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Mathl. Comput. ModellingVol. 24, No. 1, pp.

59-65, 1996
Pergamon Copyright@1996 Elaevier Science Ltd
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08957177/96 $15.00 + 0.00
SO8957177(96)00080-5

Adornians Polynomials
for Nonlinear Operators
V. SENG, K. ABBAOUI AND Y. CHERRUAULT
Universite Paris VI, Laboratoire MEDIMAT
15 Rue de 1Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris CBdex 06, Prance

(Received and accepted July 1995)

Abstract-In this paper, we use the decomposition method for solving an equation of the form
u = Nu, where N iz nonlinear operator. We alzo give new formulae for the calculation of Adomians
polynomials for an operator and generalize these results for a multidimensional operator. These new
results are then uzed for solving the Navier-Stokesequations.

Keywords-Decomposition method, Adomians polynomials, Navier-Stokesequations.

1. INTRODUCTION

We propose new formulae for the calculation of the Adomians polynomials A, associated to
nonlinear operator N, in order to solve functional equations of the form: 1~= Nu. The decom-
position method [l-3] consists in calculating the solution of functional equations as an infinite
series in which each term can be easily determined by the iterated scheme:

uc given,
(1.1)
un+l =An{N(u)l, n E N,

where the Adomians polynomials A, are defined by (2.1).


On the one hand, we study the unidimensional case, then we generalize our results to the
multidimensional case. On the other hand, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations [2,3].
REMARK. In all of this paper, we use the following notation:

(h)[kl = (h,. . . , h)k times, O-2)


h E E, where E is a Banach space.

2. CALCULATION OF ADOMIANS POLYNOMIALS

DEFINITION 2.1. Let E and F be two Ba.nach spaces, IK a scalar field, define N : E -+ F,
u -+ Nu, a nonlinear operator, differentiable up to the nth order at @(X0), where Q is a function
of the scalar variable X, taking its values in E, and defined by Q(X) = Cz, Xui.
We define the Adomians polynomials by the formula

A,{N(u)} = -$ -&N .(l)[?+ 7%E N. (2.1)


x=0
60 V. SENG et al.

This can be written as

n
(N(u)) = wownw.w[n]
where No@ 9 : # + F,
n.I

THEOREM 2.2.

Ao = N(uo)>
n _
(2.3)
N(k)(Uo)
(% 7 . . * , IlPk> , n=l,2,....
k=l Pl + "+Pk =n

PROOF. We first use the Taylor expansion [4] of N and @ at the neighbourhood of @(X0) and
X0, respectively; then owing to the &linear symmetry of N@)(@(Xo)), we obtain

N(Qi(X)) = N(Q(Xo)) + g j$pl ,ckcl


(;;f;;;;;+
N(k)(@(Xo))
, 7
(2.4
x
(@(qxo) ) . . . , dPk)(Xo)) )

where the coefficient of (A - Ao)~ is

(2.5)

On the other hand, the coefficient of (X-X0) is (N~Q)(~)(Xo).(l)[,l/n! by the Taylor expansion
in the neighbourhood of X0. So we can write
of X ---) (No@)(X)

n
(N~@)(~)(~o).(l)[n]
= 2 gpl,zkcn
1
&$ .~*pk,N(kw~O))
(9@(HO)>.
..>Q(pk)(xo))
*
n.I
(2.6)
Setting X0 = 0, and using a(O) = ~0, @ck) = uk for k = 1,. . . , n, we obtain (2.3) from (2.6): i

THEOREM 2.3.

Ao = N(uo),
A, = N(p+.+pn)(uo) (~1~~+. . . , u,+,,,~) .
(2.7)
c l
p1+2pn+...+npn=nPI!. . .d

PROOF. We remark that

c N(uO)(up,,...,u,,) =&; c 7 %k-,

Pl +...+Pk =n q=o Pl+...+Pk-q=n-9

(24
the expression (2.7) results from the calculation of ui for i = 2,. . . , n in (2.8). I
REMARK. From (2.7), we have

An = 2
kc1
c
pl+pa+...+p,=k
pl, p,,N(kbo)(wIpll,.
* **- .
.-P+~) . P-9)
pl+2pz+~~~+w, =n

If N is a linear operator, A, = N(uo)(u,), so, by using the Frechet derivative, the A, take the
simple form
A, = N(u,), n E N, (2.10)

where uo is supposed given.


Adomians Polynomials 61

3. GENERALIZATION TO THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL CASE


Wedefine

il= (Ul,...,Up) E El x a** x Ep where El, . . . , Ep are Banach spaces,


N : El x . . . x Ep + F,
C-t Nfi.

By using the previous methods [4], we can prove that

Ao = N(Zo), a0= (fJO,l, f.. , uo,p)


,
A, = N(pl+-.+pn)(G,) (~l~p,l, . . . , iqpnl) , n E N. (3.1)
c l
pl+2pz+...+*p,=n PI! . . . PTJ

THEOREM 3.1.

-40= N(zoio), co= (UO,l, . . . 7 11o,p),


. . >GJ = &(uo,l,. . . ,uo,~;wJ,.
&.(~oio,. . . ,uI,~;. . . ;un,l,. . . ,~,a,~)

=Fkll!k12f
n . . . . kl,, . . .k. n,l.k n.2. . . . k,np.
(3.2)

a(kl,l+kl,a+~~~+kl,~)+~~~+(k~,l+k~,z+~~~+kn+)Wu~,~, . . . , uo,p)
X
a+ a@2 . . . a&p . . . a+1 au?,2. . . a~$-
x (l,l[~~,~]~ %p[kl,,];
%2[k1,2]~ * * * ; %l[k,,l]r
* * * 9 %,Z[k,,a], . . *7%,p[k,,,])
,
where A, = {(kl,l + 2kz,1 + . . . + nk,,l) + . . . + (kl,p + 2k2,p + . . . + kn,p) = n}.
PROOF. Using the definition of the kth derivative of N at Go leads to

N() (do) (iEl,. ...k)= f:


jl,,,,,jk=l
akN(iio)
aujl. aujk
.
(hl,j,, a.. 7 hk,jk) ,
(3.3)

where hi,ji is the jkh component of &.


Let us set now (for ~1, . . . , p, fixed such that pl + . . . + p, = k)

i;z, . 7
hpl+l = hp1+2 = .-a = L++P2 = (3.4)
_
hpl+...+p,-l+l
= hpl+...+p,-l
= ... = hpl+...+p, = &.
Then, we have

N(p+-.+pk)(zZo) (Q,li,. . . , G,+,,j)

7 Un9jPl+...+Pn>

(3.5)

a(kl,l+...+kl,,)++(k,.l+...+k~,~)N(~o)
X
at@ . . . a@+ . . . a+1 . . . a&,,
x h[kl,l] 7- * * 7%,p[kl,,]; * * * ; %,l[k,,l], * * * , %,p[k,,,] >

An = (~1 = h,l + . ..+kl.p;Pz=kz,l+...+k2,p;...;~n=kn,l+ + kn,p),


62 V. SENG et al.

and that yields the result (3.2). Note that in the scalar case, F = K and we find again the results
of 151
Ao = N(ao), 30= (UO,l, . * * >UO,p),
kl,, k
kl,l+...+k,,l)+...+(kl,p+...+kn,p)
An=+...&..i.- % P
unnI; a(
(34
Ncoio),
*, h,l! ( . ICI,,! !i~~,~!&v+...+kn,l . . . du;l,p+-.+kn,p

WhereAn = t(kl,l +2kw +*a-+nkl,l) +-.a + (kl,p +2k2,p + . . . +TJ~,,~) = n}. I

4. EXAMPLES OF SOME POLYNOMIALS FOR p = 3

ii = (u, v, w),
1
A, =
c
p1+2P2+-+np,
p1!q1!7-1!. . . p*!qfi!?-n!
+p1+2qa+~-+nqn
+rl+lra+...+nr,=n

aP1+Pl+~l+~~~+P,+~,+~~N(Uo,2r0,Wo)

(lll[pl]rvl[ql],wl[rl],... 1WPnl) v+nl 7Wn[m]>7


duP1 dVQl dWPl . . . mn a+ awrn

Ao = N (w, 210,wo),

AI =~(~~,~~,~~)(~~)+~(~o,~o,~o)(~~)+~(~o,vo,w~)(w~),

A = Ld2N
2 2, m (1109 vo, wo) (W[2]) + f g (uo, 210,wo> (ul[2]) + ; g (1101vo7wo> (W1[2])

+~@a ,~o,wo)(w,~1) + 2 2 ( ~o,vo,wo)(~1,w1) + -$&2 ( uo, vo, wo) (Vl, Wl)

+ g (1L0,vo, wo) (u2) + g (uo, vo, wo) (212) + g (uo, 00, wo) (w2) )

A
3
=leN
3, au(0, vo, WO)(%[3]) + $ c&o, vo7 wo) (u1[3]) + ; Ebo7 vo7 wo) (wq31)

1 d3N
-(uo, 210,wo) (%[2], 4 + ; &pO~ vo7 wo) (11219 wl)
+ 2! &mu
1 d3N
-(~o,~o,~o) (wh[2]) +; ~(~oJo.Wo~ (V1[2l~Wl)
+ 2! dudv2

+ f &(ovowo) (l>Wl[2]) + $ &$(~o~~o~wo~ (wh[21)

+ ~(uo,vo,wo) (Ul,V17Wl)

d2N d2N d2N


+ yg-&(uo,vo,wo) (Ul,U2) + ,v,(uo,vo,~o) (Vl,V2) + ~(~oo,vo~~o) (w17w2)

+ ~(uo,vo~wo) (Vl,UZ) + ~(uo,vo~wo) (Ul,V2)

+ -&o.vo,wo) (w1,u2) + -&$@o.vo~wo) (w,w2)

+ Z(uo, vo7 wo) (WY v2) + ~~uo,vomo) (Vl,WZ)

uo,vo,wo)(u3) + ~(uo,vo,wo)~v3) + ~(UOIVO~~O~ (w3).


Adomians Polynomials 63

5. APPLICATION TO THE RESOLUTION


OF THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS
The Navier-Stokes model [2,3] for an incompressible flow of kinematic viscosity v and constant
density p is given as follows:

g + (V.V)V = ;A, - ;Vp on R x (O,T),

div V = 0 on R x (O,T), (5.1)

v=o on dR x (0,T).

We use the following notations:

x7 Y, z spatial components,
t temporal component,
V speed vector of components (u, 2r,ur),

rl dynamic viscosity,
(5.2)
P density,
VA kinematic viscosity,
P
P pressure.

Let us write the first equation using the components u, v and 20:

du au au au -lap,
P ax

~+U~+v~+Wg=- Q a2v a2v a2v _lap,


-+_+-@
ay p ( ax2 a92 > P ay
(5.3)

~+u?E+vaw+w~=- rl a2w a2W


_+_+-.@ a2w _lap.
ay p ( ax2 a32 > P 82
Then, we set

LC.1= -g.,; R(e)=; (-%.)


+-$(.,+&(.)),
ax2

Nl(U,V,W) =ug+vfi
a9
+wg,
Nz(u, v, w) = ug+.a
a9
+WE, (54
aw at0 aw
N~(u,v,w)=u-+v-+w-,
ax ay az
gl=-ldp. g2=-1ap. g3=-1ap
p ax P ay p a.c
where p is supposed known, so gr, gs and gs can be easily determined. The model is written as

Lu+N1(u,v,w) =Ru+g1,
Lv + Nz(u, v, w) = Rv + g2, (5.5)
Lw + N3(u, v,w) = Rw + g3.

By inversion of the operator L, with L-l(.) = s,(.) dt, we obtain

u = u(t = 0) + L-gl + L-lRu - L-lNl(u,v, w),


v = v(t = 0) + L-g2 + L-lRv - L-1N2(u,v,w), (5.6)
w = w(t = 0) + L-g3 + L-lRw - L-1N3(u,v, w).
64 V. SENG et al.

The associated decompositional scheme is given by

240= u(t = 0) + L-rgr, un+r = &{fi(~, v,w)),


Vc = v(t = 0) + L-192, G+I = &{f2(~,v w)}, (5.7)
200= zu(t = 0) + L--gs, ~+l = An{f3(~, 21,w)),

where fr, f2, fs are defined by

fr(u, V, w) = L-lRu - L-i$(u, w, zu),

f2(u, 21,w) = L-IRv - L-N2(u, v, WJ), (5.8)


f3(u,v, w) = L-lRw - L-+V3(u, v, w).

We decompose the fi( u, V, w) according to the series C,=, An{fi(u, ZI,w)} where the A, are
calculated by means of Theorem 3.1. We find

-1
Ul = L -lRuO - L

v1 = L-lRvo -L-l

w1 =L-lRwo-L-l ;

u~=L-~Rw-L-~

v2 = L-Rvl - L-

w2 = L -lRwl - L ;
(5.9)
au2 au2 au2 au1 au1 au1
u3 = L-lRu2 -L-l ~o-+wo-+wcl-+u~-+v~-+wl-
ax ay az ax ay aZ
au0 au0 au0
+uz~+vz,y+wz~ )
1

v3 = L-Rv2 - L-l uo$ + vo* + wag + ulz + vIz + wI$


aY
au0 au0 au0
+uz~+vzay+wz~ )
>
aw2 aw2 aw2 awl aw, awl
w3 = L-lRw2 -L- uo-+vo-+wo-+ul-+v~-+wl-
ax ay az ax az
aY
awe awe awe
+U2~+uZay+W25y *
1

The truncated series Cz, ui, Cz, vi and Cz, wi are, respectively, the (n + l)th approximai
tions of u, w and w (when the series converge towards the solutions of our problem) [6-g].
REMARK. Another decompositional scheme may be used:

urJ=u(t=o)+L-g~,
210= v(t = 0) + L-192,
wg = w(t = 0) + L-193,
(5.10)
u,+~ = L-lRu, - L-lA,, (IV1 (u,v, w)},
v,+~ = L-~Rv,, - L-lA, {N2 (u, TI,w)},

WI+1 = L -lRw, - L-lA, {IV3 (u, w, w)},


Adomians Polynomials 65

where the A, are now defined by

A&W = 2
k=O
[Ax(u)t (2} + Arc(v)rc { $} + A/c{w}A,_~ {g }],

A,i.Nd = 2 [AL(U)A {n> + Ak{u}A,-k { $} + Ak{W}&-k { ;}] , (5.11)


k=O

An(N3) = 2 [Ax{zL)An-k {g} + &{U}An-k { 2) + &{W}A,_k { $}] .


k=O

In that case, we have used the Cauchy products because the Ni(u, v, w) are sums of products of
single variable functionals.
Ak{@(U)} are given by (2.10) since the operators in (5.11) are linear. This recurrent scheme un
gives the same results as those previously obtained in (5.9).

6. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we have generalized Adomians polynomials already obtained in the scalar case [5]
and we have applied these new formulae to solve the Navier-Stokes equations [2,3]. When com-
pared to Adomians polynomials obtained from Cauchy products, the multidimensional approach
described in this paper seems to be more efficient and yields easier calculations.
We also intend to use our new formulae for solving nonlinear integral equations of Volterra or
Fredholm type. It would be quite interesting to compare the results to more classical methods
(successive approximations, iterated kernels, Carons method [lo]. . . ).

REFERENCES

1. G. Adomian, Nonlinear Stochastic Systems Theory and Applications to Physics, Kluwer, (1989).
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4. L. Schwartz, COWS danalyse, Hermann, (1981).
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polynomials, Mathl. Comput. Modelling (to appear).
6. K. Abbsoui and Y. Cherruault, Convergence of Adornians method applied to differential equations, Mathl.
Comput. Modelling 28 (5), 103-109 (1994).
7. K. Abbaoui and Y. Cherruault, New ideas for proving convergence of decomposition methods, Computers
Math. Applic. 29 (7), 103-108 (1995).
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Comput. Modelling 20 (9), 60-73 (1994).
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