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1. This question is about a spiders web.

An experiment was carried out to measure the extension x of a thread of a spiders web when
a load F is applied to it. The results of the experiment are shown plotted below.
Uncertainties in the measurements are not shown.

9 .0 th re a d
b re a k s a t
8 .0 th is p o in t

7 .0

6 .0

5 .0
2
F / 10 N
4 .0

3 .0

2 .0

1 .0

0 .0
0 .0 1 .0 2 .0 3 .0 4 .0 5 .0 6 .0

2
x / 10 m

(a) Draw a best-fit line for the data points.


(1)

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(b) When a load is applied to a material, it is said to be under stress. The magnitude
P of the stress is given by

F
P
A

where, A is the area of cross-section of the sample of the material.

Use the graph and the data below to deduce that the thread used in the
experiment has a greater breaking stress than steel.
9 2
Breaking stress of steel = 1.0 10 N m

6
Radius of spider web thread = 4.5 10 m

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(3)

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(c) In a particular web, one thread has the same original length as the thread used in
the experiment. In the making of this web, the original length of the thread is
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extended by 2.4 10 m.

(i) Use the graph to deduce that the amount of work required to further extend
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the thread to the length at which it just breaks, is about 1.6 10 J. Explain
your working.

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(3)

(ii) If the thread is not to break due to the impact of a flying insect, then the
thread must be capable of absorbing all the kinetic energy of the insect as it
is brought to rest by the impact. Determine the impact speed that an insect
of mass 0.15 g must have in order that it just breaks the thread.

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(3)
(Total 10 marks)

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2. A hot object may be cooled by blowing air past it. This cooling process is known as
forced convection. In order to investigate forced convection, hot oil was placed in a
metal can. The can was placed on an insulating block and air was blown past the can,
as shown below.

s tirre r
th e rm o m e te r

lid

h o t o il
c u rre n t o f a ir
m e ta l c a n

in s u la tin g b lo c k

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The hot oil was stirred continuously and its temperature was taken every minute as it
cooled.

The graph below shows the variation with time of the temperature of the cooling oil.

120

100

80
te m p e ra tu re / C

60

40

20

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
tim e / m in u te s

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It is thought that the rate R of decrease of temperature depends on the temperature
difference between the oil and its surroundings (the excess temperature E). The
temperature of the surroundings was 26C.

(a) On the graph above,

(i) draw a straight-line parallel to the time axis to represent the temperature of
the surroundings;
(1)

(ii) by drawing a suitable tangent, calculate the rate of decrease of


1
temperature, in C s , for an excess temperature of 50 Celsius degrees
(C).

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(4)

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(b) In order to investigate the variation with R of qE, a graph of R against qE is
plotted. The graph below shows four plotted data points. Uncertainties in the
points are not included.

0 .2 4

0 .2 0

0 .1 6

R / C s 1 0 .1 2

0 .0 8

0 .0 4

0 .0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100

E / C

(i) Using your answer to (a)(ii), plot the data point corresponding toqE = 50C.
(1)

(ii) The uncertainty in the measurement of R at each excess temperature is


10%. On the graph, draw error bars to represent the uncertainties in R at
excess temperatures of 20C and 81C.
(2)

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(c) Explain why the graph in (b) supports the conclusion that the excess temperature
qE is related to the rate of cooling R by the expression

R = kqE ,

where k is a constant.

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(3)
(Total 11 marks)

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3. As part of a road-safety campaign, the braking distances of a car were measured.

A driver in a particular car was instructed to travel along a straight road at a constant
speed v. A signal was given to the driver to stop and he applied the brakes to bring the
car to rest in as short a distance as possible. The total distance D travelled by the car
after the signal was given was measured for corresponding values of v. A sketch-graph
of the results is shown below.

0
0 D

(a) State why the sketch graph suggests that D and v are not related by an
expression of the form

D =mv + c,

where m and c are constants.

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(1)

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(b) It is suggested that D and v may be related by an expression of the form
2
D = av + bv ,

where a and b are constants.

In order to test this suggestion, the data shown below are used. The uncertainties
in the measurements of D and v are not shown.

1 D
v/ms D/m / ........
v

10.0 14.0 1.40

13.5 22.7 1.68

18.0 36.9 2.05

22.5 52.9

27.0 74.0 2.74

31.5 97.7 3.10

D
.
(i) In the table above, state the unit of v
(1)

D
,
(ii) Calculate the magnitude of v to an appropriate number of significant
1
digits, for v = 22.5 m s .

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(1)

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D
(c) Data from the table are used to plot a graph of v (y-axis) against v (x-axis).
Some of the data points are shown plotted below.

3 .5 0

3 .0 0

2 .5 0

2 .0 0
( S .I . u n its )

1 .5 0
v
D

1 .0 0

0 .5 0

0 .0 0
0 .0 0 5 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 1 5 .0 0 2 0 .0 0 2 5 .0 0 3 0 .0 0 3 5 .0 0
1
v / m s

On the graph above,


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(i) plot the data points for speeds corresponding to 22.5 m s and to 31.5 m
1
s .
(2)

(ii) draw the best-fit line for all the data points.
(1)

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(d) Use your graph in (c) to determine
1
(i) the total stopping distance D for a speed of 35 m s .

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(2)

D
(ii) the intercept on the v axis.

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(1)

(iii) the gradient of the best-fit line.

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(2)

(e) Using your answers to (d)(ii) and (d)(iii), deduce the equation for D in terms of v.

D = .........................................................................................................................
(1)

(f) (i) Use your answer to (e) to calculate the distance D for a speed v of 35.0 m
1
s .

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(1)

(ii) Briefly discuss your answers to (d)(i) and (f)(i).

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(1)
(Total 14 marks)

4. Some data for the resistance R of an electrical component at different temperatures are
shown below.

t /C R/
10.0 2600
15.0 2150
25.0 1510
30.0 1280
35.0 1080
40.0 925

A graph of the variation with temperature t of the resistance R of the component is


shown below. Error bars have been included.

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3400

3200

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200
R /
2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
t/ C

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(a) Estimate the uncertainty range in the temperature measurements.

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(1)

(b) Use the graph to determine the

(i) most probable resistance of the component at 20.0C and at 5.0C.

Resistance at 20.0C ........................................................................................


(1)

Resistance at 5.0C ..........................................................................................


(2)

(ii) rate of change of resistance with temperature at 20.0C.

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(3)

(c) The relationship between resistance and temperature is not linear. Describe, and
explain, the evidence for a non-linear relationship that is provided by the graph.

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(2)

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(d) A student suggests that the relationship between the resistance R and
temperature is of the form

c
R= T

where c is a constant and T is the thermodynamic (absolute) temperature.

Use data from the table to determine, without drawing a graph, whether this
suggestion is correct.

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(3)
(Total 12 marks)

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5. This question is about the electrical power available from a wind turbine.

The maximum electrical power generated by a wind turbine, Pout , was measured over
a range of incident wind speeds, vin.

The graph below shows the variation with vin of Pout. Uncertainties for the data are not
shown.

vin .
(a) It is suggested that Pout is proportional to

(i) Draw the line of best-fit for the data points.


(1)

(ii) State one reason why the line you have drawn does not support this
hypothesis.

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(1)

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(iii) The uncertainty in the power at 15 m s is 5%. Draw an error bar on the
graph to represent this uncertainty.
(2)

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(b) The theoretical relationship between the available power in the wind, Pin, and
incident wind speed is shown in the graph below.

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000
P m / kW

1500

1000

500

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
1
V m / m s

Using both graphs,


(i) determine the efficiency of the turbine for an incident wind speed of 14 m s
1
.

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(3)

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(ii) suggest, without calculation, how the efficiency of the turbine changes with
increasing wind speed.

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(3)

(c) Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of using wind turbines to generate
electrical energy.

Advantage: ...................................................................................................

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Disadvantage: ...................................................................................................

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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

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