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4.

RESISTANCE AND POWERING

4.1. RESISTANCE

The resistance of a ship at a given speed is the force required to tow the ship at that speed
in
Smooth water, assuming no interference from the towing ship. If the hull has no
appendages
This is called bare hull resistance.

Towing power or effective power, PE = RT V

Where,
PE is in kW,
RT is resistance in kN,
V is speed in m/s

For doing powering calculations we have to know total resistance of the ship. It can be
calculated in many ways, namely:-
1) Guldhammer and Harvald method
2) Holtrop & J.J Mennen method
etc.

The major components of ships hull form resistance are:-


1. Viscous resistance
2. Pressure resistance
3. Separation and eddy resistance
4. Air resistance
5. Steering resistance
6. Additional resistance due to restricted water way, if any.

Calm water resistance is made up of four main components, namely,


a) Frictional resistance
b) Viscous pressure drag
c) Wave making resistance
d) Eddy and separation resistance

Frictional resistance accounts for about 80-85 % of total resistance in slow speed ships and
About 50% in high speed ships. It depends upon the Reynolds number.

Reynolds number = VL/

Where,
V is the speed in m/s,
L is the length on waterline,
is the kinematic viscosity of water

Wave making resistance is dependent on Froude number.

Froude number (Fn) = V/((gL)^0.5)

Where,
g is acceleration due to gravity
V is the speed in m/s
L is the length on waterline

At low speeds the wave making resistance is very small.


Various methods are available for the estimation of ship resistance. All these can be said
to be approximate. Holtrop and Mennen is a most commonly used method and it is
expected to give reliable results. Also, we will be giving additional allowances. Also,
Guldhammer and Harvald method is adopted.

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4.2.1. Holtrop and Mennen Method

The Holtrop and Mennen method was used and computations were done manually to
obtain the resistance value. The effective power requirement was also found for various
speeds.

The parameters used for the computation of resistance using holtrop and Mennen method
are as follows.

Table 4.1 Holtrop and Mennen method input parameters

Particular Symbol Value Unit

Waterline length LWL 190.57 m

Between Perpendiculars LBP 190.57 m

Length of Run LR 72.75 m

Moulded B 32.26 m

Moulded D 18.85 m

Average moulded T 12.72 m

Volumetric diplacement 69727 m3

Density of sea water 1025 kg.m-3

Kinematic Viscosity of 1.16E-06


water

Displacement 71470 t

Trim 1025 m

Service Speed V 14 kn

Longitudinal Centre of LCB 5.252


Bouyancy

Acceleration due to gravity g 9.81 m.s-2

Midship Area Coefficient CM 0.99

Prismatic Coefficient CP 0.891

Block Coefficient CB 0.891

Waterplane Area CWP 0.92


Coefficient

Transverse Bulb Area ABT 0

Half Angle of Entrance ie 57.63686648

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Rudder area 41.104

Calculation

Froude Number Fn 0.167

C12 0.547055197

C13 1.03

Wetted Hull Surface Area S 9793.835261 m^2

1+K1 1.923212137

1+k2 1.5

Reynold's Number Rn 2303133087

log rn 9.362319035

Frictional Resistance CF 0.001383668


Coefficient

Frictional Resistance RF 360.1941482 KN

Appandage Resistance Rap 8.569535545 KN

c1 8.179403727

c2 1

c5 1

c7 0.169281629

c15 -3.121785764

c16 1.1004703

m1 -2.080031968

m2 -0.06740158

lamda 1.105820533

Wave Making Resistance RW 174.2711294 KN

c4 0.04

Model Ship Correlation CA 0.000371203


Coefficient

Model Ship Correlation Ra 365.19 KN


Resistance

Total Resistance RT 1240.76 KN

Effective Power PE 8928.48 KW

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Appedage Allowance AA 5 %

Trial Allowance TA 20 %

Total Resistance with RTs 1550.95 kN


Allowance

Effective Power with Pes 11169.29 kW


Allowance

The Total Resistance with allowance has been found as 1550.95 kN and Effective Power
requirement is found as 11169.29 kW

4.2.1.1. Variation Of Effective Power With Speed


The below table shows the variation of effective power requirement with respect to speed.

Table 4.2 Variation of Effective Power with speed in Holtrop and Mennen method

SPEED PE(kW)
0 0.00
0.5 318.87
1 637.75
1.5 956.62
2 1275.50
2.5 1594.37
3 1913.25
3.5 2232.12
4 2550.99
4.5 2869.87
5 3188.74
5.5 3507.62
6 3826.49
6.5 4145.37
7 4464.24
7.5 4783.11
8 5101.99
8.5 5420.86
9 5739.74
9.25 5899.17
9.5 6058.61
9.75 6218.05
10 6377.49
10.25 6536.92
10.5 6696.36
10.75 6855.80
11 7015.23

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11.25 7174.67
11.5 7334.11
11.75 7493.55
12 7652.98
12.25 7812.42
12.5 7971.86
12.75 8131.29
13 8290.73
13.25 8450.17
13.5 8609.61
13.75 8769.04
14 8928.48

Fig 4.1 V vs. PE Graph from Holtrop and Mennen method of resistance calculation

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4.1.2. Guldhammer and Harvald Method

We used a software named as Technomak Perform to compute resistance using this


method.
Here, the total resistance is split into frictional and residuary resistances. Then certain
corrections are added to it. According to this method the resistance is given by,
R 2
T = CT*1/2SVS

Where,
RT = total resistance
CT = Coefficient of resistance
= Mass density
S = wetted surface of the ship
VS = velocity of the ship and
CT = CR+ CF+ CA

Where,

CR = residual resistance coefficient; (Obtained from graph)


CF = frictional resistance coefficient, given as,
CF = 0.075/ (log10Rn-2)
CA = incremental resistance coefficient, for roughness

3
The residuary resistance coefficient is obtained from a Froude number (Fn) vs. 10 CR
1/3
chart for different values of CP. These charts are for a specific L/ value. The actual
value of CR is obtained after applying corrections if any (such as B/T, LCB, etc.).

The results obtained through software and also the input parameters are given as below.

4.1.2.1. Input Parameters To Software

Length = 190.5700 m
Breadth = 32.2600 m
Depth = 18.8500 m
Draft (Mean) = 12.7200 m
Draft (Fwd) = 12.7200 m
Draft (Aft) = 12.7200 m
Displacement = 71470.0930 MT
Wet Surface Area = 9793.8300 m2
Water plane Area = 5655.9600 m2
Midship Section Area = 406.2400 m2
Half angle of entrance = 36.0000 Deg
LCB fwd of midship = 5.2520 m

Seawater Density = 1.025 MT/m3


Air Density = 1.2810 kg/m3
Kinematic Viscosity = 1.18831E-06 m2/s
Vessel Type = bulk carriers

Fore Body Type = U-Shape

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Aft Body Type = U-Shape
Chine Type = Round Bilge
User Name / Device Name = user

Condition Name = CONDITION-1


Sig. wave height = 0.0000
Wind speed@10m elev. = 0.0000
Current = 0.0000
Start Speed = 0.0000
End Speed = 14.0000
Increment Speed = 0.5000

APPENDAGE AREA (m2)


-----------------------------------------------------------------
Rudder behind skeg = 86.0000

-----------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL APPENDAGE AREA = 86.0000 m2
NET FORM FACTOR (1+K2) = 1.5000

The above mentioned parameters were input into the software and the resistance was
computed. The software is based on exact science prediction.

4.1.2.2. Summary Of Resistance Prediction

The summary of total resistance is as given below.

Table 4.3 Variation of Resistance with respect to speed in Guldhammer and Harvald
method

SPEED (knots) Resistance (kN)


0.000 0.00
0.500 1.57
1.000 5.77
1.500 12.44
2.000 21.56
2.500 33.10
3.000 47.07
3.500 63.50
4.000 82.41
4.500 103.83
5.000 127.81
5.500 154.40
6.000 183.68
6.500 215.72
7.000 250.63
7.500 288.54
8.000 329.57
8.500 373.91
9.000 421.75

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9.500 473.30
10.000 528.82
10.500 588.60
11.000 652.96
11.500 722.27
12.000 796.92
12.500 877.36
13.000 964.08
13.500 1057.62
14.000 1158.77

The Total Resistance value obtained is 1158.77 kN.

4.1.2.3. Summary Of Effective Power Prediction


The summary of effective power prediction as per the method is as given below.

Table 4.4 Variation of Effective Power with speed in Guldhammer and Harvald method

SPEED Effective Power (kW)


(Knots)
0.000 0.00
0.500 0.40
1.000 2.97
1.500 9.60
2.000 22.18
2.500 42.56
3.000 72.65
3.500 114.34
4.000 169.58
4.500 240.37
5.000 328.75
5.500 436.87
6.000 566.95
6.500 721.34
7.000 902.55
7.500 1113.26
8.000 1356.37
8.500 1635.02
9.000 1952.66
9.500 2313.08
10.000 2720.46
10.500 3179.40
11.000 3695.02
11.500 4272.99
12.000 4919.62
12.500 5641.87

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13.000 6447.51
13.500 7345.14
14.000 8345.62

Fig 4.2 V vs. PE Graph from Guldhammer-Harvald method of resistance calculation

Effective Power - Guld Hammer & Harvald Method


9000.00

8000.00

7000.00

6000.00

5000.00
GULDHAMR
Eff. Power(KW) 4000.00

3000.00

2000.00

1000.00

0.00
0.000 5.000 10.000 15.000

Speed(Kn)

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4.1.3. Summary of Resistance Estimation

The total resistance value obtained from Holtrop and Mennen method was 6.61 % greater
than that of the Guldhammer and Harvald Method. The powering calculations are done as
per the resistance value obtained from the former. The total resistance value obtained from
Guldhammer and Harvald Method is 1158.77 kN and the former is 1240.76 kN

We are opting for the value given by Holtrop and Mennen as it was found as more
acceptable feasible solution comparing to our parent ships resistance and power. Also,
Holtrop and Mennen method is expected to give a more satisfying result and is widely used.

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4.2 Powering

4.2.1. Introduction
Having knowledge of the variation of resistance with speed, the next step is to select an
engine which is able to deliver the power required to overcome the resistance. For this an
approximate prediction of shaft power should be done. After the selection of the engine a
propulsion system suitable to deliver the thrust to overcome the resistance at the maximum
possible efficiency is to be designed.

4.2.2. Propulsion System


A single screw propulsion system is selected. This system is much simple, and
consequently less costly to purchase and operate. Furthermore, for most merchant ships
with normal hull forms, single screw propulsion also results in the highest possible
hydrodynamic efficiency due to the higher hull efficiency and minimum appendage
resistance. Also the ship in concern does not require exceptional manoeuvring
characteristics and sufficient draft is available to accommodate greater diameters. Another
favourable characteristic of a single screw installation is that it requires comparatively lower
power to propel the same ship at the same speed.

4.2.3. Open Water Propeller Series


Wageningen B series [Oosterveld, 1975] was selected for the design of propeller. This
series was developed from the open- water analysis of 120 Troost (air- foil) form, open
wheel propellers in the Netherlands Ship Model Basin (NSMB) at Wageningen.

Given below are the ranges of parameters of propellers in this series.

Configuration : Open-wheel
Number of blades : 2 to 7
Blade area ratio : 0.3 to 1.05
Pitch-Diameter ratio : 0.5 to 1.4
Advance coefficient : 0.05 to 1.5

4.2.4. Calculation Of QPC


Quasi-propulsive coefficient or QPC (D) is defined as the ratio of effective power to the
delivered power: QPC = PE / PD. It can also be obtained from the product of Hull efficiency
Relative-rotative efficiency and the Open water efficiency.

QPC =D = H*R*o

From the above factors it is understood that to estimate QPC we need the values of t, w, H,
R, o. The former three values can be obtained from empirical relations and the open water
efficiency can be obtained from available open water propeller series for some basis
propeller. Some of the parameters of this basis propeller such as number of blades,
diameter, blade area ratio etc. are to be determined before using the series data. The
effects of these factors are discussed below.

The Hull efficiency is given by H = (1-t)/(1-w), where t is the thrust deduction factor which
accounts for the reduction in thrust due to the reduced pressure ahead of propeller and w is
the wake factor, which is indicative of the reduction in water velocity to the propeller.

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4.2.5. Diameter

In theory, the largest diameter produces the greatest possible efficiency. So the selection of
diameter is more often than not determined by the available stern opening. Like all physical
trends, however, there are practical limits that should be observed since this is not always
the case.

Obviously, some clearances must exist between the hull and the propeller tips to control
noise and vibration. The extent of this clearance depends upon the application, but is
usually ten to twenty percent of the diameter. Single-screw installations tend to require
greater clearances than multi-screw.

Cavitation play an important role in the selection of diameter. Excessive tip speeds - a
function of the diameter and RPM - can generate tip cavitation. Since propeller RPM is
often dictated by an existing reduction ratio, the diameter may be the only parameter that
can be changed to correct this.

4.2.6. Blade Area


The amount of blade area does not greatly affect theoretical performance, but the trend is
that less blade area increases efficiency. Its primary function is to provide enough area to
distribute the generated pressures so that the lift in any particular spot stays below a certain
cavitation - inducing level. So the idea is to use as little blade area as possible while
retaining enough to distribute the pressures. In addition to the cavitation limits, there are
other upper and lower limits to maintain. If a blade area is too low, structural concerns will
require that the thickness of the blades be increased resulting in a reduction in efficiency.

4.2.7. Number Of Blades


Like blade area trends the fewer the blades, the greater the theoretical efficiency.
The number of blades and the required blade area, however, usually go hand in hand.

4.2.8. Design Procedure Using BP- Charts


To design using BP- charts, there are many propulsive parameters to find out.
They are:-

4.2.8.1 Wake Fraction

The wake fraction calculation has been tabulated as below.

Table 4.5 Wake Fraction Calculation

w= 0.5 CB 0.05 (Taylors formula) 0.3955


w= 0.7CP -0.18 (Hecksher formula) 0.4437
w= 0.535 CB 0.07 (BSRA formula) 0.406685
The CB and CP values are both = 0.891
Average Wake Fraction = w 0.415295

4.2.8.2 Average Thrust Deduction Factor

The Average Thrust Deduction Factor calculation has been tabulated as below.

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Table 4.6 Average Thrust Deduction Factor Calculation

t= 0.5 CP 0.12 (Hecksher formula) 0.3255


t= KxW (Schoencher formula) 0.249177
Where, K = 0.5 0.6 for single screw ,Here we took k=0.6
Average Thrust Deduction Fraction = t 0.2873385

4.3.8.3 Velocity Of Advance, Va


The velocity of advance is found as
Va = V (1-w) = 14*(1-0.415) = 8.19 m/s

4.2.8.4. Relative Rotative Efficiency, R


Relative rotative efficiency, R is taken as 1.05 in the absence of test data.

4.2.8.5. Propeller Diameter Calculations


The Propeller Diameter Calculations has been tabulated as below.

Table 4.7 Propeller Diameter Calculation

Draught 12.72 m
Approximate propeller diameter = 2/3 * T m 8.48 m
Hub diameter = 0.2D 1.696 m
Shaft diameter = 1/2(Hub diameter) 0.848 m
Length of the boss = 2.4 Shaft diameter 2.0352 m

4.2.8.6. Thrust Calculation


The Thrust Calculation has been tabulated as below.

Table 4.8 Thrust Calculation

Total Resistance with appendages (KN) RTS =RT + Allow. 1550.9451 KN


Thrust RTs/(1-t) 2176.27 KN

4.2.8.7. Aufen Keller Formula

For checking for safety against cavitation, the minimum expanded blade
ratio was
calculated using the Aufen Keller formula. We had considered the use of a
3 bladed propeller and has made some computations and later we
dropped it. We went for a 4 bladed propeller as we found that our parent
ship was using a 4 bladed propeller.

The Aufen Keller Formula is given as below.


2
(AE/AO) min = (1.3+0.3Z)/ (Patm+gh-Pv)*(T/D ) + k

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Table 4.9 Aufen Keller Formulae Calculation to find expanded blade area ratio

(AE/AO)min=(1.3+0.3Z)/(Patm+ gH- Pv)(T/D2)+ k


D Diameter of Propeller 8.48 m
Z Number of Blades 4
h height of centre line above base 4.44 m
H T -h 8.28 m
Patm Atmospheric Pressure 101300 N/m2
Density of Sea water 1025 kg/m3
P0 P0=Patm + gH 184557.47 N/m2
PV Vapour Pressure of water @ 15C 1646 N/m2
K Single Screw 0.2
AE/AO Expanded blade area ratio 0.5733083
DO Open water Diameter 8.926315789 m
Va Advance velocity 8.18587 Knots
PE Effective Power 11169.29 KW

Based on the cavitation check formulae results, the minimum required expanded blade area
ratio is found as 0.573.

4.2.8.8. Selection Of Propeller Series

Since we have found the minimum value of AE/AO, we may choose the propeller type.
Hence, the chosen propeller is Wageningen B 4-70 series propeller. Our parent ship also
has similar propeller.
Wageningen B 3-65 series was also considered, but was not considered after computations
later.

The engine selection and rest of the propeller parameters has been found out through a
series of iterative processes as explained below.

We know that,

Speed of the ship = 14 knots


Effective power of the ship (PE) = 11169.29 kW

We assume the value of the delivered efficiency or QPC in between the range of possible
values. In this case, we take the assumed range of QPC values between 0.55 and 0.65.
Many iterations are done in intermediate positions.

We know that the Delivered Power, PD=PE/QPC (kW)

With the value of assumed QPC, we find the Delivered Power PD and correspondingly
calculate Bp- values.

1/2 2.5
Bp=1.158(N*P /V )

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=3.2808((NxD0/VA)
To find out RPM, We selected a range of propeller rpm, e.g. N=50-80 rpm, and calculated
Bp- values and and read-off propeller efficiency, o at corresponding Bp- from the Bp-
chart for Wageningen B 4-70 diagram. The maximum efficiency will occur at the optimum
RPM.

The Bp- chart for Wageningen B 4-70 diagram is given as below.

Fig 4.3. Bp- chart for Wageningen B 4-70

We know that,

QPC =D = H*R*o
We substitute the values of o, H and R and find out the QPC again and compare the
percentage difference between the QPC as we got and the QPC we assumed. When the
difference is in the negligible level or when the difference changes in sign between two
values of QPC, we get to understand that the actual QPC is lying in between those two
values. This is how we find the QPC.

Some of the iterations that we did with various values of QPC are given below. Many
iterations have been omitted here.

For assumed QPC = 0.65,


Delivered Power, PD = 17170.15 kW

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The calculations are tabulated as below.

Table 4.10 Iterative Calculations to find the actual QPC 1

N Do D(ft) Bp o P/D PD (kW) PE (kW)


50 8.93 29.29 178.88 39.58 46.10 1.34 17170.15 11160.60
55 8.93 29.29 196.77 43.54 47.60 1.12 17170.15 11160.60
60 8.93 29.29 214.66 47.50 47.75 1.01 17170.15 11160.60
65 8.93 29.29 232.55 51.46 47.90 0.91 17170.15 11160.60
70 8.93 29.29 250.44 55.42 48.00 0.82 17170.15 11160.60
75 8.93 29.29 268.33 59.38 47.00 0.75 17170.15 11160.60
80 8.93 29.29 286.21 63.33 46.60 0.67 17170.15 11160.60

In this case, the maximum open water efficiency is found at 65 rpm and hence we take the
value of open water efficiency 47.90 % and substitute in the equation below

QPC =D = H*R*o
The value of QPC obtained is as 0.613 which is different from the assumed QPC
which was 0.65

For assumed QPC = 0.58,


Delivered Power, PD = 19242.41 kW

The calculations are tabulated as below.

Table 4.11 Iterative Calculations to find the actual QPC 2

N Do D(ft) Bp o P/D PD (kW) PE (kW)


50.00 8.93 29.29 178.88 41.90 44.40 1.40 19242.41 11160.60
55.00 8.93 29.29 196.77 46.10 46.00 1.18 19242.41 11160.60
60.00 8.93 29.29 214.66 50.29 46.25 1.03 19242.41 11160.60
65.00 8.93 29.29 232.55 54.48 46.30 0.98 19242.41 11160.60
70.00 8.93 29.29 250.44 58.67 46.50 0.82 19242.41 11160.60
75.00 8.93 29.29 268.33 62.86 46.00 0.78 19242.41 11160.60
80.00 8.93 29.29 286.21 67.05 45.75 0.73 19242.41 11160.60

In this case, the maximum open water efficiency is found at 70 rpm and hence we take the
value of open water efficiency 46.50 % and substitute in the equation below.

QPC =D = H*R*o
The value of QPC obtained is as 0.595 which is different from the assumed QPC
which was 0.58
We observe that the difference between Assumed QPC and actual QPC has come down
greatly.

For assumed QPC = 0.59,


Delivered Power, PD = 18916.27 kW

The calculations are tabulated as below.

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Table 4.12 Iterative Calculations to find the actual QPC 3

N Do D(ft) Bp o P/D PD (kW) PE (kW)


50.0 8.93 29.29 178.88 41.55 44.5 1.38 18916.2 11160.60
0 0 7
55.0 8.93 29.29 196.77 45.70 46.2 1.17 18916.2 11160.60
0 5 7
60.0 8.93 29.29 214.66 49.86 46.5 1.04 18916.2 11160.60
0 0 7
65.0 8.93 29.29 232.55 54.01 46.6 0.95 18916.2 11160.60
0 5 7
70.0 8.93 29.29 250.44 58.17 46.7 0.85 18916.2 11160.60
0 0 7
75.0 8.93 29.29 268.33 62.32 46.5 0.75 18916.2 11160.60
0 0 7
80.0 8.93 29.29 286.21 66.48 45.8 0.70 18916.2 11160.60
0 0 7

In this case, the maximum open water efficiency is found at 70 rpm and hence we take the
value of open water efficiency 46.70 % and substitute in the equation below.

QPC =D = H*R*o
The value of QPC obtained is as 0.5976 which is different from the assumed QPC
which was 0.59
We observe that the difference between Assumed QPC and actual QPC has further come
down greatly.

For assumed QPC = 0.61,


Delivered Power, PD = 18296.07 kW

The calculations are tabulated as below.

Table 4.13 Iterative Calculations to find the actual QPC 4

N Do D(ft) Bp o P/D PD (kW) PE (kW)


50.00 8.93 29.29 178.88 40.86 45.2 1.38 18296.0 11160.60
5 7
55.00 8.93 29.29 196.77 44.95 46.2 1.17 18296.0 11160.60
5 7
60.00 8.93 29.29 214.66 49.03 46.3 1.08 18296.0 11160.60
0 7
65.00 8.93 29.29 232.55 53.12 46.5 0.97 18296.0 11160.60
0 7
70.00 8.93 29.29 250.44 57.21 47.0 0.84 18296.0 11160.60
0 7
75.00 8.93 29.29 268.33 61.29 46.5 0.76 18296.0 11160.60
0 7
80.00 8.93 29.29 286.21 65.38 46.0 0.70 18296.0 11160.60
0 7

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In this case, the maximum open water efficiency is found at 70 rpm and hence we take the
value of open water efficiency 47 % and substitute in the equation below.

QPC =D = H*R*o
The value of QPC obtained is as 0.60149 which is different from the assumed QPC which
was 0.61
We observe that the actual QPC is lying between 0.59 and 0.61

For assumed QPC = 0.6,


Delivered Power, PD = 17170.2 kW

The calculations are tabulated as below.

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Table 4.14 Iterative Calculations to find the actual QPC 5

N Do D(ft) Bp o P/D PD (kW) PE (kW)


50.00 8.93 29.29 178.88 39.58 46.30 1.33 17170.1 11160.60
5
55.00 8.93 29.29 196.77 43.54 47.50 1.14 17170.1 11160.60
5
60.00 8.93 29.29 214.66 47.50 47.60 1.02 17170.1 11160.60
5
65.00 8.93 29.29 232.55 51.46 47.80 0.90 17170.1 11160.60
5
70.00 8.93 29.29 250.44 55.42 47.50 0.82 17170.1 11160.60
5
75.00 8.93 29.29 268.33 59.38 47.25 0.72 17170.1 11160.60
5
80.00 8.93 29.29 286.21 63.33 46.50 0.67 17170.1 11160.60
5

In this case, the maximum open water efficiency is found at 65 rpm and hence we take the
value of open water efficiency 47.8 % and substitute in the equation below.

QPC =D = H*R*o
The value of QPC obtained is as 0.60149 which is different from the assumed QPC which
was 0.60

We observe that the actual QPC is lying between 0.60 and 0.61

For assumed QPC = 0.605,


Delivered Power, PD = 18447.00 kW

The calculations are tabulated as below.

Table 4.15 Iterative Calculations to find the actual QPC 6

Do D(ft) Bp o P/D PD (kW) PE (kW)


N
50.00 8.93 29.29 178.88 41.03 45.00 1.38 18447.0 11160.6
55.00 8.93 29.29 196.77 45.13 46.30 1.17 18447.0 11160.6
60.00 8.93 29.29 214.66 49.24 46.40 1.07 18447.0 11160.6
65.00 8.93 29.29 232.55 53.34 46.50 0.98 18447.0 11160.6
70.00 8.93 29.29 250.44 57.44 47.27 0.84 18447.0 11160.6
75.00 8.93 29.29 268.33 61.54 46.50 0.77 18447.0 11160.6
80.00 8.93 29.29 286.21 65.65 46.25 0.70 18447.0 11160.6

In this case, the maximum open water efficiency is found at 70 rpm and hence we take the
value of open water efficiency 47.27 % and substitute in the equation below.

QPC =D = H*R*o

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The value of QPC obtained is as 0.60495 which is different from the assumed QPC which
was 0.605 and the difference between actual and assumed QPC is only 0.000078 %. So,
we take the actual QPC as 0.605

Also, the RPM at which the maximum open water efficiency is resulted is at 70 RPM. This
has to be the rated engine RPM as there is no gearing in our ship.

4.2.9. Power Requirement Of Engine

As we have found out the value of QPC, we choose the Engine for our ship based on that
QPC value. The computation of the power requirement per engine is tabulated as below.
The shaft efficiency is assumed as 98.5 %.

Table 4.16 Power Requirement computation

Quasi Propulsive Coefficient QPC 0.605

Shaft Efficiency NS 0.985

Brake Horse Power (kW) PD = PE /(QPC*NS) 18742.772


Brake Horse Power (hp) 25483.034
Number of Engines NE 1.000
Power Required Per Engine PEN (HP) 25483.034
Power Required Per Engine PEN (KW) 18742.772
Power Required Per Engine 18742.77 kW

The engine selection had to be done in such a way that the engine we choose has to give
out that much power at the rated 70 rpm.

After having gone through thorough research, we found out an engine as per requirement.

4.2.10. Engine Plant Selection

The engine was selected and its parameters are as given below. The selected engine is
MAN B&W S60-ME-C8-8 .Its basically a ME Engine which is electronically controlled
engine which has higher efficiency and also lesser emissions.

The engine chosen is expected to comply with newer regulations put forward by
International authorities in the upcoming future. Also ME Engines has higher Power to
weight ratio compared to ordinary marine engines of same rating.

Table 4.17 Engine Details

Model MAN B&W S60-ME-C8-8


RPM 89
Power (kW) 19040
Power(HP) 25904.76
Bore(mm) 600
Stroke(mm) 2400
Cylinder 8
MEP(bar) 20
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SFC(g/Kwh) 171
Weight(t) 463

A check on displacement was done after choosing the Engine and was satisfactory with the
initial displacement check.

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4.2.11. Final Propeller Parameters
The final propeller parameters are given as below in the table.

Table 4.18 Final Propeller Parameters

Type Wageningen B-Series. B 4.70


Diameter 8.48 m
P/D 0.84
Ae/Ao 0.57331
Z 4
Pitch 7.1232 m
Open Water Diameter 8.926315789 m

4.2.12. Summary Of Resistance And Powering

The resistance test was done using exact science prediction methodologies like Holtrop &
J.J Mennen method and Guldhammer & Harvald method. The result obtained through
Holtrop & Mennen was taken as it was found as more satisfying.

The propeller parameters are recommended and powering calculations were done and an
engine selection was done to overcome the offered resistance from the hull and at the
same time complying with the propeller chosen. The engine chosen is of advanced
technology which is more environment friendly.

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