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Human Resource Development(HRD)

Human Resource Development (HRD) is a practice that combines training, organization
development, and career development efforts to encourage improvement of individual, group, and
organizational performance.

Human resources development (HRD), as part of our corporate culture, is a systematic and
continuous process allowing identifying, maintaining and promoting the individual performance and
learning potential of any staff member at any level.

The main functions of HRD are:-

1. Training and development

Training and development is aimed at improving or changing the knowledge skills and attitudes of
the employees. While training involves providing the knowledge and skills required for doing a
particular job to the employees, developmental activities focus on preparing the employees for
future job responsibilities by increasing the capabilities of an employee which also helps him
perform his present job in a better way.

2 Organization development

OD is the process of increasing the effectiveness of an organization along with the well being of its
members with the help of planned interventions that use the concepts of behavioral science. Both
micro and macro changes are implemented to achieve organization development.

3. Career development

It is a continuous process in which individual progresses through different stages of career each
having a relatively unique set of issues and tasks. Career development comprises of two distinct
processes. Career Planning and career management.
Six Main Functions of a Human Resource Department

In small businesses without a dedicated HR department, it's possible to achieve the same level of
efficiency and workforce management through outsourcing HR functions or joining a professional
employer organization.


The success of recruiters and employment specialists generally is measured by the number of
positions they fill and the time it takes to fill those positions. Recruiters who work in-house -- as
opposed to companies that provide recruiting and staffing services -- play a key role in developing
the employer's workforce. They advertise job postings, source candidates, screen applicants,
conduct preliminary interviews and coordinate hiring efforts with managers responsible for making
the final selection of candidates.


Workplace safety is an important factor. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,
employers have an obligation to provide a safe working environment for employees. One of the
main functions of HR is to support workplace safety training and maintain federally mandated logs
for workplace injury and fatality reporting. In addition, HR safety and risk specialists often work
closely with HR benefits specialists to manage the company's workers compensation issues.

Employee Relations

In a unionized work environment, the employee and labor relations functions of HR may be
combined and handled by one specialist or be entirely separate functions managed by two HR
specialists with specific expertise in each area. Employee relations is the HR discipline concerned
with strengthening the employer-employee relationship through measuring job satisfaction,
employee engagement and resolving workplace conflict.

Compensation and Benefits

Like employee and labor relations, the compensation and benefits functions of HR often can be
handled by one HR specialist with dual expertise. On the compensation side, the HR functions
include setting compensation structures and evaluating competitive pay practices.


Compliance with labor and employment laws is a critical HR function. Noncompliance can result in
workplace complaints based on unfair employment practices, unsafe working conditions and
general dissatisfaction with working conditions that can affect productivity and ultimately,

Training and Development

Employers must provide employees with the tools necessary for their success which, in many cases,
means giving new employees extensive orientation training to help them transition into a new
organizational culture. Many HR departments also provide leadership training and professional
development. Leadership training may be required of newly hired and promoted supervisors and
managers on topics such as performance management and how to handle employee relations matters
at the department level.

Importance Of Human Resource Development (HRD)

Human resource is needed to be developed as per the change in external environment of the
organization, hence, HRD helps to adapt such changes through the development of existing human
resource in terms of skill and knowledge.

The importance or significance of HRD can be explained as follows:

1. HRD Develops Competent HR

HRD develops the skills and knowledge of individual, hence, it helps to provide competent and
efficient HR as per the job requirement. To develop employment's skill and competencies, different
training and development programs are launched.

2. HRD Creates Opportunity For Career Development

HRD helps to grasp the career development opportunities through development of human skills and
knowledge. Career development consists of personal development efforts through a proper match
between training and development opportunities with employee's need.
3. Employ Commitment

Trained and efficient employees are committed towards their jobs which is possible through HRD.
If employees are provided with proper training and development opportunities, they will feel
committed to the work and the organization.

4. Job Satisfaction

When people in the organization are well oriented and developed, they show higher degree of
commitment in actual work place. This inspires them for better performance, which ultimately leads
to job satisfaction.

5. Change Management

HRD facilitates planning, and management of change in an organization. It also manages conflicts
through improved labor management relation. It develops organizational health, culture and
environment which lead to change management.

6. Opportunities For Training And Development

Trainings and development programs are tools of HRD. They provide opportunity for employee's
development by matching training needs with organizational requirement. Moreover, HRD
facilitates integrated growth of employees through training and development activities.

7. Performance Improvement

HRD develops necessary skills and abilities required to perform organizational activities. As a result
of which, employees can contribute for better performance in an organization. This leads to greater
organizational effectiveness.

Human Resource Management


Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on the
recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in an organization.

The HRM department members provide the knowledge, necessary tools, training, administrative
services, coaching, legal and management advice, and talent management oversight that the rest of
the organization needs for successful operation.

Importance of Human Resource Management

An organization cannot build a good team of working professionals without good Human
Resources. The key functions of the Human Resources Management (HRM) team include recruiting
people, training them, performance appraisals, motivating employees as well as workplace
communication, workplace safety, and much more. The beneficial effects of these functions are
discussed here:

Recruitment and Training

This is one of the major responsibilities of the human resource team. The HR managers come up
with plans and strategies for hiring the right kind of people. They design the criteria which is best
suited for a specific job description. Their other tasks related to recruitment include formulating the
obligations of an employee and the scope of tasks assigned to him or her.

Performance Appraisals

HRM encourages the people working in an organization, to work according to their potential and
gives them suggestions that can help them to bring about improvement in it.

Maintaining Work Atmosphere

This is a vital aspect of HRM because the performance of an individual in an organization is largely
driven by the work atmosphere or work culture that prevails at the workplace. A good working
condition is one of the benefits that the employees can expect from an efficient human resource
team. A safe, clean and healthy environment can bring out the best in an employee.

Managing Disputes

In an organization, there are several issues on which disputes may arise between the employees and
the employers. You can say conflicts are almost inevitable. In such a scenario, it is the human
resource department which acts as a consultant and mediator to sort out those issues in an effective
manner. They first hear the grievances of the employees.

Developing Public Relations

the responsibility of establishing good public relations lies with the HRM to a great extent. They
organize business meetings, seminars and various official gatherings on behalf of the company in
order to build up relationships with other business sectors. Sometimes, the HR department plays an
active role in preparing the business and marketing plans for the organization too.

Human resources officer: Job description

Human resources (HR) officers develop advice on and implement policies relating to the effective use of personnel
within an organization.
Their aim is to ensure that the organization employs the right balance of staff in terms of skills and
experience, and that training and development opportunities are available to employees to enhance
their performance and achieve the employer's business aims.

HR officers are involved in a range of activities required by organizations, whatever the size or type
of business. These cover areas such as:

working practices;
conditions of employment;
negotiation with external work-related agencies;
Equality and diversity.

Typical work activities

An HR officer must have a clear understanding of their employer's business objectives and be able
to devise and implement policies which select, develop and retain the right staff needed to meet
these objectives.

HR professionals not only deal with staff welfare and administration-centered activities, but also
strategy and planning. HR departments are expected to add value to the organization they support.
The exact nature of the work varies according to the organization, but is likely to include:

working closely with various departments, increasingly in a consultancy role, assisting line
managers to understand and implement policies and procedures;
promoting equality and diversity as part of the culture of the organization;
recruiting staff - this includes developing job descriptions and person specifications,
preparing job adverts, checking application forms, short listing, interviewing and selecting
developing and implementing policies on issues like working conditions, performance
management, equal opportunities, disciplinary procedures and absence management;
preparing staff handbooks;
advising on pay and other remuneration issues, including promotion and benefits;
undertaking regular salary reviews;
negotiating with staff and their representatives (for example, trade union officials) on issues
relating to pay and conditions;
administering payroll and maintaining employee records;
interpreting and advising on employment law;
Job Description HR Manager


Develops policy and directs and coordinates human resources activities, suchas
employment, compensation, labor relations, benefits, training, and employeeservices by
performing the following duties.

Essential Duties and Responsibilities

Analyzes wage and salary reports and data to determine competitivecompensation plan.

Writes directives advising department managers of Company policy regardingequal

employment opportunities, compensation, and employee benefits.

Consults legal counsel to ensure that policies comply with federal andstate law.

Develops and maintains a human resources system that meets top managementinformation

Oversees the analysis, maintenance, and communication of records requiredby law or local
governing bodies, or other departments in the organization.

Writes and delivers presentations to corporate officers or governmentofficials regarding

human resources policies and practices.

Recruits, interviews, tests, and selects employees to fill vacantpositions.

Plans and conducts new employee orientation to foster positive attitudetoward Company

Keeps records of benefits plans participation such as insurance and pensionplan, personnel
transactions such as hires, promotions, transfers, performancereviews, and terminations, and
employee statistics for government reporting.

Coordinates management training in interviewing, hiring, terminations,promotions,

performance review, safety, and sexual harassment.

Supervisory Responsibilities
Provides management direction and counseling. Supervises clerical assistantand temporary
staffing as needed.


To perform this job successfully, an individual must be able to perform eachessential duty
satisfactorily. The requirements listed below are representativeof the knowledge, skill,
and/or ability required. Reasonable accommodations maybe made to enable individuals with
disabilities to perform the essentialfunctions.

Education and/or Experience

Bachelor's degree (B. A.) from four-year college or university; or one to twoyears related
experience and/or training; or equivalent combination of educationand experience.

Language Skills

Ability to read, analyze, and interpret the most complex documents. Abilityto respond
effectively to the most sensitive inquiries or complaints. Ability towrite speeches and articles
using original or innovative techniques or style.Ability to make effective and persuasive
speeches and presentations oncontroversial or complex topics to top management, public
groups, and/or boardsof directors.

Mathematical Skills

Ability to work with mathematical concepts such as probability andstatistical inference, and
fundamentals of plane and solid geometry andtrigonometry. Ability to apply concepts such
as fractions, percentages, ratios,and proportions to practical situations.

Reasoning Ability

Ability to apply principles of logical or scientific thinking to a wide rangeof intellectual and
practical problems. Ability to deal with nonverbal symbolism(formulas, scientific equations,
graphs, etc.,) in its most difficult phases.Ability to deal with a variety of abstract and
concrete variables.

Certificates, Licenses, Registrations

PHR or SPHR Certification preferred.

Physical Demands
The physical demands described here are representative of those that must bemet by an
employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this job.Reasonable
accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities toperform the essential

Work Environment

The work environment characteristics described here are representative ofthose an employee
encounters while performing the essential functions of thisjob. Reasonable accommodations
may be made to enable individuals withdisabilities to perform the essential functions.

Career Development
Defination :
Career Development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions
in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving preferred future.
Career development is directly linked to the goals and objectives set by an individual. It starts with
self-actualization and self-assessment of ones interests and capabilities. The interests are then
matched with the available options. The individual needs to train himself to acquire the skills
needed for the option or career path chosen by him. Finally, after acquiring the desired competency,
he has to perform to achieve the goals and targets set by him.

Objectives of Career Development Systems

Career development has become primary activity of organizations in order to create a pool of
talented employees as well as enhance their career satisfaction. Along with this, it is also considered
as an organized and planned process to improve the efficiency of organization. In common terms,
we may look upon it as an effort to strike a balance between organizational workforce requirements
and individual career needs.

Objectives of Career Development Systems

Fostering Better Communication in Organization: The main objective of designing a career

development system is to foster better communication within the organization as a whole. It
promotes communication at all levels of organizations for example manager and employee
and managers and top management. Proper communication is the lifeblood of any
organization and helps in solving several big issues.

Assisting with Career Decisions: A career development system provides employees as well
as managers with helpful assistance with career decisions. They get an opportunity to assess
their skills and competencies and know their goals and future aspirations. It helps them give
a direction so that they can focus on achieving their long term career goals.

Better Use of Employee Skills: A career development system helps organization make better
use of employee skills. Since managers know their skills and competencies and therefore,
can put them at a job where they will be able to produce maximum output.

Setting Realistic Goals: Setting realistic goals and expectations is another main objective of
a career development system. It helps both employees and organization to understand what
is feasible for them and how they can achieve their goals.

Creating a Pool of Talented Employees: Creating a pool of talented employees is the main
objective of organizations. After all, they need to meet their staffing needs in present and
future and a career development system helps them fulfill their requirements.

Enhancing the Career Satisfaction: Organizations especially design career development

systems for enhancing the career satisfaction of their employees. Since they have to retain
their valuable assets and prepare them for top notch positions in future, they need to
understand their career requirements and expectations from their organization.
Feedback: Giving feedback on every step is also required within an organization to measure
the success rate of a specific policy implemented and initiatives taken by the organization. In
addition to this, it also helps managers to give feedback for employees performance so that
they can understand what is expected of them.

A career development system can be very effective in creating a supportive culture in the
organization and help employees grow and utilize their skills to achieve their desires and aspirations
related to their career. Both organization and employees can meet their goals simultaneously.
Succession planning

Deffination :

Succession planning is a process for identifying and developing internal people with the potential to
fill key business leadership positions in the company. Succession planning increases the availability
of experienced and capable employees that are prepared to assume these roles as they become

Succession planning is a process whereby an organization ensures that employees are recruited and
developed to fill each key role within the company. Through your succession planning process, you
recruit superior employees, develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities, and prepare them for
advancement or promotion into ever more challenging roles.

Develop Employees for Succession Planning

To develop the employees you need for your succession plan, you use such practices aslateral
moves, assignment to special projects, team leadership roles, and both internal and external training
and development opportunities.

Employees are motivated and engaged when they can see a career path for their continued growth
and development. To effectively do succession planning in your organization, you must identify the
organizations long term goals. You must hire superior staff.

You need to identify and understand the developmental needs of your employees.

You must ensure that all key employees understand their career paths and the roles they are being
developed to fill. You need to focus resources on key employee retention. You need to be aware
of employment trends in your area to know the roles you will have a difficult time filling externally.

Top Five Succession-Planning Steps

While succession planning is vital to your companys future, it doesnt have to be your nemesis.
With the right plan and tools, it can be accomplished. As I mentioned in my article in the Fort Worth
Business Press, you should consider these five succession planning steps to get you started in your
1. Identify the critical positions in your company.There are the obvious C-level players,
but also consider any positions that youve filled in the past two years. If youve hired
anyone during this lackluster economy, it was probably for a critical role.

2. Determine what skills people in those positions need.Doing this can be as simple as
identifying the five top talents that a candidate has, and then matching those to a position
requiring some or all of those skills.

3. Find and assess potential successors. Even if you dont have a formal competency model
in place, you can jumpstart your initiative by identifying the most obvious candidates. Doing
so will help you create a working process.

4. Involve managers and leaders at all levels throughout the company. In my experience,
they often know where the hidden talent lies outside the inner circle, including the
excellent qualifications of an underemployed individual.

5. Commit to developing internal talent and monitoring their progress.Its more cost
effective to promote from within, and Ive found this often results in better leadership.

Creating a succession plan doesnt have to bog you down as a business owner. By following these
steps, you can concentrate on selecting the right candidates who will provide the best future for your

Succession Management
It is estimated two-thirds of Federal executives are eligible to retire within the next five years. If
they all retire when they become eligible, there will be a large gap in our Federal leadership
workforce. Given the significance of these events, how can we continue to develop the leadership
talent pool to effectively fill future vacancies?

Succession management is the process of identifying those jobs considered to be at the core of the
organization-- too critical to be left vacant or filled by any but the best qualified personsand then
creating a strategic plan to fill them with experienced and capable employees. Succession
management is critical to mission success and creates an effective process for recognizing,
developing, and retaining top leadership talent.

In summary, succession management is a systematic approach for:

Shaping the leadership culture.

Building a leadership pipeline/talent pool to ensure leadership continuity.
Developing potential successors whose strengths will best fit with the agencys needs.
Identifying the best candidates for categories of positions.
Concentrating resources on the talent development process, yielding a greater Return on
Investment (ROI).
Why Is Succession Planning Important in Performance Management?
Succession planning is the identification of job vacancies that can be expected to occur through
retirement or attrition and the strategic consideration of where and how internal candidates might
fill those vacancies. It involves assessing job requirements and skills of existing employees and then
seeking to fill the gaps between needs and skills with targeted training and development activities.

Succession Planning Identifies Future Leaders:

Succession planning can be an important way to identify employees who have the current skills--or
the potential to develop skills--that can help them move up in an organization, or on to other
positions. In addition, the process of succession planning can help to identify other areas of
performance where employees may be weak and where training could help to manage and improve
performance outcomes.

Effective succession planning activities have a positive impact on performance management not
only in terms of ensuring that key positions will remain filled with competent performers, but also
in terms of saving money on external recruitment and training, which can be significantly more
expensive than promoting from within.

Beyond Training:
While many consider succession planning to be about training, that is just a piece of the process.
Certainly training must be put into place to provide employees with the knowledge, skills and
abilities they may need to move into future vacancies, but it is the initial assessment of potential
vulnerabilities that can impact performance management. For instance, a company at risk of losing
a top salesperson without anybody in line to step into that role is vulnerable. By identifying these
vulnerabilities early, organizations can assess areas that may be at risk and take steps to identify and
train internal successors.

Competency Gaps:
An important benefit in strategic succession planning is identifying in advance where there may be
gaps between what employees need to know and what they currently know--competency gaps. The
gaps may be based on current needs for key positions and the lack of employees with the required
skills, and also on a look into the future to determine what new competencies may be necessary. A
focus on the strategic consideration of these needs will ensure that companies don't break
their stride in terms of productivity and performance in the event of a vacancy in a key area.

At the Board Level:

At the top levels of the organization succession planning is critical to ensure that these key
positions--if suddenly vacant--can be filled by qualified candidates. Identifying the potential for
those vacancies and considering internal talent that can be coached, nurtured and trained to step into
these slots when the time comes is a key function of not only the H.R. department, but in many
organizations, of the board as well. According to Salary.com, Coldwater Creek has a committee
specifically devoted to succession planning and development and both Cost Plus and Solar Power
Inc. make reference to succession planning for their executive officers in the section of their proxy
devoted to risk oversight. Clearly, the importance of succession planning from the very top of even
publicly held organizations is rising.

Management development

Management development is the structured process by which managers enhance their skills,
competencies and/or knowledge, via formal or informal learning methods, to the benefit of both
individual and organisational performance.

Management development is the structured process by which managers enhances their skills,
competencies and/or knowledge, via formal or informal learning methods, to the benefit of both
individual and organizational performance.

Importance of Management Development:

Management techniques are continually evolving, organizations are changing radically and
restructuring in an effort to meet changed external and internal environments and improve their
performance. The realization of this truth led to the advancement of management development as an
important aspect of management.

Many business organizations have recognized that there are several incentives in investing in
management education, training and development. The reason being: Whenever vacancies arise,
they would be in a position to promote from their own cadre than to recruit skilled managers from
outside, thus promoting loyalty among the workforce; Job satisfaction keeps people from looking
towards greener pastures, thus reducing labor turnover; The organization would be able to attract
best talent if it maintains a good reputation for training and development of its workers.

It must be noted that business management in the United States of America was on more
professional scale even by the beginning of the 20th century, whereas it was not the case with U.K.,
Europe, or in other parts of this world. U.S. organizations recognized very early the importance of
management studies. The industry implemented various theories to try and improve the working
efficiency and increase production. Well-known American universities like Harvard, Stanford, and
others offered management studies.
Some of the reasons behind the management development programs are:

1. It is managements responsibility of ensuring the success of the organization.

2. It is the management who deal with people of different background, culture, language, etc.

3. Mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, etc. are all under managements control.

4. It is managements responsibility to ensure that the employees obtain the required KSAs to
perform the tasks.

1. It is managements responsibility to ensure that right people is hired for the right job, at the
right time for the right place.

2. Managers job is complex i.e. for the managers understanding the training need is not easy
because his training need is determined by how well his department is meeting its objective
and goal.

3. It is the management who makes decisions on the basis of judgment and intuition.

4. It is the management that understand the organization, its vision, mission, ethics, values,
strategies, capabilities, and how his organization fits into the industry, and how his behavior
will influence people outside the organization

Therefore, managers must be able to get the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) to
meet the challenges as soon as they arise.

The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become
a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill
sound reasoning processes.

Objectives of Management Development

The objective of management development is. in general, to improve the quality of

managers/executives performance now and in future. Some main objectives of the management
development ore as under:

1. To develop managers/executives for better performance on their present job or assignment

2. To provide a steady source of competent persons at different levels so as to meet the future
requirements of the organisation.

3. To enable the managers to understand the problems of the business organisation in so far as
they arise out of its policies and system of control.

4. To create conditions and a climate which contribute to the growth process.

5. To replace elderly executives, who have risen from low ranks, by highly competent and
academically qualified professionals.
6. To increase morale of the managers.

7. To acquire knowledge about the problems of human relations.

8. To create the second line of defence in the organization so as to meet the emergencies.

9. To broaden the outlook of the various levels of management especially top management
regarding their role, position and responsibilities.

10. To help the top management to understand the economic, technical and institutional forces in
order to solve business problems.

11. To increase the versatility of the managers

12. To stimulate creativity in the thoughts of the managers.

13. To create a sense of inter-departmental coordination among managers.

14. To indicate how to apply to practical problems the knowledge of the physical and social
aspects of business problems and management.

So we can say that management development is an educational process utilizing a systematic and
organized procedure by which management personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge
for general purpose. These purpose are (i) Productivity (ii) Quality (iii) Human Resource Planning
(iv) Morale (v) Obsolescence prevention, and (vi) Personnel growth.

Learn How To

Build effective coaching techniques

Master problem analysis and decision-making

Effectively communicate change

Strengthen listening skills

Recognize team success with enthusiasm

Organizational Development
Human Resources Managers are increasingly being expected to take the lead in organisational
change activities. HRM, HRD and OD disciplines are all founded on the belief of self-renewal, and
seek to build flexible and adaptable capability in both individuals and the organisation.

Practitioners are beginning to deliver differently and to link Learning and Talent Development to
change and organisational development. They are looking to build capability and lift performance
through interventions such as coaching and leadership development.

As HR has shifted from it tea and tissues reputation to demanding a seat at the boardroom table
with Strategic HRM, the function has sought to become more strategic, proactive, commercial and
professional. This shift now requires HR practitioners to deliver short-term HR functional activity
alongside equipping the organisation for sustainable performance in the long term through its

This shift has meant that HRs agenda has expanded to include all aspects of people processes
which can deliver organisational effectiveness; the right people, the right culture, the right
leadership, the right organisation design, the right change management and the right people

Through all these activities there are OD threads including;

1. Change management
2. Strategic Organisation system alignment
3. Capability Development
4. High Performance Culture Development
5. Long Term Perspective

HR and OD therefore, have a number of things in common. Through utilising systems thinking, HR
and OD practitioners can work together to support the organisation in its pursuit of sustainable long
term performance. As HR takes on an increasingly transformational role, OD will enable HR
professionals to:

support transformation
work on organisation design
design and deliver learning and development interventions
support clients in major change and organisation design projects
analyse and improve the overall health of the organisation
keep the organisation healthy and fit for future challenges.

And HR can best deliver effective OD through line managers; these are the primary practitioners of
organisational development. Leaders hold the custodian role, safeguarding and improving
organisational health and performance. HR needs to work closely with senior leaders, turning them
into commissioners of OD who are able to diagnose and understand their impact and role in
improving organisational health, who appreciate that an organisation is a human system, not just a
technical system.

HR needs to ensure that leadership capabilities are transformational, not just transactional. Leaders
need to add to their ability to interpret the data on the horizon to manage the environment, form
effective strategies and delineate organisation performance outcomes. They need to make sure their
organisations stay relevant to their key stakeholders, with further ability to focus inward so that the
vision, mission and culture of the organisation are aligned. And they need to be able to understand
sufficient human dynamics to make sure that sufficient and robust processes exist within the
organisation culture and practice to inspire people to come along with them. In other words, leaders
need to ensure that the organisations internal capability matches the strategic ambition.

But it must be remembered that Human Resources Development is the improvement of skills,
knowledge, and indirectly, the value of the employee in the organisation. It is the responsibility of
managers, and Human Resources Department.Organisation Development is a description of change
needed in the organisation if it is to reach its future goals. Sometimes, organisations then try to
accelerate this change by creating OD plans which involves managers from all departments.
Sometimes, they create a new department called OD. This helps to accelerate the change by moving
resources and management to a special task. Of course, this type of change affects people, so HR
development specialist are often involved in OD. However, it is a mistake to describe HRD and OD
as the same thing.