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--

2017


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www.phoenixbooks.ru
ufl 373.167.1:53
ccl 22.372
ltl 444
e85

e .o.
85 / .. , .. .
5- . / : , 2017. 96 . : .
( ).
ISBN 978-5-222-29215-0
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373.167.1:53
22.372



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:

84108/32. . 2.
4000 . .

: .., .., 2017


ISBN 978-5-222-29215-0 : , 2017

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www.phoenixbooks.ru
1.

1.1.



 .
; = const; a = 0.
: S = x x0, x0, x .
  
: r = x x 0 .

S = r = x x 0
.
0 0
0
  
: x = x 0 + 0t.

 r 
: = , r ; t -
t
, . 

r.
S
= , S ; t -
t
, .

x S
x =x=x
x0 -V
0 + t
t
S = t
S = t
= const
x0

S
0 t 0 t 0 t t

.
.
.


3
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: = 1 + 2 ,
;  1 -
; 2
.

a = const.
 
 0  
a = , 2 , 0 ; t
t
, .

   at 2
: x = x 0 + 0t + .
   2
: = 0 + at.


 
a = const; const; a > 0.
: :
at 2 at 2
x = x 0 + 0t + . S = 0t + .
2 2
:
= 0 + at.
 
: 0 > 0, a > 0, . . 0 , a
.


x= x0 + t+at
x=x+v 0t +/2at2/2 x
2
= 0 + at
0

X 0 0

ax ax = const > 0
0 a
X0 S

0 t 0 t t 0 t




a = const; const; a < 0.
: :
at 2 at 2
x = x 0 + 0t . S = 0t .
2 2


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1.

:
= 0 at.

 : 0 > 0, a < 0, . . 0
, a .


ax

x x = x0 + 0t at2/2
= 0 at
0

x0 0 t

S ax = const < 0
a
0 t 0 t t


.
g < 0 ;
g > 0 .

: g = 9, 81 2 .


   gt 2
: y = y 0 + 0t + .
2
,
0 0 0 = 0
2
gt gt 2
y = y 0 + 0t + y = y0 +
2 2

(S = h) gt 2 gt 2
h = 0t + h=
2 2
= 0 + gt = gt

2 20 = 2gh 2 = 2gh
,

(S = h)
gt 2 gt 2
y = y 0 + 0t h = 0t
2 2


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0 0 0 = 0
0
= 0 gt t max =
g

20
2 20 = 2gh h max =
2g

0 S
0
X
(0x = 0).
Y -
x
h (0y = 0) W.
y

y
tg =
x
y

  
= x +y x = 0


y = gt = 02 + g 2 t 2

gt 2 gt 2
x = x 0 + 0t; y = y 0 + S = 0t; h =
2 2

x = 0 ; y = gt

,
Y Y

0 y 0
0y 0y
x
x
h hm y

0 0
0x S X 0x S X


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1.

(0x = 0cos).
Y (0y = 0sin).
hmax .
hmax .

x = x 0 + 0 t cos gt 2
y = y 0 + 0 sin t
2
S = 0 t cos gt 2
h = 0 sin t
2
x = 0 x = 0 cos y = 0 sin gt


= 02 2gh
0 sin
t =
g

02 sin 2
h max =
2g
02 sin 2
S max =
g
0 sin
t = t =
g
2 0 sin
t =
g


M1

M2
n 1 R
: = ; = , 
t c 
a
n ; t , -
.

.
t t 1 2
T= , [c]; T = T = T = .
n n

= ,
t , ; t
. c


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2 n
= = 2 = .
t t
2 R S
=
T ; = t , S = 2R

; t = T .
2 R
= = 2R .
T
: = R.
. ,
(
2
): a = a = 2R, = 42 2R.
R
, ,
:


2

2 R 2 2
= = a=
T T R
= 2 Rv = 2 v a = 2R
2 Rn 2 n
= = a =
t t

= R = a = 4 2v 2 R
R
a 4 2 n 2 R
= a=
t2
a
= a = 2 v
R
2
a=
T

1.2.
 
: F = 0, = const.
,
,


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7.
7.1. . .

.
: .
: m n = 1, 675 10 27 ;
mn
= 183.
me
.
N.
.
: Z e = 1, 6 10 19 .
: m = 1, 6726 10 27 ;
mn
= 1836.
me
Z.
.
: e = 1, 6 10 19 .
: m = 9,110 31 .

() (n).
,
.
().
A = Z + N , N ; Z
.
(),
+Z. (Z -
.)
1014 1015 ,
Z .

().
:
Z ( );
( );
;
.


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1. .............................................................................................3
1.1. ...........................................................................................3
1.2. ...............................................................8
1.3. .................................................................................11
1.4. ............................................................................15
1.5. .............................................................17
2. ...........................22
2.1. - .....................22
2.2. ....................................................................25
2.3. .............................................29
3. .....................................................31
3.1. ..................................................................................31
3.2. ........................................................36
3.3. ..................................................................................44
3.4. .............................................................48
4. ......................................................................50
4.1. ..................................................................50
4.2. . ................................................................53
4.3. .
...............................................................................54
4.4. .................................................................57
5. .................................................................................................60
5.1. .....................................................................60
5.2. ................................................................................63
5.3. ...............................................68
6. .........................................................................71
6.1. - ...................................................71
6.2. . ...........................................................71
6.3. .....................................................................................72
7. ................................................................76
7.1. . . ........................76
7.2. . .......................77
7.3. ......................................................................78
7.4. ........................................................80
7.5. . .......................80
7.6. ...............................................................................82
7.7. . . ......................83
7.8. .
.........................................................................85
.........................................................................................87
...................................................................................95


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