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Parliamentary Government a democratic form of government in which the people vote for
those who represent the political party they feel best represents their views of how the
government should operate
In a Parliamentary Democracy Parliament, the legislature the people elect, makes and
enforces the laws of the country. The leader is often called a prime minister (or premier), and
the prime minister is a member of parliament. The prime minister is usually chosen by the
political party that wins a majority of representatives (or seats) in the parliament. The Prime
minister is the head of the govt.
In a Parliamentary Democracy The prime minister leads the executive branch of the government
and must answer directly to the parliament for the actions taken and the policies recommended.
In many parliamentary democracies, a head of state like a queen, king, or president is the head
of state but is basically a ceremonial leader.
In a Parliamentary Democracy . . . .
A prime minister holds power for the term of office set by a countrys constitution.
A prime minister leads the work done by the parliament, and the Prime Minister is helped by
his cabinet, a group of advisors. A prime minister may be voted out of office before his or her
term runs out if the party he or she leads begins to lose power. (New elections may be held
before the prime ministers term of office is over.)
FEDERAL SYSTEM The division of power between the state govt and the centre or union
DIVISION OF POWER IN 3 LISTS Union list Consists of issues of national concern
eg,currency,defence. Only Union government can make laws. State list Consist of issues of
state importance eg,housing,transport Only state government can make laws. Concurrent list
Consist issues common in both the list eg,Education. Both the government can make laws.

Presidential government
Presidential Democracy (Sometimes called Congressional) a democratic form of government
in which a president is chosen to be the leader The executive branch exists separately from the
legislature (to which it is generally not accountable).
In a Presidential Democracy . . . . A president, or chief executive, is chosen separately from
the legislature. A president is in a separate branch of the government. The legislature passes the
laws, and the president sees that the laws are enforced. The president holds power separately
from the legislature, but the president does not have the power to dismiss the legislature or force
them to make specific laws.
In a Presidential Democracy . . . . The president is the official head of government. The
legislature does not have the power to dismiss the president, except in severe cases. (Example:
when the president has broken a law) The president is both the head of state and the head of the
Comparison between Parliamentary and Presidential form of govt
1. In the Parliamentary form of government, there are two heads. One is a nominal head while
another is the real head. For example, in India, the President is the nominal head while the Prime
Minister is the real head. The President of India is the head of state while the Prime Minister is
the head of government. But in the Presidential form of government, there is only one head. The
President of America is the head of state as well as the head of government.
In the Parliamentary system, the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister is
responsible to the legislature. But in the Presidential type, the President and his ministers are not
responsible to the legislature. 3. In the Parliamentary type, the Council of Ministers will lose
office if it loses the vote of confidence / no confidence. But in the Presidential type, the President
cannot be ousted from power by a vote of no-confidence. He can be removed from office though
impeachment which is much more difficult than the vote of confidence/no confidence.
In the Parliamentary system, the government does not enjoy a fixed tenure."For example, in
India the government can stay in power for five years. But any time during this period, the
government can be removed from power through a vote of no-confidence. In the Presidential
system, the President has generally a fixed tenure because it is not easy to impeach him. 5.
There is not strict separation of powers in the Parliamentary type. The ministers are also
members of the legislature. But, in the Presidential type, the principle of separation of powers is
strictly followed. In the US, the President and his Ministers (Secretaries) are not members of the
In the Parliamentary system, the Prime Minister is not fully free to choose his ministers. He
has to choose them from among the members of Parliament. But in the Presidential system, the
President enjoys much more freedom in selecting his ministers. He selects them from a much
wider field taking into account their experience and expertise. 7. At the time of crisis the
Presidential executive is more successful in taking prompt and bold decisions than the
Parliamentary government. 8. The Presidential system of government provides more political
stability than the Parliamentary form of government. 9. As the government in the parliamentary
system is responsible to the Parliament, it is more democratic and respectful of public opinion
than the Presidential executive which is not responsible to the legislature.
Comparison of Parliamentary and Presidential Systems Differences Presidential
Parliamentary Structure of the executive Single-headed Double-headed Source of the executive
People Parliament Responsibility of the executive to parliament No Yes Cancel of parliament by
the executive No Yes Same person be part of legislative and executive Not possible Possible
Take part in the works of parliament by executive Not possible Possible.