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BITS Pilani

K K Birla Goa Campus

High Pressure Vessels


Introduction
Reactors, Separators, Heat exchanger, etc.
Operating Pressure range - 10 N/mm2 to 300 N/mm2
Constructional features
Solid walled vessel
Cylinder formed by bending a sheet of metal
A multilayered vessel built up by wrapping a series of sheets around a core
tube
Shrink fit construction
Wire winding around a cylinder
Wrapping successive layers of interlocking strips around a cylinder

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Materials for high pressure vessels
Ductility is an essential requirement (steel) which guides
the choice of steel and its heat treatment
Ni-Cr-Mo steels
Most commonly used steels. Heat treatment is followed by oil quenching
with subsequent tempering
Maraging steels
Develop their strength as a result of age hardening
Creep-resistance steels
Non-ferrous alloys
Mainly Ni-Cr-Co alloys

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Solid walled vessel
Thick cylinder
Wall thickness / inside diameter > 1/10
Stresses in the shell
Main loading is due to internal and external pressure
Principal stresses
Tangential (circumferential or hoop) , Radial, Longitudinal (axial)
Equations (6.1) to (6.5) stress calculations
Important features
Tangential and radial stresses consists of shear stress (-B/R2) with
superimposed hydrostatic stress (A)
Max values of the stresses occur at inner radius
Max values depend only on ratio of radii and not actual values
If external pressure is negligible Eqs. (6.6 6.8)
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Solid walled vessel

Application to shell design


Design based on tangential stress
Design based on shear stress
Design based on maximum energy of distortion

Thickness can be reduced if yield stress of the material can be increased


Possible by using alloy materials or by heat treatment

Strains in the shell

Vessels with thermal stresses


Vessels subjected to internal pressure and heated internally
Vessels subjected to internal pressure and heated externally
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Shells formed by bending a sheet of
metal with a single longitudinal weld

Same as that for solid forged cylindrical shell except

Joint efficiency should be included along with allowable stress

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Multi-shell and Pre-stressing

Higher internal pressure


Results in requirement of increased thickness
Problems of economic use of material and of fabrication become critical

Use of additional shells or layers of materials or autof-rettage

Better utilization of material can be achieved by Pre-stressing (setting


up an initial stress in the shell)

To create uniform stress in the entire thickness, extent of prestressing


required need to be estimated

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Multi-Shell Construction

Vessels are built up Wrapping a series of sheets over core tube


Interface pressure between two layers
Used for higher pressures
Advantages
Inbuilt safety
Utilises the material economically
No stress relief required
Lesser fabrication and assembly cost
Vessel can be easily repaired
Vessels can be constructed upto 233 N/mm2 pressures,
400 to -20C temperature range and 300 mm thickness
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Shrink Fit Construction

Two or more concentric shells


Shrinking of one shell on the other
The magnitude of the compressive stress due to shrinkage is
determined by the initial difference between bore of the outer
and external diameter of the inner cylinder
Permissible extent of shrinkage
Maximum temperature below which the properties of the material are not
affected
For economic and fabrication considerations, the number of shells
should be limited to two.

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Stresses in Multi-shell or Shrink Fit
construction
Radial deformations of two shells
Eq.(6.18) and Eq. (6.19)

Total shrinkage

Interface pressure (if material is same) (Eq. 6.21)

Temperature required for shrinking operation

Stresses produced by internal pressure will be superimposed on


the stresses produced due to interface pressure
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Optimum design of multi-shell
construction
If weight is critical and maximum utilization of the
material is desired Optimum conditions
Max shear stress Eq (6.23)
Max internal pressure Eq (6.24)
Max allowable internal pressure Eq (6.25)
Limit on temperature difference
Optimum shrinkage per unit radial length 2pi/E
Optimum value of interface radius Eq (6.26)

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Vessel Closures

Permanent closures

Removable closures
Type of closures and method of its sealing to the shell depends on
Size of the vessel
Nature of its contents
Working temp and pressures
Frequency with which the closure is removed
Different joints with or without a gasket

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Removable Closures Self sealing
joints
Delta ring joints
Used for vessels operating upto 100 N/mm2 pressures
V-shaped rings
Made of steel, machined, polished and copper plated
Designed to function below its elastic limit under bolt operating
conditions
Simple to fabricate and install
Disadvantage is when closure is large, delta ring lacks rigidity during
machining
Double-cone seal ring (Lens ring)
Bridgeman closure
Gasket between vessel and floating cover
Uhde-Bredtschneider closure 13

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