Tenses

: Present Indefinite, Past Indefinite Future Indefinite.


-
, , , . -
, . -
, . ,
Indefinite
. -
(to be to have).

14

Indefinite Continuous i Perfect Perfect Continuous


]
(Simple) (Progressive) ! ()
j ()

Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous


(Simple) (Progressive)

5 Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous

6 (Simple) (Progressive)

Future Indefinite Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous


ii (Simple) ! (Progressive)
I
L
,

. Principal Forms of the Verb


I ^ II in j IV

Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle Present Participle


(Participle II) (Participle I)


Present Indefinite

Present Indefinite, ,
( ) to -
:
/ Singular / Plural
I write we write
you write you write
he, she, it writes they write
, ! 3- -
-s. -s -
: 3-
Indefinite ,
.

* , , -s
to d o he does to
( > 8 s h e goes);
-s , , , -
-ies (to fly he flies, to study she studies);
-s [s] (writes);
[z] (lives, agrees,
cries);
-ss, -ch, -sh, - -s -
[iz] (kisses, teaches, finishes).

-

, -
Indefinite . ,
.
Indefinite usually (-
), every day, every morning, every year .
Present Indefinite
: always (), often (), seldom (), sometimes (),
never (). :
At half past eight we usually do our morning exercises. For breakfast I always
have eggs. I never drink coffee in the evening. We seldom work on Sundays.
:
to be, (I am never
late far classes);
often seldom ( very)
(I see him very seldom)',
usually sometimes
(Usually I get up at seven o'clock. We go to the movies sometimes).
: always, often, seldom, never
Present Perfect (. . 30).

16
Past Indefinite

Past Indefinite, , -
II . Past
Indefinite, ,
.
II -ed -
. II .
to live to write
() (Past Indefinite):
Singular Plural
I lived I wrote we lived we wrote
you lived you wrote you lived you wrote
he, she, it lived he, she, it wrote they lived they wrote

Past Indefinite!

Future Indefinite

Future Indefinite, ,
shall /will + .
Singular Plural
I shall write we shall write
you will write you will write
he, she, it will write they will write
, Indefinite -
, .

shall will



, . , shall will,
! :
shall
, will ;
-
shall, will;
shall will should would.
, , -
, .
" " (. 38);
shall / will should /would
( " ", . 66), shall/should
, -
, a will/would .

17
shall /will should/would
.
:
shall /will should / would to!
to write ( ) -
, (Simple):
, , -
( Future
Indefinite, shall /will).
, ,
Indefinite.

Present, Past Future Indefinite

- Paris is the capital of France. .


Many million years ago the earth was a fire ball.
.
The next World Olympic Games will be in 2004.
2004 .
,
.
. :
You are so beautiful! , -
. , , : The weather
was fine -: I'll be there at eight o'clock sharp
.

.
:
- ,
, : I get up at seven o'clock, I wash
myself, I dress, have a walk... . .
, ,
, , -
: I got up at seven o'clock, I washed... . .
, , -
, : I shall get up at seven, I shall wash... . .
, -
(, , - habitual)
. (tense)
(time).
, , , ? ?
, , , , ,
.
-
( , ),
: ,

18
. : Paris is (, )
the capital of France.
( ) -
(tense) (time),
Indefinite Tenses, .

Indefinite:
opened the door of his house, went in, sat on the bench and
sighed with fatigue. ,
, .
-
, -
- . -
:
, .
?
(!) Simple, -
. Indefinite , -
( + )
. ,
, , , -
.

Indefinite

to be to have (. . 22) -

to do.
I want.- ( , ).
I do not (don't) want. ( ).
Do I want? ? ( )
Past Indefinite:
I wanted. .
I did not (didn't) want.- .
Did I want? ?
Future Indefinite to do , -
shall /will.
I shall want. .
I shall not (shan't) want. .
Shall I want? ?

don % didn't, shan't.
. 1 (. . 179-180).
(Continuous, Perfect Perfect
Continuous) :
! +

19
, , , -
, -
. .

. Auxilary Verbs

: to be, to do to
have. , ,
,
, :
to do
to be , , ,
to have , ,
, :
I II III IV

be was, were been being


have had had having
do did done doing

to do to do -
,
.
: " ?" " ?"
to do.
Do you do it yourself? do -
, .
do . Past Indefinite:
Did you do it yourself? : did (II ) -
, Past Indefinite,
.
:
I don't do it myself. He doesn't do it himself. She didn't do it herself.
to do ,
to do, , (

). :
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Singular 11 Singular Plural Singular Plural
I do we do I did we did I shall do we shall do
you do you do you did you did you will do you will do
he, she, it does they do he, she, it did they did he, she, it will do they will do

( -
!) -s,
3- .

20
,
to do . -
, .

tobe to be
Present Past Indefinite, .
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular ; Plural Singular j Plural
I am we are I was I we were I shall be we shall be
you are you are you were i you were you will be you will be
he, she, it is they are he, she, it was ' they were he, she, it will be they will be
. _ . . L _ . j
to be , ,
-
to do.
is kind and clever .
Is he kind and clever?
He is not (isn't) kind and clever.
She was busy yesterday. .
Was she busy yesterday?
She was not (wasn't) busy yesterday.
to be -
.
to be
(Continuous Tenses), (Plerfect Continues
Tenses), (Passive Voice).

tohave to have ,
.
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
I have we have I had we had I shall have we shall have
you have you have you had you had you will have you will have
he, she, it has they have he, she, it had they had he, she, it will have they will have

to have . -
, -

( " ",
. 64). , , to have
dinner (breakfast, supper, fun), to have a bath (a walk, a smoke, a headache),
, -
, , . .
() to have
to have got. : I have a car I have got a car.
.

21
to have -
to do.
to do, ?
:
to have ,
, -
to do.
I have a car. Have I a car? Has he a car? Have they a car?
I haven't a car (I have no car). They haven't got a car.
to have
to do.
Do you have a car? Does he have a car? They don't have a car.
* to do ,
to have.
Do you have your lessons in the morning? Did they have good fun yesterday ?
* to have ,
to do.
I have to be there at six o'clock. ( .) Do I
have to be there at six o'clock?
He had to do it. ( .) Did he have to do it?
* , -
do. .
to have got
to do.
has got a son. Has he got a son ?
to have
.
has not (hasn't) got a son.
She has not (hasn't) a son, she has a daughter.
They have no children. They had no friends.
to have , to do
. to have
, -
to do:
did not (didn't) have to do it. .
I do not (don't) have to be there. .
I do not (don t) have a bath in the morning. .
We don't have coffee in the evening. .

: ,
, .

(, , ).
, to do -
.
to be -
Continuous Perfect Continuous, -
(Passive Voice).
to have -
Perfect Perfect Continuous.
.


()
The Group of Continuous (Progressive) Tenses

: Present Continuous, Past Continuous


Future Continuous.
Continuous Tenses ( continuum, ,
) . -
-
Progressive Tenses, .
| |
| to be IV . j


( -
, ) , -
. -
. , .
Continuous -
IV .
ing-, IV
-ing.
,
IV . : Present Participle,
, Participle I, I. ?
, .

Past Participle, , -
Participle II, , ,
.
, . , -
( . 15). . Participle II
, a Participle I .
-
(ing-, Participle I, IV ).
, ,
.

:

23
Present Continuous I
/ Singular / Plural
I am writing we are writing
you are writing you are writing
he, she, it is writing they are writing
Past Continuous
I was writing we were writing
you were writing you were writing
he, she it was writing they were writing
Future Continuous
I shall be writing we shall be writing
you will be writing you will be writing
he, she, it will be writing they will be writing

, . -
, to be, -
, IV ( ing-, Participle I) .
to be + ing- -
Continuous, Continuous Present, Past Future,
to be.
Continuous. -
. - ?
:
Continuous Tenses ,
- , .
, -
, -
, -
, : " ". : " -
?", : " ".
, ,
Indefinite Continuous -
, .
What do you usually do in the morning? I write my book.
And what are you doing now? I am writing my book.

Present Continuous,

Present Continuous .
What does your father do? ? ( -
?)
is a teacher , ( Present Indefinite)
Is he teaching now? ()?
No, he is reading a newspaper in the next room. ,
.
, ? Present
Continuous , , , ,

24
, - . ,
, , .
, Present Continuous
now, right now, at this moment, this morning, this week, these days, this
season, tonight .
Present Continuous , , -
, , .
, ,
?

Past Continuous

Past Continuous, , -
- .
Past Continuous , , -
, ,
. , -
, Past Indefinite.
Past Continuous while ( ),
when ().
While Nick was writing his letter I looked through the morning newspaper.
Nick was writing a letter when I came.
, . -
.
It was a beautiful evening, Ann was singing in her room.

Future Continuous

Future Continuous, , -
- . -
, -
.
Don't come tomorrow morning. I shall be packing my things. He
. .
When you enter the room Ann will be packing her things. -
, .

Continuous


to be, Future Continuous -
shall/will, (. . 44).
is (was) reading a newspaper.
Is (was) he reading a newspaper?
Will he be reading a newspaper?
He is (was) not reading.
He will not be reading.

25
, Continuous

: see, hear,
feel, know, want, be, believe, like, love, hate, understand, remember, recognize, need.
: prefer, deserve, belong, contain, consist,
seem, resemble.

, Continuous -
. , -
,
Continuous. , :
, .
tofeel ,
: I feel that you are right ( I am feeling...). ,
.
Present Continuous: I am feeling the flower. It feels so
soft- ? (the flower) -
,
, : . .
, -
Continuous -
( ) .


()
The Group of Perfect Tenses

: Present Perfect, Past Perfect,


Future Perfect.

Perfect Tenses . -
, ( -
perfectum ) ( perfect
), , ,
. -
.
Perfect Tenses , -
, , -
, .

to have III ( Past Participle Participle II,
).
to have , Perfect -
Present, Past Future. III -
. :
[ The Present Perfect^}
Singular Plural
I have written we have written
you have written you have written
he, she, it has written they have written
1! The Past Perfect U.
I had written we had written
you had written you had written
he, she, it had written they had written
The Future Perfect
I shall have written we shall have written
you will have written you will have written
he, she, it will have written they will have written

, ,
. to have,
III .

not -
III :
She has not written. He had not written.
We shall have not written.
:
( Future Perfect shall /will),
+ III .
Has she written? Had he written? Shall we have written?
, , , -
- , -
.
. ?
, -
, .
(= ) () -
() .
, ,
,
, .
.
, -
. -
, , -
, .
XVI
( ).

27
, , -
.
, , , , .
: , , ;
, , ; , , -
. .
, , -
. , -
?
( 7):
, , ; , , ; -
, , .

-.
-
,
( ).
, ( ) ,
, .

Present Perfect

The Present Perfect Tense, , -


to have III
.
Nick has written the letter. .
Ann has broken her umbrella. .
: Present Perfect ( !) -
(, ).
, , -
? Present Perfect -
. , ,
.
, . -
!

Present Perfect
.
I have known Nick since 1990. 1990 .
They have been here for two hours .
, .
. , -
Present Perfect.
, to know to be, ,
(
. 26). ,
Continuous. -
, (-
!), Present Perfect,
, , , .
Ann has been ill since last December .
, Present Perfect . -
, -
?
Present Perfect ,
.
:
, ,
? , ,
, , ? .
- , -
, .
? , ,
. , , , -
.
...
,
.
Nick is writing (Present Continuous) a letter. .
, , ... ,
, , , .
: " ", ,
,
.

.

Present Perfect Past Indefinite , ?

Present Perfect -
. Past Indefinite, ,
. : -
, Present Perfect?
Present Perfect Past Indefinite
Nick has written a letter. Nick wrote a letter yesterday.
You can post it.
Ann has broken her umbrella. Ann broke her umbrella when
It is raining now, and she can't go out. she was in the country.

: , . -
, ?
: (yesterday, when she was
in the country), Past Indefinite.
? , yesterday, last month, a year
29
ago .? , : ,
, ,
, Present Perfect .
Present Perfect ? -
. . . ,
, , , -
. ( !) -
.
,
Past Indefinite: Nick wrote the letter yesterday. You can post it
today. , , ,
.
. :
Nick has written a letter this morning.
Ann has broken her umbrella this September.
(this morning, this Septem-
ber), Present Perfect. Past
Indefinite:
Nick wrote a letter this morning.
Ann broke her umbrella this September.
? Present Perfect
: , . -
, .

, .
Present Perfect Past Indefinite .
Present Perfect , ,
, , Present Perfect, -
Past Indefinite.
"I wonder whether my sister has received the letter?"
"Yes, she has. But unfortunately she had to leave the hotel."
"Did she leave alone?"
"Yes, she was alone."
Present Perfect,
(
!), Past Indefinite.
,
Present Perfect.
, this morning, this
Present Perfect week, today, tonight, this year ., :
already , lately ( )
just recently
often many times
seldom up to now
ever - once
never yet ,
always

30
. -
already, just, often, seldom, ever, never
:
Nick has always lived in London. Ann has just had a bath.
I have already posted the letter.
already ,
:
Have you posted the letter already? , ?
recently, lately, once, many times, up to now -
.
, always, often, seldom, never
Present Indefinite (. . 16).
Present Perfect. -
.

Past Perfect

The Past Perfect Tense, , -


, - , -
, , , -
. , , Past
Indefinite, , , Past Perfect.
When Nick arrived at the hotel Ann had already left
, .
found out that Ann had received his letter. , -
.
-
, ,
, . -
, , -
( Past Perfect), ( Past Indefinite).
Past Perfect .
Past Perfect -
. ,
, .
I met him at the theatre. He had been married for several years.
. , .
, by then, by that time, by Monday,
Past Perfect by ten o'clock ( - ) ., ,
Past Perfect.
Ann had left the hotel by eight o'clock last night. -
.
last night,
Past Indefinite. -
by eight o'clock : Past Perfect,
, ,
, , , (?),
( ?).

31
Future Perfect

The Future Perfect Tense, , -


, - .
(
shall/ will + have + III ), -
.
.
.
.
, , , -
Future Perfect.
Nick will have written the letter by six o'clock tonight.
Ann will have returned to Paris by the end of the week.
By this time next month I shall have finished my work.

Future Indefinite -
Future Perfect , by.. 'clock, by the end of the week, by the end of next
month .
, -
- ,
. -
.
I haven't seen you for ages. .
hadn't finished his work by Monday as he promised.
, .
We shall not have finished our work by the end of the year.
.
-
have shall/ will:
Have I seen...? Had he finished...? Shall we have finished...?



The Perfect Continuous Tenses

: Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect


Continuous Future Perfect Continuous.
, , ,
. , -
. ?
-
Perfect Continuous.
.
, .
,
.

32
Perfect
Continuous, :
I have been living in this flat for nine years. (Present Perfect Continuous)
I moved from this flat after I had been living there for about ten years. (Past
Perfect Continuous)
By next January I shall have been living in this flat eleven years. (Future Perfect
Continuous)

Perfect Continuous

, - Perfect - Continuous. -
:
to be Perfect + IV i
!
.
to be Perfect?
:
have been + IV ,
have been to be Perfect, , Perfect Infinitive, -
to be ( , ,
" " . 54).
, -
Continuous ( to be) - Perfect
to be, to be Perfect.
Continuous: IV ,
Present Participle, Participle I, ing-.
.
Perfect, ,
to be , IV
.
Present Perfect Continuous ,
i / Singular / Plural
I have been studying we have been studying
! you have been studying you have been studying
I he, she it has been studying they have been studying
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been studying we had been studying
j you had been studying you had been studying
i he, she, it had been studying they had been studying
Future Perfect Continuous
I shall have been studying we shall have been studying
you will have been studying you will have been studying
he, she will have been studying they will have been studying

2 ? 33
,
Perfect Continuous :
(to play chess) .
.

Present Perfect Continuous

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense,


, , -
.
, -
, :
for... hours, days, weeks, months, years, ages - ;
since... yesterday, Monday, early morning, last month - ;
since then, since 1990 , - ;
up to this moment ;
all the time .
Nick has been writing the letterfor an hour already.
.
We have been waiting for Ann up to this mom ent. .
I have been studying English since 1990. 1990 .
-,
Present Continuous. ,
Continuous, Perfect. -
, .
, , to see, tohear,
to feel, to understand, to be . ( . 26),
Perfect Continuous ,
Continuous. , -

(, -
), Present Perfect, -
.
Nick hasn't heard anything about Ann since last month. Ann has been ill for
a week.
. 26
' , Continuous
.
Perfect Continuous, , -
.
Nick has been seeing the sights of Paris since Friday. -
.
to see, - -
, ? -
, ,
, ( -
).

34
Past Perfect Continuous

The Past Perfect Continuous, ,


,
( ).
, , Past Perfect
(. 31). ,
, . , -
, Past Perfect Continuous, , , Past
Indefinite.
Nick had been driving for about an hour when the rain started
, .
( -
for about an hour), Past Perfect
Continuous.
By the end of last month Ann had been living in Paris for ten years.
, .

Future Perfect Continuous

The Future Perfect Continuous, , -


, -
( ).
,
. :
By the end of next month Ann will have been living in Paris for ten years.
, -
.
It is ten o'clock now. Nick has been driving his car for two hours. By one 'clock
he will have been driving the car for five hours. .
.
.

, .
, ,
, .

. , ,
.
,
. -
, , -
.
-
.
.
, . 15. -
.
35
:

4_.

. Principal Forms of the Verb


i i in T IV
- - , -
.
,
. - -
,
.
, .

: . !
, am
lam writing a letter have I have written a letter, ,
, ,
.
.
( 1500 ., , ), -
, , ,

. -
.
" ", , : "
" : " x,ieff\ , -
. Continuous.
, , : "Ihave
written the letter," " " : " -
" . , . ! -
, . Perfect.
(, ), am have
. ,
- , , -
.
, . , ,
. . .
, -
. -
- . !

37

The Sequence of Tenses

-
, . -
.

.
. , , -
. !
, , -
... 5:4.

.
.

- -
, -
, .
- -
, - -
.
Nick tells us that his sister is a singer. , .
Nick told us that his sister was a singer. , .
, , ,
. is, a was
,
told. ,
.
, , -
:
Nick told us that his sister had been a singer. ,
( Past Perfect -
).
,

, ,
:
Past Indefinite Past Continuous, Past
Indefinite Past Continuous -
.

38
Ann thought that Nick was at home. , () .
Ann thought that Nick was reading a book in his room. ,
().
Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous,
,
.
She said she had been to London. , .
Ann said that Nick had been learning French for three years. ,
.
-
, .
,
, -
.
We all knew that the Volga is the greatest Russian river.
The teacher told us that Cristopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.
-
Past Perfect, -
, .
-
-
.
Before Nick came to Paris he spoke French worse than he does now.
The book which you gave me is very interesting.
, ,
.
. ,
, :

It was the last quarter of the championship game and the other side was ahead.
Our boys had the ball. We made a touchdown and tied it up. The crowd went
crazy! Only one minute to go and they fumbled. Our quarterback was about a
' yard from the goal.., We won five goals to four!
L,

. -
?
, -
.

. The Future in the Past Tense

Future in the Past , .


Nick tells us that his sister will be a singer. ,
, ( Future Indefinite).
Nick told us that his sister would be a singer. , -
.

39
, -
, Future Indefinite -
Future in the Past.
: , -
, , a Future
in the Past, shall will should would.


, (. 17), shall/ will
should/ would,
, .
,
should/would
(Future in the Past).
should/would to.
(. . 54),
: Indefinite (to
write), Continuous (to be writing), -
(to have written), Perfect Continuous (to have been
writing).
, Future in the Past ,
,
:
Future in the Past Indefinite
Future in the Past Continuous
Future in the Past Perfect
Future in the Past Perfect Continuous
:
Nick says that he will be playing tennis at six o'clock this afternoon. ( -
, Future Continuous.)
Nick said that he would be playing tennis at six o'clock that afternoon.
( , Future in the Past
Continuous.)
Ann says that she will have finished her exercises by seven o'clock. ( -
, Future Perfect.)
Ann said that she would have finished her exercises by seven o'clock. ( -
, Future in the Past Perfect.)
,
Continuous, Perfect;
(would will), -
,
Future in the Past. -
, Future in the Past Perfect , a Future in the
Past Perfect Continuous .

, .
. Direct and Indirect Speech

- . ,
.
"My wife will come to see you tomorrow," he said.
Ann answered, "I have never been to Rome."
"I know this man," she repeated.
,
, . -
:
said that his wife would come to see us next day.
Ann answered that she had never been to Rome.
She repeated that she knew that man.
, -
,
, .
-
. .
, . -
, :

now | | then
today ; ; that day
yesterday ! the day before
! 1
tomorrow next (the following) day
last evening (night) j the previous evening
ago before
here I there
this, these I that, those

-
(declarative affirmitive sentences), -
(interrogative sentences),
(imperative sentences). -
.
"Can you help me?" she asked.
She asked me if I could help her , .
"Ann, will you go with me to London tomorrow?" asked Nick.
Nick asked whether she would go with him to London next day. -
, .
: -
if whether, .
-
, -
: who, whom, what, which, when, where, why.
"Why have you left the party so early?" Nick asked Ann.
Nick asked her why she had left the party so early.
-

41
ask, beg, request ( -
), command, order, tell, demand
. to.
Nick said to me, "Take good care of her!"
Nick asked me to take good care of her.
"Turn around!" he shouted.
He ordered us to turn around.
, , -
:
agree, consent (), to answer in the affirmative,
.
deny, refuse, reject ( -
) to answer in the negative.
"Yes," she said, "you can take my car till tomorrow morning."
She agreed to give me her car till next morning.
She answered in the affirmitive.
"No, I will not be able to go to London with you now," answered Ann.
Ann refused to go to London with Nick then.
Ann answered in the negative.

42

. ,
. -
.
?
, , .
.
, -
( .
.), ,
.
, -
(),
. .
-
,
. , light (-
), , (), () (-
).
, , (-
) . - -
:
After dinner the mother gave Fete a red apple.
(after dinner) -
, .
, . -
(The Direct Oder of Words) (
the Inverted Oder of Words). -
, .

, - -
, .
.
, , , -
.
:
( ) -

.

43
,
,
.
-
, , , -
(today, tomorrow, last month, in summer . .). -
(always, never, often, seldom .)
, "Present
Perfect", . . 30-31.
-
:
I have received your letter of the 4th of May from Paris this morning.
He sent me a letter from Paris last May.
.
to do. ( -
, to be to have\ , ,
" ", . 21 22).
I do not know French. He didn't see him yesterday.
I have not finished my composition yet.
She will not arrive until Monday.
,
nobody, nothing; never, nowhere.
None was ready to go with me.
We saw nobody there.
There's nothing to be done.
They could find her nowhere.
I have never been to Paris.

: .
- : .
-
-, :
never tells anything.
doesn't ever tell me anything.
He ever tells me nothing.

. -
.
( -
), , , -
.

lives in Moscow. Does he live in Moscow?
They like to play tennis. Do they like to play tennis?
She is reading a book. Is she reading a book?
I have been to Paris Have I been to Paris?
44

We shall start soon. Shall we start soon?
He would like to meet him. Would he like to meet him?
She can speak German. Can she speak German?
:
.
(do, be, have, shall /will, should /would can,
must, may). I, III IV (-
, Participle II Participle I ).
, ,
( )
.
: be have, -
(, ), . -
.
has a car. Has he a car?
She is a singer. Is she a singer?
.
(General Questions).
. (Yes, he does. lives in Moscow since 1990.)
.

. Special Questions

. -
: who (); whom
(); what (, ); whose (); which (, ); -
: where (, ); when (); why (); how
(); how many, how much ().
, -
- .
,
.
,
, . ,
.
Who lives in Moscow? Who is reading this French book?
Who has been to Paris? Who can speak German?
(
), -
().
What do you mean by that?
Whom did they meet at the theatre last night?
Where has he found it?
Why was Nick late?
How shall we do that?
When can she arrive in Paris?

45
.
who. ,
who , .
-
, ( )
.
.
, , , ,
, ? ,
.
whom, where, when, how
.
Who ,
.
Who is on duty today?
Who is going to speak next?
which (of) whose
, , ,
:
Which of the two girls is your sister? ?
Whose barking dogs kept me awake all night?
?

, :
Which would you like best? ?
Whose sister are you? ?
: who, what, which, , -
3- ,
(Which of
the students is... Which of them is... . .).
what (, ) -
, -
what. ,
:
What is hanging on the wall? ?
What pictures are hanging on the wall? ?
What comes next? ?
: what . -
what.
What are you doing tonight? ?
What does he take me for? ?
: what, a you he.
, , -
. -
.
Where is he mistaken ? () ( ) ?
: I know where he is mistaken ( ).

46
When can she come ? () ?
: I don't know when she can come ( ).
:
, -
.
:
there is /there are:
There are thirty pupils in my class.
so do / did I, neither do /did I, so have I, neither have I(= ,
, ):
You are late, and so am I. I don't like it. Neither do I.
, hardly, scarcely (),
only then ( ), never ():
Hardly had Ann put on her dress when the door burst open.
Scarcely had Nick gone out when it began to rain.
Only then did Ann remember that she had met the man in Paris.
Never has he heard such a wonderful song.
(-) -
, , -
:
Off we go! !

47

The Active Voice and the Passive Voice

. ,
, ,
.
,
() ().
?
.
.
,
, , -
. ( ? .) .
( -
) , , ,
. () -
. ( ? .) -
.
* , , -
, , -
.
, ,
, , (-
).
, .
:
. (. . 10).

,
, .
-
, , , -
, . , , ,
(, , ).
to work, to run, to live,
, .
?
, (Passive Voice) -
. .

48
. The Passive Voice

4 -
to be III .

Nick translated this article. This article was translated by Nick.
Ann is singing a song. A song is being sung by Ann.
He has written the composition. The composition has been written
by him.

-
. ,
by ( -
? ?) Passive
Voice, with, , -
,
. (Bread is cut with a knife. The man was killed with a sword.)
.
?
to be Past Indefinite. Ill
to translate .
to be Present Continuous, -
III to sing (sung). Present
Continuous in the Passive Voice: is being sung,
is ;
being ( is) Present Continuous;
sung is being , -
.
has been
to be, Perfect (= to have + III to be),
has been written Present Perfect in the Passive Voice, -
.
, , -
. , -
, .
-
, . to request
(, ). , -
.
Passengers are requested to go... ...
.
Are requested Passive Voice.
.

49

The Use of Tenses in the Passive Voice

Indefinite
Present Indefinite
I am requested we are requested
you are requested you are requested
he, she, it is requested they are requested
Past Indefinite
I was requested we were requested
you were requested you were requested
he, she it was requested they were requested
Future Indefinite
I shall be requested we shall be requested
you will be requested you will be requested
he, she, it will be requested they will be requested

Continuous
Present Continuous
I am being requested we are being requested
you are being requested you are being requested
he, she, it is being requested they are being requested
Past Continuous
I was being requested we were being requested
you were being requested you were being requested
he, she, it was being requested they were being requested

: Future Continuous Passive Voice !


Perfect -
" " Present Perfect
I I have been requested we have been requested
you have been requested you have been requested
he, she, it has been requested they have been requested
Past Perfect
I had been requested we had been requested
you had been requested you had been requested
he, she, it had been requested they had been requested
Future Perfect
I shall have been requested we shall have been requested
you will have been requested you will have been requested
he, she, it will have been requested they will have been requested

: Perfect Continuous Passive


Voice ! : Future
in the Past Indefinite Future in the Past Perfect ( -
. . 40).

50
Future in the Past Indefinite
I should be requested we should be requested
you would be requested you would be requested
he, she, it would be requested they would be requested
Future in the Past Perfect
I should have been requested we should have been requested
you would have been requested you would have been requested
he, she, it would have been requested they would have been requested

-
: to be +
III ?
- -
, .
-
. -
Indeflnlte ,
Indefinite:
, ,
,
.
-
. Present Past Continuous
Continuous , -
.

,
Passive Voice , -
Perfect , ,
.
Perfect Continuous !
, Passive Voice Indefinite.
,
.
Nick has written this letter.
, : This letter has been
written by Nick (Passive Voice, Present Perfect).
: This letter is written by Nick (Passive Voice, Present
Indefinite).
-
, Indefinite (
).
When she came home, Nick hadfinished the letter (Active Voice, Past Perfect
!).
When she came home, the letter had been finished by Nick (Passive Voice, Past
Perfect !).

51
When she came home, the letter was finished by Nick (Passive Voice, Past]
Indefinite !).
Passive Voice Future Continuous -
Future Indefinite .
At ten 'clock this morning Nick will be writing the letter (Active Voice, Future!
Continuous).
At ten 'clock this morning the letter will be written by Nick (Passive Voice, Future
Indefinite).
, -
Perfect Continuous ( )
Perfect .
Nick has been writing letter for an hour (Active Voice, Present Perfect
Continuous).
The letter has been written by Nick for an hour (Passive Voice, Present Perfect).

, -
- ( was expelledfrom the University. Smoking is not allowed
: here.)-,
, ,
, , (His brother was awarded
at the war. A new house will be built here.).
, -
.
, Passive Voice
( ),
(
).
The general gave a command to his soldiers,
.
Passive Voice:
A command was given to the soldiers by the general.
The soldiers were given a command by the general.
Passive Voice
:
was not invited to the party.
I haven't been asked to come.
They will not be requested to go there.
, , :
Was he invited to the party?
Have I been asked to come?
Will they be requested to go there?
. -
. -
. ,
( Passive Voice),
, ,
.

52

Verbals

.
-
, , , ( . . 77).
Tom works at a factory.
works , 3-
, , -
(Present Indefinite) .
.
, , ( -
), . Verbals,
,
i : , .
Participle I Participle II
(. . 15).
. .
.
.

. The Infinitive

,
, , .
. -: -
.
,
. -
.
speak with her is a real pleasure -
.
:
She likes to sing. .
,
(to sing a song), (to walk quickly),
(I can speak French).
.
, -
. -
: to, , -
. , , ( -
).

53
. ,
: ,
. .
Indefinite Infinitive to sing, to drink;
Continuous Infinitive to be singing, to be drinking;
Perfect Infinitive to have sung, to have drunk;
Perfect Continuous Infinitive to have been singing, to have been drinking.
?
, :
shall will
to, ,
.

Indefinite to sing, to
? write. .
Continuous to be singing, to be writing.
? Continuous: to be + IV -
.
Perfect to have sung, to have written?
: Perfect
to have III .
Perfect Continuous to have been singing, to have been
writing. ? Perfect Continuous
, .
Perfect Continuous
to be IV (. . 33).
, have been to be . -
IV .
Indefinite Continuous -
? ,
I .
I want to play chess. We don't like to be waiting.
(). ().
Perfect Perfect Continuous ,
, ,
.
I am happy to have met you. , (-
).
You seem to have lost weight. , .
I know him to have been learning French for many years ,
.
, , to.
to :
can/could, may / might, must,
shall/ should, will/ would',
feel, hear, let, make, see, watch, -
(Complex Object) (. . 6870).

54
. The Gerund

, . -
, -
-ing:
to do doing, to tell telling, to ask asking
-ing
, IV
( . 12):
to stop stopping, to dig digging, to win winning (
)
to drive driving, to live living ( "e")
,
. .
, -
. . .
/#- .
A beautiful building rose in the centre of the city last year.
We are building a new cottage.
Nick insists on building the cottage quickly.
,
to build + -ing.
(Verbal Noun)
: -
beautiful.
(beautiful buildings).
, Present Participle,
,
Continuous Perfect Continuous.
ing- -
: (on), -
(cottage), , ,
(quickly).
, -
. .

Swimming in the lake is forbidden. () -


.
, -
.
I like reading. .
. .
Nick denied receiving a letter. , .
, -
.
We think of going there. , .

55
(= -
). .
, .
-
(Possessive Case).
admitted his taking part in the affair.
Nick insisted on Ann's coming to London.
:
, .
: .
:
, .

:
Before leaving the cottage he closed the windows.
, .
, :
I enjoy reading slowly. .
:
Stop worrying, start living! , -!

s ;
;
: ;
*' ;
- .
, :
;
;
.
, ing-.
,
.
, , ( -
),
ing-. , ,
Participle I ing-
. ,
.
,
( , ):
admit
avoid
appreciate
c o o n <Ur deiay _ ,
, deny ,
detest dislike ,

56
,.-, . ^*" '
's enjoy ,
cnvJsoge escape ,
excuse
face -
finish
forgive
imagine ,
mention
mi nd , -
postpone
resist ,
<<4 risk
suggest
unci e s t and
Would you mind closing the window? ?
She avoided looking at them. .
I enjoy collecting stamps. .
At last we have finished repairing our house. -
.

, ,
:
begin, start
like, love
hate, detest
continue
intend
prefer
Ann began to sing her favourite song.
Ann began singing in her early years.
, -
. singing
, . -
.
forget, remember, stop,
, .
I forgot to answer his letter. I forgot answering his letter.
: .
: , .
Nick remembered to meet Ann at the airport. ,
.
Nick remembered meeting Ann at the airport. ,
.
:
stopped drinking. .
stopped to drink. , .

57
:
go on keep on -
give up put off
We can't go on living like this. .
Keep on working^nd you will win! ,
!
I put off writing the letter many times but I really must write it today. -
, , , -
.
(
) ,
:
depend on
object to
look forward to -
rely on
insist on
thank for
think of
blame smb. for smth. - -
praise smb. for smth. - -
I object to your staying there. , -
.
We all lookedforward to going to the South. -
.


:
to be afraid of -
to be fond of -
to feel like -
to be busy of -
to be worth of , ...
to be tired of -
to be engaged in -
to be interested in -
to be responsible for -
I am afraid of speaking to him. .
It was worth of seeing. .
They were not interested in doing it. ,
.
-
: Are you afraid of dogs?

58
: after, before, besides,
on, without, instead of ( + -
) .
Nick left the room without saying a word. , -
.
Besides learning French Ann is very fond of ancient literature. -
, .
On receiving the letter Nick decided to phone Ann.
.
Before going abroad Nick visited his mother. -
, .
-
:
can't / couldn't stand doing smth. / -
can't/ couldn't help doing smth. / -
I can't stand his talking. He .
Nick couldn't help laughing. .

( + ing)
. -
have ( having)
. .
to sing, :
Indefinite singing.
Perfect having sung.
I like Ann singing.
I like Ann having sung.
: , (
). Indefinite Gerund
.
Perfect Gerund: ,
( , - ).
, . -
, . -
. , -
, .

. The Participle

, -
. , , .
, Present Participle, Participle I,
.
-
-ing (to write writing, to live living) -
Continuous ( is writing) Perfect Continuous
(I have been living).

59
, Past Participle, Participle II,
.
-
-ed (to live lived). -
,
, .

Perfect ( has lived, I had written, we shall have written),
(This letter was written by Nick).
-

(Continuous, Perfect Perfect Continuous),
, ,
, , -
.
It is a very embarrasing situation. (Present
Participle ).
Past Participle:
She made an excited announcement. -
.
:
Her answer was amusing. .
will be surprised. .
:
The report delivered yesterday.. , ... /
, ...
I will not be able to catch the train leavingfor Paris. ,
.
:
Nick came in smiling , (
).
. ...

.
, -
.

j
to sing
.
Active Voice Passive Voice !
I Present singing Present being sung
! Past Past sung
i Perfect having sung Perfect having been sung

(to come, to go, to live .)


, .

60

to go

Active Voice
Present going
Past gone
Perfect having gone

He Present
Participle (singing , living ), Past Participle (done
, gone , broken ).
Perfect having done, having
written .?

After she had done (Past Perfect) all her shopping, Ann returned
to the hotel. ,
.
Nick finished (Past Indefinite) his work and went home. -
.
, Past Perfect Past
Indefinite, :
Having done all her shopping, Ann returned to the hotel.
Having finished his work, Nick went home.
Perfect -
, .
Present Participle.
:
Nick took the key out of his pocket and opened the door.
:
Taking the key out of his pocket, Nick opened the door.
, ,
, (having
taken), .
,
:
.
,
. " ",
. 74-75.

61

Modal Verbs


.
? ?
. , -
, .
:
. . . -
. .
,
. .

(, ), ( )
().
can, may, must, ought,
:
1. , -
, , ,
.
to,
ought, ought to\
2. .
, .
3. -
.
4. (, -
, ), .
(defective).
5. -
, -
to do. (Can you speak English ? You mustn't do it.)
.
,
. ,
- .
I can give you anything you ask. , .
Nick can speak French fluently. -
(, , ).
could.
Could :
* :

62
I could come earlier. .
( -
):
Nick could have come to Paris a week ago.
.
:
Could it be true? ?
:
Could you tell how to get to the museum ? He ,
?
, could -
( -
+ )? . Could,
, -
, "" (. 77).
, ,
, ,
to be able, shall will.
I shall be able to help you tomorrow. They will not be able to come.
to be able can
.
The baby can walk already. The baby is able to walk already.
.
( )
, :
Can you swim ? Could he read before he went to school?
can not.
I cannot swim (I can't swim). I couldn't swim when I was ten.
: cannot !

Must
must , , -
- .
. , ,
.
Everybody must obey the laws of his country.
.
Nick tells Ann that she must be ready by ten o'clock to catch the train.
, ,
.
must .
.
Ann must get up early tomorrow. .
-
, to have to.
Ann had to get up early yesterday. .
to have to (' to have got to) must
.

63
Ann has to get up early. .
Ann had got to get up early yesterday. .
Ann will have to get up early tomorrow. .
, must = to have to = to have got to,
, - .
?
Must , , , -
- .
You must do it immediately. .
Have to have got to , , .
, , -
.
, , " -
", : You'll have to turn left .
, : You have to wear glasses -
.
, to be to do smth.
, , - -
, .
You are to pay your debts by the end of the month. -
.
, ,
have to have got to ( must),
.
must (must
):
Must I go immediately? ?
must not, mustn't
(, ).
Ann mustn 'tgo out tonight
( ).
to have to :
Ann doesn't have to go out tonight.
.
to have to,
to have , -
to do.
Does she have to go out? Did she have to go out yesterday?
have got to to do .
Has she got to go out? She hasn't got to go out tonight.

-
: might.
may :
:
You may go out tonight. May I come in?
May I ask you a personal question? ?
: Yes, you may.

64
, may must.
No, you can't (, ). No, you mustn't (, ).
, :
If Ann doesn't hurry, she may miss the train. ,
.
The handwriting may be Nick's, but the signature certainly is not. ,
, , , , .
might -
(. . 38).
Nick told me that Arm might arrive any minute. , -
.
may () -
to be allowed - .
She will be allowed to get out next week.
.
may (, , )
:

j may + + - .

Nick's friend may visit him next Sunday. , ,


.

Ought , -
ought . must ,
, , , ought
- ( ) .
, :
You ought to visit your mother more often.
.
We ought to get up early. We have a lot of work to do.
. .
ought -
to.
ought , ,
. -
ought, .
, , -
:
You ought to do your work carefully.
.
ought , , -
:
You ought to have done your work more carefully. -
.

3 ? 65
-
, -
.
, shall / will
should / would, .
Shall should, ,
, , .
Will would , - .
It's hot here. Shall I open the window? . (
) ?
Will you pass me the salt? He ?
shall will
, ,
.
shall/ will should / would ,
(shall/should 1- -
, a will /would ) . -
,
.
You shall pay for this! ! ()
I will do it. .
should would:
You should consult your lawyer. .
I would not do it for anything. .
to need (), dare (), -
. -
not to do (, to do): needn't do
that, He doesn't need to do that.
need to,
: I needn't get up early because it's Sunday. I don't need to get up early...
need must :
Must I invite him for dinner? Yes, you must. Ho: No, you needn't.
need -
, -
: I need a lot of money, he needs good rest.
, , ,
, . -
:
/could, must, may/might, -
, , , -
, , , , -
, .
, , -
, - , -
.
.
Ann may arrive on Sunday. , .

66
Nick must be at the office by now. He left his flat an hour ago.
, . .
to (
ought).
(Indefinite Infinitive, Continuous Infinitive, Perfect
Infinitive Perfect Continuous Infinitive),
-
.
,
:
Nick must meet Aim at the station. (:
) .
Nick must be meeting Ann at the station. , ,
( ).
Nick must have met Aim at the station. , ,
.
Nick must have been meeting Aim at the station. , , -
( ).
,
( . . 54).
could, may/might, should /would
,
. , -
, (-
), -
:
Nick is afraid that Ann might catch cold. ,
.
They could have done it a month ago. -
.
I would prefer a cup of coffee instead of tea.
.

67

Syntactical complexes

, , .
, -
. (-
, , . .)
.
.
(, )
(, , ).
( ,
) - ,
, .
,
.
. ,
, -
. :
( );
;
for + ;
;
.

. Complex Object

-
.
.
-
. -
, , ,
.

d> :
:
, Common Case,
, Possessive Case, -s -
(mother's room, Ann's umbrella), -
.
, -
(Nominative Case) (Objective Case).

68
Object, . -
:


1- ,
you you ,
he him ,
she her ,
it , , it , , ,
we us ,
you you ,
they them ,

:
(? ?) (? ?), -
-
.
, :
(
)
( ).
. -,
.
-
. -, , -
: (
).
-, ,
, .
-, , , -
, to, ,
to.
to :
1. -
: to see (), to hear (), to feel (),
to notice (), to watch ().
. .
, to (
).
Nick saw Ann enter the hotel. , .
Ann heard someone call her name. , -
.
She felt her heart beat with joy. ,
.
They didn't notice the passengers go by. , -
.
We watched the train arrive. , .

69
. -
,
.
(, , , , ). , -
.
-
entering, calling, beating, going,
arriving. . , -
: , . -
() .
:
. (
), .
: to see -
, to hear .
, -
.
Nick saw that Ann had left the hotel. ,
.
Ann heard that Nick was looking for her. , -
.
2. ,
to:
9 to make, , ,

to let (, ).
made cry. .
Make him repeat it. .
Let know when you are ready. , .
Shall we let the matter drop? , ?
to :
1. :
to know, to think, to believe, to understand, to consider, to expect, to suppose, to
find.
(, , , -
. .) , -
, , -
: , , .
Nick expected Ann to come soon. , .
We found the story to be very amusing. -
.
They considerd him to be a very good lawyer. -
.
We all understood him to meet you after school. , -
.
2. , ,
: to want, to wish, should/would like ( 'd like).

70
Ann wanted him to study French. , -
.
Nick wished her to go to Paris. ,
.
I'd like her to become a singer. , .
3. - to order (), to force (),
to allow (), to tell to ask
, -
.
The doctor ordered her to stay in bed.
The doctor told her to stay in bed.
The doctor allowed her to go for a walk.
have -
:
I ~ ~
have + +
- to want,
must, to be going to.
I want to have my haircut. .
I am going to have my car repaired. .
I am going to have my cottage painted. .
I must have my photo taken. .
, -
, , -
(, , , ),
.

. Complex Subject

(-
) -
.
:
, Nominative with the
Infinitive. . -
, . .
Ann was said to be one of the promising singers. ,
.
She is likely to win the prize. , .
Nick was expected to arrive in Paris at the week-end. ,
.
is sure to . .
, , .
, (Ann to
be, She to win, Nick to arrive, He to come) :
.

71
-
(was said, was expected).
: ,
, -
(was said to be, is likely to win, was expected to arrive, is sure to
come).
-, ,
, ,
. , -
.
Nick is known to be doing well in French ( Continuo-
us). , .
The letter is understood to have been written ( Perfect).
, .
Ann is said to have been living in France since 1990 (
Perfect Continuous). , 1990 .

- , , -
. -
, , : to see, to
hear, to know, to believe, to think, to understand, to suppose, to
consider, to announce, to report, to expect -
to say.
: - -
, (Passive Voice).
Nick is said (Passive Voice, Present Indefinite) to be a great admirer of music.
, .
Ann was known (Passive Voice, Past Indefinite) to befond of ancient literature.
, .
-, ,
:

| - j : -
| -
j (., to
)
!
Ann is / was said to... / , ...
is / was seen to... / , ... |
Nick is / was heard to... / , ...
is / was known to... / , ... 1
!
she, he is / was believed to... / , ...
is / was thought to... / , ... j
they is / was understood to... / , ... j
( are / were) is / was supposed to... / , ... j
is / was considered to... / , ...
is / was announced to... / , ...
is / was reported to... / , ...
is / was expected to... / , ...

72

, . , -
, , -
, , .
, -
, :
to seem to appear , . seem
, a appear . -
.
:
Ann seems to be very happy in Paris. ,
.
Nick appeared to be a successful businessman.
.
, to be -
.
to seem to appear -
:
seems to be watching us ( Continuous,
). , -
.
Ann appeared to have forgotten her promise ( Perfect,
). ,
.
to happen, to turn out (to be) to prove , -
.
Ann happened to forget her promise. ,
.
The naughty boy turned out to be a good pupil. - -
.
The computer proved to be in excellent condition.
.
. : to happen, to turn out, to prove
Indefinite Infinitive.
not -:
Ann doesn't seem to forget her promise.
not :
Ann seems not to forget her promise.
:
Does she seem to forget her promise?
Do you happen to know this fellow?
:
to be likely / unlikely , ;
to be + to be sure, to be bound , , -
;
to be certain , .
(,

73
likely / unlikely ,
-1), .
Ann is not likely to come. , .
, Ann... to come , a is not likely
. .
Nick is sure to come to Paris. .
This horse is bound to win. .
They are certain to visit you. .

for +

for, -
For-Complexes, For-Phrases (), For-to-Infinitive
Constructions. -
, , -
.
For Ann to become a singer was a dream of her life (
for ).
.
Nick waited for her to answer ( for -
). , .
Here is a good example for you to remember ( for
). , .
They made a stop in Paris for Nick to go sightseeing ( for
). ,
.


Absolute Nominative Participle Construction

: -
.
, -
.
:
A storm approaching, we fled to shelter (Present Participle).
Weather permitting, we shall go for a swim (Present Participle).
His work being done, Nick left for Paris (Passive Voice Present Participle).
This done, he went home (Passive Voice, Past Participle).
Ann having comefrom the theatre, we had dinner ( Perfect).
. -
, (. . 61),

: (
!), . -
.
.

74
-
- ,
! -
. ,
:
.
, .
, .
, .
, .
.
.

, -
,
. ,
, ,
ing-.
-
. , ( , . . 55),
, , ,
. ,
.
. -
:
* -
(Ann's coming, dog's barking, somebody's crying, anyone's
entering,
* (my, his, their).
:
His moralizing was so boring ( +
). .
Nick liked Ann's singing French songs ( -
+ ). ,
.
I accept your suggestion of their being involved ( -
+ -
). ,
.

:
,
, -
,
. ! -

75
. -
. , -
-
.
The novel is too long. It can't be read in a day. .
.

:
The novel is too long to be read in a day. :
It seems to me that Ann knows all about it.
Ann seems to know all about it.

, ! -
-
, -
.
-
, ,
, .
, -
.
,
, , . -
, . ,
. , -
, Complex Object Complex Subject. -
, .

The Mood

(- ), -
,
.
:
, .
;
, -
;
, .
.

. The Indicative Mood

, , -
. .
, -
, ,
.

. The Imperative Mood

,
.
, -
to :
Come here! Do it again! Drink your tea, please!
1- 3- -
:
j" let + + ( to) j
Let help you! Let him try!
Let us sing! Let them pay!
-
to do:
Don't do it again!
Don't come here!
Don 7 be angry!
Don 7 let him go!
Don 7 let us play!

77
. The Subjunctive Mood

, -
, , (-
).
(-
, , ).
, , -
.
, .
, .
, .
. Subjunctive Mood -
:
;
* , ( ,
, );
, -
;
, Subjunctive Mood.
, -
:
The Subjunctive Mood ( );
The Conditional Mood ( );
The Suppositional Mood ( ).

: Subjunctive Mood -
, Conditional Suppositional,
, ? .
Subjunctive Mood , Conditional Mood
.
Suppositional Mood .

, -
(
+ ), ,
, ,
, ?
. -
-
, , Subjunctive Mood, -
. , - Subjunctive Mood,
, , -
, - , .
, -
, -
.
78
Subjunctive Mood
should, would may, might, could +
( , to).

Should 2- 3- . -
, .
Would 1-
.
You should have been more careful -
.
I would never do that .

Subjunctive Mood

.
to be:
Present Subjunctive Past Subjunctive
I be we be I were we were
you be you be you were you were
he, she, it be they be he, she, it were they were
Present Subjunctive 3-
Present -s. , -
, she have, he ask ., -
.
Past Subjunctive II (Past
Indefinite!) .


, -
Past Subjunctive 1- 3-
was were. , Past Subjunctive to be -
, Past Indefinite.
, .

Subjunctive Mood

Subjunctive It's a pity you haven't that book with you. I would read it.
, . .
I am sorry you won't have time tomorrow. I would invite you to
the concert. , . -
.
, -
. Subjunctive : would + .
would should, could might -
.

79
, :
It's a pity you hadn't that book with you yesterday. I would have read it.
I am sorry you hadn't time yesterday. I would have invited you to the concert.
?
(have read, have invited), - , . ( -
, -
. 54.)
. ,
, :
, ,
.

Subjunctive - if -
.
:
if If Nick rings me up, I shall tell him something very important.
, .
Subjunctive, .
,
:
If Nick rang me up, I should tell him something very important.
(, ), -
.
Past Indefinite, should
( shall).
, :
If Nick had rung me up, I should have told him something very important.
: (),
.
, , -
, :
Past Perfect (had rung up)
should (have told) , -
. .
-
, .
1) If Nick is not busy, he will go to the concert.
2) If Nick were not busy, he would go to the concert.
3) If Nick had not been busy, he would have gone to the concert.
, ( I), -
( II), ( III),
(Shifting of Tenses).

I. is not will go
II. were not ( was not!) would go
III. had not been would have gone

80
SUfting of Tenses :
(Past
Indefinite);

(Past Perfect).
, -
, -
:
If the weather is fine, we shall go to the country.
If the weather were fine, we should go to the country.
If the weather had been fine, we should have gone to the country.
might could should / would -
:
If I weren't busy, I might go to the party. He ,
(, ).
If I knew her telephone number, I could phone her.
, (, ).
, :
If I hadn',t been busy, I might have gone to the party.
If I had known her telephone number, I could have phoned her.
:
[ but for + somebody / something ( - -) :

Subjunctive:
Butfor Nick Ann wouldn't become a singer. ,
.
But for him Ann wouldn't go to Paris. ,
.

Subjunctive
:
I wish I were young again. ,
to be 1 - -
(Iwere). , , Past Subjunctive -
to wish to be. : I wish
Past Subjunctive.

.

wish :
f . wish + Past Subjunctive ( Past Indefinite) ~1
I wish I knew French. (
).

81
He wishes I didn't have to work so hard. ,
(, ).
I wish I knew her address. I wish I had a car. I wish it weren't raining.
, (
- / , ), :
wish + Past Perfect
, :
I wish (wished) I had been young again.
I wish I had known French.
He wished I had not had to work so hard.
I wished it hadn't been raining.
I wished I had had a car.
to wish , -
, / -.


, to have.
(had been) Past Perfect to be, have -
.
(had known) have
Past Perfect to know.
{hadn't had to work) Past Perfect to have
.
(hadn't been) to be -
Past Perfect, Past Perfect
Continuous (hadn't been raining).
(had had) Past Perfect to have
, .
, - -
. ? -
:
should /would + ( )
I wish I had more time. I should study French.
. ( , -
).
I wish I had had more time. I should have studied French then.
( ). (
) .
, -
if -
wish? .
, wish.
If I had more time, I should study French.
If I had had more time, I should have studied French.
, , .
if
wish -
, Subjunctive Mood. -
.
Subjunctive Mood, -
.

Subjunctive :
We demanded that he apologise. ,
.
I ordered that he write a letter. , -
to demand, to order, .
to Insist, to suggest, I insist that she study French. ,
to recommend .
She suggests that Nick do it himself. ,
.
3-
. , he write, she
study, Nick do. Present Subjunctive, -
. -
. -
, -
.
, -
:
should +
We demanded that he should apologise.
I ordered that he should write a letter.
I insist that she should study French.
She suggests that Nick should do it himself.
apologise, write, study,
do, , should
.
, should ( would) 3- , -
should -
.

Subjunctive It is necessary that he write a letter. It is necessary that he should


write a letter.
It Is Important, It is demanded that he apologise. It is demanded that he should
it is demanded, apologise.
it Is required, It is required that she study French. It is required that she should
it is necessary, study French.
it is essential -
(-
, ).

83
, ,
:
It is essential that you be there in time. It is essential that you should be there
in time. , .
should be, .
be to be Present
Subjunctive (. . 79), . ,
.

Subjunctive
. -
(
Subjunctive).
so that so that may,
(, ) lest might.
( , )
so that + may/might +
Write the letter now so that you may post it in the morning. -
, .
Nick closed the window so that Ann might not catch cold ,
.
4 : lest , , ...
:
> lest + should +
The boy ran away lest he sould be seen ,
(Be seen see ).
Nick was afraid lest Ann should get there too late. ,
.

Subjunctive Subjunctive. -
:
Where is Nick? It looks as if he isn't coming. ?
as if as , .
though ( , Ann sounded as though she was very unhappy.
, , , ,
) Subjunctive
, to look, to sound, to feel, to treat, to
speak, to talk.

, , -
Subjunctive.
Nick speaks French as if he were a Frenchman. --
, .
She looked at me as though I had been mad. ,
.
They treat her as if she were a child. ,
.

84

,
: Subjunctive, Conditional Suppositional Mood.
, -
. ,
, -
. -
.
-
. , -
.
, -
: -
if to wish.
Subjunctive Mood.
, ( )
lest but for smb. /smth.
if wish
.
,
, ,
, .
, Subjunctive Mood, -
, .

85
:

" "?

,
. - ,
. ,
, . -
: , ; -
;
, , -
. ,
, -
.
, , -
. ( )
- . : -
, ,
, .
. -
, , , -
, : -
, , -
, , . .
.
,
. ( ,
, ).
. -
, , , -
.
- , .
, -
, . , ,
.
, :
?
, .
, 800900 ,
: !
, , -
" " -
in Special English. , -
,
, , , ,

86
, , . -
!
? , -
.
, , , -
.
, , .
! ( ), , -
, , , -
,
. ,
...
, 450
, -
. ,
. , .
, , -
, -
, . -
-
, . , , -
.
.

I
II X ,
III
IV ( , *
| |
I (- /
\ ) /

'

/
/

| 11
| J
\ (
v \ )

,
,

87
- ,

, , :
, , , -
. . ? -
, , -
, , . , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , . .
- . , ,
, ? -
,
. ,
.
, , -
. -
. , -
- , .
, . , , ,
, , , -
,
, ,
- . :
,
( ), .
,
, , ,
.
, . -
, , ( -
) , , -
, ,
. , ( )
.
, ,
, , , , , -
, . , , -
, . , -
, .
, . -
, , -. -
, .
? . ...
, .
: , -
! , .
, .
, , . -

88
, .
: .
" ?" .
, -
-
- .
?
, -
. , , -
. , , -
, .
,
, . ,
.
, . ,
, -
. . -
. .
.
( ).
, , -
...
, , ,
, .
-
: , , , (-
, , ) . ,
, .
, .
, ( ?
, , , )
. , -
, ...
, ,
.
. , , -
. ,
.
?

.
, .
? , , -
, , ,
.
.

, . ,

89
. -
. -
( ,
), , , , -
, , , . ,
. , -
, .
- -
, ,
. , , .
, . ,

. .
"" . -
. ,
, ,
. , -
. .
, , "j". [cfcei],
[<5] , jam, jump, just .
[j], [cfc] . ,
( !) []. -
. ,
.
, -
. , -
. , -
. (
).
: -
, .
( , ), -
... , !


The Noun

" " ( ), , -
, , .
, . -
, , . -

, , -
. .

(Common Nouns) (Proper Nouns):


, , , ,
9 (Animate) (Inanimate):
, , , ,
(Countable) (Uncountable):
, , , ,
(Collective) (Individual):
, , , ,
, Material Nouns (, , -
), , Abstract Nouns (, , ), -
. ,
, ,
.
: , , -
, . , -
, .
,
.

:
? . ,
, , . , , .
: , -
.
. -
, (, ) -
(, , )
(, , ).

92
[
, - .
, -
: " , , ( :
, , , )
" (" " . . ).
.

:
, . ,
, -
. ! , ,
, . , ,
, , , ... , ,
... ! -
, , , ,
.
: , . -
.

. Gender

(masculine), (feminine) -
(neuter), , -
. .
?

: father,
brother, son, nephew, boy, fellow, husband, king, etc.
he his (, ).
:
mother, daughter, sister, niece, girl, maid, wife, queen. she
her (, ).
,
, . ,
,
: child, baby, parent, cousin, relative, teenager, -
, : worker,
painter, writer, lawyer, driver, student, pupil, judge, neighbour, professor, assistant,
secretary.


. - ,
, -
(neuter), it, its (, ). -
, he she.

93
.
... , ,
, .
.
, -
( ), , . -
-ess, [is]:
actor actress, poetpoetess, god goddess, host hostess (), heir
heiress ['cans] (), duke duchess (), count countess
(), baron baroness, waiter waitress (), steward
stewardess, giant giantess, director directress, seer seeress (,
), shepherd shepherdess (), Negro Negress, lion
lioness, tiger tigress.
. ,
, , ,
: a woman-worker, a girl-friend. ,
: pussy-cat, she-wolf, Tom-cat. -
"-!" (,
), , he-goat.
, -
(he), (she), -
it.
, ship, boat .
: The ship has made her maiden voyage,
() . , , -
man-of-war, , -
.
, - , -
(she, her),
it, its.
:
, ,
. , -
!

. Number

-

(man men, etc.) . , -
:
man men, woman women, goose geese (), mouse mice,
louse lice (), tooth teeth, foot feet.
: child
children, ox oxen ().

94
Sheep, swine deer (, , ) -
(aheep, , -
akcraft, etc.) : one sheep dozen of sheep, a swine many
swine, one deer ten deer.
: trout
( ), salmon ( ).
.
, ,
, , -
:
works
aircraft
series
means
species () (), ['spi:Jl:z]

-
(-)
-s, :
[s] (f, k, , t): flock flocks (-
, ), pipe pipes (), valet valets (, ),
roof roofs ();
[z] (b, d, 1, m, n, v) : mob mobs
(), land lands, bell bells, stem stems (, ), magician
magicians (, ), cave caves (), toy toys,
view views (, ).

-es, [iz]. :
(-s, -ss, -,
-z): gas gases (), kiss kisses, box boxes, fizz fizzes (,
);
-ch, -tch, -sh : bench benches
(), match matches, bush bushes ();
-se, -ze, -ge, -dge:
nose noses, prize prizes, wage wages ( ), fridge
fridges (), badge badges (, ).

:
.
. -
.
[s], [z] [iz].
, . -
box,
[iz]. , ! [boksiz].

95
-
+ . j> /,
-ies,
[izj: country countries, century centuries
(), beauty beauties (), calamity calamities
(, ).
,
-s,
[z]: way ways, day days, envoy envoys ().
-
-es, [z]: tomato tomatoes, hero heroes, embargo
embargoes ().
- ( )
-s: photo photos, piano pianos, kilo kilos,
zero zeros.
, -
-es, -s: cargo cargoes, cargos ();
volcano volcanoes, volcanos ().
- / -/<?, -
-ves, [vz]: wife wives, life
lives, shelf shelves, knife knives, leaf leaves, wolf wolves, calf calves
(), half halves (), elf elves ().
- /
: scarf scarves, scarfs (), hoof
hooves, hoofs ().
,
( -s): belief beliefs (, -
), proof proofs (), roof roofs.

,
,
. ,
,
: a son-in-law sons-in-law (), an editor-in-chief
editors-in-chief ( ).
:
a week-end week-ends, a girl-friend girl-friends, an ink-pot ink-pots.
man woman
: a woman-worker women-workers, a man-servant
men-servants, a night-watchman night-watchmen.

-

-s: cafi cafes,
kindergarten kindergartens ( ), guerrilla
guerrillas (), sputnik sputniks.

96
-
,
.
,
, .
, -
?
.
. -
-s -esr. museum
museums, album albums, stadium stadiums, circus circuses.
, -
:
curriculum curricula ( , )
datum data (, )
stimulus stimuli ()
formula formulae ()
radius radii ()
antenna antennae ()
:
analysis analyses ()
basis bases (, )
crisis crises ()
codex codices (, )
ellipsis ellipses ()
thesis theses (, )
criterion criteria ()
phenomenon phenomena (, )
-
. , : -
. -
, .
-
.
-ics -
-ics (physics, etc.) ,
, , : physics, mathe-
matics, genetics, economics, statistics, politics, gymnastics, athletics .
-s,
. .
Physics is the group of sciences dealing with the material world and energy.
, .
, -
, , -
.
Albert Einstein's physics were rather poor at school. -
.

97
-
, , . -
: family, group, army, party, team, committee, a
: crew (, ), staff ( -
), procession ( ), audience (
, , ), board (, , );
congregation (. ).
-
: a herd of cows ( ), a flock of sheep ( ), a flock of
birds ( ), a pack of hounds ( ), a swarm of insects
( ), a school of whales ( ), a pride of lions ( ).
, : a pack of cards (
), a bunch offlowers ( ), a bunch of grapes ( ),
a bunch of keys ( ), a set of china (, ),
a clutch of eggs ( ).
-
: family families, group groups, crew crews.
:
-
, .
.
Ourfamily is not large. By ten 'clock ourfamily are usually asleep.
The audience are taking their seats in the theatre. The audience is now seated in
the theatre.

, -
^ . -
: Nouns of Multitude. : people,
police, militia, clothes, cattle (), poultry ( ).
are were ( is was!).
people (, ) . -
, , -
: the peoples inhabiting Africa (, -
), the English-speaking peoples.
goods (), clothes (), savings ()

, : trousers (),
spectacles (), scissors () .

,
,
(news, "".
money, etc.) ,

,
: money, news,
information, weather, knowledge, advice, progress, permission.

98
hair fruit
,
(, ). ,
(hair, fruit, fish, etc.) . -
? ,
( ) . ,
.
Her hair was blonde. .
has lost his hair (. . ).
, , hair
, , -
a: to find a hair in one's soup (
); : to be within a hair of smth. ( -).
.
: . :
People eat more fruit ( fruits). Do you eat much fruit? ( fruits).
, , ripe fruit, tinned
fruit, dried fruit.
Ho: This salad consists of various fruits. , -
,
.
, the
fruits of learning, labour ( , ), fruits of the earth ( -
).
, , , fruit
. ,
, , fruits.
fish ()
: I caught one fish. caught a lot offish.
, (fresh-water fish, dried fish
, ) : -
, .
Do you like fish ? ( ?) Fish is cheap here ( ).
: to feel like a fish out of water ( ,
). A fish has fins () instead of legs. Ann drinks like a fish.
,
, : thefishes of the Caspian Sea. ,
to feed the fishes ( , ).

?
, -
, , -
, , -
, .
,
, ,
(, ! -
, ).

99
, , -
, , . -
, , , :
coal, copper, iron, grain , , , ( -
).
: a coal ;
a copper ; an iron ; a grain .
? ,
.
: love -
, a love , ; beauty , a beauty .
, "".

. Case

:
(Common Case), ,
(Possessive Case),
, .

,
? , . , .
(, .) !
(. .). (. .).
(. .). (. .). -
(. .).
-, . -
. (, ,
) ,
? \
, .
, (, ?) ,
.
, , .
.

,
( ), ,
, -
, ,

.
Mother ( , .) bought her son ( . . .)
an overcoat ( . . .) yesterday.
.

100

.
of, , -
, ; to
, by with , about :
the car ( , .)
of the car (. .)
to the car (. .)
the car (. .)
by the car, with the car , (. .)
about the car, of the car (. .)

. Possessive Case

-'s ,
: mother's room, children's toys, president's guard (-
), cock's tail.

, , -
:
the-daughter-of-Pharaoh's , , the woman
next door's cat .

, -
, :
# (, ):
brother's bride ( ), general's oder ( -
), queen'spalace ( ), Ann's friend, cat's eyes,
elephant's trunk ( );
: the earth's population, the moon's craters ( -
), the sun's light;
, ,
: a mile's distance, ten kilometre's ride (, ), one dollar's
worth ( ), the rouble's value ( );
, , , : a year's
leave ( ), the last autumn's crisis ( -
), a month's rest ( ), a week's wage ( ),
an hour's work ( ), the morning's rush ( ), the
night's rain.
, : river,
lake, sea, ocean: river's banks, ocean's surf ( ); -
, , : Russia's territory, Moscow's churches,
London's parks, the Titanic's maiden voyage.

Possessive Case:
life's little day
for goodness' sake (goodness , -
)

101
at an arm's length
a hair's breadth -
the pin's head
, , -
of.


of of. -
, -
-
(the room of the mother, the rush of the
morning, the tails of the cocks).
, -
,
, of (the
supervisor of the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament
).
, , , -
Possessive Case. ,
.
; , -
, . ,
.

, -
-'s ,
.
-'s :
[s] : the beast's smell ( ), the night's
watch ( );
[z] : the man's courage (
), the world's natural resources ( -
), the king's palace ( ), the officer's orders (-
);
[iz] (
-s, -ss, -se, -, -, -dge, -ch, -sh, -tch): fox's hole ( ), prince's
promise ( ), judge's decision ( ) James's
property, George's car.

: his girl-friend's family;


son-in-law's study ( ); the man-of-war's
cannons ( ); the Commander-in-Chiefs
Headquarters ( ).

.
-
?

102
, -
, -'s: women's
rights, children'sjoys.
-
-s, (~'s) ,
, : "
!" [s], [z] [iz]:
cats' lover ( ), the girls' hats, fathers' obligations (
), the Ivanovs' house, foxes' holes.


, -
, , , :
,
, .
Mother sent to the baker's. baker's (baker )
shop, . ,
.
: the
butcher's ( ), the florist's ( ), the doctor's.
I spent a week at my uncle's. ,
: at uncle's place home.

, ? ! -
. . ,
.
, , : dog, shirt, sky.
. -
, . -
, ,
.
-
. , . !
, -
. -
. . :
,
.

,
. : -
,
- ,
.
, .

103
. , -
. ,
. . . -
. , -
.
, , -
: ? ,
? 600, 800, 1000? ,
, , ! . -
, .
, , , -
, ,
.
, -
, . , ,
-, -
.

-age [icfe] , -
, :
bondage , , bond , bonds ,
orphanage , orphan
leakage , to leak
wreckage , wreck ,
storage , , store ,
carriage , , to carry
bandage , , band ,
-ance, -ence [ans] -
, , :
ignorance , ignorant
resistance , , to resist
assistance , , to assist
forbearance , , to forbear
entrance , , to enter
dependence , to depend (on, upon)
absence , absent
prudence , prudent
-dora [dam] , -
, -
(, ):
freedom , free
boredom , to bore
martyrdom , martyr
kingdom , king
Christendom , to christen
officialdom , official ,

104
-er, -or [] ,
, ,
:
actor , to act , -
baker , to bake
gardener , garden
villager , village
islander , island
Londoner
elevator , , to elevate ,
boiler , to boil
fighter , to fight
receiver , to receive
-ery, - [()]
, , ,
, :
bravery , , brave
foolery , fool
slavery , slave
forestry , forest
peasantry , peasant
refinery , to refine
nursery , , nurse
-hood [hud] , -
, , :
childhood
motherhood
priesthood , , priest ,
brotherhood
manhood ,
womanhood
falsehood , false
-ment [mant]. ( ) -
, :
improvement , to improve
amazement , to amaze
management , to manage
pavement , , to pave ,
statement , to state
enjoyment , to enjoy
-ess [as]. , -
, "".
-ness [nas]
:
goodness ,
blackness

105
carefulness
happiness
calmness
-ship [fip] ( ) -
, , , , ,
:
friendship
hardship , ,
ownership , owner ,
clerkship , clerk ,
apprenticeship , apprentice
ambassadorship , ambassador
partnership
membership
craftsmanship , craftsman ,
-ation [eijbn], -tion, -sion [fan] ,
, :
separation , to separate
translation
preparation , to prepare
fascination , to fascinate
action
opposition , to oppose
addition , to add
exhaustion , to exhaust ,
expansion , , to expand
admission , to admit
-tude [tju:d] ( ) -
:
gratitude , grateful
promptitude , prompt ,
plentitude , plenty
exactitude , exact
multitude , multi- (= -, -).
-ty [iti], -ety, -ity [iti] (
), , , -
:
penalty , , penal ,
variety , various
priority , , , prior -

certainty , certain ,
capacity , , capacious
audacity , , audacious ,

106

-
(Prefixes). , -
,
.
arch- [cutf] , archbishop (), arch-
liar ( ).
demi- [demi] -: demi-circle (),
demi-bath ( ). semi-: semi-tone (-
).
: super-, ultra-, vice-.
, .

-
:
+ + |

(hypfen), :
downfall , , ,
take-off , , ,
offshoot ,
onset , , -
outcry ,
output , ,
intake , ,
overflow , ,
turn-over (.), ( )
hold-up , ,
, .

, ,
. -
( , ), -
? , -
.

.
, . , -
:
set-up , ,
upset , ,
setback , , , ()
back-set ,

107
layout , , ,
outlay ,
break-up , ,
break-out , -
outbreak , , -,
breakdown ,
breakthrough ,
come down , ,
outcome , ,
income ,
, , -
. -
. ?
, .
!
, , (phrasal verbs:
+ ),
. -
-
. to set up, , ,
to hold up ,
set-up hold-up.
.
(
) . ,
, , . -
(), -
, .
, . -
(, to set, get,
put, cut, take, give ), -
. -
, , -
.
.


: smile to smile, help to help, smell to smell, risk
to risk.
, , -
, , :
'present to pre'sent, ,
an 'insult to in suit,
a 'conduct to con duct, ,
108
a 'convict to con 'vict [lronVikt],
an 'addict to a'ddict [a'dikt], -
a 'record to re'cord [n'ko:d],
, :
a 'subject to sub'ject, ,
an 'object to ob'ject, ,
a 'digest to di'gest [dai'cfeest],

:
advice to advise [adVais][adVaiz],
use [j u:s ] to use [ju:z],

(
) . -
, . -
-
. , -
, .
,
to be on a diet.
, I heard it on the radio ( -
on ).
There are some differences between British English and American English. -

(between ).
got an invitation to the wedding.
(to ).
There is solution to this problem. He -
( to, ).
, , -
, , ( ).
, . .
cause of smth. -
doubt of (about) smth. -
hatred of smth. -
hatred of (for) smb. -
answer, reply to smb. or smth. - -
attitude to (towards) smb. or smth. -, -
damage to smth. -, -
dislike to smb. -
gratitude to smb. -
likeness to smb. or smth. -, -
reaction to smth. -
key to smth. (a door) - ( ), -

109
, ,
, (-
) .
reason : , , , ,
reason for smth., for reason of smth. -,
-
She gave her reason for refusing it. -
.
It was done for reasons of State.
.
with (without) reason ,
complains with good reason. .
by reason of smth.
The plan failed by reason of bad organisation. -
.
-
. -
.

110

The Adjective

, , , -
, ,
: ? ?
, -
(- to adject , -
).
,
(- + ):
. The sea was calm.

( , good, bad),
( + untrue, useful) (olive-green,
sky-blue).
, , .
: ,
.
-
-, ,
(hard harder, expensive more expensive).
-
-est, most,
(the hardest, the most expensive). -
.
-
(good better the best).
.

( ) -
, .
, -
. -
: , , , -
, , , ...
, -
, : American, German, Roman,
European, present, past, future, native, savage, male, female, relative...
, -
: the Americans, the natives, my
relative's son, female's clothes...

111
. Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives

,
.
(, , ).
-
. : (Positive), (Comparative) -
(Superlative).
-
-,
-est, [ist]. -
.
small smaller the smallest fat fatter the fattest
hard harder the hardest narrow narrower the narrowest
big bigger the biggest
-
(big bigger biggest). -
, (hard harder
hardest).
-, , -
- .
large larger the largest gentle gentler the gentlest
lazy lazier the laziest happy happier the happiest
,
.
, " ".


() the most (... ):
expensive more expensive the most expensive
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful
courageous more courageous the most courageous ()

-
:
good better the best
(good better, etc.) bad worse the worst
little less the least
much (many) more the most

, -
, :
(older elder, etc.) old older the oldest ( ,
)
old elder the eldest ( , )
late later the latest ( )
late latter the last ( )

112
far farther the farthest ( )
far further the furthest ( )
the older generation ( ) the elder brother ( ),
elder times ( )
the later Middle Ages ( ) the latter half of the year
( / )
far journey ( ), far future ( )
further improvement ( ) until further notice (
).
: farther further

far.
, farther (farthest) ,
:
the farther side of the hill
at the farther shore ,
Further (furthest) , -
( , ):
further education ()
to obtain further information
--
. -
farther further, -
.
farther :
at a farther stage of development
to make farther objection ( -
)
: far -
, , -
.
little, many (much), far
- ,

The Positive Degree The Comparative Degree The Superlative Degree

little less the least


many, much more the most



far farther the farthest
; ;
further the furthest
() ()
,
( )

113

: , ;
, :
is a little man with a little mind.
().
I can say very little about this man, I hardly know him. -
, ().
She showed less patience than her sister. ,
().
was less hurt than frightened. () , -
() ().
The weather was fine, not the least wind. , -
().
Nobody can complain, you least of all. ,
, - ().
It was the farthest point they could reach in Antarctica.
, (-
).
Go as far as that but nofurther , ().

, , , -
: loud, late, fast, long, wide,
(loud, slow, etc.
lovely, etc.) loud voice ( ) to talk loud ( )
in late summer ( ) to come late ( -
)
long hair ( ) How long do you mean to stay here ? (
?)
wide road ( ) The door was wide open. (
.)
fast sleep ( ) The car stuck fast. ( .)
slow speed ( ) Go slow. ( , .)
-( (quickly, strongly,
strangely). : a friendly smile,
a lovely face.


-
(afraid, (- + -
sleep, etc.) ).
,
, -
:
to be afraid, to be iU, to be asleep, to be awake, to be alive, to be aware

114

: -
, , ,
. , -
, .
,
, :
olive-green (-), olive -

red-hot ( )
black-and-white (-); black-and-white artist (-)
red-brick ( ) (: Red-brick
university )
ink-black (, )
sky-blue (-)
-
:
red-headed ()
light-headed ()
cool-headed (, )
blue-eyed ()
long-haired ()
light-heeled (, ) heel ,
,
. -
, . -
. -
. .

in-, im-, il-, ir-. -


, , :
inaudible immature
incapable illiterate
impossible irregular
un- []. :
unsure
untrue
unacceptable
unacountable ,
anti- ['senti]. -
:
antiwar
anti-American
antidotal

115
ante- ( , -
). , ,
. -
-:
antediluvian ,
antecedent ,
ante-bellum
sub- [sAb]. .
-:
subordinate
subsoil
subterraneous

-able []
:
eatable
conceivable ,
justifiable ,
suitable
peaceable
comfortable
objectionable ,
: -
, ,
.
:
-ible [] -
:
visible
destructible
comprehensible ,
-al [1] ,
, :
monumental ,
national ,
racial
intellectual ,
-en [] , ,
:
golden
wooden
woolen
leaden , [ledn]
-an [] , -
, :
116
European
African
Mephistophelean
reptilian ()
-ant, -ent [ant]. -
( ) -
:
triumphant ,
observant ,
excellent
persistent
evident
dependent
-, - [] --
:
fragmentary ,
complimentary ,
obligatory
contradictory
-ese [i:z] -
, . :
Chinese Milanese
Japanese Viennese
-fill [fal] -
:
cheerful ,
forgetful
respectful ,
-ic [ik]
:
atomic dramatic
volcanic Arabic
domestic
-ish [ij] -
:
childish ,
bookish ( )
foolish ,
greenish
-less [las] -
:
childless
homeless
harmless
countless
tireless

117
-(i)ous [as]. , -
:
dangerous
mountainous ,
religious
zealous , , f'zetas]
- [i] , ,
( ):
greeny
paly
chatty ,
smoky ,
icy
shaky
touchy
-ward [wad] :
backward ,
forward ,
homeward
eastward
.
, , , .
(forward pupil , -
, forward spring ), . -
(to bring forward an opinion -
, to come forward with a plan - ).

-
, -
.
(. " ").
, .
to be,
. -
,
:
to be sorry about smth. - ( to be sorry for doing
smth.)
to be carefull about smth. , -
to be angry about smth. - ( ? be angr^with smb.
-; to be angry for doing smth. - -)
to be angry at smth. - ( to be angry with smb.
-)
to be mad about smth. -

118
to be good (bad) at (doing) smth. -
to be delighted at (with) smth. -
to be glad (happy) at smth. (at a result) - (
.)
to be sorry for (doing) smth. -
to be responsible for smth. -
to be convenient for smb., smth. -, -
to be famous for smth. -, -
to be absent from smth. (a lesson) (, )
to be different from smth. or smb. - -
to be far from smth. (some place, town, etc.) -
(, .)
to be free from (of) smth. -
to be busy in smth. -
to be fortunate (unfortunate) in smth. ()
-
to be rich in smth. -
to be afraid of smth. -
to be tired of smth. - ( to be tired with smth.)
to be fond of smth. -
to be worthy of smth. -
to be capable (incapable) of smth. ( ) -
to be proud of smth. or smb. - -
to be jealous (suspicious) of smb. or smth. -, -,
- ( -, - )
to be certain of smth. -
to be conscious (aware) of smth. -
to be shy of smth. -
to be sick of smth. (waiting) - ( .)
to be attentive to smb. or smth. -, -
to be similar to smth. -
to be friendly to (with) smb. -
to be loyal to smth. or smb. -, -
to be familiar (unfamiliar) with (to) smb. or smth. ( )
- -
to be angry with smb. -
to be tired with smth. -
to be crowded with smth. -
to be bored with smth. -
to be content with smth. -
: , , , -
.
.

119

The Article

, (-
) , .
-
, , -
, ( , -
).
, -
, ,
, ( , - ).
, , .
, .
.
, , ,
. , , -
( ;
; , , , -
).
:
! . -
.
, , -
. , . -
; , , -
, .
. ,
, . , , -
: , , .
. .
,
, , -
.

, -
, ,
.
, -
a (an). -
the.

120
, -
. ,
.
This man is a scientist. -
( , , , ).
This is an eagle. He , (
, ).
, , -
, , , -
.
The scientist has made many inventions. The eagle is making its nest.
,
.
, . ,
-
. , , , ,
, , -
.
.
, , (a, an).
, (the).

,
. -
(one, that) ,
.
one ().
, in an
hour, in a year ( , ).
that
().

, , -
. , -
, ?
! ,
a (an), ( !) - -
, , the , .
, . -
:
. -
-
.

121

, -
,
, .
Cricket is a typically British game.
Herfather was a doctor.
: an [, ].
, ,
an. , , .
, -
: a beautiful house, an old house.
one
(),
, , .
-
, , snow, ice, water, grass, bread, butter, sugar, tea, coffee, oil
money, , , .
-
some , -.
, , -
. .
This is a glass. This is a Venetian glass. This is an old Venetian glass.
,
, . -
( , , ). -
( , ). -
: , -
.
, , :
The glass is very rare and valuable. () .

, , , -
-
. , there is.
: There is a book on the table.
: There was a king... - ...
: There is a possibility of... , ...
, , ( -
), -
.
, -
, .
I have got a car, a house, a dog...
We saw a man, a light, a bird...
She bought a dress, a hat, an umbrella...
( ) ,
,

122
, -
.
, -
.
, : such, quite, what.
such (, , ) -
:
It is such a pity that you can't come. He speaks in such a way that I don't
understand him. It was such a long time ago.
, , ,
(such things, in such cases)
,
(such happiness, such beauty, such good music).
: , -
(another, some, any, every, many, all), , such:
Another such disaster as this and the war will be lost. -
, .
quite ,
, .
, , :
Quite a deal , quite a success , quite
scene , quite a long time ago -
.
what , -
, . -
(, , )
:
What a big cat! What a pity! What a strange idea! What a fool he is!
, -
, -
.
What nonsense! What impudence! ! !
,
.
What good advice! What great progress! What news! What awful weather!
?
advice, progress, news, weather ., -
, ,
, - .

.
-
(, , -
), -
. , , , -
, , , . -
.

123
, , -
, .
. Glass
, . -
: a glass , , . , -
( " "),
, (!) :
iron ; an iron , ['aianj
coal , ; a coal
paper ; a paper
hair ; a hair
beauty ; a beauty
light ; a light

,
,
-
, ( ) . -
,
, , -
:
work
advice
news (news : No news is good news.)
knowledge
permission
,
:
weather
infomation
progress
money
,
:
travel
accomodation , , -
, , hotel accomodation -
. ( )
, .
baggage luggage -, (
, .)
traffic , , ( "")
scenery , , (a change of scenery
)
:
bread ; behaviour ; furniture , ;
trouble

124
: ,
. , , :
" !", : "What a beautiful piece
of work you have done!" : " ", "Let give you
a piece (a bit, a word) of advice. "
: trouble
trouble. -
-, , -
"Yesterday":
All troubles seemed so far away...
Trouble ! -
. : Life is full of
troubles. . : children's troubles,
. , !
:
/ don't want to be a trouble to you. He .
, ,
, -
, .
children's troubles, , , .
/ don't want to be a trouble to you ,
, (= nuisance).
. -
, .

[]
[di] : the dog [ dog], the eagle [61 Lgl].

, .
-
.
-
: .
,
, .
,
, .

, :
:
What a beautiful garden! -
. , -
:
The garden that we saw... in the garden . .;
: Close the window,

125
please!Put the bottle on the table. Give me the key. , , -
, ,
;
. :
the sun, the moon, the earth, the world, the universe, the cosmos, the atmosphere,
the sky, the ground, the sea, the ocean.
, , -
. , -
, , -
: the post, the telephone, the radio, the
press, the theatre, the cinema.
Let's go to die theatre or to the cinema "
", -
.

, the Stone Age, , the Middle Ages, ,
the year 1945, ;
: one of, some of, each of, many of, both,
all .
" ", " -
", " ",
, , ,
: each of the students, some of the participants, most of the
villagers.
(very , ; same
; only ; right , ) -
, -
:
This is the very spot where I found a golden coin. ,
.
is of the same age as myself , .
is the only man for the position. ( )
.
She did the right thing in those circumstances. -
.
: -
:
It serves him right. ( ).
I did it only for him. () .
-
, ,
:
the man who lives next door...; the girl whose cat was lost...; the garden that
I saw...; the book you borrowed...; the day we met...
(-
!),
, :

126
The gold was always highly valued. .
The horse is one of the oldest domestic animals. -
.
This region is inhabited by the Hon. .
The computer is a great invention .
He - ,
, , , , -
.
( -
!) (from
the cradle to the grave or ).
-
. , -
. . -
( : . substantivum -
) " ": ,
...

, -
:
the dying and the wounded ; the rich and the poor
; the happy and the miserable -
; the learned and the illiterate ; "The Naked and
the Dead" " " ( ).

: the good ; the sublime ; the ridiculous
.
" " --
: From the sublime to the ridiculous there is but one step.
:
: the first, the seventh, the tenth.
. , first
(, ), to play first fiddle ( )
to stand first ( , ), you go first ( -
), who plays first? ( ?), .
-
: a second pair of shoes ( ), to stay in a form for a second
year ( ), to do something for a second time (-
).
: , ,
: the greatest, the most
expensive.
: in most cases ( ), most of us, most
people ( , ), most of the work (
) (
most).

127
:
The more he has the more he wants. ,
.
The sooner we start the sooner we shall get there. ,
.
, -
... , , , .
The further you get away the better. , .
The less said about it the better. , .
That will make it all the worse. , , .
It will be the easier for me. .
We like him the more for it. , - .
: , ,
, the (...
). -
.

,
. ,
:
friend, your letter,
one boy, five birds',
no there will be no difficulty ( ), it's
no distance to the village ( ), he is no fool (
).

: not he's not a fool.



.
.
( , , -
), , .
: :
France, Russia, London, Moscow, Sodom and Gomorrah ( ),
Trafalgar Square, Red Square, Tverskaya Street, Sicily, Tahiti, Mont Blanc,
Kilimanjaro, Gleb Ivanov, George Smith...
,
, -
(-s): the Ivanovs, the Smiths ,
.
,
, , , : aunt
Ann, Father Christmas ( ), director Brown, general McArthur, professor
Nilsen, count Bernadotte.

. ,
128
.
( -
) , ,
. , ,
.

-
, , : Wall Street, Pennsylvania Avenue,
Broadway, Oxford Street, Tverskaya Street, Red Square, Trafalgar
Square, Central Park, Alexandrovsky Park.
:
Harlem (), Chainatown ( ), Westminster (-
, ).
: the City, the East End, the West End ( ), the Bronx
( -).
(, , , -
) .

.
: St Paul's Cathedral, Nelson's Column, Big Ben, Wesminster Abbey,
Buckingham Palace.
Ho: the Tower of London, the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament.
- : the Statue of Liberty, the Washington Monument,
the Lincoln Memorial.
: the Winter Palace, the Hermitage, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress,
the Admiralty.
Ho: St Isaac's Cathedral ( , , ).
: the Kremlin, the Tzar-Cannon, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great,
the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
Ho: St Basil's Cathedral.
, , , . , -
: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Guggenheim Museum,
the Tate Gallery, the State Tretyakov Gallery.
The Bolshoi Opera House, the Globe Theatre, the Carnegie Hall.
Wembley Stadium, London Zoo.
, , , -
, : The Capitol (, -
), the Empire State Building, the United Nations Building ( --
), the Pompidou Centre ( ).
Ho: Rockefeller Centre, Lincoln Centre.
, , , -
: Cornell Medical School, Oxford University, Moscow
University, New York University.
: - : The State
University of New York, the City University of New York. : the University
of California, the London School of Economics, the School of Media at the
London Institute.

129
: the Russian State Library, the Library of Congress ( -
), the British National Library, the Vatican Library.
, : the Conservative party,
the Labour (party), the Democratic party, the Communist party.
The United Nations Organization, the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA)
,

: The National Telephone Company, the East India Company, American
Express, General Electric, General Motors, IBM, Moscow City Telephone.
, : the Washington
Post, the New York Times, the Times ( "") Time
( ""), Reader's Digest, National Geogaphic.
Ho: the National Geographic Magazine.
: , -
, ( ) , "-
" , .
: newspaper
Izvestia, newspaper Novosty.
, , () :
the Commodore Hotel, the Hilton (Hotel), the Ritz, the Aragvy Restaurant,
the Red Lion (pub).
: ,
, , : Maxim's (
), Macdonalds, Lloyds Bank,
, : Vnukovo Airport, Kennedy
International Airport, Victoria Station ( ),
, , :
the Northern Pacific Railroads, the Trans-Siberian Railroad, the Golden Gate
Bridge (San Francisco).
, , , , -
: the Titanic, the Argo ( ), the Queen
Mary stbt(= steamboat, ), the aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy (-
), the Concorde, the Ford Taurus, the Honda.
: Vostok-2, Apollo- 7.
: Christmas, New Year's Day,
Easter, Halloween, Day of the Defender of Motherland, Victory Day,
Independence Day.
: , , -
, ,
.
. ,
: The Olympic Games, the Great Wall of China, the
Great Fire of London, the New World ( ), the Western Hemisphere (-
), the North star ( ), the Declaration of
Independence, the Academy of Sciences, the Salvation Army ( ),
the First World War, the October Revolution, the European Community, the Derby
(, ), the Oval Office (
, ).

, ,
:
Paris, Cairo, Irkutsk, Germany, Switzerland, Norway, Europe,
Africa, North America, Australia, Antarctica.
.
:
. .
-
: the Argentine, the Brasil, the Congo, the Netherlands (a
the Hague, ), the Philippines, the
Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Ruhr ( ), the Transvaal
( ).
, -
(republic, federation,
empire, etc.): the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, the United States of America (the USA), the Republic ofIreland,
the German Federal Republic, the Republic of South Africa, the United Arab
Emirates; the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the British Empire.
, , (
!): the Thames, the Volga, the Black Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean,
Lake Baikal, Lake Michigan, Loch Ness ( JIox-Hecc ).
: the Lake of Geneva, . -
, lake , -
: the Ontario.
(
!). -
-sr. the British Isles, the West Indies, the Hawaii
(the Hawaiian Islands).
: Easter
Island ( ), Madagascar, Sicily.
, ,
peninsula: Asia Minor (
), Yuctan ( ).
: the Iberian peninsula ( ,
).
: the Cape of Good Hope.
: Cape Kennedy, Cape Cod.
: the Gulfof Mexico, the Gulfof California.
Ho: Hudson Bay, Chesapeake Bay.
:
The Magellan Strait, the Straits of Gibraltar, the Straits of Dover (
, --), the English Channel ( ,
-), the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal.

131
: the Sahara Desert, the desert of Kara-Kum.
(
!):
the Alps, the Urals, the Himalayas, the Pamirs
(Mount) Everest, Kilimanjaro, Etna
t , , ,
: the Gulf Stream, the Niagara Falls, the Clinton Valley, the
Big Canyon, the Jervois Glacier.
: the North,
the South, the East, the West.

: the Far East, the Middle East, the Near East, the North West, the Mid-
West, the West Coast.
, the north of
Russia, the south of England, the west of Poland (
).
, ,
: southern Italy, northern France, eastern China.
, -
. ,
.
, -
: a certain Charles Dickens not the Charles Dickens.
, .
,
: , , ; the
.
A Mrs Brand has called you up. -
( , ).
( ) -
: You must be the Mrs Brand. ,
( ).
You are a Buckingham, the descendant of an ancient family, aren't you ? ,
, , ?
thinks he is a Napoleon. .
is a real Einstein. ( -
).
, -
:
Dr Smith is a specialist in kidney trouble.
. :
, .
Dr Smith is the specialist in kidney trouble.
: , -
.
, :
the , ,

132
[di], , -
.
, .
: -
, -.
The John I see now is not the John I used to know. , ,
, .
The Russia of the past ; the Moscow of my youth
; the London of the 1850s 1850- .
(the sun,
the moon, the sky, etc.), ,
, -
.
It was a totally different moon than I have ever seen before -
, ( -
).
: ?
... .
. , ?
( !) -
.
. .
,
. , "" "-
". . , -
, , -
-
.
, , -
.
, - -
, ( ). -
, , -
, . When in Rome do as the Romans do. -
: .
: ""
,
. ?
.
I have a friend in Paris I have friends in Paris.
friends , , -
-
.
, , ,
.
. , -
, , -

133
. , , , -
, , -
, "" .

(phrase) , -
.
.
-
, . :
...

, .
... , , -
, : .
, Don't pull leg! , pull , leg ,
, . " !"
.
.
.
" " (), , ,
(!), -
. , , ,
( ) .
( )
: ?
, ,
.
? ,
,. - -
. , , -
.

: , , . -
, -
.

at one time , -
at the time ,
from time to time
at times
all the time ()
at the same time
the whole time
for the time being ,
for a (short, long) time (, )

134
in time ,
in due time ()
in time
it's high time
after a while
not once nor twice
in the morning, in the evening ,
in the afternoon, in the daytime ,
at sunrise, at dawn, at noon , ,
at sunset, in the dusk, till dusk , ,

tonight, at night, late in the night , (-
)
at midnight, in the middle of the night ,
from morning till night
this morning, this evening ,
last evening, last night ,
tomorrow morning, tomorrow afternoon ,
till tomorrow, by tomorrow ,
tomorrow week ( )
for tomorrow, for today ,
all day (week, night) long ( , )
from day to day, day after day; day in, day out
at present, for the present
until (up to) the present
in the past, in (the) future ,
for the future
on Sunday, on Monday, on Friday... , , -
...
in January, in May, in June, in October... , , ...
in spring, in winter , ...
in late summer, in late autumn... , ...
in early spring, in early winter... , ...
in 1812, in 1917, in 1945...- 1812, 1917, 1945...
in the sixties (the eighties)... () ...
in the 1850s (in the eighteen fifties)... 1850- ...
this year, this month, this week , ,
last year, last month, last week , , -

at the end of May, at the end of the week ,


next year, next month, next week , ,

in a year, in a month ,
in a week, in a day, in a minute , ,
since last year, since last week ,
since Monday, since Saturday ,

135
at six o'clock, at ten o'clock ,
since 3 'clock, by 3 'clock ,
between two and three 'clock

-
, -
( , -
). ,
:
above the clouds
above water
above zero, above 15" , 15
across the sky (the sea) ( )
across the river (to swim across the river) ( )
across the street (to walk across the street, the road, the border)
( , , )
against the wind (the current, the light) (, )
against the clock
against the sun ,
the rain was beating against the window
along the walls
along the street (the coast, the river) (, )
to walk along the street (the road) ()
among the trees (the hills, the ruins) (, )
to be among friends
at the window (the door, the sea) (, )
at a distance
at school, at work ,
at the college (the concert, the station) , ,
at the top of the page
at the foot of the mountain
at the Pole
behind the trees (the bushes) ()
behind the clouds
the train was behind schedule
below the horizon
the sun sets below the horizon
below the town ( )
below zero
the temperature is below 32 F 32
between the door and the window
between two fires
the river flows between wooded banks
a road runs between the two cities

136
in the sky
in the house
in front, in the middle ,
in the trees
in the street, in the middle of the street ,
in town, in the country ,
in the distance
in the North, in the South ,
to go into the room (the garden) ( )
to walk into a square
to pour some tea into the cup
the riverflows into a lake
a journey into (to) France
on the Continent ( )
on the Volga
on the horizon
on the border (the street) ( )
the window opens on (to) the street
a city on a hill
a picture on the wall
on the surface of the water
logs floating on the water
a ring on the finger
on page five
on land and sea
to knock on the door
over the river (the sea) ( )
a bridge over the river
over the border (the wall) ( )
a sign over the entrance
a flight over the ocean
all over the world (the country) ( )
the Thames flows through London
to fly through the air
to walk through the door, the gate ,
a path through the woods
to walk through the wood
to push through the crowd
to the left, to the right ,
a flight to the moon
to go to town
to go to the country
the road to Moscow
it's far to Moscow
to lie to the south (to the north) of... ( ) ...
to the East, to the West ,
137
-
.
.
, , -
, ,
. , -
, -
. , -
, , .
, . -
, . .
.
first of all, in the first place, at first ,
at first sight
from head to foot
from top to bottom
arm in arm
at hand, by hand , ()
by chance, by mistake ,
all in all
in fact ,
in the open air
to be on the air
to go to school to be at school
to go to hospital to be in hospital
:
, . school
hospital , , , -
. -
. -
, , -
.
missed school, and his mother was invited to the school to meet the teacher.
Tom had to go to hospital. His mother went to the hospital to visit him.
, -
, , .
, -
.
( , -
; , )
:
to go to college, university to be at college, university
to go to church to be at (in) church
to go to prison to be at prison

138
:
to attend school, to leave school
to leave home for school (for work)
to go to work to be at work
to start work, to finish work
to go home, to be at home, to stay at home
to go to bed to be in bed
to go to the cinema to be at the cinema
to go to the theatre to be at the theatre
to go to the country to be in the country
to go to town to be in town
to go for a walk (a swim)
to go on strike, to be on strike
to go by bus (train, car, airplane)
to go by land, by sea, by air
to go by foot
to go on horseback
to be on holiday, on business
to be on trip, to be on a tour
to be on an excursion, to be on an expedition
to have breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper
for breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper
before (after) breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper
to have a lesson
to have a shave
to have a smoke
to have a drink
to have a swim
to have a good time
to play the piano, the violin, the guitar, the flute
to play football, tennis, badminton, chess
to enter the room
to enter Moscow University
to graduate from Moscow University
to work far into the night
to sleep the whole night through
to look for a job
to look for work
to look for trouble
What's the trouble? ?
to turn the comer
to find (to give) shelter ()
to be in sight
to be in demand
to be in debt to smb. -

139

Adverbs

Well (), far (), very (), yesterday (), by heart (-


), together (), in the morning (), hardly (), absent-mindedly
(), quickly (), from time to time ( )...
.
adverb ( ad + verbium, -
, ) -
, , -
.
speaks German well ( well speaks).
She is very kind ( very kind).
Don't run too quickly ( too quickly).

, ,

-1. -
, :
warm warmly, quick quickly, usual usually.
-, , -
-/: easy easily, happy happily, greedy greedily ().
To : day daily.
- : large largely,
strange strangely.
, - : true truly ( ).
, , -
. : already, just, often, seldom,
ever, never, always, yet, once, quite, enough, well, now, then, today, here, there,
too, very, etc.
:
at last
at least
many times
from time to time
up to now
sooner or later

, -
. , -
: , , ; -
: a loud voice, a loud noise , .

140
Ho: don't talk so loud
a wide road , wide interests
: His eyes were wide open. ,
a hard blow , hard water , hard cash -

: to work hard, to study hard ,
at an early hour, in an early spring ,
: Children should go to bed early. .
We got up early to catch the train. , .
late dinner , the late king
: to arrive late , better late than never -
,
-1.
loud ; loud loudly
bright ; bright brightly
slow ; slow slowly
close ; close closely
wide ; wide widely , ,
high ; high highly
free ; free freely , ,
pretty , ; pretty prettily , , -

clean ; clean cleanly , , , -

dear , ; dear dearly , ,
clear ; clear clearly , , ,
wrong , ; wrong wrongly , -

. -
, -
.
-
. :
his eyes were wide open they differed widely in opinions
to climb high, to aim high a highly amusing film, a highly paid official
all members are admitted free, to run free to breathe freely, to speak freely
to feel pretty well, they are pretty much alike to dress prettily, to behave prettily
I clean forgot about it, he is clean mad to live cleanly
to cost dear, to pay dear for one's error to love dearly, to sell one's life dearly
to keep clear off, to keep clear of the traffic to speak clearly, to sing clearly
to answer wrong, to guess wrong to be wrongly informed
, -
:
hard , , ; hardly , -
late , ; lately ,
short , , ; shortly
near , ; nearly

141
He can hardly speak English. -.
We haven't seen him lately. .
She will come shortly. .
It's nearly time to go. .
(lovely, friendly, manly)
-1:
I am on friendly terms with him. .
greeted us friendly. - .
, .
. -
. , .

: ?
, , -
.
, .
, -
.
. Adverbs of Manner: well, loud, brightly, easily,
quickly. ? ?how?
. Adverbs of Place: near, there, here, outside, below.
? ? ? where ? where from ?
, . Adverbs of Definite and
Indefinite Time:
yesterday, today, tomorrow, now, then, tonight -
. ? when ?
always, never, seldom, often , -
? Adverbs of Frequency,
.
. Adverbs of Degree: very, quite, too, enough, almost, rather.
? ?how?
.
. Interrogative Adverbs: where, when, which, why,
how. . (Where are you from? Why are you
laughing?)
. Relative Adverbs when, where, which.
, :
That was the point where we stopped. , .
There are occasions when joking is not permissible. ,
.
. -
(? ?), - (? ?),
, ( ?). ,
.
. Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs

. -
(Adverbs of Manner),
(Adverbs of Indefinite Time).
(
) -
, -est.
hard hard er hardest
soon sooner soonesf
loud louder loudesf
more,
most (, ):
seldom more seldom most seldom
carefully more carefully most carefully
quickly more quickly most quickly
You must do it carefully more carefully most carefully.
.
(Adverbs
of Place) (Adverbs of Definite Time): there, here, now,
then, today, etc.
, -
. -
:
well () better () best ( , )
badly () worse () worst ( , )
little () less () least ( , )
much () () most ( , )
I played badly, you did it worse and he played (the) worst ,
, .
was more frightened than hurt. , .
far (). , -
far, :
farther, further () farthest, furthest ( ).
It is not safe to go any further. .
The village is about two miles farther on. -
.

,
.
(Adverbs of Manner)
:
The car rides easily.
Did you sleep weW.
Our patient feels worse.

143
(Adverbs of Degree) :
is too clever to do that.
You are quite right.
enough ()
:
I've had enough, thank you.
I don't know him well enough.
They aren't rich enough to go abroad every year.
-
:
Yesterday I met him in the street. I met him in the street yesterday.
Now we learn French. We learn French now.

(Adverbs of Indefinite Time, Adverbs of Frequency). -
, Present Indefinite Present Perfect,
.
,
:
always (), usually, normally (), already (), sometimes,
occasionally (), just ( ), often, frequently (), seldom, rarely
(), ever (-), ever (), yet (, ), lately (-
, ), recently (), once (, ).
always, often, seldom, just, already, ever, never -
:
The sun always rises in the east.
The train has already left.
to be,
:
is always late for dinner. He is never back in time.
already () ,
( ):
Have you posted the letter already? ?
sometimes, occasionally, usually -
:
We go there sometimes.
Usually we have dinner at seven.
lately, recently, yet, once -
:
I have been there once. I was very fond of him once.
We haven't seen him lately.
We haven't done it yet.
yet , ,
: had not yet got up when I called.
lately yet .
very very much () ,
, :
The soup was very tasty. We met a very fat man (tasty fat -
).
I saw a very surprised look on his face (surprised
).
-
( - ), very
much much.
doesn't read (very) much.
He was (very) much surprised (surprised ).
. -
, .
, .

145

Pronouns


, . pro-
(proconsul , ).
"" ,
- .
,
.
,
( ).
,
, , .
, , . -
.

. Personal Pronouns

, . -
3- (
).
1.

1- 1- we
2- you you
3- he they
she
it

I (), ,
. ( was crossing the street when I saw him.)
you .
thou, . thou
, .
() she () -
.
(, ,
), it. ,
he she. ,
it.

146

(Common Case) (Possessive Case).
,
. 1
(Nominative Case). -
, , (Objective Case).
, -
, .
Object, .
2.

(Nominative Case) (Objective Case)
. 1- me ,
you you ,
he him ,
she her ,
it it , , ,
. we us ,
you you ,
they them ,

, : -
(? ?) (? ?).

. Possessive Pronouns

-
.

: , your , his . .
,
. ,
(Possessive Pronouns)
.
(absolute form) -
, -
, , - -
.
His hair is dark, your hair is blond {your -
).
: His hair is dark, yours is blond (yours -
).

( hair).
, .
, -
:

147
, . .
:
3.

-


(Absolute form)
. I me my mine
you [ you! your yours
he him i his I : his )
she her her hers
it it , its its {-
. we us our ours
yOU f you your yours
they them their theirs

: .

- . Reflexive-Emphasizing Pronouns

: --
. , -
-,
, , , .
- .
4.
-
- ()
-

()

. I me my mine myself
you: | you your yours yourself
he him j his his himself
she her , her I hers herself
lit it "j its ! its itself
. we us our ours ourselves
you; you. your yours yourselves
they them their theirs themselves

- -
. . -
: -self(), -selves ().
, , -
: shelf shelves, elf elves.
- 1-

148
2- : myself, yourself, ourselves,
yourselves. 3- () -
: himself, herself, itself, themselves.
4 -
().
: -
?
-: -
, , , . - (-
) , ,
. ,
- .
Every morning I wash myself with cold water.
Tom hurt himself while working in the garden.
, myself himself
.
:
Did you see them yourself! Yes, I saw them myself ?
, .
We ourselves have often done this kind of work. -
.
, (emphasizing)
.

. Demonstrative Pronouns

, . :
this , these
that , those
.
: this ,
; that , , .
, .
This is the man I want to see. Those are my sons ().
D o you like this? We saw that yesterday ().
-
, , .
At that moment the door opened. Look at these men. Just hear those boys laugh!

, -
.
such (, , ).
Such -
.
Such happiness was all he wished. .
I never say such things. .
Such was the agreement. (such ).

149
Did you meet a blond girl? No, we didn't meet such ().
His words were such ( ).
(a, an) such
, -
( ).
D o n ' t be in such a hurry! It is such an honour for me. Such a lie! He was such
a good man.

. Interrogative Pronouns

, : who ', what ; which (


- ).
who . , who -
(Nominative Case), : -
, (whom) (whose). ,
, :
who ?
whom ? ?
whose ?
, : who,
whom, whose, what, which. .
:
(General Questions),
("", ""). (Special Questions),
.
Does he live in Moscow? Yes, he does. Has he got a son? No, he hasn't.
What country are you from? I am from Russia. Which of the girls is your sister?
The blonde one is my sister.
-
(), (
), .
,
( who , what ).
Who is that man? Who is there? Who is speaking?
, who .
Whom did you see? Whom do you mean? Whom do you want?
Whose house is that? Whose son are you? Whose flowers are these?
,
.
who , -
.
(, , ), what. -
(
) (
).
What has happened? What comes next? What is hanging on the wall?
What , .

150
What did you say? What did you do it for? What books have you read on this
subject?
what : -
.
Which , ...
. -
. -
which .
Which boy won the prize? Which of you did that? Which of you will go with me?
which , .
Which way shall we go?
, we.

. Relative Pronouns

: ", !" who, whom, whose,


which. that, ,
. : -
,
.
This is the man who wanted to see you. This is the girl whom we saw. This is the
woman whose house we have just passed.
, , -
?
: , -
. - antecedent,
. : -
( ).
, who, whom, whose.
Which , .
The places of which I was speaking... The country to which we are going... The
hotels at which we stayed...
which , .
,
'.
looked like a retired general, which indeed he was.
, .
that -
, .
The man that (= who) came yesterday...
The letter that( which) came yesterday..
The dog that (which) barked at me...
This is the house that (= which) Jack built...
:
,
whoever, whomever, whichever whosoever, whomsoever, whichsoever. He
, , -

151
() . : ,
, , .
Whoever says that is wrong. Whatever you hear say nothing. Take whichever
book you please.

. Conjunctive Pronouns

. ,
.
. , -
( ), :
who, whom, whose, which what (, ).
I wonder who that man is. , .
Tell me whom you saw there. , .
I don't know whose house that is. , .
Will you advise me which of the hats to take? ,
.
doesn't know what he wants. , .
(lif) : ... ?
-, , : " -
! ?"
, . : -
(antecedent),
. -
-. -
,
.
-, , : " !", -
, . -
, . -
, ( ), -
.
, , , -
which
. (- )
.
. Indefinite Pronouns

, -
, .
-
(, , , , , -, -, -
, -), , .
,
.
, .
.

152
, ,
, , .
: -
( ).

: -, -,
some, any , , , .
: some -
.
has got some English books.
There are some new buildings in our town.
: -
some any.
hasn't got any English books.
There aren't any new buildings in our town.
Have you got any English books?
Are there any new buildings in your town?
Some any, :
, .
I found some mistakes in your composition.
Did you find any mistakes in my composition?
He didn't find any mistakes in my composition.
: some any
some -
:
:
Will you have some tea? Will you buy some stamps for me?
some
(, )-.
Can you give me some idea of what he said?
, ?
Did you meet some friends there? - -
?
any
:
You can buy stamps at any post-office.
.
What colour do you want? Oh, any colour. ?
.
any -
: at any case, at any rate ( , ), at
any time ( ), in any event ( ) .
- ,
any, any, .
: ?

. -

153
. ,
, , . ,
. , ! , .
.
, .
, , , determinative (
determiner).
, :
.
, , -
, .
( !) , -
, (some, any, , none, many, much,
next, last, etc.). , .
, , -
, , , , . -
, !
, -
, .
. -
det., ,
. determiner
( ).

-
some any :
somebody, someone (-, ) something (-, -
), anybody, anyone anything ( )
: some-
, , any-,
.
-body -one , , -
-thing, .
Somebody is missing. - .
There's somebody at the door. - ().
Someone has to lock the house. - .
There is something wrong with this machine. - -
.
Ask me something easier. .
doesn't do anything at all. .
She doesn't care for anyone. .
Anything I can do for you? - ?
some any
,
. .
somebody, someone, anybody, anyone -
(somebody's umbrella, someone's voice, anyone's duty, anybody's
friend).

154
, , -
, :
They were somebodies in their own town. -
.
thinks he's a somebody, but really he's a nobody
, .

(, ,
every, each, either ).
every () all
().
has read every book from our library.
(= ) .
With every wish for a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! -
!
( )
Such things do not happen every day.
.
I enjoyed every hour of my holiday.
.
every : everybody, everyone, , -
( ) everything ().
Everybody who comes here admires the scenery. ,
, .
thinks he knows everything. , .
Everyone everybody :
everybody's presence, everyone's obligations ( , -
).
each (, ) ,
every. Each , -
, .
The mother gave an apple to each boy.
.
There was a baker's shop on each side of the square.
.
Each of us was happy to meet her.
.
We shall examine each pupil. .
Either , , :
, .
Either of the two boys may go. -
.
There are shops on either side of the street
.
There are two roads there. You may go by either one. -
. .

155
: either... or
, - :
either... or? , -
, , , ... '.
Either come in or go out. .
The dress must be either black or white.
.
either, -
either... or, -
. ". Conjunctions".
either .

neither ,
neither ; , ,
:
Neither of the books is of any use to me. ()
.
Neither of the opponents was right. ()
.
Will you have coffee or tea? Neither, thank you. ?
, , .
: neither... nor
, either... or. neither, nor,
, , , , ,
... .
could neither stand up nor lie down. , .
was neither for nor against the proposal. ,
.
Neither he nor I am likely to be present at the performance.
, .
Either, neither, -
, .
neither.
Neither statement is true. -
(neither ).
Neither of you knows the truth. (neither
).
doesn't like it. Neither do I, . (neither
).
neither knows cares for them.
(neither... nor ).
-
.

156
neither ( ), , ,
. one, nobody nothing.
Negative Pronouns , , -
.

? ,
,
. ,
, (particles)
(responsives, response ).
, -
: , , , .
There will be difficulty. .
has reason to be offended. .

.
No two ways about it. .
It's distance to the lake. .

None , , . -
-
.
, -
, .
None of you can help me. .
has three daughters, and none of them is married. ,
.
Have you got any money? No, I have none. ? ,
.
Is there any wine in the bottle? N o , there is none.
? , .
:
-
. :
None of your business/ He !
None of your impudence! He !
None of that! (- )!
They chose none but best. .

No one ( ), nobody .
.
Nobody ( one) came to meet me. -
one, nobody, .
nothing There was nobody there. .
( -
), nothing , -
, .

157
Nothing was heard of him. .
had nothing to say. .
That's nothing to what followed. ,
.
some any, -
. :
Some, somebody, someone, something
. -
any, anybody, anyone, anything.
-
, one, nobody, nothing.
(some -
, any ). -
:
!
.
-
-, :
doesn't ever tell me anything.
He ever tells me nothing.
He never tells me anything.

Much many ,
much many, Little few .
littie few Much () little ()
(much work, little time).
Much water has flown under the bridge since that time.
. ()
The little of his work that I have seen is excellent. To ,
, .
Many few , (many
books, few friends).
Are there many participants coming to the conference?
?
Very few people live to the age of one hundred. -
.
He's the man of few words. .

, - , ,
little - a little, , little,
few - few .
few, -
.
had little rest last summer. (rest,
).
I have little time, and I can't go there. ,
.

158
Few of my friends were at the party.
.
Many people read the book but few understood it. -
, .
,
: a little ( ), a few ( ) -
, , , , , .
Can you spare me a little time? ?
I have a little money, so I can buy you this hat. ,
.
I have a few good friends there. .
Only a few people could understand that book.
.

.
other another Another , other, ,
another -
.
Another , , .
I don't like this dress. Show me another one. ,
.
Will you have another cup of coffee? ?
another , .
Science is one thing, and art is another. ,
.
other (, ) .
Other -
:
I am very busy now. Let us meet some other time. .
.
It is difficult to tell twins one from the other.
( ).
other :
You ought to think of others too. .
Some people will like it, others won't. , -
.
other , (, ).
, :
It must be decided by quite other considerations. -
.
Change into other clothes. ( ).

Each other one another -


each other (Reciprocal Pronouns), -
one another .
Each other .
Nick and Tom do not call on each other. -
.
159
They are afraid of each other. .
They fight each other. .
,
:
They all know each other. .
One another ( )
: , , .
They love one another.
The delegates of the conference spoke to one another in the hall.
.
(each
other's, one another's).
The two businessmen used to buy one another's goods. -
.

Both , ; ( ). -
both, ail, whole , , -
.
They both are actors. Both of them are actors. .
We invited them both. .
D o you know these two books? Yes, I've read both.
? , .
All , , , .
All -
(), ( -
) , , . all
.
All of us wanted to help him. .
All is over. All is lost. . .
He bought the house and all. , .
They were seven in all. .
all : all (the) participants, all (the)
night.
-
: all the time, all day long, beyond all doubt .
Whole (, ) all. , -
, whole -
. .
.
,
Easterners often cook a whole sheep for a meal.
() .
The whole country was anxious for peace. .
I want to know the whole truth. .
whole
:
It rained for three whole days. .

160
One -
.
I don't want this dress. Can you show me a better one?
. ?
Will you have this one or that one? ?
Which kitten will you have? The black one. ?
.
I want large ones, not small ones. , .
, , one -
( ), -
, ( ). ,
(ones), -
. (One has to do one's best. ,
.)
One (a small one). one -
( : the old one; : this
one).
one - -
.

: - one
, - ? -

.
- -
, 3- :
. .
- ( -
) one:
One never knows what may happen. , -
.
One must observe the rules. .
, -
. .

161

Numerals

(, , ) -
(, , ).

. Cardinal Numerals

1 12
-
. , .
: one, two,
three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve.
13 19
-teen ( -
-) .
: thirteen, fourteen, fifteen,
seventeen, eighteen, nineteen.
: , ,
: 'thir'teen. -
, : 'thirteen soldiers.
20 99
-ty (
-). . -
( ). -
( + ): twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty,
seventy, eighty, ninety.
, 1 9,
( ) :
twenty-one, thirty-four, sixty-eight, se venty-six, ninety-three, etc.
100
:
hundred
thousand
million
milliard (.), billion (.)

: ?
( ) , -
billion. , billion (-
) ( ).

162
-
one, :
a hundred ,
a thousand
a million
(), , ,
( ) -
:
three hundred
five thousand
two million
: hundreds of books, thousands of soldiers, millions of dollars.

,
, and:
346 three hundred and forty-six
854 - eight hundred and fifty-four
, -
and:
1349 a (one) thousand three hundred and forty-nine
4757 four thousand seven hundred and fifty-seven
, ,
:
1349 thirteen hundred and forty-nine
4757 forty seven hundred and fifty-seven
-
, , . -
. , -
, , . (We have seen five new fighter planes in
the sky.)

. Ordinal Numerals

:
the first, the second, the third.
: -
-th.
, -
( ): fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth,
tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth,
eighteenth, nineteenth.
( 20 90), , -
-ty -ieth: twenty twentieth, thirty thirtieth, eighty eightieth,
ninety ninetieth.
21 99 :
() + +

163
, ,
: twenty-first, thirty-second, forty-third, fifty-seventh,
ninety-ninth, etc.
:
the hundredth
the thousandth
the millionth
the milliardth, the billionth
:
one hundred thirty-third
two thousand eighty-ninth
(+
):
1st, 2nd, 3rd , 4th, 11th, 22nd, 28th, 31st
, , -
:
Peter the First was born in 1672.
June is the sixth month of the year.
:
from first to last ( ), to travel first class ( -
), to play first violin ( ), to be second in
seniority ( ), on second thoughts ( -
), etc.
-
. ,
, :
I want to buy a second pair of shoes. .
She stayed for a second year. .
I'd like to hear a second opinion .

, , , -
.


. . -
.
? What time is it?
:
6.40 .. It is six forty a.m. .
9.20 P.M. It is nine twenty p.m. ( = 21.20).
A.M. (a.m.) ante meridiem ( , -
).
P.M. (p.m.) post meridiem ( , -
).
: " ", " -
". - :

164
It is twenty minutes to seven (:
= 6.40).
It is twenty minutes past nine (: ).
past to.
"6", , (tenminutes past nine
= ).
past, -
: it is half past nine = .
, -
( to), : it is twenty
minutes to ten = .
: - , half
, (a quarter):
It is halfpast five. It is a quarter past five. It is quarter to ten.
- -
at.
at six o'clock, at eleven o'clock, at half past eight, at a quarter to ten.
? What's the number of your house?
, , , , , -
, . ., : , -
, .
-
,
: flat twenty five, page seven, bus twelve, flight () one
hundred fifty, contract two hundred eleven, etc.
:
22. I live at number twenty two.
22 (). lives in number twenty two.
? What's your phone number?
, .
, , . -
[], double .
432 15 86 = four - thirty-two fifteen eighty-six
972 06 00 = nine seventy-two six double
. -
(zero).
? What's the date today?

, .
= the thirtieth of January
= the twenty-second of April
= the seventh of May
= the eleventh of June
:
January, thirty; April, twenty-two; May, seven; June, eleven
January, the thirtieth; April, the twenty second; May, the seventh; June,
the eleventh

165
, ,
, . , -
:
Tuesday, 30th January, 1992 = Tuesday, the thirtieth January, nineteen ninety
two
Monday, the eleventh of June, 1800 = Monday, the eleventh of June, eighteen
hundred
The seventh May, 1945
April 22, 1905 = April twenty two, nineteen hundred and five (: nineteen
five)
, , , -
( ), .
. -
. , year ( )
:
the year 1866 = the year eighteen sixty six
the year 2002 = the year two thousand and two
:
.
, . -
, .
, , , 11.06. 02,
11 2002 ,
, 6 2002 .

, , , ,
. - :
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are the first things we learn in
arithmetic.
: -
, .
. , , -
.
, to add
If you add 6 to 6 you get 12.
The sign + (plus) stands for addition. .
Five plus six is eleven.
, to subtract
If you subtract 5 from 15 the answer is ten.
If 5 are subtracted from 15 the answer is ten ( , -
).
The sign (minus) stands for subtraction. .
Eighteen minus six is twelve.

166
to multiply
If you multiply by the answer is 36.
The symbol x stands for multiplication.
3 x 10 is an easy multiplication. (!
. easy.)
In other cases you can use multiplication table.
.
to divide
If you divide 6 into 30 the answer is 5.
If you divide twenty by five the answer is four.
The symbol: stands for division.
Twenty divided by five is simple division.
Simple division , .
,
- , .

. Fractional Numerals

, Numerator ( -
) , Denominator.
, -
.
(-th + s).
1/4 onefourth, 2/8 two eighth (eighths), 11/3 one and one third, 31/2
three and one second (one half)
one hundredth
one thousandth
the ten thousandth
(decimal fractions) .
(point). point
decimal ().
"" nought zero ( ).
0.4 - nought (zero) point four
0.01 point nought one ( )
1.75 one point (decimal) seventy-five
3.453 - three point four hundred and fifty-three
6.762 six point seven hundred and sixty-two

167

Conjunctions

, , -
.
.

-
() .
:
and
but
or
for
both... and ... , ( is both tired and hungry)
either... or ... , ...
neither., nor ...
. -
.
either... or Either., or ,
neither... nor -
(, , , -
).
Either goes or I do. , .
The suit must be either black or blue. ,
.
Neither.. . -
, .
neither knows nor cares. ( ).
She is neitherfornor against the proposal. -
.
, -
( : ). -
neither... nor , -
:
Neither he nor she is right. .
,
, , -
.
: , -
.

168
Either your parents or your wife has sent you this present.
Either your wife or your parents have sent you this present.
Neither his sister nor his brothers know about it.
Neither his brothers nor his sister knows about it.
Neither he nor I am likely to be present at the party.
Neither I nor he is likely to be present at the party.
,
.

-
.
:
because
if
when
after
before
while
since
that
than
although
until, till
except
as ; ;
as... as ... ; ...
not so... as ...
unless ,
lest ,
-
, , .
.

unless will fail unless he works hard. ,


lest .
We had snow this winter, unless in the mountain regions.
,
.
lest , . -
, ,
.
Call me up lest I should forget. , .
We were afraid lest he should get here too late. ,
.
, :

169
as if = as though , ,
as soon as
as a result of
so that
therefore ,
notwithstanding
-
, , . that -
that , while,
where.
after since -
.
, -
. , -
. . -
, notwithstanding, , -
, .

Notwithstanding that I enjoyed myself there, I am glad to be


notwithstanding? home. ,
.
, , ,
.
They continued their trip notwithstanding the storm. ,
.
,
. , ,
.
Whatever you say, I will go notwithstanding. ,
.
, , -
. , .
,
.

170

Prepositions

.
.
, -
, . -
:
came at six 'clock. came before sunset. He came from Paris. He came to
London. He came by an excursion train. He camefor sightseeing. He came with his wife.
, , ,
, , , .
, , -
, . -
. .
, -
What? Where? Whom ? -
: Where are you from ? What do you want this book for?
:
(): in, on, at, out, of, by, with
( ): cut of, within
m ( ): in front of, away from, notwithstandiug


. , , -

. -
, .
: I live in Moscow. .
: . -
, : sent
letter to her.
Last year he entered the University ( ),
: .
: , -
2. (. 181). -

. 109 118. ,
.
,
. -
. ?

171
: ?
(
)
. , -
. ,
, .
/
(the son of friend).
to for
(a letter to his aunt, a fun for children).
by with
. ,
, with (the book was written by a
famous historian, to write with a pencil).

, :
+ +
"
", . 107.
downfall, take-off, setback, outbreak, break-up, outcome, income .
:
, . -
, .
.
, , . ,
, phrasal verbs! -
to go on, to give in, to look for. , ,
(on, in, for), . -
, .
.
( + , ),
, -
. .
?
. -
.
,
.
().

. Prepositions of Time

:
after - till, until -
before , during
at, on, in between
. Prepositions of Place

at, in in front of
on behind
to, into across
from among
above between
under

(Prepositions of Direction), -
, :
to - , , out of ()
into () towards
from ,

, -
.
. -
: -
,
.
-
.

about , Tell me all about your family,


to worry about smth.
, I dropped it somewhere about here.
() There was a big forest about the town.
() It happened about midnight.
across , across the border
a bridge across the river
to walk across the street
, to live across the street
()

against , to act against parents wishes


to warn against smth.
to vote against smb.
, A piano stood against the wall.
() A cottage was built against the hill.

along ( to move along, to walk along the road,


) to sail along the cost, trees along the river

173
among , ( a forest among hills, to be among friends,
) to pass among crowd

around , Woods lay around the house,


to travel around the country
, It costs around ten dollars.
It is around five o'clock.

at , , , () at the station, at a distance, at the


window, at the sea, at the centre
( , ) at five o'clock, at midnight, at an early
age, at present

before , (); He was here before ten o'clock.


() She saw a road before her.
We sat before him.
, , () He was brought before the judge.

behind , , He was hiding behind the wall.


() The sun is behind the clouds.
() The train is behind the schedule.
below , The sun goes below the horizon.
The temperature is below zero.
A colonel is below a general in rank.

by , , () We had a day by the sea.


by the fire, by the window
() She went to Japan by Siberia.
() I'll finish the work by tomorrow.
(? ?) Don't judge a person by his clothes.

down to walk down a hill


to sail down a river
to go down the road

for () for the past two years


for the next three days
() He left for London yesterday.
, for this purpose, to fight for freedom
from , , () to start from Moscow
to jump from the wall
to count from one to ten
, () five years from now
I knew him from my childhood.

174
In , , Moscow is in Russia.
( ) There wasn't a cloud in the sky.
in January, in 1945, in my life
in an hour, in a week, in a year

into , to come into a building


The river flows into a lake,
to get into difficulties
The rain turned into snow.

of , ; a story of adventures
news of success
the son of my friend
(? ?) the works of Shakespeare

on () a carpet on the floor


a ring on her finger
( , ) on Monday, on the 1st of January
, (-) a lecture on Shakespeare
to congratulate a person on smth.

over , Heavy fog hung over the city.


The stars were over our heads,
, a bridge over the river
We heard voices over the wall,
, , over a hundred people
A colonel is over a lieutenant.

through , , The Thames flows through London.


() He pushed through the crowd.
They drove through France,
() every day through November
He stayed with them through the week.
till () He worked till dawn.
He will not come till after dinner.
He did not learn of it till the next day.

up , to walk up hill
to carry a box up the stairs

with , to have dinner with a friend


to be familiar with smth.
() He was red with anger.
His greed increased with his wealth.
He saw it with his own eyes.
(?) She made it with her own hands.

175

Interjections

, , , , -
, . ,
,
:
! ! --! ! ! !
-, -
:
Oh [ou] 01
oh-oh [ou'ou] ox-ax!
ouch [aut]
[:] : , ,
aha [a:ha] - ! (, )
ahem [mmm] !
hey! [heij !
hey-ho! [heihouj , -, !
hey-day! [heidei] ,
, ,
.
Well! , . -
, , .
What! , ,
(= ! ! -!)
Up-a daisy! , ,
-\ Daisy .
Ahoy! , ,
( )!
, -
.
, , .
"-!" -
"Bay!"

176

, . -
, ,
. -
, , , -
. , , . -
, -
.
"",
, -
, - -
. . -

, ,
.
! !

: ?
( " " , . 86)
, -
. , -
, . \
( ), , -
, , , ,
...
- . -
, . , . -
, , , .
.
, -
, .
, ,
, .
, (, ,
, .). ,
, . -
, -
.
?
9 900 !

7 ? 1 77
, ,
, ,
- 10 400 ( . ).
. , .
, !
, , -
, ( , -
) , -
, (, , , -
). ,
. , , , -
. !
: -
, . . ,
, , to enjoy , ( -
) , enjoyment enjoyable.
? ?
? . !

178
1


Contractions (Short Forms)

-
, .
?
, . , .
. -
, -
. , , , -
, .
('),
, - , , . -
, , -
. , ,
.
?
to be, to have, shall/ will, should / would -
not.
to be:
I am = I ' m we are = we're
you are = you're you are = you're
he, she, it is = he's, she's, it's they are = they're
to be (was were)
(
).
to have:
I have = I've we have = we've
you have = you've you have = you've
he, she, it has = he's, she's, it's they have = they've
to have had,
. -
: I'd, you'd, he'd, we'd, they'd.
shall /will should/would:
shall will :
I shall = I'll we shall = we'll
she will = she'll they will = they'll
should would 'd.
I should = I'd we should = we'd
he would = he'd they would = they'd
, ,
-. ,

179
he's he is, he has. -
, .
He's come. He's there. = has come. is there. . .
has is, .
( is come. has there.)
, , -
, he'd. :
he had (come), he should (come) he would (come).
,
:
Nick's already here = is already here
Nick's arrived = has arrived
Her brother's here, her brother's arrived. = Her brother is here, her brother
has arrived.
:
who's, who'll, who'd, what's, where's, how's, that's, there's, here's, there'll.
: -
.
: Is he a student? : Yes, he's,
: Yes, he is.
.
:
I am not = I ' m not I do not = I don't
you are not = you aren't ( he does not = he doesn't
you're not, they're not) I did not = I didn't
he, she, it is not = he isn't
( he's not) I shall not = I shan't
you will not = you won't
I was not = I wasn't we should not = we shouldn't
we were not = we weren't she would not = she wouldn't

I have not = I haven't they cannot = they can't


he has not = he hasn't you could not = you couldn't
she must not = she mustn't
she had not = she hadn't

.
. ,
. .

180
2

, ,
,
, . ,
,
. :
to work at smth. -
to write to smb. -
, -
, , .
, , , -
. , -
, . -
. -
.
, ,
( 3).
, ,
.
,
,
,
" : ?" -
+ : go on, give in, put on
., , , , -
. , -
:
to go , to go on
to give to give in
to put , to put on
, , , -
,
( ).
, , - ,
.
. -
, . -
. ,
, .

181
,
. : -
,
, , ,
.
. to
tremble (, ).
to tremble at a sound ( )
to tremble at the thought ( )
to tremble in the breeze ( )
to tremble with cold, anger ( , )
to tremble for one's life, safety ( , )
,
, -
.

, of

accuse smb. of smth. - -


assure of smth. -
boast of smth. -
complain of smth. -
die of smth. (disease, hunger) - (, )
hear of smb., smth. -, -
inquire of smb. about smth. - -
remind smb. of smth. - -
smell of smth. -
speak of smth. -
talk of smth. -
think of smth. -
write of smth. -

, to

announce to smb. -
agree to smth. (a proposal) - ( -
)
appologise to smb. -
belong to smb. -
correspond to smth. -
concent to smth. -
contribute to smth. -
describe to smb. -
explain to smb. -
listen to smb., smth. -, -
prove to smb. -
refer to smth. -
reply to smb. -

182
report to smb. -
say to smb. -
speak to smb. -
talk to smb. -
write to smb. -

, for

answer for smth. (actions) - ()


apologize for smth. -
ask smb. for smth. - -
blush for smb. -
care for smth. -
excuse smb. for smth. - -
pay for smth. -
seek for smth. -
send for smb. -
thank for smth. -
wait for smb., smth. -, -

, on (upon)

comment on smth. -
congratulate smb. on smth. - -
depend on (upon) smth. -,
-
enter upon smth. (a competition) - ()
insist on smth. -
lecture on smth. -
rely on (upon) smb. -, -
wait on smb. -

, in (into)

consist in smth. -
delight in smth. (music) . -
()
divide into (x) parts -
end in smth. -
force smb. into an action -
participate in smth. -
result in smth. -
succeed in smth. -
trade in smth. -
transform into smth. - -
translate into some language -
trust in smb. -

183
, at

frown at smth., smb. -,


-
gaze at smth., smb. -,
-
glance at smth., smb. -, -
grasp at smth. -
grumble at smb. -
look at smth. -
point at smth., smb. -, -
rejoice at smth. -
sell at a low price
smile at smth. -
stare at smb., smth. -,
-
strike at smth. -
weep at smth. -
work at smth. -

, from

borrow smth. from smb. - -


buy smth. from smb. - -
defend smb. from smth. - -
demand smth. from smb. - -
die from smth. (hunger) - ()
differ from smth. -
free from smth. -
hear from smb. -
learn smth. from smb. - -
part from smb. -
prevent smb. from doing smth. - -
rercover from smth. (an illness) -
()
result from smth. -
suffer from smth. -
translate from some
language -

, with

acquaint smb. with, smth. - -


agree with smb. -
communicate with smb. -
differ with smb. - -
interfere with one's affairs -
meet with smth. (!) - ( -!)
talk with smb. -
tremble with smth. - (, )
184
3


Irregular Verbs
Sv"BT

,
. . ,
, " -
" (. 11).
, ,
. , -
.
,
II III .
-
, II III : I (
to) -ed.
I II III IV
help helped helped helping
live lived lived living
decide decided decided deciding
stop stopped stopped stopping
-
(. . 12, 13).
! II III -
. , -
. ,
:
begin began begun
fly flew flown
take took taken
swim swam swum
II III -
:
build built built
send sent sent
spend spent spent

I, II, III :
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
put put put

185
to be to go , II -
( to be ):
be was, were been
go went gone
IV ?
, IV ,
-ing.
, -
. -
, . -
.
, , -
. -
- -
, , ,
, .
? ?
, , -
. () -
, .
. ,
- .
3 150 . ,
. . -
, , -
. , -
to take to go. to overtake to undergo
, . -

.

? . -
, .
, -
.
() .
, ( -
) , ,
. " -
". .
I (, ) -
:
Present Indefinite: to, , -
3- -s, -
;

186
Future Indefinite: shall
will ( to);
, I (
to).
II : -
, Past Indefinite. -
-
.
III Past Participle (
) Participle II ( ), :
:
have + III
(Passive Voice) :
be + III
IV , , -
-ing (),
:
Continuous (
Progressive) :
be + IV j
Perfect Continuous.
(-
)?
? , -
.

, -
? -
, , , , -
.
, II
III .
I II III
learn learnt learnt ,
learned learned
dream dreamed dreamed ,
dreamt dreamt
smell smelt smelt ,
smelled smelled
spoil spoilt spoilt
spoiled spoiled

187
, ( )
. ,
- (II III):
bide bode bidden ,
bided
chide chid chidden ,
chid
forbid forbade forbidden
forbad
hew hewed hewn ,
hewed
,
. , ,
, , -
, ,
.
, . -
, -
(, to dream, to spoil, to smell) -
.
He , -
. ,
, .
, .
to light () :
light lit lit
lighted
-
, - (to light on a passage in a book
) :
light lighted lit
( -ed II III ):
lighten lightened lightened ,
lighten lightened lightened ,
: to rise to arise.
( , ). to rise
, -
, ( ) . . to arise
, , , -
. (Difficulties can arise.)
:
rise rose risen
arise arose arisen

188
to lay (, ) to lie (,
, ). :
lay laid laid laying
lie lay lain lying
to lie (, ).
:
lie lied lied lying
to read , , -
-:
read read read
[ri:d] [red] [red]
,
I III :
come came come
become became become
run ran run

.

I II III IV
arise arose arisen arising
be was, were been being
bear bore born bearing ,
beat beat beaten beating ,
become became become becoming ,
begin began begun beginning ()
bend bent bent bending
bet bet, betted bet, betted betting
bind bound bound binding ()
bite bit bitten, bit biting ()
bleed bled bled bleeding
blend blended, blent blended, blent blending ()
blow blew blown blowing
break broke broken breaking ()
breed bred bred breeding
bring brought brought bringing
build built built building
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned burning ,
burst burst burst bursting ()
buy bought bought buying

189
cast cast cast casting
catch cought cought catching
chide chid chidden, chid chiding
choose chose chosen choosing
cling clung clung clinging
clothe clothed, clad clothed, clad clothing
come came come coming
cost cost cost costing
creep crept crept creeping
cut cut cut cutting
deal dealt dealt dealing
dig dug, digged dug, digged digging
do did done doing
draw drew drawn drawing ,
dream dreamed, dreamt dreamed, dreamt dreaming
drink drank drunk drinking
drive drove driven driving ,
dwell dwelt dwelt dwelling ,
eat ate eaten eating ,
fall fell fallen falling
feed fed fed feeding
feel felt felt feeling
fight fought fought fighting
find found found finding
flee fled fled fleeing
fling flung flung flinging ()
fly flew flown flying
forget forgot forgotten forgetting
forgive forgave forgiven forgiving
forsake forsook forsaken forsaking
freeze froze frozen freezing
get got got, gotten getting
give gave given giving
go went gone going ,
grind ground ground grinding
grow grew grown growing
hang hung, hanged hung, hanged hanging
have had had having
hear heard heard hearing
hide hid hidden, hid hiding
hit hit hit hitting
hold held held holding
hurt hurt hurt hurting
keep kept kept keeping

190
kneel knelt knelt kneeling
knit knitted, knit knitted, knit knitting
know knew known knowing
lay laid laid laying
lead led led leading
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned leaning ()
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned learning ()
leave left left leaving
lend lent lent lending
let let let letting
lie lay lain lying
light lighted, lit lighted, lit lighting
lose [lu:z] lost lost losing
make made made making
mean [mi:n] meant [ment] meant meaning
meet met met meeting
mistake mistook mistaken mistaking
mow [mou] mowed mown mowing
pay paid paid paying
put put put putting
read [ri:d] read [red] read [red] reading
ride rode ridden riding
ring rang, rung rung ringing
rise rose risen rising
run ran run running
saw sawed sawn, sawed sawing
say said said saying
see saw seen seeing
seek sought sought seeking
sell sold sold selling
send sent sent sending
set set set setting
shake shook shaken shaking
shed shed shed shedding ,
shine shone shone shining
shoot shot shot shooting
show showed shown, showed showing
shrink shrank, shrunk shrunk shrinking ()
shut shut shut shutting
sing sang sung singing
sink sank sunk, sunken sinking ()
sit sat sat sitting
slay slew slain slaying
sleep slept slept sleeping

191
slide slid slid, slidden sliding
sling slung slung slinging
smell smelt, smelled smelt, smelled smelling
smite smote smitten smiting
sow [sou] sowed sown, sowed sowing
speak spoke spoken speaking
speed sped, speeded sped, speeded speeding
spend spent spent spending
spit spat spat spitting ()
split split split splitting ( )
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled spoiling
spread spread spread spreading ()
spring sprang sprung springing
stand stood stood standing
steal stole stolen stealing
stick stuck stuck sticking
sting stung stung stinging
stink stank, stunk stunk stinking
stride strode stridden, strid striding
strike struck struck striking ()
strive strove striven striving
swear swore sworn swearing
sweep swept swept sweeping
swell swelled swollen, swelled swelling
swim swam swum swimming
swing swung swung swinging ()
take took taken taking
teach taught taught teaching ()
tear tore torn tearing
tell told told telling
think thought thought thinking
throw threw thrown throwing
thrust thrust thrust thrusting
tread [tred] trod trodden, trod treading
understand understood understood understanding
undertake undertook undertaken undertaking
wake woke, waked woken, waked waking
wear wore worn wearing ()
weave wove woven, wove weaving
weep wept wept weeping
win won won winning
wind [waind] wound wound winding
wring wrung wrung wringing
write wrote written writing

192
4


. ,
.
, ,
, , . , -
,
, , -
.
-
. .
, -
.

()
Absolute Nominative Participle Construction
( -
), -
. , -
. (A storm approaching, we fled to shelter. Ann having come from the theatre, we
had dinner.) .
. The Articles
, -
, , -
.
, , - -
, ,
. the, -
that this (, ).
,
, , , ,
( , - ). -
a (an, ).
one (). , -
, ,
.
. Future in the Past Tense
( )
, -
. :
, ,
, , Future in the Past.

193
,
: Future in the Past Indefinite, Future in the
Past Continuos, Future in the Past Perfect, Future in the Past Perfect Continuos. -
, shall
will should would.
. Auxilary Verbs
to be, to do, to have
, . -
, -
(, , ).
to do -
( to be).
to be Continuous Perfect
Continuous, (Passive Voice).
to have Perfect Perfect
Continuous.
shall will (should / would
) .
.
. Qerund
, .
-ing. -
IV , -
, .
, :
, ; -

.
; ;
. . -
( , -
).
. The Groupe of Tenses
, , : ,
. -
. , .
:
Indefinite (Simple) Tenses, () . -
, -
( ) (
). (Tense)
(Time). -
, .
Continuous (Progressive) Tenses, ( ) -
- ,
. Continuous
to be IV .
Perfect Tenses, ()
, - , -

194
, , -
.
have
III . ,
(, ) -
.
Perfect Continuous Tenses, -
, .
to be Perfect IV -
.
,
Direct Object, Indirect Object, Prepositional Object
,
. .
(Direct Object) -
(), . (Ann sings
a song.)
(Indirect Object) -
. . (Nick sent her (.
.) a letter (, .).)
(Prepositional Object)
. (Nick insisted on her coming to London.)
.
- , ,
. , , . (Nick gave
to his sister the keys.)
. Active and Passive Voice
,
() ().
.
. The plant fulfilled the plan (
).
. The plan was fulfilled by the plant ( -
).
, ,
(), (
).
, ,
, , (-
). , -
.
-
to be III .
Indefinite. Continuous -
. Perfect Continuous -
.
, ,
Passive Voice -
, (
).

195
. Infinitive
, , -
, , .
. -
.
,
. -
, - , :
Indefinite Infinitive to sing, to live
Continuous Infinitive to be singing, to be living
Perfect Infinitive to have sung, to have lived
Perfect Continuous to have been singing, to have been living
to. to
: ( ought),
shall / should will/ would; (feel, hear, let, make,
see, watch), .
. Interjections
, , , , ,
. , -
,
. (! ! ! !)
. Pronouns
.
,
. -
, ( -
).
, :
(I, she, we, etc.), , -
, (me, her, us), -

, (my mine, her hers,
our ours)
- (myself, herself, ourselves)
(this, that)
who, whom, whose, what, which ,
,

, .

(some, any, every, each, much, many, little, few, other, both, etc.).
.
, . .
. Modal Verbs
,
, . -
. :
can, may, must, ought. .
, , -
, , .

196
,
, , . -
( -
). may (could, might).

, -
. .
.
,
.
. Mood
() , -
, . -
:
, , ,
. (
);
-
. (! , !) -
I (Read
the text!) let (Let me help you);
.
( ,
). -
. -
.
. Adverbs
( ad + verbium, )
,
, . -
-1, ,
(warm warmly, usual usually).
.
, ,
.
, . -
:
(well, loud, quickly)
(near, there, behind)
(yesterday, tonight, always,
often)
, .
,
. .
. Verbals
. (
) , , , -
. -
: My son goes to school. goes , -
, . .

197
, , , -
, ,
. : , -
( ) .
.
. Principal Forme of the Verb
, , -
, :
Infinitive, ,
Past Indefinite,
Past Participle, Participle II,
Present Participle, Participle I,
, -
.
.
(Common Case) -
(Possessive Case) . -
(brother's bride, the sun's light, a mile's distance). -
Common Case,
( of, to,
by with . .). -
.
: (Nominative
Case) , (Objective Case), . -
(I, he, they, etc.),
(me, him, them) , (?
?) (??).
. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
, (
?
?). Nick gave me a book. (),
(a book), .
, -
, : Nick lives in London, he works
hard. lives works -
( ???), . -
(Passive \bice).
. Regular and Irregular Verbs
,
. ( -
) II III -ed -
().
II III ,
, .
.
. -
. :
(after, before, till), (above, around, under).
, , -

198
. , , -

. -
, .
. The Adjectives
, , , -
. , -
? ? , ,
, , , , -
.
-
-er (big bigger, small smaller),
more, (expensive more expensive, beautiful more beautiful). -

-est (the biggest, the smallest).
most, (the most expensive, the most beautiful). -
(good
better the best; bad worse the worst).
. Participle
. :
Present Participle, ; -
; () -ingnaK
, ;
Past Participle, ; ;
-ed ;
( ) .
-
, . -
, , -
. .
. Direct and Indirect (Reported) Speech
. ( said, "I know this
man.") ,
. ( said that he knew that man.)
.
. Direct and Indirect Word Order
, -
.
. ,
,
: -
.
(
), (
), , ( -
) . (Does he live in Moscow?) -
: -
(there is / are, hardly, scarcely .).
,
, . (Who lives in Moscow?)

199
. Gender
, -
. (father, son,
husband, king, etc.).
(mother, sister, girl, queen, etc.).
, ( )
(worker, student, secretary).
: a woman-worker, a girl-friend, she-wolf
().
-ess (actor - actress, god goddess, host hostess).
. Shifting of Tenses
-
( I) , -
( II) ( III).
If the weather is fine, we shall go to the country ( , -
).
If the weather were fine, we should go to the country ( ,
).
If the weather had been fine, we should have gone to the country (
).
, ,
, .

(,
... , , , .). -
, -
. ( , .)
.
(, ,
, , .).

II, III IV -
, , ,
, , .

, ,
.
( F)
(, ) -
(, ). -
- .
( F) -
, (, ).
, -
. .
( ,
). (, -
).
, -

200
, ,
. -
, -
.
. Sequence of Tenses
: -
, -
( )
.
- ,
,
(Future in the Past).

.
-
, -
, , .
. Contractions (Short Forms)
-
to be, to have, shall / should, will /would, -
not (I am = I'm; she is = she's; I have = I've; we do not = we
don't . .).
. Subjunctive Mood
-
:
;
, ( ,
, , );
, -
;
, -
.
-
should, would, may, might, could+ (-
).
Subjunctive wish -
if. -
(Shifting of Tenses).
. Conjunctions
, .
(and, or, but, etc.),
() . -
(if, that, when, because, etc.) -
.
. The Nouns
, -
: , , , .
, ,
.

201
. -
(, of , by with
. .).
, , -
, , . -
, -
.
. Phrasal Verbs
, ,
(to look at, to listen to). -
. ,
, , . -
(to go on, to give in).
-
.
? to look to listen -
, ,
(at) (to). to go on (-
) to give in (, ) -
, .
on in , , , .
,
,
.
. The Numerals
(four, eight,
twelve).
. -
-th , , -
(the fourth, the eighth, the twelfth). -
(the first, the second, the third).
. The Number
-
-s (table
tables, boy boys). -
(man men, goose geese, mouse mice, tooth teeth,
foot feet).
-
(sheep, swine, deer). -
: works, ; aircraft, ; means, -
; series, .
- / -fe
-ves (wife wives, wolf wolves, knife knives).

(datum data, formula formulae,
phenomenon phenomena).

202

4
:
( ) 6
: ?
, 8
10
11
14
: Indefinite Tenses 14
Present Indefinite 16
-s 16
Indefinite 16
Past Indefinite 17
Future Indefinite 17
shall will 17
Indefinite 18
19
20
to do 20
to be 21
fo have 21
: Continuous Tenses 23
? 23
Present Continuous, 24
Past Continuous 25
Future Continuous 25
25
, Continuous 26
: Perfect Tenses 26
27
? 27
Present Perfect 38
- 29
Present Perfect Past Indefinite - , ? 29
Present Perfect 30
Past Perfect 31
Past Perfect 31
Future Perfect 32
Future Perfect 32
: Perfect Continuous Tenses 32
Perfect Continuous 33
Present Perfect Continuous 34
Past Perfect Continuous 35
Future Perfect Continuous 35
37

203
38
38
Future in the Past 39
41
43
43
43
44
45
48
. The Passive Voice 49
50
52
53
53
53
? 54
? 54
to 54
55
55
56
56
, 56
57
58
59
59
59
59
60
60
61
62
62
Must 63
May 64
Ought 65
66
68
68
68
71
for + 74
74
75
75
77
77
77
78
Subjunctive Mood 79

204
Subjunctive M o o d 79
Subjunctive 79
Subjunctive if 80
(Shifting of Tenses) 80
but for + somebody 81
Subjunctive to wish 81
Subjunctive to demand,
to order, to insist, to suggest, to recommend 83
Subjunctive it is important, it is demanded, it is required,
it is necessary, it is essential 83
Subjunctive
s o that lest 84
Subjunctive as if as though 84
" " 86

:
. THE NOUN
92
? 92
: 93
. Gender 93
93
- 93
94
. Number 94
(man - men, etc.) 94
(sheep, aircraft, etc.) 95
(-s) 95
: 95
96
96
96
- - 97
-ics (physics, etc.) 97
, 98
98
(news, money, etc.) 98
(hair, fruit, fish, etc.) 99
99
. Case 100
: 100
? 100
100
101
. Possessive C a s e 101
- 101
of 102
- 's 102
102
102

205
- 103
104
107
107
, 108
109

. THE ADJECTIVE
- 111
111
. Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives 112
112
112
(good - better, etc.) 112
(older- elder, etc.) 112
: farther further 113
(many, far, etc.) 113
, (loud, lovely, etc.) 114
(afraid, asleep, etc.) 114
115
115
116
118

. THE ARTICLE
120
120
(one, that) 121
121
122
122
123
124
: trouble 125
125
125
128
: 128
129
131
132
: ? 133
: "" 133
134
134
136
138

. ADVERBS
, , 140
, 140
: ? 142
. Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs 143
143

206
. PRONOUNS
. Persona) Pronouns 146
147
. Possessive Pronouns 147
- . Reflexive-Emphasizing Pronouns 148
: -
? 149
. Demonstrative Pronouns 149
. Interrogative Pronouns 150
: 150
. Relative Pronouns 151
: 151
. Conjunctive Pronouns 152
: ... ?152
. Indefinite Pronouns 152
some, any 153
: some any 153
: ? 153
some any 154
every, each, either 155
: either... or 156
neither 156
: neither... nor 156
. Negative Pronouns 157
, 157
: 157
one, nobody, nothing 157
much many, little few 158
little - a little, few - a few 158
other another 159
each other one another 160
both, all, whole 160
one 161
: - one 161

. NUMERALS
. Cardinal Numerals 162
: ? 162
163
. Ordinal Numerals 163
164
: 166
, 166
. Fractional Numerals 167

. CONJUNCTIONS
168
either... or, neither... nor 168
169
unless lest 169
notwithstanding? 170

. PREPOSITIONS
171

207
: ? 172
. Prepositions of Time 172
. Prepositions of Place 173
173
. INTERJECTIONS 176
177
: ? 177

1. 179
2. 181
, of 182
, to 182
, for 183
, on (upon) 183
, in (into) 183
, at 184
, from 184
, with 184
3. 185
186
189
4. 193