You are on page 1of 267

Syracuse University

SURFACE
David B. Falk College of Sport and Human
Child and Family Studies - Dissertations
Dynamics

12-2011

E Effects of Internet Use on Academic


Achievement and Behavioral Adjustment among
South Korean Adolescents: Mediating and
Moderating Roles of Parental Factors
Soohyun Kim
Syracuse University

Follow this and additional works at: http://surface.syr.edu/cfs_etd


Part of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Recommended Citation
Kim, Soohyun, "E Effects of Internet Use on Academic Achievement and Behavioral Adjustment among South Korean Adolescents:
Mediating and Moderating Roles of Parental Factors" (2011). Child and Family Studies - Dissertations. Paper 62.

This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the David B. Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics at SURFACE. It has been
accepted for inclusion in Child and Family Studies - Dissertations by an authorized administrator of SURFACE. For more information, please contact
surface@syr.edu.
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationships among

adolescent Internet use, parent-adolescent relationships, and academic/ behavioral

adjustment in South Korean families. Despite the significant numbers of Korean

adolescents who use the Internet (98.7% of Korean children between the ages of 6 and

19 years use the Internet) for education, social, and recreational purposes, little is

known about how adolescent Internet use impacts family interactions and youth

outcomes. Most research studies on this subject have been descriptive and have

provided inconsistent findings. To examine the impact of adolescent Internet use on

youth outcomes in Korea, six hundred and nine adolescents (10th and 11th graders) and

their parents were recruited from five high schools in Seoul, Korea. Compared to the

general population in Korea, parents in this study were more educated and from higher

socio-economic status backgrounds. Findings indicated that Korean boys and girls

differed in the ways that they used the Internet. Girls were more likely to use the

Internet to watch online education classes and blog more frequently and longer than

boys, whereas boys were more likely to use the Internet for playing Internet games

than girls. Results indicated that Internet use for educational purposes was associated

with adolescent academic achievement. Social and recreational-Internet use of the

Internet was associated with lower academic achievement. The pathways did not vary
for boys and girls. Parent-child relationships (closeness and conflict) were found to be

vital to youth adjustment and played a significant role in the association between

adolescent Internet use and academic and behavioral outcomes. Future research

studies should investigate how Koreans cope with the influx of this rapidly developing

technology and its impact of family relationships. Additionally, parenting programs

should incorporate strategies about how the Internet can be used as an educational tool

to benefit adolescents.
THE EFFECTS OF INTERNET USE ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND
BEHAVIORAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG SOUTH KOREAN ADOLESCENTS:
MEDIATING AND MODERATING ROLES OF PARENTAL FACTORS

By

Soohyun Kim

B.F.A. Seoul National University, 1992

B.A. Ewah Womans University, 2000

M.A. Drexel University, 2003

DISSERTATION

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of


Philosophy in Child and Family Studies in the David B. Falk College of Sport and
Human Dynamics

December 2011
Copyright 2011 Soohyun Kim

All Rights Reserved


v

Table of Contents

ABSTRAT

List of Tables VIII

List of Figures .. X

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION . 1

Internet Usage in South Korea . 2

Importance of the Study .. 5

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 12

Adolescent Internet Use . 12

Impact of Internet on Adolescents and Family Relationships 16

Effects of the Internet Usage on Academic Achievement . 24

Parent-Child Relationships and Adolescent Outcomes . 29

Parental Expectations and Adolescents Academic Achievement .. 36

CHAPTER 3: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS AND PROPOSED CONCEPTUAL


MODELS

Uses and Gratifications Theory 44

Observational Learning Theory 46

Informational Processing Theory . 47

Time Displacement Theory .. 48

Human Ecology Theory .. 49

Attachment Theory . 54

CHAPTER 4: CONCEPTUALIZATION
vi

Use of the Internet 57

Educational Use of the Internet 60

Social Use of the Internet 60

Recreational Use of the Internet .. 60

Parent-Adolescent Conflict . 61

Parent-Adolescent Closeness .. 62

Parental Expectation 62

Adolescent Behavioral Problems 63

Academic Achievement .. 63

CHPATER 5: RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES .. 64

CHAPTER 6: METHODOLOGY

Population ... 70

Procedure . 72

Participants .. 74

Measurements . 76

Adolescent Internet Use . 76

Parent-Adolescent Relationships 77

Parental Cultural Expectations 80

Adolescent Outcomes .. 81

CHAPTER 7: ANALYTIC STRATEGY .. 83

CHAPTER 8: RESULTS
vii

Addressing Issues of Distribution and Missing Data 89

Demographic Characteristics of Participants 90

Descriptive Analyses on the Nature of Adolescents Internet Use 93

Factor Analysis and Reliability of Constructs .. 99

Testing Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1 . 112

Hypothesis 2 . 116

Hypothesis 3 . 123

Hypothesis 4 . 141

CHAPTER 9: DISCUSSION 147

Findings from the Nature of Internet Use 148

Findings from the Direct Models . 154

Findings from the Indirect Models .. 157

CHAPTER 10: THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND


FUTURE RESEARCH .. 165

References . 170

Appendices 241
viii

List of Tables

Table 1. Number and percentage of demographics by participants 92

Table 2. Skewness and Kurtosis of demographic variables 93

Table 3a. Number and types of computers at home 94

Table 3b. The nature of adolescent Internet use .. 95

Table 4a. Descriptive statistics on the number of times adolescents access the Internet
for various educational, social, and recreational activities during weekdays and
weekends . 96

Table 4b. Descriptive statistics on the intensity of adolescents Internet use for
educational, social, and recreational activities on weekdays and weekends
... 96

Table 4c. The Frequencies for the Numbers of Functional Use of the Internet Use
(N=609) . 98-99

Table 5a. Rotated Component Matrix Frequency of adolescents Internet use 101

Table 5b. Rotated Component Matrix Intensity of adolescents Internet use 102

Table 6a. Rotated Component Matrix mother-adolescent closeness . 103

Table 6b. Rotated Component Matrix father-adolescent closeness 103

Table 7a. Rotated Component Matrix Parent-adolescent conflict between mothers


and adolescents 105

Table 7b. Rotated Component Matrix Parent-adolescent conflict between fathers and
adolescents .. 105

Table 8. Rotated Component Matrix Parental cultural academic expectations .106

Table 9a. Cronbachs alphas of constructs .. 107

Table 9b. Skewness and Kurtosis of Independent Variables 108

Table 10a. Rotated Component Matrix Adolescent behavioral problems 109

Table 10b. Cronbachs alphas of constructs 111

Table 10c. Means and SDs of Adolescents Behavioral Problems 111


ix

Table 11. Descriptive Statistics for the Adolescent Academic Achievement 112

Table 12a. The Results of Yates Chi-Square Test - Gender Differences/Similarities in


the nature of Internet Use 114

Table 12b. Multivariate analysis of variance Types of adolescent Internet us. 116

Table 13a. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent
Internet use and academic achievement through father-adolescent relationships 125

Table 13b. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent
Internet use and academic achievement through mother-adolescent relationships127

Table 14a. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent
Internet use and internalizing behaviors through father-adolescent relationships. 131

Table 14b. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent
Internet use and internalizing behaviors through mother-adolescent relationships133

Table 15a. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent
Internet use and externalizing behaviors through father-adolescent relationships.137

Table 15b. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent
Internet use and externalizing behaviors through mother-adolescent relationships...139
x

List of Figures

Figure 1a. Direct effects between the types of adolescent Internet use and academic
achievement . 118

Figure 1b. Gender differences in the direct relationship between the types of
adolescent Internet use and academic achievement .. 119

Figure 2a. Direct links between the types of adolescent Internet use and internalizing
problem behaviors ....120

Figure 2b. Gender differences on the direct relationship between the types of
adolescent Internet use and internalizing problem behaviors .121

Figure 3a. Direct effect between the types of adolescent Internet use and externalizing
problem behaviors ..122

Figure 3b. Gender differences on the direct relationships between types of adolescent
Internet use and externalizing problem behaviors ..123

Figure 4a. Indirect effects linking the types of adolescent Internet use and academic
achievement through father-adolescent relationships 124

Figure 4b. Indirect effect of adolescent Internet use on academic achievement through
mother-adolescent relationships 126

Figure 4c. The indirect relationship between adolescent Internet use, father-adolescent
relationship, and academic achievement by youth gender 128

Figure 4d. The indirect relationship among Internet use, mother-adolescent


relationship and academic achievement by youth gender 129

Figure 5a. Indirect effect of Internet use through father-adolescent relationships on


internalizing behaviors 130

Figure 5b. Indirect effect of types of Internet use on internalizing behaviors through
mother-adolescent relationships 132
xi

Figure 5c. The indirect relationship between Internet use, mother-adolescent


relationship and internalizing behaviors by youth gender 134

Figure 6a. Indirect effects of Internet use on externalizing behaviors through father-
adolescent relationships 135

Figure 6b. Indirect effect of types of adolescent Internet use on externalizing


behaviors through mother-adolescent relationships .138

Figure 6c. Link between Internet use, father-adolescent relationship and externalizing
behaviors by youth gender 140

Figure 6d. Gender differences on the indirect relationship among Internet use, mother-
adolescent relationship and externalizing behaviors .141

Figure 7a. Link between adolescent Internet use, father-adolescent relationships, and
academic achievement by fathers academic expectations .. 142

Figure 7b. Link between adolescent Internet use, mother-adolescent relationships, and
academic achievement by mothers academic expectations .143

Figure 8a. Different effects of parental expectation (PE) among Internet use, father-
adolescent relationships, and internalizing behaviors ..144

Figure 8b. Link between adolescent Internet use, mother-adolescent relationships, and
internalizing behaviors by mothers parental expectations 145

Figure 9a. Link between adolescent Internet use, father-adolescent relationships, and
externalizing behaviors by fathers academic expectations ..146

Figure 9b. Different effects of parental expectation (PE) among Internet use, mother-
adolescent relationships, and externalizing behaviors ..147
xii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to thank those whose inspiration and support enabled me to complete this

dissertation. Throughout the dissertation process, my faculty advisor, Dr.

Krishnakumar, helped me to clarify my ideas and offered encouragement. I am also

grateful to my committee members: Dr. Narine, Dr. Ramadoss, Dr. Roopranine, Dr.

Jung, Dr. Kowk, and Dr. Krishnakumar. They motivated me, guided me, and provided

helpful comments on my dissertation.

I thank all of the study participants for their time and effort. Megan Lape, my friend,

generously read my dissertation and provided feedback.

My mother, Bonghee Kim, and old brother, Hyungoo Kim, gave unflagging support

and encouragement while I completed this dissertation. Throughout my life, my

parents have given me assistance, pray, and love.


1

Introduction

Increasing numbers of people worldwide are using the Internet (1,574,313,184

as of December 31, 2008). It has been recently reported that adolescents today spend a

significant amount of time on the Internet for multiple purposes (Ito, Horst, Bittanti,

Boyd, Herr-Stephenson, Lange, et al., 2008). Reports from the National Internet

Development Agency of Korea (2007) indicate that 98.7% of Korean children

between the ages of 6 and 19 years use the Internet. Studies have indicated that the use

of the Internet can be helpful to adolescents to complete schoolwork more effectively

and efficiently (Borzekowski & Robinson, 2005; Jackson, et al., 2006). However,

other investigators have suggested direct negative effects of Internet use on academic

outcomes (Choi, 2007; Sirgy, Lee, & Bae, 2006). Excessive Internet use has been

associated with problems with maintaining daily routines, school performance, and

family relationships (Rickert, 2001).

Much of the literature on the impact of adolescent Internet use has been

descriptive (Valkenburg & Peter, 2007), and investigations on the impact of adolescent

Internet use on family and youth outcomes have provided inconsistent findings (Lee &

Chae, 2007). Considering the current status of research area related the impact of

Internet use, the impacts of Internet use are called for. Therefore, the purpose of this

study is to contribute to the field of social science by investigating associations among


2

the prevalence of adolescent Internet use, parent-adolescent relationships, and

academic/ behavioral adjustment of adolescents in South Korean families.

In addition to the parent-adolescent relationship as mediators between

adolescent Internet use and academic achievement, the moderating role of a childs

gender in explaining these relationships will also be examined. Adolescents use of the

Internet varies by gender (Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005) and hence it is important

to test conceptual models linking adolescents Internet use, parent-adolescent

relationships, and academic outcomes by adolescent and parent gender.

Since it is well known for Koreans to possess high expectations and aspirations

for educational achievement (Chung, 1991), another goal of this study is to investigate

how the effects of parental expectation functions as a unique cultural variable among

the dynamics between Internet use and adolescent outcomes in Korean families.

Internet Usage in South Korea

Internet use among Asians has risen dramatically over the last decade (406.1%;

Internet World Stats, 2008). Based on current statistics, 34,820,000 of South Korean

households have access to the Internet, which is 70.7% of the population with an

astounding 82.9% growth in the period between 2000 and 2008 (Internet World Stats,

2008). The International Telecoms Union has reported that South Korea leads the

world in terms of the percentage of households with high-speed broadband access


3

(Cellular News, 2008). Based on a summary report from the National Internet

Development Agency of Korea (2007), the rate of internet usage for populations age

six years and over is 77.1%; consisting of 81.6% males, and 71.5% females. Korea

Communications Commission reported that nearly all high school and junior high

school graduates in South Korea are Internet users. Also, 99.4% of Internet users

access the Internet at least once a week, spending an average of 13.7 hours weekly on

the Internet (Korea Times, 2008, September 31).

South Korean youth use Internet-related technologies to play games, instant

message (IM), blog, download videos and music, social network socially and shop, all

of which assist them in constructing their own social communities (Jin & Chee, 2008).

For many South Korean youths, participating in online activities or communicating

through online communities is a part of mainstream everyday life (Huh, 2008). The

disparity in Internet access in South Korea in terms of educational settings and gender

have narrowed (Park, 2001); however, according to the international surveys by the

AMD Global Consumer Advisory Board (2003), Internet usage is still different

dependent on the age, education, income level, region, and gender of a user. The

national survey also showed that more men (74.4%) use the Internet than women

(62%). Internet usage stands at around 70% for urban inhabitants, while only 46.2% of

people who live in rural areas (CNET News, 2004, August 11) utilize the internet.
4

Over the past two decades, the South Korean government has strongly promoted

the establishment of a nationwide Internet network (National Internet Development

Agency of Korea, 2006), which contributed to Korea becoming one of the most wired

countries in the world and making the Korean Internet culture the barometer for other

countries to track. About 90% of Korean homes are connected to VDSL, which is very

high bitrate digital subscriber line. By 2005, Korea was the first country to complete

the conversion from dial-up to broadband and in 2006 it became the first country to

achieve over 50% broadband saturation consisting of he worlds cheapest and fastest

broadband service. Additionally in 2005, 96.8% of South Korean mobile phones had

internet access. Furthermore, 42% of the population maintain an individual blog site,

over half of the population have cell phones, and 25% of the total population

participates in multiplayer online gaming (Ahonen & O' Reilly, 2007). Also, Korea

was the first country in the world to provide high-speed Internet access for every

primary, junior, and high school (New York Times, 2006, April 2).

In South Korea, more adolescents and young adults use the Internet than any

other age group. Children under 18 years of age make up 25.1% (12,090) of the total

population in South Korea (Korean Statistical Information Service, 2004). By 2007,

98.7% of Korean children between the ages of 6 and 19 years of age used the Internet

(National Internet Development Agency of Korea, 2007). Based on a 2003 survey,


5

over 91% of those using the Internet, use it in their homes and almost half of them

have used it for more than 3 years. One third of them use it one to two hours a day,

another third use it thirty minutes to one hour a day, and 16% use the Internet for two

to three hours a day. Over 40% of them go online during the evening, which is

between 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., and another 40% use it from 12 p.m. to 4 p.m. The primary

reasons given for Internet use are for entertainment or recreation (59.3 %),

information seeking (55.5%), stress reduction (46.3%), and socialization (40.7%). The

breakdowns of activities on the Internet are: gaming (52.8%), searching for

information (34%), and socializing (64.9%), such as chatting, e-mailing, interacting

with web communities, and blogging. They use e-mails in order to keep in touch with

friends (50.6%), chat (31.2%), and send messages when they are uncomfortable

speaking face to face (31.2%). The world's fastest Internet connection with over 90%

Internet proliferation in Korean homes creates an ideal environment for playing online

games, which a lot of South Korean kids do.

Importance of the Study

The Internet seems to influence quality of life through individuals social,

consumer, leisure, economic, and community well-being (Cairncross, 1997; DiMaggio,

Hargitti, Neuman, & Robinson, 2001; Israel, 2000). The Internets influence stems

from the ease and convenience it provides to access many benefits in the context of
6

many life domains (e.g., social life, work life, leisure life, and education life). Some

authors have suggested that the Internet has positive effects on academic achievement

through the use of educational software, and the provision of useful information

(Borzekowski & Robinson, 2005; Jackson, von Eye, Biocca, Barbatsis, Zhao, &

Fitzgerald, 2006); others suggest that the Internet provides positive effects on

socialization as it stimulates the closeness of existing interpersonal relationships by

reducing restrictions of time and location (Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005; Lenhart,

Rainie, & Lewis, 2001). Yet other studies suggest that the Internet can have direct

negative effects (Choi, 2007; Sirgy, Lee, & Bae, 2006), such as psychological

problems including social isolation, depression, loneliness, and difficulties with time

management as a result of excessive Internet use (Brenner, 1997; Kraut, Patterson,

Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukhopadhyay, & Scherlis, 1998; Young, & Rodgers, 1998).

Excessive use of the Internet may bring on Internet Addiction Disorder, which

includes problems with daily routines, school performance, and family relationships

(Rickert, 2001).

The importance of this study is follows: First, the Internet today is pervasive in

the lives of individuals, institutions, and societies especially in South Korea. The last

few decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of the Internet and an

unprecedented proliferation of computer-based technology. Computer technologies


7

and the Internet bring social changes in modern society. Since computers have

become a common instrument of daily living for a vast proportion of our society, the

Internet has a significant influence on quality of life (Israel, 2000). Statistical research

tell us that Internet users in the world numbered 16 million in 1996, and increased to

500 million by 2001 (Castells, 2001). For example, almost nine out of 10 American

teens use the Internet, up from seven in 2000 (PEW Internet and American Life

Project, 2007a). However, as stated in above, South Korea is one of the fastest

growing countries in Internet use.

Second, adolescents are more involved in Internet activities than adults. Among

Korean teens, 99.6% of them use computers and 97.8% use the Internet (Dong-A Il

Bo, 2005, February 9). Teens spend less time online than do adults due to a variety of

reasons, such as school and after-school schedule, and sharing computers with others.

However, they are more involved in the communicative aspects of the Internet than

adults (Jupiter Communications, 2000a; Packel & Rainie, 2001). For example, the

PEW Internet and American Life Project (2007a, 2007b, 2007c) revealed that teens far

exceed adults in the intensity of using the Internet, such as instant messaging (74% of

teen users as opposed to 44% of adult users), chat-rooms (55% to 26%), and gaming

(66% to 34%; Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis, 2001). Another survey reported that teens
8

spend more time on the Internet each week than they do watching television (Reuters,

2003).

Third, adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to the negative impacts of

the Internet world (Jonson-Reid, Williams, & Webster, 2001; Otto, Greenstein,

Johnson, & Friedman, 1992). Since they are immature, both physically and

psychologically, they may develop more serious complications than other age groups

regarding the negative impact of the Internet world (Christensen, Orzack, Babington,

& Patsdaughter, 2001; Oh, 2005). Teens may be trapped in their own cyber world,

suffer from psychological pains, and finally destroy their own personal and social

networks due to Internet addiction or excessive Internet use (Jonson-Reid, Williams,

& Webster, 2001; Otto, Greenstein, Johnson, & Friedman, 1992). Internet addiction or

excessive Internet use among adolescents varies across nations with prevalence rates

of 7.5% in Taiwan (Yen, Yen, Chen, Chen, & Ko, 2007) to 1.1% in North Cyprus

(Bayraktar & Gn, 2007) to 1.6% in South Korea (Kim, Ryu, Chon, Yeun, Choi, et al.,

2006). Other challenges associated with excessive usage of the Internet include

lowered concentration, lack of sleep, poor school attendance and performance, vision

problems and a wide range of behavioral problems (Block, 2008; Choi, 2007). In

addition, young adolescents are at high risk of being approached by online predators

since they are relatively new to online activities, actively seeking attention, isolated,
9

easily tricked by adults, and confused regarding their sexual identity (Wolak,

Finkelhor, Mitchell, & Ybarra, 2008). Although they become more interested in

sexuality (Ponton, & Judice, 2004), they are innocent about the sexual issues that get

youth into trouble online (Wolak, Finkelhor, Mitchell, & Ybarra, 2008). Between

2000 and 2005, youth Internet users experienced aggressive sexual solicitations at a

higher rate than adult users (Mitchell, Finkelhor, & Wolak, 2007). For example, the

N-JOV study found that 99% of victims of Internet-initiated sex crimes involved

adolescents between the ages of 13 to 17 years of age (Wolak, Finkelhor, & Mitchell,

2004). In addition, about one third (32.7%) of adolescent Internet users are exposed to

inappropriate sexual content (Korean Educational Development Institute, 2003).

In South Korea there is a growing fear that children and adolescents are

becoming addicted to the Internet: 14.4% of school children reported that they spend 4

hours or more online each day. They also reported that they had developed stiff wrists

and heard sounds from online games even when off line (PRI's The World, 2008). A

2005 government-led study found that half a million South Koreans are clinically

addicted to the Internet. Since the average Korean high school student spends about

twenty-three hours each week on gaming (Kim, 2007), up to 30% of South Korean

children under 18 are at risk of Internet addiction (Silverberg, 2007). According to the

governments 2006 data, approximately 2.1% (210,000 children ages 6 to 19) are
10

estimated to be Internet addicts that are in need of treatment (Choi, 2007); about 80%

of them may need psychotropic medications, and about 22% may require

hospitalization (Ahn, 2007).

In order to deal with the consequences of the proliferation of the worlds fastest

Internet connection, South Korea has instituted numerous counseling and treatment

programs, along with holding the first International Symposium on Internet Addiction

(International Herald Tribune, 2008, August 4). South Korea has trained 1,043

counselors and enlisted over 190 hospitals and treatment centers to help with these

concerns (Ahn, 2007), and preventive measures have been introduced into primary

and secondary schools (Ju, 2007). Now the Korean government is working on new

rules to control the excessive use of the Internet, as well as the dissemination of false

information on the Web, under a new law entitled the Cyber Defamation Law

(International Herald Tribune, 2008, August 4).

Fourth, in as much as the Internets extensive trend is anticipated to continue, it

is necessary to consider the impact and influence of Internet use on families. Families,

as one of societys primary socializing agents, may provide relatively unique insights

about how the Internet is used and understood. Although the lives of adolescents

outside of their families are increasing, the socializing effect of family is crucial

during adolescence because adolescents project themselves into the world through
11

family interactions (Tallman, Marotz-Baden, & Pindas, 1983). There is no doubt that

parents are the primary agents of socialization for adolescents (Grusec & Davidov,

2007). Although growing peer influence and achievement of independence increases

for adolescents, parental factors continue to have a significant influence on human

development (Campbell, 1969) and the vast majority of young adults continue to rely

on their parents for emotional support and advice (Maccoby & Martin, 1983; Merz,

Schuengel, & Schulze, 2008).

Finally, the dramatic increase in the use of the Internet has stimulated research

on its impact on our everyday lives. Scholars have studied the relationship of new

technologies on interpersonal communication and relationships (Baym, Zhang, & Lin,

2004; Cooper, & Sportolari, 1997; Joinson, 2001; Nie, 2001; Nie, Hillygus, & Erbring,

2002; Tidwell & Walther, 2002), psychological well-being, as well as mental health

(LaRose, Eastin, Gregg, 2001; Shaw & Gant, 2002), the impacts of video games

(Aarsand, 2007; Tzn, Yilmaz-Soylu, Karakus, Inal, & Kizilkaya, 2009; Willoughby,

2008), and as new learning devices (Attewell, & Battle, 1999; Hedges,

Konstantopoulos, & Thoreson, 2000; Rompaey, Roe, & Struys, 2002; Shute, &

Miksad 1997). However, the existing literature on the impact of computer

technologies and the Internet within the context of family relationships is very limited

(Hughes & Hans, 2001; Lee & Chae, 2007; Mesch, 2006; Watt & White, 1999).
12

Considering the dominant presence of these technologies at home, a lack of study on

the role of Internet use on family relationships is surprising (Mesch, 2006).

Literature Review

Adolescent Internet Use

Recent statistics indicate that adolescents today spend a great deal of their time

on the Internet for communication, educational, and entertainment purposes (Lenhart,

Madden, & Hitlin, 2005; Korean Educational Development Institute, 2003; Packel &

Rainie, 2001). Not only do children gain knowledge and information on the Internet,

they also engage with their friends in social conversation and participate in cyber

communities (Ito, Horst, Bittanti, Boyd, Herr-Stephenson, Lange, et al., 2008). Hence,

adolescents socialization today occurs through interactions with people from both the

real and virtual worlds (McQuail, 2005). Since the Internet allows youngsters to

become more open to experimentation and social exploration (Ito et al., 2008), the

Internet can be considered an important tool in adolescent socialization (Krcmar &

Strizhakova, 2007).

In the 1990s, the Internet was primarily used for entertainment and information

gathering (Valkenburg, & Soeters, 2001), but the function of the Internet for

adolescents has changed considerably. The majority of adolescents today use the

Internet intensely to communicate with existing friends (Gross, 2004) and to make
13

new friends (Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2002) and in addition to their traditional

face-to-face communications (Grinter & Eldridge, 2003; Grinter & Palen, 2002;

Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005; Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis, 2001). Adolescents also

favor instant messaging, text messaging, and social networking websites such as

Facebook and MySpace as modes of communication (Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin,

2005). Some adolescents prefer digital communication over more traditional ways

such as face to face interaction and telephone calls (Madden & Rainie, 2003),

particularly because these are more convenient, less expensive, and faster to use than

traditional technologies (Bryant, Sanders-Jackson, & Smallwood, 2006; Jin, & Chee,

2008; Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005). E-mail and text messaging allow for rapid,

asynchronous communication with others, while instant messaging allows for

synchronous communication among many people at once. Adolescents use instant

messaging more frequently than adults among online populations in both the U.S. and

the U.K. (Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis, 2001; Livingston & Bober, 2005) and 65% of

total teens population and 75% of teenage online population in the U.S. use instant

messaging regularly (Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005).

Some gender differences (although inconsistent) on adolescents daily use of

Internet have been reported (Haythronthwaite & Wellman, 2002; Jackson, et al., 2006;

Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005). Numerous previous studies have documented that
14

overall, boys use the Internet more frequently, for longer and for a wider variety of

uses than girls do (Gross, 2004; Haythronthwaite & Wellman, 2002; Morahan-Martin,

1998; Subrahmanyam, Greenfield, Kraut, & Gross, 2001). They tend to spend more

time alone online than girls engaged in gaming (Jupiter Communications, 2000b;

Subrahmanyam, et al., 2001; Kraut, Scherlls, Mukhopadhyay, Manning, & Kiesler,

1996).

Girls also report using text messaging more frequently than boys (Jennings &

Wartella, 2004; Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005), and are more likely to be involved

in other online social interactions, such as using e-mail, than are boys (Subrahmanyam,

et al., 2001). How email is used also differs by gender. For example, girls tend to use

e-mail to exchange small talk and engage in relationship-building communications

and boys tend to use e-mail for instrumental communication (Subrahmanyam, et al.,

2001). Gender differences in adolescent Internet use have also been reported across

countries. For instance, males have been found to have a greater amount of frequency

and motivation of Internet use with Romanian and Dutch children (Durndell & Haag,

2002; Valkenburg & Soeters, 2001), American college students (Schumacher &

Morahan-Martin, 2001), English secondary school students (Madell & Muncer, 2004),

Israeli school students (Nachmias, Mioduster, & Shelma, 2000), North Cyprus

adolescents (Bayraktar & Gun, 2007), Greek adolescent students (Siomos, Dafouli,
15

Braimiotis, Mouzas, & Angelopoulos, 2008), and Hong Kong adolescents (Ho, & Lee,

2001), as well as Korean adult users (Rhee & Kim, 2004). However, there is no

gender difference in how long adolescents using the Internet, with most of the

participants having been online for more than two years (Gross, 2004).

Despite great concerns over isolation and depression, teens report an optimistic

picture about the social use of the Internet (Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis, 2001). For

example, Bryant and colleagues (2006) found that online communication technologies

encourage communication with existing friends and families. In addition, some

researchers demonstrated that Internet use is positively related to time spent with

existing friends and family members (Kraut, Kiesler, Boneva, Cummings, Helgeson,

& Crawford, 2002), to the closeness of existing friendships (Valkenburg & Peter,

2007b), and to the well being of adolescents (Kraut et al., 2002; Morgan & Cotton,

2003, Shaw, & Grant, 2002). The Internet Life Report study reported that e-mail and

the Internet have enhanced users relationships with their family and friends (PEW

Internet and American Life Project, 2000). Nie, Hillygus, and Erbring (2002) also

provided primary evidence that Internet use does not negatively impact household

time together. A UCLA study found that the Internet provided opportunities for social

gathering and engagement (UCLA Center for Communication Policy, 2003). Between

Internet non-users and Internet users, the amount of weekly time spent sleeping,
16

exercising, participating in clubs/organizations, socializing with friends, and

socializing with household members were similar (UCLA Center for Communication

Policy, 2003). Authors of the PEW study argue that Internet use may create a social

community because Internet users reported more social resources and connections

than non-users. Those who have been online for three years become even more

interpersonally engaged and gain more social support than new users (PEW Internet

and American Life Project, 2000).

Impact of Internet on Adolescents and Family Relationships

There has been continuing debates about the impact of the Internet on family

relationships and human development. Some studies on Internet use have raised

concerns that excessive use of the Internet might bring social isolation, loneliness,

depression, and deterioration of psychological well-being (Brenner, 1997; Lee, Han,

Yang, Daniels, Na, Kee, et al., 2008; National Public Radio, 2000; Nie, 2001; Nie,

Hillygus, & Erbring, 2002; Spada, Langston, Nikcevic, & Moneta, 2008; Van den

Eijnden, Meerkerk, Vermulst, Spijkerman, & Engels, 2008). Other studies indicated

that the Internet leads to substantially greater communication and enhances human

connectivity and sociability (PEW Internet and American Life Project, 2000; UCLA

Center for Communication Policy, 2003). The Internet can also provide opportunities

for family collaboration and communication between parents and children (Kiesler,
17

Zdaniuk, Lundmark, & Kraut, 2000; Orleans & Laney, 2000) and increases their

access to useful information regarding parenting, education, and family health

(Hughes & Hans, 2001). Moderate use of the Internet may also have pro-social effects

on young people by helping them sustain friendships (Subrahmanyam, et al., 2001).

However, the inconsistent findings of some studies do not allow any firm conclusions

to be drawn about the impact of Internet usage on family relationships.

The effects of Internet use on youngsters can also be seen to vary as a function

of the motivation and type of Internet usage (McKenna & Bargh, 2000). For example,

the social use of Internet has been found to be related to depression, while non-social

use of the Internet such as information seeking and entertainment, have not been

found to be related to adolescent depression (Bessire, Kiesler, Kraut, & Boneva,

2008). Therefore, researchers such as Gross (2004), disagree with the early research

assumptions about the negative effects of adolescent Internet use, as Gross reports that

most teenage Internet users are more likely to communicate with existing friends than

with strangers. Supportive relationships with friends can positively contribute to

adolescents sense of well-being, self-esteem, connectedness, and ability to cope with

stress (Eisenberg, Sallquist, French, Purwono, Suryanti, & Pidada, 2009; Hartup &

Stevens, 1997). In a national survey, nearly 50% of teenagers reported that the Internet
18

has improved their relationships with their existing friends (Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis,

2001).

Unfortunately, studies on the association between adolescents Internet use and

family relationships are limited. Only some positive association between poor family

relationships and excessive/ problematic use of the Internet or Internet addiction has

been supported by empirical findings. Youths who experience high levels of conflict

with their parents are at risk for some negative outcomes in Internet use. For example,

participants who reported poor emotional bonds with caregivers were more likely to

view pornography online (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2005). Ybarra and Mitchell (2004a)

also found that youths who exhibit offensive behaviors in Cyber space(s) are also

more likely to report poor emotional bonds with their parents than other Internet users.

Adolescents who do not have open communication about their Internet use with their

parents are more likely to be involved in risky Internet behaviors, such as having a

face-to-face meeting with a stranger who they encountered online (Liau, Khoo, & Ang,

2005). Other research found that paternal alienation and adolescents insecurity and

mistrust with their fathers contribute significantly to problematic Internet use among

Chinese adolescents. Adolescents security and trust in their relationships with their

fathers is negatively related to the negative outcomes of Internet use (Lei & Wu,

2007). Lei and Wu (2007) argued that adolescents who experience a negative
19

relationship with their fathers are more likely to use the Internet excessively to seek

emotional support. In the study of pathological Internet use in South Korea, high

school students with pathological Internet use showed more problems in family

relations than the non- pathological Internet use group (Cho, Kim, Kim, Lee, & Kim,

2008).

The negative effects of Internet use on family communication and closeness can

be explained by the nature of virtual relationships and the displacement hypothesis,

which argues that high frequency of Internet use might be related to the decrease of

family time (Jackson, von Eye, Barbatis, Biocca, Zhao, & Fitzgerald, 2003; Nie,

Simpser, Stepanikova, & Zheung, 2004). The displacement hypothesis argues that

computer-mediated communication hinders adolescents well being because it

displaces valuable time that could be spent with existing friends (Kraut et al., 1998;

Nie, 2001; Nie, Hillygus, & Erbring, 2002). According to the displacement hypothesis,

individuals have a limited amount time (Huston, Wright, Marquis, & Green, 1999;

Larson & Verma, 1999). If individuals increase the time they spend on a particular

activity, they may make sacrifices in other areas (Neuman, 1991). Therefore, time

spent on online activities may cut other activities such as reading and social

interaction, which are essential to normal development (Kraut et al., 1998; Morgan &

Cotton, 2003; Nie, 2001; Nie, Hillygus, & Erbring, 2002; Weiser, 2001).
20

Online relationships are characterized by some researchers as being of lesser

depth, more superficial, and weaker than typically found in face to face relationships

(Chan & Cheng, 2004; Kraut et al., 1998; Nie, Hillygus, & Erbring, 2002). Scholars

argue that there is a cyberspace that exists apart from everyday life, which is inferior

to real space (Haythronthwaite & Wellman, 2002; Miller & Slater, 2000). Kraut et al.

(1998) also described Internet social relationships as poor and weak and face-to-face

relationships as strong. Therefore, weak and superficial ties of virtual contact on the

Interne may bring experience of loneliness and depression (Ybarra, Alexander, &

Mitchell, 2005). In addition, online communications with strangers and acquaintances

typically provide less social support than offline relationships with family and friends

(Wellman, Salaff, Dimitrova, Garton, Gulia, & Haythornthwaite, 1996). For example,

HomeNet study participants reported that they felt less close to those they

communicated with online compared to those they communicated with face-to-face

(Parks & Roberts, 1998). Chan and Cheng (2004) found that computer-mediated

communication and relationships are less beneficial than traditional off-line

relationships, at least in the early stages. Among teens and adults in the HomeNet

project, greater use of the Internet during the first year of access is associated with

small but significant declines in social involvement as measured by communication

within the family, size of social networks, and feelings of loneliness (Kraut et al.,
21

1996). It may be assumable that having greater online bonds with strangers than close

family- and peer- ties may be problematic.

The Internet Life Report study (National Public Radio, 2000) found that 58% of

Americans spend less time with friends and family due to Internet usage and half of

Americans believe that computers have given people less free time. The Internet and

Society study (Nie & Erbring, 2002) also found that as the number of hours of Internet

use has increased, the time for social activities declined, such as spending time with

friends and family, staying outside of their home for social gathering, and talking to

friends and family members on the telephone. Nie (2001) found a steady decrease in

social interactions with family and friends as individuals engaged in longer Internet

usage sessions. However, other studies have found no significant relationship between

physical social interactions and the length of time individuals spend in Internet use

(Gross, 2004; Kraut et al., 2002; Jackson, et al., 2003; Mesch, 2001, 2003; Sanders,

Field, Diego, & Kaplan, 2000; Wastlund, Norlander, & Archer, 2001).

Length of time may not be as important as the type of Internet use. Research has

demonstrated that the impact of Internet communication on adolescents social

relationships is dependent on the way communication is used and the type of activities

in which the individual engages (Lee & Chae, 2007; Subrahmanyam, Kraut,

Greenfield, & Gross, 2000). Some researchers argue that people use the Internet to
22

strengthen their traditional face to face relationships (Kraut, et al., 1998; McKenna &

Bargh, 2000). For example, much of the time adolescents spend alone with computers

is actually used to keep up existing friendships (Gross, 2004; Subrahmanyam, et al.,

2000; Valkenburg & Peter, 2007a) and most online interactions are between people

who also talk on the telephone or meet face-to-face (Miller & Slater, 2000; PEW

Project on the Internet and American Life, 2000; UCLA Center for Communication

Policy, 2003).

Many parents are concerned about the potential harmful effects of Internet use

(Subrahmanyam, et al., 2000). Surveys of parental attitudes about teen Internet use

indicate that parents are insecure about their teens Internet use. The majority of

parents (75%) are concerned about the disclosure of personal information and

exposure to sexually explicit images (Clemente, Espinosa, & Vidal, 2008; Turow,

1999), and 57% of parents are concerned about online contact between their children

and strangers (The PEW Internet and American Life Project, 2007a). A study

conducted in Singapore, conducted by Liau, Khoo, and Ang (2005), found that 78% of

parents indicated that their major concern was that their children would be exposed to

pornographic and violent material while using the Internet. In fact, 60% of adolescents

indicated that they have received messages from strangers (PEW Internet and

American Life Project, 2001).


23

Parents, despite these concerns, are willing to purchase home computers and

Internet subscriptions so that their children can have access to educational

opportunities and are prepared for the information age (Buckingham, Scanlon, &

Sefton-Green, 2001; Linvingston, 2003). However, they are disappointed when they

find that their childrens primary online activities include gaming, downloading lyrics

of popular songs and pictures of rock stars, etc., and the potential harmful effects of

Internet use (Subrahmanyam, Kraut, Greenfield, & Gross, 2000). Consequently, there

has been a decrease since 2004 in the number of parents who believe that the Internet

is beneficial for their children (PEW Internet and American Life Project, 2007a).

In part these intergenerational conflicts on Internet usage may be explained by

differences between parental expectation of Internet usage and actual Internet use by

adolescents (Kiesler, Zdaniuk, Lundmark, & Kraut, 2000; Lenhart, Raine, & Lewis,

2001; Turow, 2001). The majority of parents expect their children to use the Internet

for educational purposes (Lenhart, Raine, & Lewis, 2001), while teens prefer to use

the Internet for socializing and entertainment (Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005).

Therefore, when parental expectations and adolescents use of the Internet contradict,

intergenerational conflicts can increase (Mesch, 2003).


24

Effects of the Internet Usage on Academic Achievement

Over the last couple of decades, personal computers have spread rapidly into

American homes, provoking thoughts that those who do not have access to home

computers may become disadvantaged. According to the National survey, over 70%

of households having children aged three to seven possesses a home computer (U.S.

Census Bureau, 2005). However, large disparities in computer ownership by race and

family income remain. Many government and non-governmental organizations are

trying to bridge this digital divide across nations and between households. The U.S.

Congress has made it a national priority to provide all American children with access

to computers at school. Congress enacted the Goals 2000, i.e., Educate America Act

(PL 103-227) and the Improving Americas Schools Act (PL 103-382), and created

several programs to help elementary and secondary schools acquire and use

technology to improve the delivery of educational services (Coley, Cradler, & Engel,

1996). As a result of this endeavor, the percentage regarding access to computers and

the Internet in American public elementary and secondary schools has increased from

35% in 1994 to 95% in 1999. Finally, all public schools have had Internet access since

2003 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2005).

Many scholars consider home computers a tool that reinforces or supplements

school learning, and are concerned that a lack of access to a home computer may be
25

related to lower educational achievement. Most parents also believe that computers

are an important educational resource that allows their children to discover fascinating

and useful things, and that children without access are disadvantaged compared to

those with access (Clemente, Espinosa, & Vidal, 2008; Turow, 1999). As a result, a

growing number of parents are providing their children with access to computers at

home. Among households with children-aged two to seventeen, home computer

ownership jumped from 48% in 1996 to 70% in 2000, while connections to the

Internet catapulted from 15% to 52% over the same 5-year period in the U.S.

(Woodward & Gridina, 2000).

Given the increased prevalence of access to computers and the Internet in

homes and schools, the potential value of a personal computer in child development

has been debated consistently among parents, educators, and researchers for decades.

Students computer use can be conceptualized in two ways: (a) home computer use for

socializing, entertainment, and educational purpose, and (b) school computer use

primarily with computer-based instruction and as a learning assistance tool. Despite

positive expectations about computer technology, a positive relationship between the

use of computer technology and academic outcomes has only partially been supported

through inconsistent research findings (Angrist & Lavy, 2002; Blanton, Moorman,

Hayes, & Warner, 1997; Campuzano, Dynarski, Agodini, Rall, & Pendleton, 2009;
26

Dynarski, Agodini, Heaviside, Novak, Carey, Campuzano, et al., 2007; Goolsbee &

Guryan, 2006; Li, Atkins, & Stanton, 2006; Rouse & Krueger, 2004). Some studies

have revealed positive correlations (Attewell & Battle, 1999; Attewell, Suazo-Garcia,

& Battle, 2003; Borzekowski & Robinson, 2005; Judge, 2005; Beltran, Das, & Fairlie,

2006; Jackson et al., 2006), such as between computer use and childrens fine motor

skills (Christensen, 2004; Ziajka, 1983), word/letter recognition (Cuffaro, 1984;

Mioduser, Tur-Kaspa, & Leitner, 2000), concept learning (Howard-Jones, & Martin,

2002; Sung, Chang, & Lee, 2008), number recognition (Cuffaro, 1984), counting

skills and pre-mathematical knowledge (Clements, 2002; Hess, & McGarvey, 1987),

reading readiness (Hess, & McGarvey, 1987), cognitive development (Howell, Scott,

&Diamond, 1987; Sung, Chang, & Lee, 2008; Shute & Miksad, 1997), visual spatial

skills (Subrahmanyam, et al., 2000) and self-esteem (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe,

2007; Haugland, 1992; Vogelwiesche, Grob, & Winkler, 2006). However, other

studies have found no significant evidence of computer technology use and positive

school outcomes (Malamud & Pop-Eleches. 2008; Shapley, Sheehan, Maloney, &

Caranikas-Walker, 2008). A recent study based on a survey given to one million

children by Vigdor and colleagues (Clotfelter, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2008) has revealed

that high speed internet availability is associated with less educational use of

computers and lower math and reading test scores.


27

Children and teens frequently use home computers and the Internet for their

homework and run educational programs (Kraut, et al., 1996; National Center for

Education Statistics, 2003; PEW Internet and American Life Project, 2001; UCLS

Center for Communication Policy, 2003). Home computer use has been linked to

improvements in literacy (Attewell & Battle, 1999; Weinberger, 1996; PEW Internet

and American Life Project, 2007c), language (N vdal, 2007), mathematics (Attewell

& Battle, 1999) and general academic performance (Attewell, 2001; Rocheleau, 1995).

Early computer exposure among young children before school years is also associated

with the development of preschool concepts and cognition (Li & Atkins, 2004). It was

found that children who had access to a computer had shown better performance in

school readiness and cognitive tests.

These positive effects are not, however, always the result of computer and

Internet use. Internet use can be a source of non-productive activities according to the

displacement hypothesis. Students with home computers are more likely to live in

families with higher incomes and education, which are highly correlated with better

academic performance (Li & Atkins, 2004). It has been found that children from a

higher socio-economic status obtain more benefits from home computers than children

from lower socio-economic statuses (Giacquinta, Bauer, & Levin, 1993). On the

contrary, having a home computer among low-income Romanian families has


28

negative consequences on childrens school performance and behaviors, because

children in households that own a home computer spend large amounts of time in

front of the computer and show negative behavioral outcomes (Malamud & Pop-

Eleches, 2008). Other research shows similar results. Giacquinta and colleagues

(1993) examined home computing among seventy middle class families for three year,

that children use home computers almost exclusively for playing games and that

academic use of computers is almost absent.

This might be explained in terms of the contribution of parental support;

findings from the Romanian study suggest that parental monitoring and supervision

are important mediating factors (Malamud & Pop-Eleches, 2008). Giacquinta et al.,

(1993) interpreted that childrens lack of educational use of the Internet is highly

dependent on parental support and guidance. In other words, greater educational usage

of computers by children might be the result of parental involvement, such as through

the purchase of educational software, monitoring of computer use, and managing of

the childrens computer time. Therefore, one may speculate that more affluent and

more highly educated parents are better able to provide supportive learning

environments and are more likely to have high expectation of their childrens

educational achievement (Attewell & Battle, 1999).


29

Parent-Child Relationship and Adolescent Outcomes

The parent-child relationship is vital to the development and adjustment of the

child. The younger the child the more they are dependent upon their parents; the

relationship with parents is very important to the childrens survival. Although there is

some doubt, a large body of evidence indicates that parents still play an important role

in the development and adjustment of their adolescent children (Hair, Moore, Garrett,

Ling, & Cleveland, 2008; Steinberg, 2008). For example, good quality relationships

with parents have been found to predict lower levels of adolescent delinquent behavior

(Hair, et al., 2008) and adolescent depression (Aseltine, Gore, & Colten, 1998). Also,

positive relationships between parents and children show buffering effects of marital

conflict or family disruption on antisocial behaviors of children (Conger, Ge, Elder,

Lorenz, & Simons, 1994) and can protect adolescents from the negative effects of

abusive parenting styles (Moore, Guzman, Hair, Lippman, & Garrett, 2004).

An association between the quality of intergenerational relationships and

adolescents educational and life outcomes has been well established using various

methodologies (Barber, 1996; Burt, McGue, Krueger, & Iacono, 2005; Kerr & Stattin,

2000; Petti, Laird, Dodge, Bates, & Criss, 2001). For example, longitudinal research

findings indicate that there are significant association between the quality of parent

adolescent and adolescents externalizing problems (Fanti, Henrich, Brookmeyer, &


30

Kuperminc, 2008); and a reciprocal relationship was also reported to exist between the

quality of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents internalizing problems

(Buist, Dekovic, Meeus, & Van Aken, 2004; Fanti, et al., 2008; Sameroff &

MacKenzie, 2003). Cross-sectional research also indicates that a close link exists

between the quality of adolescents relationships with their parents and adolescents

emotional and behavioral problems (Garber, Robinson, & Valentiner, 1997).

Furthermore, some studies found that parent-adolescent closeness is positively

related to adolescents academic achievement. Intergenerational closeness may lead to

shared expectations of adolescents psychological, behavioral, social expectations and

values, as well as a shared responsibility for practicing and correcting undesirable

behaviors (Amato & Gilbreth, 1999; Englund, Egeland, & Collins, 2008). These

multidimensional social ties may become an important pathway for information and

resources that could directly enhance adolescents academic progress (Rosenbaum &

Rochford, 2008). Other researchers (Brewster & Bowen, 2004; Catterall, 1998;

Jimersn, Egeland, Sroufe, & Carlson, 2000) have indicated that parental instrumental

and emotional support, hostility and rejection, and intergenerational communications

are prominent determinants of educational success or failure. In other words, the

quality of parent-adolescent relationships is an important predictor of adolescents

psychosocial adjustment (Amato & Rivera, 1999), school adaptation, coping strategies,
31

socio-emotional competence, and social interaction among peers (Lieberman, Doyle,

& Markiewicz, 1999).

Family cohesion also was found to be the core predictor of childrens academic

success (Forkel & Silbereisen, 2001; Rosenbaum & Rochford, 2008; Windle, 1992). It

has also been found that adolescents perception of the cohesiveness of

intergenerational relationships is significantly related to young adolescents well being

(Sun & Hui, 2007; Wentzel & Feldman, 1993). Therefore, how the adolescent

assesses and interprets the nature of their parent adolescent relationship may have a

strong direct and indirect impact on their own behavior and adaptation (Feldman,

Wentzel, & Gehring, 1989). For example, Hindin (2005) found that adolescent boys

attained more education if they reported being close to their mothers. Another study

reveals an important relationship between family cohesion and childrens internalizing

and attention problems (Lucia & Breslau, 2006). Conversely, the lack of parental

support was significantly contributing to adolescents depression, anxiety, low self-

esteem, hopelessness and subsequent suicidal ideation (Simon & Murphy, 1985).

Adolescents depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations are commonly predicted by

the lack of closeness to parents and negative life events (Kandel, Raveis, & Davies,

1991).
32

In addition, a significant relationship between family conflict and lower

psychological distress was found among Latino groups (Rivera, Guarnaccia,

Mulvaney-Day, Lin, Torres, & Alegria, 2008). Meneese and colleagues (1992) found

that when girls experience more family conflict, they develop a sense of hopelessness

and when boys perceived a low level of family cohesion, they develop poor coping

strategies, a sense of hopelessness and depression. In conclusion, intergenerational

conflict is one of the most significant predictors of adolescents psychological

maladjustment (Lee, Wong, Chow, & McBride-Chang, 2006), along with

intergenerational closeness/ cohesion.

Adolescence is a period during which autonomy and independence develop, and

parent-child conflict increases (Paikoff & Brooks-Gunn, 1991). The onset of puberty

is often associated with increased conflict, decreased cohesiveness, and emotional

distance from parents (Steinberg, 1987). Parent-child conflict is defined as a state of

resistance or opposition between parents and children (Shantz & Hartup, 1992)

characterized by frequent disagreements, fights, arguments, and anger. The level of

conflict varies depending on prior family relationships, family structure, and

individual parent and child characteristics (Montemayor, 1986; Small, Eastern, &

Cornelius, 1988). The consequences of parent-and-adolescent conflict are seen as a


33

normal aspect of development or a healthy facilitator of psychological growth (Shantz

& Hartup, 1992).

Parent-adolescent conflict is also considered a risk factor for developing

emotional and behavioral problems (Marmorstein & Iacono, 2004), well-being

(Dekovic, 1999), and troubles in parent-adolescent relationships (Shantz & Hartup,

1992). For example, parent-adolescent conflict has been found by multiple researchers

to be related to adolescents internal and external behaviors (Adams, Gullotta, &

Clancy, 1985; Bradford, Vaughn, & Barber, 2008; Patterson, 1982; Stevens,

Vollebergh, Pels, & Crijnen, 2005a, b), depression (Dumka, Roosa, & Jackson, 1997;

Marmorstein & Iacono, 2004), and adolescents well being (Dekovic, 1999). Adams

and colleagues (1985) also found that intergenerational conflict is positively related to

adolescent delinquency and running away from home.

Parent-child conflict is also related to a childs school achievement as well. For

example, parent-child conflict along with depression and discrimination influence

adolescents self-esteem and school achievement among Spanish-speaking

adolescents (Portes & Zady, 2002). Adams and Laursen (2007) also found negative

relations between intergenerational conflict and school grades, and positive

relationships between delinquency and withdrawal for adolescents and their parents.
34

Parenting styles are also one aspect of intergenerational relationships and have

received notable attention. Parenting styles typically include parental control and

warmth (Radziszewska, Richardson, Dent, & Flay, 1996). Therefore, parenting style

as an aspect of parent-child relationships has been identified as the key factor for

understanding adolescent cognitive, academic, and behavioral development (Hindin,

2005). Baumrind (1991) developed four types of parenting styles: authoritarian,

authoritative, permissive, and rejecting-neglectful. In particular, an authoritative

parenting style has been found to be beneficial to adolescents for psychosocial

adjustment and well-being (Steinberg, 2008). For example, an authoritative parenting

style is predictive of academic achievement among white adolescents (Dornbusch,

Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts, & Fraleigh, 1987). Rimm and Lowe (1988) found that

parents of high-achieving gifted students are more consistently using an authoritative

approach than parents of low-achieving gifted students. Many studies show that

adolescents from authoritative homes show good school achievement, less depressive

and anxious symptoms, high self-esteem and self-reliance, and less antisocial

behaviors such as drug use and delinquency (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinburg, &

Dornbusch, 1991; Steinburg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994;

Steinburg, Lamborn, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992).


35

These parenting styles create an emotional climate in which the parents

behaviors are expressed (Darling & Steinberg, 1993) and produce unique parenting

practices, which produces the specific developmental outcomes of interest. For

example, parenting practices include supervision of homework, involvement of school

activities, monitoring of childrens use of media, and so on. Therefore, these same

parenting practices may have different outcomes when implemented with one

parenting style than with another (Steinberg & Silk, 2002). Parenting practices also

include parental awareness or monitoring, supportiveness, strictness, family routines

(Paschall, Ringwalt, & Flewelling, 2003; Smetana, Crean, & Daddis, 2002), and

parent involvement (Hair, Moore, Garrett, Ling, & Cleveland, 2008).

Research indicates that parents who do not practice proper parental discipline

and supervision are more likely to have hostile coercive relationships with their

children (Hetherington, 1993). For example, when parental hostility toward their

children increases, parental monitoring often decreases (Kim, Hetherington, & Reiss,

1999). When parents engage in decreased parental monitoring they are also less aware

of their childrens well-being (Smetana, Crean, & Daddis, 2002). In addition, it was

found that unsupportive parenting is also related to internalizing problems from

childhood to early adolescence (Eisenberg, Fabes, Shepard, Guthrie, Murphy, &

Reiser, 1999). Coercive parenting and the lack of parental monitoring has been found
36

to contribute not only to boys antisocial behaviors, but also to their delinquent acts

(Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). Conversely, parental

awareness predicts positive psychological adjustment of preadolescents (Brody,

Murry, Kim, & Brown, 2002) and a decrease in adolescents behavioral problems

(Smetana, Crean, & Daddis, 2002). Furthermore, Patterson and colleagues (1984)

showed that inept parental discipline is related to negative exchanges between siblings,

which in turn correlated with boys physical aggression and other externalizing

behaviors.

Parental Expectations and Adolescents Academic Achievement

The academic success of Korean and East-Asian students has been well

documented (Coleman, Hoffer, & Kilgore, 1982; Matute-Bianchi, 1986; Schneider,

Hieshima, Lee, & Plank, 1994; Schneider & Lee, 1990). For example, Korean

students were top achievers in math, science, and literacy in the thirty-one-nation

study of grade nine students (Organization for Economic Cooperation and

Development, 2003) and the international studies of academic achievement of middle-

school students (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2000). On standardized

tests, East-Asian students typically outperform Western students (Schneider, Hieshima,

Lee, & Plank, 1994).


37

The Chicago field study conducted by Northwestern University to understand

the contributing factors to the high academic achievement among Asian populations

(Schneider & Lee, 1990) revealed that the academic success of East-Asian students is

linked to a) the shared values and aspirations about academic success among parents

and students, b) the home learning environment and parental active involvement, and

c) the shared expectations among family members and the interactions with teachers

and classmates. It has already been suggested that parents make a strong contribution

to their childs school performance through the relationships they nurture with their

child (Astone & McLanahan, 1991). Among parental contributions, parental

expectations and belief systems have been considered one of the strongest predictors

of childrens academic achievement (Wentzel, 1994). The comparison study by

Schwarz and colleagues (2005) of German and Korean families also reported high

levels of parental educational expectations among Korean parents, which were

positively related to the degree of parental support and warmth.

The positive relationship between parental expectations or aspirations and their

childrens educational achievement has been consistently supported through empirical

studies (Furstenberg, & Hughes, 1995; Zhan, 2006; Sandefur, Meier, & Campbell,

2006) and among diverse populations (Neuenschwander, Vida, Garrett, & Eccles,

2007; Seyfried, & Chung, 2002). For example, Smith and colleagues (1995) found
38

that parental expectation of their childrens college attendance is a significant positive

predictor of actual subsequent college attendance of their children regardless of the

place of residence. A longitudinal study revealed that parental expectations and

childrens academic achievement are highly related through parental involvement

(Englund, Luckner, Whaley, & Egeland, 2004). Some researchers have also found that

parental expectations for their childrens educational attainment have a stronger

relation to childrens academic achievement than other parental factors, such as

parent-child communication and parental school involvement (Fan, 2001; Fan & Chen,

2001; Singh, Bickley, Trivette, Keith, Keith, & Anderson, 1995).

Furthermore, direct positive relationships between parental expectations and

childrens achievement were found after controlling for earlier achievement among 3rd

and 4th graders (Halle, Kurtz-Coster, & Mahoney, 1997). Another study showed that

parents and teachers expectations exert a significant influence on youths academic

competency and performance, while low adult expectations have a disruptive effect.

More interestingly, high mother expectations have buffering effects in the face of low

teacher expectations (Benner & Mistry, 2007). Indirect effects of parental expectations

on childrens academic achievement may also be mediated through parental

involvement (Croswell, OConnor, & Brewin, 2008; Englund, Luckner, Whaley, et al.,

2004; Seyfried, & Chung, 2002) and parenting practices (Hill, 2001).
39

The direct relationship between parental expectations and childrens academic

achievement has not been consistently found. For instance, Goldenberg and colleagues

(2001) found that childrens achievement predicted parental expectations, but that

parental expectations have no significant effects on childrens achievement in a

longitudinal study of kindergarten through sixth-grade children. Discrepancies in

developmental and behavioral expectations between parents and adolescents have

been found to be associated with the amount of intergenerational conflicts (Dekovic,

Noom, & Meeus, 1997). Also, a qualitative study described the potential harmful

effect of excessive parental expectations among Chinese immigrant families, which

might put tremendous pressure on children and also might blind parents to the social

and emotional needs of their children (Qin, 2008).

Historically, Koreans hold a very strong aspiration of education (Chung, 1991a).

After the Korean War, Koreans were expected to rebuild their country and those who

had educational qualifications were the ones that were called on first. Therefore,

Koreans believe in the strong power of educational background; 98% of mothers and

77% of fathers of high school seniors reported their hopes were for their children to

enter a college (Kim, Kim, Park, You, Yoon, et al., 1994). Korean parents have

undertaken enormous sacrifices for their children in order to help them achieve

academic success (Kim, Park, & Koo, 2004), and Korean parents press their children
40

to acquire a college diploma (Bong, 2008). Consequently, school curriculum and

schedules are run in preparation for childrens future college entrance. For example, it

is normal for high school students to arrive home from school at midnight, after

intensive "self-study" sessions supported by the school. When students finish their

classes, some of them go to private institutions to boost their academic performance

and others stay in school to prepare for the collage entrance exam, and then finally

come back home late at night. According to the 2003 survey, 83.1% of elementary

students, 75.3% of middle school students, and 77.6% of high school students are

receiving private lessons (Choi, 2004).

Although middle school education is mandatory in Korean educational system,

97% of young adults complete high school education, which is the highest percentage

among OECD (Organization for Economic Corporation and Development) countries

(BBC NEWS, 2005, September 13). Korean adolescents' allocation of time devoted to

schoolwork increases as students approach their high school senior year. Some studies

showed that Korean 12th graders report spending as much as 14 to 18 hours a day

studying, giving up sleep and leisure activities to devote every possible minute to

college exam preparation (Chung, 1991b; Chung, Kim, Lee, Kwon, & Lee, 1993). A

common slogan among Korean 12th graders is "Pass with four, fail with five," which

refers to the hours of sleep thought allowable to maximize exam preparation. Actually,
41

about 80% of high school graduates went to colleges or universities in 2004. The rate

of entrance into secondary educational institutions has continuously increased since

1970, which was 38.6% in 1993 and 79.7% in 2003 (Korean Statistical Information

Service, 2004).

Because of the importance of the university entrance examination in

determining one's career prospects, Korean adolescents devote large amounts of time

to studying (Bong, 2008, 2003; Chung, 1991a; Park & Kim, 2006; Schwarz,

Schafermeier, & Trommsdorff, 2005). Students are under intense pressure to study

long hours, and the emotional stress to do well on the standardized test is very great

(Chung, 1991b). Many students get burned out because during the high school years,

students have little chance to do much except study. It is not uncommon for a handful

of students in each classroom to fall asleep from exhaustion. Students are encouraged

to see themselves as being in fierce competition with their friends and peers (Bong,

2008, 2003). As a national survey showed, their greatest concerns are academic

matters (48.9%), health and appearance (18.4%), and family issues (6.8%; National

Internet Development Agency of Korea, 2007).

Asian children incorporate their high parental aspirations and feel obligated to

satisfy their parents (Bong, 2008). Childrens success and failure is often met with

parents approval and disapproval (Kim & Park, 1999; Markus & Kitayama, 1991;
42

Park, Kim, & Chung, 2004). Their need to preserve strong emotional bonds with their

mothers is related to childrens willingness to accept their mothers values on

educational success as their own (Iyengar & Lepper, 1999). In Korea, maintaining

good relationships with parents is as important as success in school and academic

achievement (Kim, Park, & Koo, 2004). Heavy emphasis on the academic

achievement of students and their parents make school and classroom highly

competitive (Bong, 2003). As a result, grades and test scores tend to be

overemphasized (Bong, 2004). School culture emphasizing academic achievement

only, strong parental pressure on academic success, and a sense of indebtedness

toward parents may play a unique role in the parent-adolescent relationships and

adolescents well being in Korea.

South Korean adolescents tend to define and sustain themselves with respect to

significant relationships within the family. Because of cultural norms and expectations,

parents play a salient role in the development and adjustment of their adolescent

children, particularly their childrens education (Kim, Kim, Park, et al., 1994). This

expectation places excessive pressure on their children to become high achievers

(Fuligni, 1997; Mau, 1997). Korean adolescents in turn internalize their parents

educational expectations (Kim, Kim, Park, et al., 1994) and try hard not to disappoint

their parents (Heine, 2001). Korean families congruency in academic achievement


43

may be understood by the importance and emphasis on the interdependent relationship

between parent and child under the influence of Confucianism. Confucianism is a

complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought

that has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia, including

China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Vietnam. Confucianism is typically characterized

as collectivistic and interdependent, and emphasizes the importance of relationships

with in-group members (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Under the Confucian framework,

individuals are connected to each other via relationships and with respect to the roles

that are inherent in those relationships. These various relationships constitute clear

roles and duties with a coherent hierarchy (Kitayama, Markus, & Kurokawa, 2000).

The maintenance of ones interpersonal harmony within five principle relationships

(e.g., parent-child, husband-wife, elder-younger, governor-minister, and friend-friend)

is central to Confucianism. Since Confucian culture heavily emphasizes respect to

elders and seniors, intergenerational relationships are considered the most important

one among these five relationships (Su, Chin, Hong, Leung, Peng, & Morris, 1999).

As individuals relationships and roles are often determined within a given

situation and the people surrounding them, according to Confucianism, Koreans are

more likely to describe themselves with reference to social roles or memberships than

are Americans (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Within East Asian culture, the individual
44

must be responsive to the needs of others and the obligations associated with their

social roles. They are encouraged to harmonize with others and to adjust themselves to

the social environment (Morling, Kitayama, & Miyamoto, 2002). Individuals

commitment to others and fulfillment of cultural obligations contributes to the groups

success. Therefore, individuals should be sensitive to cultural demands, so that they

do not fail to live up to the group standards (Heine, 2001). For example, East Asian

children are more willing to follow their mothers decisions than are Euro-American

children (Iyengar & Lepper, 1999). Additionally, Asian American children do not

show negative reactions when their mothers make choices for them, unlike Euro-

American children (Iyengar, Lepper, & Ross, 1999).

Theoretical Frameworks and Proposed Conceptual Models

Uses and Gratifications Theory

Few theoretical frameworks have been used to help explain the impact of the

Internet on users. The uses and gratifications framework, previously been applied to a

wide range of mass media usage and interpersonal communication areas, has been

used to explain expected positive outcomes associated with Internet use (LaRose,

Mastro, & Eastin, 2001). According to the uses and gratifications framework,

audiences seek out media, such as the Internet, in an attempt to gratify a variety of

needs (LaRose, Mastro, & Eastin, 2001). Some Internet uses, considered factors of
45

gratification including communication, information, and entertainment, have been

identified as having strong explanatory power in individual Internet use (Charney &

Greenberg, 2001; Eighmey & McCord, 1998; Flanagin & Metzger, 2001; Papacharissi

& Rubin, 2000). The theory is further supported in research investigating individuals

online activities. Researchers report that Internet users have primarily accessed the

Internet for communication, entertainment, and for seeking information (Gross,

Juvonen, & Gable, 2001; Jackson, et al., 2006; Korean Statistical Information Service,

2007; Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis, 2001; Mesch, 2003, 2006; Policy Information Center

of the Educational Testing service Network, 1999; Suler, 1998).

It is apparent that the Internet is used to fulfill individuals gratification needs,

yet it is less clear which on-line activity individuals find most gratifying. Gratification

may be based on cultural values, such as respect for ones elders or expectation for

educational excellence. Research to date has not consistently found one activity

among these three (communication, entertainment, and for seeking information) as

being the predominant motivator for Internet use in American or Korean society. For

instance, some researchers have reported that the primary reason for Internet use is for

interpersonal communication among American adolescents (Gross, 2004; Lenhart,

Madden, & Hitlin, 2005; Papacharissi & Rubin, 2000; Valkenburg & Peter, 2007b),

whereas Korean adolescents have been reported to primarily use the Internet for
46

gaming (Korean Educational Development Institute, 2003) or for data/ information

seeking behavior (Korean Statistical Information Service, 2007). The Korean

Statistical Information Service reported in 2007 that data/ information seeking

behavior is the primary use of the Internet, accounting for by 88.7% of use, far

exceeding all other uses.

Observational Learning Theory

The direct effect of the Internet on adolescents academic achievement can be

framed using the observational learning theory; which contends that information is

stored in memory through the process of attention and retention. Repeated covert and

mental rehearsal of images strengthens stored information and memories, and then

makes them more available for activation at a later time (Baundura, 1994). Program

content may contribute to childrens cognitive scripts. Repeated viewing leads

children to retrieve, rehearse, solidify, and expand existing scripts, resulting in

cumulative long-term effects (Huesman & Miller, 1994). Similarly, traditional

communication research on television viewing and cognitive functioning, which

focuses on the effects of viewing, can be used (Shin, 2004). This theory is divided into

two hypotheses: the stimulation hypothesis and the reduction hypothesis. The

stimulation hypothesis proposes that watching well-designed TV programs may

enhance childrens academic achievement.


47

Informational Processing Theory

The information processing model can also be applied to the effects of the

Internet use, by explaining the process of cognitive development via the Internet

through mental processes such as attention, perception, comprehension, memory, and

problem solving (Johnson, 2006). Meta-cognitive processes such as planning,

searching strategies and evaluation of information are exercised when using the

Internet in congruence with the nature of the Internet as a multimodel interactive tool

for both input and output (Johnson, 2006; Tarpley, 2001). Internet use has been

described in regard to its benefits including enhancing visual processing of

information, increase language and literacy skills, build knowledge base, and promote

meta-cognitive abilities such as planning and evaluation (Johnson, 2006, p.3044). It

seems that increased time spent engaged in Internet activities and resources may

improve adolescents understanding of school concepts, increase cognitive ability, and

boost memory ability (Li & Atkins, 2004), spatial skills (Subrahmanyam, et al., 2000),

and enhance the quality of adolescents' existing friendships (Bryant, Sanders-Jackson,

& Smallwood, 2006; Gross, 2004; Subrahmanyam, et al., 2000; Valkenburg & Peter,

2007b). The stimulation hypothesis would predict that Internet use; especially

educational use, would result in academic achievement because adolescents can learn
48

a wide range of academic content, as the Internet provide repeated exposure to

educational material.

Increased Internet use has also been associated with many negative outcomes.

For example, researchers have found that increased time on the computer or Internet is

associated with increased obesity (Adachi-Mejia, Longacre, Gibson, Beach, Titus-

Ernstoff, & Dalton, 2007; Hill & Peter, 1998), the risk of repetitive strain injuries

(Harris & Straker, 2000), seizures (Chuang, 2006: Trenit, van der Beld, Heynderickx,

& Groen, 2004), and decreased general physical well-being (Mutti & Zadnik, 1996;

Sheedy & Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Yan, Hu, Chen, & Lu, 2008). Moreover, increased

adolescent Internet use has been positively associated with antisocial behaviors

(Mesch, 2001), sexual risk behaviors (Wolak, Finkelhor, & Mitchell, 2004; Ybarra &

Mitchell, 2004b), and compromised psychological well-being (Caplan, 2002, 2003).

Time Displacement Theory

The time displacement hypothesis, which stems from the reduction hypotheses,

assumes that adolescents have a limited amount of time (Mutz, Roberts, & van

Vuuren, 1993). Therefore increased amounts of time in non-educational use of the

Internet may hinder adolescents academic achievement. When adolescents increase

the time they spend online engaging in social and/or recreational activities, time

sacrifices will have to be made in other areas, such as time spent on studying, reading,
49

and doing homework (Neuman, 1991). This displacement may happen because the

Internet, which entertains adolescents with stimulating images as well as visual and

auditory effects, is more attractive and immediately gratifying than are school-related

activities. Consequently, using the Internet will result in the displacement of academic

activities, as television once did, and will eventually decrease the adolescents

academic achievement (Aderson, Huston, Schmitt, Linebarger, Wright, & Larson,

2001; Koshal, Koshal, & Gupta, 1996; Shejwal, & Purayidathil, 2006; Shin, 2004;

Valkenburg & van der Voort, 1994).

Researchers have further reported that problematic Internet use among

adolescents brings negative outcomes in school performance, as well as to social skills

(Caplan, 2005). Therefore, it is anticipated that Korean adolescent educational use of

the Internet will be positively associated with academic achievement, and their non-

educational use of the Internet, especially their recreational use, will be negatively

associated with adolescents academic achievement.

Human Ecology Theory

Human ecology theory assumes that human development takes place within the

context of relationships (White, 1991), and manifests in role performance and

specialization in a family. This study defines the family as an interdependently

connected social system. Just as technological innovations change societies


50

(Bronfenbrenner, 1990; Watt & White, 1999), computers and the Internet bring about

changes within the context of the family, resulting in changes to the nature of the

relationships within each of the familys subsystems. For example, when adolescent

internet use increases, so do may conflicts between parents and adolescents over the

childs Internet usage. Such conflict is likely to involve parental attempts to assert

their authority over their child as their adolescent attempts to assert their autonomy

over their use of time (Fuligni, 1998).

Conflict within families is normative, particularly between parents and children

during adolescence. Adolescence marks a developmental period in which families

need to adjust and adapt their relationships to accommodate adolescents emerging

autonomy and attachment-related issues (Steinberg, 1998). Many negotiations are

likely to occur and result in concessions to the degree of parental regulation of

adolescents everyday lives. Some families perceive this transitional process of

negotiation and disengagement as an opportunity for their adolescent children to foster

emotional autonomy, facilitate individuation, and improve social reasoning (Steinberg,

1998). However, others experience this process as overly stressful, as they experience

difficulties in communication that generates tension and conflict and also amplifies

emotional turmoil within the family (Buchanan, Eccles, & Becker, 1992).
51

Parents may try multiple ways to monitor and control their childs use of the

computer. For example, some parents restrict the time of Internet-related activities so

that Internet usage does not interfere with schoolwork and socializing (Livingstone &

Bovill, 2001). When parents increased restrictions coupled with adolescents growing

need for autonomy can create conflicts within, as adolescents demand more

independence and autonomy in use of their personal time and show more open

disagreement with their parents conflicts become larger (Fuligni, 1998; Lenhart,

Rainie, & Lewis, 2001). The sharp increase of conflict and negative emotions in the

parent-adolescent relationship may lead to decreased positive interactions and

emotions about one another during the adolescent years (Kim, Conger, Lorenz, &

Elder, 2001; Larson, Richards, Moneta, Holmbeck, & Duckett, 1996). One reason for

intergenerational conflict may be based on parental concern over the activities the

adolescent is engage in on-line (Mesch, 2006). Actually, much of the public debate

over youth Internet use has been dominated by concerns about the dark side of online

culture (Mitchell, Finkelhor, & Wolak, 2003). Fears about childrens exposure to

pornography and violence even prompted Congress to pass several laws to regulate

cyberspace (Voedisch, 2000). In addition to concerns about childrens exposure online,

parents, while viewing the Internet as an inevitable yet necessary evil in this

information age, also have concerns about the potential harm the internet can have on
52

children; specifically in regards to childrens privacy and the reliability of accessed

information (UCLS Center for Communication Policy, 2003).

In spite of the Internet pitfalls, most parents in the HomeNet Too project in U.S.

have reported positive attitudes about their childrens Internet use (Jackson, et al.,

2003). Parental participants agreed that using the Internet helps children do better in

school, and Internet skills will be necessary for their children to acquire a good job.

Based on potential positive parental attitudes about the Internet, it is assumed that

adolescents Internet use is associated with parent-adolescent closeness and parent-

adolescent conflicts. However, due to the uniqueness of Korean culture, parents may

be actively involved in the on-line lives of their adolescents as they guide their

children toward academic success.

It is widely known that Korean parents have high aspirations for higher

education and high expectations for their childrens academic achievement (Bong,

2008, 2003; Cho & Yoon, 2005; Chung, 1991a; Park & Kim, 2006; Schwarz,

Schafermeier, & Trommsdorff, 2005; Shin, 2007). Parental expectation reflects

parental interest, concern, involvement, and support in the lives of their children

(Sandefur, Meier, & Campbell, 2006). Parental expectations can be expressed in many

different ways; such as the investment made by many Korean parents who invest

heavily in school education and private tutoring. In 1997 alone, it was estimated that
53

Korean parents spent more than 8.06 billion dollars on private tutoring for their

children (Kim, 2001). Korean parents have also been reported to exert excessive

amounts of pressure on their adolescents to excel academically, unfortunately to the

neglect of the childs psychological needs (Cho, & Yoon, 2005; Kim, & Park, 1999).

Parental expectations and excessive pressure may further be related to

intergenerational conflicts. Researchers have found that differences in the

developmental expectations of parents and their children are associated with the

amount of conflict within their relationship (Dekovic, Noom, & Meeus, 1997; Barber,

1994). Conversely, other researchers have found high parental expectation to be

beneficial, as parents, who had high expectations, are also found to be more

supportive of their children providing warmth and understanding (Kim & Park, 2006).

Moreover, mothers who value higher education for their daughters are likely to have

daughters with egalitarian attitudes, nontraditional gender-typed cognitions, and

greater autonomy (Kilbourne, Farkas, Beron, Weird, & England, 1994), which may

contribute to greater intergenerational emotional closeness (Schwarz, Schafermeier, &

Trommsdorff, 2005). Incongruence between parental and adolescent educational

expectations would be considered non-normative, as most Korean adolescents also

express a strong desire to enter college (Kim, Kim, Park et al., 1994; Kim & Park,

2006). Congruency has also been found to relate to low levels of conflict in empirical
54

research; when parents and adolescents show similar views on achievement, they

experience low levels of conflict in their relationships (Dekovic, Noom, & Meeus,

1997). Furthermore, high congruency between Korean parents and their children on

educational aspiration may be related to parental support and intergenerational

closeness, under the Confucianism culture, which stresses the importance of

intergenerational relationships.

Attachment Theory

Association between intergenerational relationships and adolescent adjustment

may be explained by attachment theory. The attachment theory by Bowlby (1982)

provides insight into the development process of intergenerational relationships. He

refers to the bond between mother and child as an attachment. The development of a

secure attachment has lasting consequences on intergenerational relationships (Bell &

Ainsworth, 1972). The child develops a sense of trust in the parent and has a desire for

independence based on a feeling of security in the relationship with the parents.

The concept of trust is provided from the work of Erik Erickson (Bigner, 2009).

He developed this theory on the premise that young children must resolve a series of

psychological tasks, and trust is the first and fundamental task. Through resolution of

each stage, a child gains important social skills that facilitate social interaction. A

failure to resolve one of these stages impedes a childs psychosocial development and
55

adjustment (Bigner, 2009). Bowlby (1982) suggested that the relationship between

parent and children has a significant effect upon the childs psychosocial development.

Attachment theory states that the bond between the mother-child relationships

contributes to development in the emotional system of the child.

Based on a secure attachment, the child successfully obtains more complex

aspects of affect, empathy, and social skills. Erickson described these aspects as ideas

of trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, and identity (Bigner, 2009). All of these

aspects are gained through secure attachment between mother and child. The quality

of the attachment formed during early childhood affects social relationships in later

life (Bowlby, 1982). These theoretical assertions indicate that positive

intergenerational relationships foster affective development, which leads to more

effective performance in relationships with others and later facilitates educational

performance (Maier, 1978).

Previous research evidence suggests that close parent-child relationships are

related to positive outcomes in psychosocial adaptation of children, adolescents, and

young adults (Lucia & Breslau, 2006; Merz, Schuengel, & Schulze, 2008; Richmond

& Stocker, 2006; Rivera, Guarnaccia, Mulvaney-Day, Lin, Torres, & Alegria, 2008).

For example, McHale & Rasmussen, (1998) report that harmonious family

functioning during infancy predicts lower levels of preschooler aggression. A familys


56

emotional bonding predicts frequency of delinquent acts for adolescents in

nontraditional families (Matherne & Thomas, 2001). Family cohesion is identified as

a protective factor against external stressors (Hovey & King, 1996) and positive

parent-child relationships play a protective role for children living in homes high in

conflict (Marcus & Betzer, 1996). In addition, parental warmth, support, and parent-

child connectedness has been associated with reduced adolescent pregnancy risk with

an increase in sexual abstinence, postponing intercourse, having fewer sexual partners,

and/or using contraception more consistently than adolescents without warm and

supportive relationships (Miller, Benson, & Galbraith, 2001). Preschool children who

had good relationships with their parental figures are less likely to engage in

disruptive classroom behavior (Campbell, 1994; Campbell, March, Pierce, Ewing &

Szumowski, 1991). Therefore, it is anticipated that positive parent-adolescent

closeness will be associated with adolescents positive academic and behavioral

outcomes.

A conceptual model tested in this study is presented below. Based on the

attachment theory and the time-displacement hypothesis, it is assumed that family

relationships (parent-adolescent conflict and closeness) are a major component

contributing to the associations between adolescent Internet use and adolescents

outcomes. The implication of this argument lies in the expectation that a


57

direct/indirect effect of adolescent Internet use on academic achievement and

problematic behaviors exists, mediated by parent-adolescent relationships between

these two variables. In addition, the role of parental expectations on the parent

adolescent relationships between type of Internet activity and intergenerational

relationships is expected.

Gender Parental
Expectation

Parent-Adolescent
Relationships

Adolescents Adolescent
Internet Use Outcomes

Conceptualization

Use of the Internet

The Internet is a vast computer network that connects computer networks and

organizational computer facilities around the world (Random House Dictionary, 2005).

For the purpose of this study, the Internet will be defined as the interconnected system

of networks that connects computers and Internets around the world via the Internet

Protocol. Access to and use of the Internet will be defined as occurring on a laptop or

desktop computer. Thus, other devices, such as cell phones, will be excluded from this
58

definition. The use of the Internet in this study will be considered a multi-dimensional

variable that includes the type of Internet activities engaged in and the amount of

Internet use.

Numerous surveys have attempted to measure the amount of general Internet

use including the length of time people spend online per unit of time. Estimates vary

widely, depending on how Internet usage is measured (e.g., self-report, automatically

recorded), the ages of respondents sampled, when data was collected (i.e., year of the

study), and how Internet use is defined (e.g., length of time online, frequency of use;

Jackson et al., 2006). There is a need to empirically distinguish the amount of time

spent on-line in various types activities (Lee & Kuo, 2002), even though most studies

do not categorize or weigh Internet use according to the various activities and content

(Joinson, 2001), it should be considered important since people use the Internet for a

variety of purposes, which may vary by characteristics such as age, culture and gender.

The 2007 National Survey about Internet use by the Korean Statistical

Information Service revealed that the three primary purposes for Internet use were

data/information seeking (88.7%); leisure activities, such as movies, games, and music

(86.0%), and communication through chatting and emailing (84.7%). However,

Korean teens Internet uses were found to deviate from these statistics in the Korean

Educational Development Institute study in 2003 on the life of Korean teens. The
59

three main types of Internet use were categorized as a) recreational activities such as

gaming, searching information about music, movie, and entertainment; b) educational

use, such as information seeking for school project and homework, downloading data,

and programming; and c) communicative activities, such as chatting, e-mailing,

involvement in online communities, and social networking websites, which is similar

to that of the general population. Moreover, these categorizations have been

consistently found in American populations (DeBell & Chapman, 2006; Gross,

Juvonen, & Gable, 2001; Jackson, 2006; Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis, 2001; Policy

Information Center of the Educational Testing service Network, 1999; Suler, 1998)

and other countries (Mesch, 2003, 2006).

Therefore, for the purpose of this study, type of Internet use will also be

examined using these three categories: educational use, social use, and recreational

use. The frequency of Internet use and its functional use experienced by children and

young people has been measured in a number of studies (Bayraktar, & Gun, 2007;

Hunley, Evans, Delgado-Hachey, Krise, Rich & Schell, 2005; Malamud, & Pop-

Eleches, 2008; Mesch, 2006; Rhee, & Kim, 2004; Wainer, Dwyer, Dutra, Covic,

Magalhes, Ferreira et al., 2001; Willoughby, 2008). In this study a second dimension

of Internet use, time, will also be examined, including the amount of time spent on-

line per week and the longevity of Internet use. Time spent on-line per week will
60

include the number of hours the adolescents put on using the Internet per week, and

longevity of Internet use will assess how long the adolescent has used the Internet

over their lifespan.

Educational Use of the Internet

Educational use of the Internet will be defined in this study as using the Internet

and computer technologies for obtaining information for academic purposes from a

vast multimedia online library covering numerous topics. Adolescents use the Internet

to search for information for school research projects and other school assignments,

and to enhance their learning and understanding. In addition, communication with

people regarding schoolwork will be included.

Social use of the Internet

Social use of the Internet will be defined as using the Internet and computer

technologies for social communication and interaction with people such as e-mailing,

using Internet phone, text messaging, joining chat rooms, instant messaging, visiting

blogs, and exchanging e-cards primarily with friends, family members, teachers, and

so on. Text messaging using cell phone is excluded in this study.

Recreational Use of the Internet

Recreational use of the Internet will be defined as using the Internet for

recreational and entertaining purpose such as online gaming, downloading pictures,


61

listening to music, searching for information pertaining to leisure activities, and

reading online news reports.

Parent-Adolescent Conflict

Conflict has previously been conceptualized as the amount of openly expressed

anger and conflict among family members (Moos & Moos, 1994, p.1) or

disagreement (Adams & Laursen, 2007). In the large body of literature, parent-child

conflict is assessed by the amount and the intensity of conflicts, such as an open

expression of disagreement (Adams & Laursen, 2007; Dekovic, 1999) and argument,

fighting, aggression and anger (Barber & Delfabbro, 2000; Hanna & Bond, 2006;

Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller, 1992; Ingoldsby, Shaw, Winslow, Schonberg, Gilliom,

& Criss, 2006). The amount of conflict is typically rated on Likert-type scales. For

example, Dixon, Garber, and Brooks-Gunn (2008) assessed conflict as occurring from

monthly to daily and/or Bradford, Vaughn, & Barber (2008) assessed conflict from

never to almost every day. The intensity of conflict is also rated on Likert-type scales,

such as from not heated to very heated (Dixon, Garber, & Brooks-Gunn, 2008), and

from calm to angry (Prinz, Foster, Kent, & OLeary, 1979).

Parent-adolescent conflict is defined in the current study, as the amount and

intensity of openly expressed anger, disagreement, and argument between children or

adolescents and their parents regarding the use of the Internet and general matters.
62

Parent-Adolescent Closeness

Parent-adolescent closeness has been determined by the amount of continuing

contact between parents and adolescents (Buchanan, Maccoby, & Dornbusch, 1991),

the degree of feelings of closeness with each other (Buchanan, Maccoby, &

Dornbusch, 1991, 1996; Olson, Sprenkle, & Russell, 1979) and/or closeness

characterized by open communication, positive feelings and expressed affection

(Ramirez, 1997). Many researchers have measured closeness through cohesion (Olson,

Sprenkle, & Russell, 1979; Richmond & Stocker, 2006; Rivera, Guarnaccia,

Mulvaney-Day, et al., 2008; Steinberg, 1998), emotional bonding (Hovey & King,

1996; Kapinus & Gorman, 2004; Salgado de Snyder, 1987), as well as togetherness,

unity, and closeness (Lindahl & Malik, 2000). Also, closeness has been measured

through connectedness, parental support, and warmth as a dimension of parenting

(Feldman & Brown, 1993; Miller, Benson, & Galbraith, 2001; Resnick, Bearman,

Blum, Bauman, Harris, Jones, et al., 1997). In this study, parent-adolescent closeness

will be assessed as the degree of overall feelings of closeness between parent and

adolescent.

Parental Expectation

Parental expectation has been defined as parents ideal for childrens ultimate

educational and occupational attainment or a parents current expectations for


63

childrens academic performance (Christenson, Rounds, & Gorney, 1992). In this

study, parental expectation will be measured to the degree of parents aspiration of

childrens current academic performance and future educational attainment using the

Revised Asian Value Scales (AVS-R; Kim & Hong, 2004).

Adolescent Behavioral Problems

In the larger body of literature, behavioral problems are characterized by both

externalizing problems (e.g., anti-social behavior, aggression, and conduct problems)

and internalizing problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, withdrawal, somatic complaints,

and low self-esteem) (Bradford, Vaughn, & Barber, 2008; Choi, He, & Harachi, 2008;

Formoso, Gonzales, & Aiken, 2000; Stevens, Vollebergh, Pels, & Crijnen, 2005a, b;

Stevens, Vollebergh, Pels, & Crijnen, 2007). Adolescent externalizing and

internalizing problems will be used to assess adolescents behavioral outcomes in this

study.

Academic Achievement

Academic achievement is defined as the level of individuals education and/or

educational outcomes accomplished successfully, as a result of learning at school. It is

usually determined by comparing his or her score on a school test and/or a

standardized test with the average score of other people of the same age. Standardized
64

test scores on school tests will be used to define Academic achievement for the

purpose of this study.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

As proposed in the stimulation hypothesis, using the Internet for educational

purposes may enhance adolescents academic achievement. On the contrary, based on

the time displacement hypothesis, increased amounts of time in non-educational use of

the Internet may sacrifice time in educational activities, such as studying, reading, and

doing homework. Consequently, using social and/or recreational use of the Internet

will result in the displacement of academic activities and will eventually decrease the

adolescents academic achievement.

This study focuses on the relationships among adolescent Internet use, parent-

adolescent conflict, parent-adolescent closeness, and adolescents behavioral

outcomes and academic achievement. Four research questions and hypotheses will be

tested in this study. These questions and hypotheses are:

Research question 1. Are there gender differences in the nature of Korean adolescents

Internet use?

H1. Boys and girls are different in the frequency and the intensity of

educational, social, and recreational use of Internet.


65

Girls Boys

Educational Internet use Educational Internet use


Social Internet use Social Internet use
Recreational Internet use Recreational Internet use

Research question 2-1. Are there direct effects of adolescents Internet use on their

academic achievement and problematic behaviors?

H2-1.1. Adolescents Internet use has a direct effect on their academic

achievement.

H2-1.2. Adolescents Internet use has a direct effect on their internalizing

problematic behaviors.

H2-1.2. Adolescents Internet use has a direct effect on their externalizing

problematic behaviors.

Research question 2-2. Are these direct pathways different for boys and girls?

H2-2.1. Boys and girls are different in the association between adolescents

Internet use and their academic achievement.

H2-2.2. Boys and girls are different in the association between adolescents

Internet use and their internalizing problematic behaviors.


66

H2-2.3. Boys and girls are different in the association between adolescents

Internet use and their externalizing problematic behaviors.

Adolescents
Gender

Educational Internet use


Academic Achievement
Social Internet use
Behavioral Adjustment
Recreational Internet use

The attachment theory suggests that intergenerational relationships have a

significant effect upon the childs academic and behavioral adjustment; previous

research evidence indicates that close parent-child relationships are related to positive

outcomes in the psychosocial adaptation of children (Hair, Moore, Garrett, Ling, &

Cleveland, 2005; Steinberg, 2008). Parent-adolescent closeness has been positively

associated with reduction of problematic behaviors (Fanti, et al., 2008; Hair, et al.,

2005; Miller, Benson, & Galbraith, 2001) and academic achievement (Amato &

Gilbreth, 1999; Englund Egeland, & Collins, 2008). On the contrary, parent-

adolescent conflict has been positively associated with problematic behaviors and

negatively associated with academic achievement (Adams & Laursen, 2007; Lee,

Wong, Chow, & McBride-Chang, 2006; Marmorstein & Iacono, 2004).


67

Parent-adolescent closeness may serve as a buffer for adolescents from negative

effects of non-educational Internet use on their academic achievement and behavioral

adjustment. Conversely, intergenerational conflict is a strong predictor of negative

youth outcomes in families from diverse cultural backgrounds (Ong, Phinney, &

Dennis, 2006; Rivera, et al., 2008). Parent-child conflict may also serve as a potential

mediator of the relationship between adolescent Internet use and youth adjustment.

Research question 3-1. Does the nature of adolescents Internet use affect their

academic achievement/ behavioral adjustment through P-A closeness/ conflict

(Mediation effects)?

H3-1.1. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on academic achievement through

parent-adolescent relationships.

H3-1.2. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on internalizing behavior

problems through parent-adolescent relationships.

H3-1.3. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on externalizing behavior

problems through parent-adolescent relationships.

Research question 3-2. Are these pathways different for boys and girls? (Moderating

role of adolescent gender)

H3-2.1. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use

to their academic achievement through parent-adolescent relationships.


68

H3-2.2. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use

to their internalizing behavior problems through parent-adolescent relationships.

H3-2.3. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use

to their externalizing behavior problems through parent-adolescent relationships.

Adolescents Gender

Educational Internet use


Academic Achievement
Social Internet use
Behavioral Adjustment
Recreational Internet use

Parent-Adolescent
Relationships

The association between parental expectation and childrens academic

achievement has been constantly explored and a general conclusion that can be drawn

is that academic achievement is consistently correlated with high parental expectations

(Boersma & Chapman, 1982; Cohen, 1987, Marjoribanks, 1988; Sandefur, Meier, &

Campbell, 2006; Thompson, Alexander, & Entwisle, 1988; Wentzel, 1994). In

addition, previous research shows that excessive parental expectation is related with

intergenerational conflicts (Dekovic, Noom, & Meeus, 1997; Barber, 1994). Therefore,
69

in the present study, effects of parental expectation as moderator will be examined. It

is anticipated that adolescent Internet use for educational purposes will be positively

associated with parent-adolescent closeness and negatively associated with parent-

adolescent conflict, especially when parental expectations are high. Furthermore,

adolescent educational Internet use is positively associated with adolescent academic

achievement, especially when parental expectations are high.

Research question 4. Do indirect pathways between the adolescent Internet use and

academic/behavioral adjustment (through P-A relationships) vary by the level of

parental cultural expectations (Asian values)?

H4-1. The level of parental expectations has different effects on the pathways from

adolescents Internet use to their academic achievement through parent-

adolescent relationships.

H4-2. The level of parental expectations has different effects on the pathways from

adolescents Internet use to their internalizing behavior problems through parent-

adolescent relationships.

H4-3. The level of parental expectations has different effects on the pathways

from adolescents Internet use to their externalizing behavior problems through

parent-adolescent relationships.
70

Parental
Expectation

Educational Internet use


Academic Achievement
Social Internet use
Behavioral Adjustment
Recreational Internet use

Parent-Adolescent
Relationships

Methodology

This study explores the relationships among adolescent Internet use, parent-

adolescent relationships (conflict and closeness), and adolescents outcomes

(academic achievement and problematic behaviors) among Korean adolescents and

their parents.

Population

The city in which the study is conducted is located on the west side of central

Korea, which is Seoul. Seoul is the capital of South Korea with a population of

10,297,004 and 3,871,024 households covering 605.52 square kilometers. The average

household income is 3,182 per month.


71

Korean schools are divided into elementary schools, middle schools, high

schools, and colleges. Children attend elementary school for six years, middle school

for three years, and depending on their middle school grades, the student's high school

acceptance is determined. The initial nine years of school (elementary and middle

school) is considered the duty of children. Middle school graduates, or those with

equivalent academic background may enter high schools. The high school period of

study is three years, and students bear the expenses of the education. In high school,

students study Korean language, English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies,

Korean History, Ethics, Home Economics-skills, Art, Music, and Physical Science.

Science and Social Studies are very specific in curriculum, and a second language is

also learned as an elective. High schools contain three grades (from 10th to 12th grade)

and class size is about 30 to 35 students.

The Korean school system is divided into two semesters. The academic year

starts in March. The First semester lasts from March to July, while the second

semester lasts from September to December. Summer vacation takes place in August,

and winter vacation lasts for about 35 days. Korean students typically spend most of

their time in school; Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., and

Saturday until noon. Korean students are under a lot of pressure to study very hard, as

they must either attend college or find a job after high school.
72

There are 74 general public high schools out of a total 670 high schools, mostly

comprised of private general schools, vocational public schools, private vocational

schools, and specialty high schools. Each class in a particular school has an average of

32.5 students. In public schools, there are 10 to 15 classes for every grade.

Procedure

From an initial list of public high schools in Seoul, South Korea, principals of

five high schools in Seoul, South Korea agreed to participate in the study. All

principals were contacted and provided with an opportunity for study participation.

Primary contact with principals involved providing information about the study,

including its benefits and risks, and the overall study procedure. Five principals out of

nine agreed to allow the research to be conducted in their high schools. Next, with the

official cooperation letters from these principals, I met with the chief teachers of

grades 10 and 11 and explained the study purpose and procedure. Subsequently, the

chief and homeroom teachers informed students in these classes about the study and

asked for their participation. Interested and assenting children were given a sign-up

sheet with consent statement and a description of the study. Parents, who agreed to

have their children participate in the study, provided their contact information (e-mail

address) and signed on the consent form. Then, surveys were distributed to students

and their parents. Students who filled out the survey forms returned their own surveys
73

and their parents surveys to teachers. Finally, teachers passed completed surveys to

this investigator. In order to acquire significant statistical power, samples sizes

between 200 and 400 for running models tend to be used (Byrne, 2001). Therefore,

the sampling goal has been set to a minimum of 250 families, consisting of data from

adolescents, mothers, and fathers. A total 1370 sets of surveys were distributed and

613 sets of surveys were obtained.

Each survey begins with a short overview and directions for the participants.

The overview section gives a short description of the primary and secondary

researchers and the connection to Syracuse University. The overview clearly defines

the aim of the study, defines the survey as confidential and informs the participants

that their participation can be withdrawn at any time.

Since the survey instruments was administrated in Korean, all the measurements

for this study were translated from English into Korean, and subsequently translated

back to English. Two graduate students, and one professional translator from Korea,

who were all fluent in English and Korean, were involved throughout the translation

process. The original English version and the back-translated English version were

compared and discrepancies were reworded in order to rectify any items that had not

retained their original meaning. Then two different Korean natives reviewed the

translations and reworded the items they believed were not explicable or applicable.
74

Finally, graduate students fluent in English only, read through all of the items again,

explaining their understanding of each item in English to ensure that the translations

were still accurate. The pre-research process resulted as productive and necessary to

the research instruments.

The survey was pilot tested by administering the survey to three Korean

adolescents and one of their parents. Each adolescent was asked to read and answer

the survey items and report incomprehensible questions, as well as provide

suggestions and express concerns for survey improvement. Necessary revisions were

again made based on pilot testing.

Participants

Three high schools in this study are general public high schools. Compared to

other high schools in South Korea, students of the general public high schools in

Seoul are considered relatively homogeneous because student selection is equivalent

for these schools; selecting students according to their school activities records only.

Therefore, public school classes are equally mixed with the different student

achievement levels, and the levels are normally distributed and almost identical with

other classes in the same school. Two high schools in this study are general private

schools. Since students of the private schools in Seoul are selected through an
75

entrance exam and their middle school private school students are expected to be in

higher academic levels than public school students.

This study sample consists of adolescents of 10th and 11th grade, who reside and

attend general public/private high schools in Seoul. In Korean society, a persons

educational attainment determines his/her social position. Families from these three

schools come from different SES, since each school is located at a different area in the

city.

Adolescents were asked to provide information about their date of birth,

gender, family members and relationships, religious preference, and their parents

employment status. Parents were also asked to provide information about their age,

gender, level of education, occupation, income, religious preference, and marital

status (see Appendix A).

Measurements

Adolescent Internet use. The Internet use scale includes general questions

about adolescent Internet use, such as their access, the primary location of their

Internet use, the extent of the Internet experience. Access to Internet use is measured

with responses to four of questions, such as (a) How many PCs/ Laptops with

internet access does your family home have?, (b) If you go online at the school, do

you use it during your break or free time or use it during the classes?, and (c) If you
76

go online at the school, are you able to use it alone or under adults supervision? The

primary location of Internet use is measured with responses to two questions, such as

If you use a computer in your home, is it located in a private area like your own

bedroom or in an open family area like a living room, den, or study? The extent of

Internet experience is assessed by a single item for each different type of Internet

activity assessed, such as e-mailing, searching for information, gaming, etc.

Responses are answered by ranking their preference and actual time spent engaged in

that activity (see Appendix B).

Adolescent Internet Use is measured with the intensity and frequency of

Internet use in three areas: educational, recreational, and social use. Educational

Internet use is measured by six questions. Sample survey items about Educational

Internet use scale include (a) Doing homework and other school assignments, (b)

Searching information about school-related and academic information, (c) Talking to

teachers about homework, exams, and school related matters, and so on. Recreational

Internet use scale includes three items, (a) Playing a game, (b) Watching and/or

downloading movies, songs, etc., (c) Searching for information about TV programs,

movies, concerts, etc. Social Internet use includes four items, such as (a) To chat with

peers and friends about non-academic related matters, (b) Going to my blog, Internet

community, or mini-homepage to make new friends and to talk with my friends, etc.
77

(see in Appendix B). Responses are reported by actual number of minutes/hours with

higher numbers indicating higher frequency of Internet use.

Parent-Adolescent relationships. Two aspects of parent-adolescent

relationships are assessed: (a) parent-adolescent closeness and (b) parent-adolescent

conflict. The parent-adolescent closeness scale includes eleven items modified from

the Parent-Child Closeness scale developed by Buchanan, Maccoby, and Dornbusch

(1991), as well as the cohesion subscales of the Family Adaptation and Cohesion

Evaluation Scales II (Olson, Sprenkle, & Russell, 1979) that pertain to the parents

and adolescents overall feelings of closeness. Close feelings are measured with

responses to statements; (a) I feel close to my mom, and (b) I am confident that my

mom would help me if I had a problem. Responses range from 1=Not at all, 2=Little

true, 3=Somewhat true, 4=Often true, to 5=Absolutely true, with higher scores

indicating higher degrees of closeness (Appendix C).

The original scales are developed to assess adolescents feelings of closeness

with each parent after divorce in a normative samples, reported Cronbachs alpha

from original samples are from .89 to .90 (Buchanan, Maccoby, & Dornbusch, 1991).

Closeness scales have exhibited good validity and reliability (from = .71 to

= .84), and good internal consistencies for normative American samples and across

different ethnic groups, including immigrant families (Harris, 1999; Lam, Cance, Eke,
78

Fishbein, Hawkins, & Williams, 2007; Rude, 2000). However, cultural validity has

yet to be established. Therefore, the generalizations inform the current study should be

made with caution.

Parent-adolescent conflicts are measured with two dimensions. The first

dimension assesses overall disagreement and conflict between parents and adolescents

using 7-item questions modified from the Parent Environment Questionnaire (PEQ).

The PEQ is a 42-item self-report inventory that assesses five aspects of the

relationship of each parent-child dyad in the family; Conflict, Parent Involvement,

Regard for Parent, Regard for Child, and Structure (Elkins, McGue, & Iacono, 1997).

The PEQ scale consists of 12 items (internal consistency reliability [ ] = .82) that

assess the extent to which the parent-child relationship is characterized by

disagreement, tension, and anger. Sample questions were (a)My parent often

criticizes me, and (b)My parent often hurts my feelings. Each item is answered on

a 4-point scale ranging from 1=definitely false, 2=probably false, 3=probably true, to

4=definitely true. Higher scores indicate greater conflicts between parents and

adolescents (Appendix C).

The second dimension is measured with responses to the 13 questions adapted

from the Parent-Adolescent Conflict Issues Checklist scales, which includes a list of

13 issues that have been found to be the source of present discord between parents and
79

adolescents dyad (Robin & Weiss, 1980). The utilized Parent-Adolescent Conflict

Issue Checklist in this study is a modified version of the Conflict Issues Checklist

developed by Prinz, Foster, Kent and OLeary (1979) and Robin and Foster (1989).

The original scale includes a 44-item questionnaire that addresses the extent to which

parents and adolescents argue and/or disagree about each issue. The questionnaire is

designed to be administered to both parents and their children. First, respondents are

asked to indicate whether or not the issue has been a topic of conversation during the

last two weeks. A sample item is: Doing homework, Grades in school, and Using

Internet. The respondents indicate the intensity of these issues using a 5-point Likert

scale ranging from 1=very calm, 2=calm, 3=angry to 4=very angry (Appendix C).

The Issue Checklist can yield three scores for each member of the dyad: (a) the

quantity of issues discussed, (b) the mean anger-intensity level of the endorsed issues

(the average level of intensity of conflict across all issues discussed, and (c) the

weighted average of the frequency and anger-intensity level of the endorsed issues

(Robin & Weiss, 1980). In this study, all three scores are computed for each

participant and the third score was used for analysis (Appendix C).

The scale has been widely used in research (Prinz, Foster, Kent, & OLeary,

1979; Silverberg & Steinberg, 1987). Test-retest reliability is reported as relatively

low due to the fluctuating nature of conflict during adolescence; ranging from 0.63 -
80

0.81 for mothers and 0.47 0.72 for adolescents. The Issues Checklist is reported to

have good discriminant / criterion-related validity, however parent-adolescent

agreement on whether an issue had been discussed was low; ranging from 38% - 86%.

Evidence of validity is found in studies showing agreement averaging 67.5% between

parents and adolescents, as to whether an issue had been recently discussed (Robin &

Foster, 1989). Although one researcher using a Russian sample showed good

Cronbach alpha values (from .76 to .90) (Glebova, 2002), Cronbach alpha has not yet

been reported for a Korean sample; therefore reducing the generalizability of this

studys findings should be applied.

Parental cultural expectations. Parental cultural expectations are measured by

questions from the Revised Asian Value Scales (AVS-R; Kim & Hong, 2004). The

AVS-R contains 25 items and was developed based on the Asian Values Scale (Kim,

Atkinson, & Yang, 1999), which is one of the few instruments that assess Asian

cultural values. The scale includes eight values such as collectivism, conformity to

norms, family recognition through achievement, deference to authority figures,

emotional restraint, filial piety, hierarchical family structure, and humility (Kim &

Hong, 2004, p.19).

Kim and Hong reported adequate reliability of the AVS-R (i.e., person

separation reliability of .80), which is comparable to the internal consistency


81

coefficients of .81 and .82 reported by Kim et al. (1999) for the original 36-item AVS.

In the current study, alpha for the AVS-R is .53 to .57. Kim and Hong found a

correlation of .93 between the AVS and AVS-R, supporting the validity of AVS-R.

The AVS has been through multiple reliability and validity procedures. As indicated

above, it has significant validity and reliability data (a two week retest reliability

of .83; Kim et al., 1999). Discriminant validity is demonstrated by the low correlation

between AVS scores, which primarily reflect enculturation, and Suinn-Lew Asian

Self-Acculturation Scale (Suinn, Rickard-Figueroa, Lew, & Vigil, 1987) which is a

scale that primarily measures behavior acculturation. Additional reliability and

validity information for the instrument has not yet been published.

Example statements include (a) One should not deviate from familial and social

norms, and (b) One need not achieve academically in order to make ones parents

proud. Respondents rated how much they agreed or disagreed with each statement by

using a 4-point Likert-type scale (1=Strongly disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Agree, and

4=Strongly agree). Higher scores indicate greater enculturation to Asian values.

Adolescent outcomes. Two areas of adolescent outcomes are assessed: a)

academic achievement and b) behavioral problems. Adolescents academic

achievement is assessed using adolescents and parental reports of adolescents

standardized test grades in Social Studies, Mathematics, Korean Language, Science,


82

and English. Response sets range from 1 (highest) to 9 (lowest) grades. The mean

across subjects are used from each reporter.

Behavioral problems: Two dimensions of behavioral outcomes are assessed: (a)

externalizing behavioral problems and (b) internalizing behavioral problems.

Adolescents reported their own behaviors using the Youth Self-Report Inventory

(Achenbach, 1991b) and parents also reported their childrens behaviors using the

Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991a). The Youth Self-Report (YSR) is the

self-report form of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for adolescents between the

ages of 11 and 18 years, which are designed to measure adolescents emotional and

behavioral problems.

The behavior problems scale of the YSR contains 120 items that assess nine

core syndromes of problems relevant for both girls and boys: (a) somatic complaints,

(b) anxious/ depressed behaviors, (c) social withdrawal, (d) thought problems, (e)

attention problems, (f) self destructivity/identity, (g) withdrawal, (h) aggressive

behaviors, and (i) delinquent behaviors. As suggested by Achenbach, a T-score >=65

on a scale for Korean children constitutes clinically significant symptoms (Oh, Lee,

Hong, & Ha, 1997).

For each item of the scale, respondents were asked to report their behaviors on a

3-point scale ranging from 0=Not True, 1=Somewhat or Sometimes True, to 2=Very
83

True or Often True. In this study emphasis are given to two major areas of problem

syndromes -58 items: internalizing and externalizing. The internalizing problems scale

for this study consists of a total score of items that are answered in the social

withdrawn, somatic complaints, and anxious/ depressed scales. Externalizing problem

scale for this study is comprised of sum scores of items in the delinquent behavior and

aggressive behavior syndrome scales. Examples of internalizing items are: I feel

worthless or inferior and I am unhappy, sad, or depressed.

Achenbach (1991b) reported the mean seven days test-retest reliability for the

problem scales was r= .65 for 11 to 14 years old and r= .83 for 15 to 18 years old. It is

reported that internal consistencies for the syndrome scales ranged from alpha= .68 for

social problems to alpha= .89 for externalizing problems and alpha= .91 for

internalizing problems. Content validity of the YSR is assessed and supported through

discriminant analyses, which show the ability of most YSR items to discriminate

significantly between demographically matched referred and non-referred adolescents.

Adolescents behavior problems are also reported by parents using the parental

version and the Child Behavior Checklist.

Analytic Strategy

For this study, quantitative analysis in this study is based on a variety of

different questionnaire items from the survey and different research questions.
84

Because of differences among these items and the nature of questions, a number of

different statistical techniques are employed to analyze the data. These techniques

included analysis of descriptive statistics, correlation, multivariate analysis of variance,

multiple regression, and path analysis.

Preliminary analysis was conducted. The correlation analysis was performed

between parent reporting and child reporting of the same construct, in order to find out

the overall pattern of associations between these variables of the same construct. In

addition, correlation analysis was conducted among all variables in the parent report

and child report model separately.

In order to examine which baseline demographic characteristics are associated

with adolescents Internet use, multiple logistic regressions were run, stratified by sex.

Predictors of the model were included some categories of demographic characteristics,

(a) individual predictors, such as birth order and religious preference; and (b) familial

predictors that included SES, parental education level, parental marital status, and

family structure.

Then a series of theoretical models were tested using the AMOS 5.0 software

package. The model was simultaneously assessed for boys and girls using path

analysis. Path analysis is an extension of multiple regression. Its aim is to provide

estimates of the magnitude and significance of hypothesized causal connections


85

between sets of variables. The regression weights predicted by the model are

compared with the observed correlation matrix for the variables, and a goodness-of-fit

statistics is calculated.

Since the analyses of each model begin with full recursive model, several

goodness of fit statistics should be used to assess model fit (Kline, 2005), such as

Goodness of Fit Index (GFI), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI), Comparative

Fit Index (CFI), the Root-Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), and Chi

Square Index are evaluated to determine the overall acceptability of the conceptual

model. The GFI and AGFI are two of the most commonly used measures of fit. Both

measures assess absolute fit by comparing the covariances actually found in the data

to the covariances proposed by the fixed and free parameters of the proposed model

(Kline, 2005). Both GFI and AGFI ranged from zero to one and values .90 to .99 are

considered acceptable although it is more difficult to achieve an AGFI of that

magnitude (Gerbing, & Anderson, 1993). CFI is evaluated to determine the

incremental fit of the measures and it is recommended that .90 cutoffs is stringently

utilized (Kline, 2005). The RMSEA takes into account the error of approximation in

the population. A valued of .05 or lower indicates adequate or good fit (Kline, 2005).

For a good model fit, a fitting function value of close to 0 is desired. However,

Ullman (1996) argues that if the ratio between X 2 and the degrees of freedom is less
86

than two, the model is a good fit. Also, he discusses a variety of non- X 2 distributed

fitting functions. Ullman (1996) calls this comparative fit indices. As comparing the

fit of an independence model to the fit of the estimated model, the result of this

comparison is usually a number between 0 and 1. As Ullman suggests, the use of

multiple indices is a better idea to determine model fitness. Thus, at every stage of

model testing, several goodness-of-fit indices including GFI, AGFI, and CFI will also

be assessed to determine the acceptability of the conceptual model.

In order to test moderating effects of gender in conceptualized models, critical

ratio of a given path will be examined. As the SEM estimates are calculated on the

basis of Z statistic, if the absolute value of the critical ratio is equal to or higher than

1.96, it can be inferred the path is variant across the variable at p < .05. If the absolute

value of the critical ratio is equal to or greater than 2.56, it can be inferred the path is

variant across the variable at p < .01.

An indirect effect is defined as the product of the two unstandardized paths

linking X to Y through a mediator (M). Estimates of indirect effects and their standard

errors are used to determine the significance of the effect through a mediator

(Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Support for mediation relies on whether the indirect

pathway from A to M to Y is statistically significant (Shrout & Bolger, 2002). A re-


87

sampling method (bootstrapping) was used to determine the significance of the

indirect effect in the current study.

In addition, to provide a final check for mediation effects, indirect pathways

were tested for significance using Sobels test (1982). The Sobel test examines the

strength of the indirect effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable

through a mediator by calculating the z value. It is determined that the reduction in the

associations between the independent variables and the outcome variables are

statistically significant. The Sobel test is the last step for identifying whether the

mediator is significant or not. The formula for calculating z value is:

z=

Where b = path estimates for the link between the independent variable and the

mediator, c = path estimates for the link between mediator and dependent variables:

Sb = standard error for b; Sc = standard error for d. According to Sobel (1982), a z

score valued 1.96 or larger, indicates a significant indirect effect (p < .05).

To provide a final check for mediation effects, indirect pathways were also

tested for significance using the bootstrap method. Bootstrapping is a popular method

used to accommodate non-normal data. Bootstrapping does not make the assumptions

of normal theory associated with SEM such as theoretical sampling distributions

(Finney & DiStefano, 2006) and instead empirically estimates the sampling
88

distribution (Preacher & Hayes, 2008; Shrout & Bolger, 2002). Many researchers (e.g.,

Cheung & Lau, 2008; MacKinnon, Lockwood, Hoffman, West, & Sheet, 2002;

Preacher & Hayes, 2008) recommend employing bootstrap methods to test mediation.

It was found that the bootstrap method more accurately produces confidence intervals

than other methods which assume the data follows a normal distribution (e.g., Sobel

test; Sobel, 1982) (Cheung & Lau, 2008). This recommendation is supported by

findings of MacKinnon et al. (2002) who recommend bootstrapping be implemented

over the Sobel test (or causal stpes approach) to maintain power and control over Type

I errors. Finney and DiStefano (2006) recommend this method because even under

extreme non-normality, bootstrapping outperforms other methods used to adjust or

rescale the non-normal data.

Bootstrapping randomly samples cases with replacement, from the original data

in to create a bootstrap sample. This method adjusts the chi-square and standard error

of path estimates to help with non-normality (Bollen & Stine, 1992). Bootstrapping

can be repeated numerous times and mimics collecting numerous samples from a

population (Kline, 1998). In the current study, empirical standard errors were obtained

through 2000 bootstrap samples and the model was fit to each bootstrap sample.
89

Results

The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among adolescent

Internet use, parent-adolescent relationships, academic achievement, and behavior

problems among South Korean families. The result section is organized as follows: (a)

Addressing issues of distribution and missing data (b) Demographic characteristics of

participants, (c) Descriptive statistics on the nature of adolescents Internet use, (d)

Factor analyses and reliability of constructs, and (e) Hypotheses Testing.

Addressing Issues of Distribution and Missing data

Data were analyzed using the SPSS 17 statistical package. The data were first

checked for missing data and out of range values. The amount of missing data was

small (less than 1%), and hence missing data was substituted with the mean values.

Although this method could be problematic because it underestimates variance,

correlations, and regression coefficients, Allison (2002) indicates that if the

percentage of missing data is low, mean imputation is a very practical and common

strategy utilized by many researchers.

The variables were examined for any outliers by examining univariate

frequency distributions and bivariate scatterplots. Normality was tested using

Skewness and Kurtosis statistics and homogeneity of variance of all variables was

tested using the Levenes statistic. Highly skewed data and excessive kurtosis can
90

affect overall fit, standard errors, and parameter estimates (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988).

Although there has not been a clear consensus established regarding acceptable non-

normality and no general cutoff for acceptable multivariate normality exists (Finney &

DiStefano, 2006), data with a skew above an absolute value of 3.0 and kurtosis above

an absolute value of 8.0 are considered problematic (Kline, 2005). The range of

standard errors of skewness and kurtosis of variables in this study were within the

expected range of chance fluctuation (Brown, 1997).

Demographic Characteristics of Participants

Adolescent participants and their parents were recruited from students from five

high schools among 10th and 11th grade in Seoul, Korea. One thousand three hundred

and eighty six (1396) surveys were distributed and a total 926 sets of data were

returned by the participants (66.8% response rate). Average of class size of Korean

high schools is 36 (The New York Times, 2010).

Principals from two high schools located in Seoul and Kyoungki-Do agreed for

their 10th and 11th graders to participate in this study. Of the 926 surveys that were

returned, 317 surveys were excluded for the following reasons: (1) one of parents had

remarried after divorce or loss of a partner (1%), (2) one parent did not return a survey

(9.6%) and (3) incomplete survey completion (23.7%). The final dataset consisted of

609 adolescents (2% of total high school students (total 296,282) in Seoul, Korea) and
91

their parents. There were no significant differences between the study participants and

those not included in the study sample on key demographic variables, which are age,

family income, and parental educational level. Although sibling information was

asked, majority of respondents did not answer.

The demographic characteristics of the fathers, mothers, and their adolescents

who participated in this study are presented in Table 2. The adolescents were

between16 - 19 years old [Boys (n = 253; M = 16.3, SD = .6); Girls (n = 360; M =

16.7, SD = .6)]. All fathers and mothers in this sample were the biological parents of

adolescents. The average age of fathers was 48 years (SD=3.5) at the time of

participation (40 to 65 years old). The average age of the mothers was 45 years old

(SD=3.5) at the time of participation (37 to 61 years old). Among 609 fathers and

mothers, 554 fathers (90.9 %) and 320 mothers (52.5%) were employed outside the

home on a full-time or part-time basis. Sixty nine percent (n = 421) of fathers and

51.5 % (n = 314) of mothers had more than a college education.

Compared to the general population in Korea, parents in this study were more

educated, were generally of a higher socio-economic status, and less than half of the

sample reported that they were Christians. Majority of parents in this study (70.3%

fathers and 52.4% mother 52.4%). were highly educated - college graduates and

higher. Almost half (43.3%) of the families reported incomes of more than 4 million
92

won per month which is considerably higher than the average family income of the

total population (1.1 million won per month in 2009 (Korean Statistical Information

Service, 2011)). Nationally only 16-20% of the population is Christian (Korean

Statistical Information Service, 2011) compared to the half the sample in this study

who indicated that they belonged to the Christian faith.

Table 1. Number and percentage of demographics by participants


Religion Adolescents N(%) Fathers N(%) Mothers N(%)
Buddhism 30 (4.9) 67 (11.0) 75 (12.3)
Christianity 292 (47.9) 223 (36.6) 274 (45.0)
Catholic 46 (7.6) 57 (9.4) 75 (12.3)
No religion 241 (39.6) 262 (43.0) 185 (30.4)
Education Father N(%) Mother N(%)
Less than high school 13 (2.1) 11 (1.8)
High school 168 (27.6) 279 (45.8)
Some college or Community college 64 (10.5) 79 (13.0)
College 270 (44.3) 201 (33.0)
Master or higher 94 (15.5) 49 (6.4)
Occupation Father N(%) Mother N(%)
Full-time 526 (86.4) 224 (36.8)
Part-time 54 (8.9) 94 (15.4)
Home maker 4 (0.7) 260 (42.7)
Retired 6 (1.0) 23 (1.6)
Unemployed and looking for work 14 (2.3) 4 (0.7)
Too ill or disabled to work 5 (0.8) 4 (0.7)
Family income (Monthly)
Less than 200,000 (about $2300) 48 (7.9)
200,000 ~ 250,000 (about $2300 ~ $2875) 54 (8.9)
250,000 ~ 300,000 (about $2875 ~$3450) 76 (12.5)
300,000 ~ 350,000 (about $3450 ~ $4025) 96 (15.8)
350,000 ~ 400,000 (about $4025 ~ $4600) 84 (13.8)
More than 400,000 (about $4600) 251 (41.2)
Note: Percentages are in parenthesis.
93

Table 2. Skewness and Kurtosis of demographic variables


Mean SD Skewness SE Kurtosis SE
Age - Mother 44.9 3.50 .82 .09 1.4 .19
Age - Father 47.5 3.43 .75 .10 1.5 .19
Education - Mother 2.97 1.07 .38 .09 -1.07 .19
Education - Father 3.4 1.12 -.32 .09 -1.09 .19
Religion - Mother 2.93 0.96 -.71 .09 -.35 .19
Religion - Father 3.13 0.95 -.93 .09 -.05 .19
Family Income 4.42 1.67 -.68 .09 -.60 .19

Descriptive Analyses on the Nature of Adolescents Internet Use

97.4% of adolescents responded that they accessed the Internet at home and

over half of the respondents reported that they used the Internet in school. In all,

49.6% of students used the Internet in PC Bangs and roughly one third of respondents

used the Internet in the library. Only 17.6% of students accessed the Internet in public

places, such as community centers. Fifty two percent (52%) of students responded that

they had their own personal computers in their home. Ninety six percent (96%) of

students had more than one personal computer and 36% of students have more than

one laptop computer at home. Only six students (1%) reported that they did not have

an Internet access at home. Table 3a shows the number of personal computers and

laptops in adolescent homes.


94

Table 3a. Number and types of computers at home


Variables N (%) Cumulative %
Number of personal computers
0 20 (3.3) 3.3
1 462 (75.9) 79.1
2 115 (18.9) 98.0
3 10 (1.6) 99.7
4 1 (.2) 99.8
More than 5 1 (.2) 100.0
Number of laptop computers
0 390 (64.0) 64.0
1 180 (29.6) 93.6
2 31 (5.1) 98.7
3 3 (.5) 99.2
4 3 (.5) 99.7
More than 5 2 (.3) 100.0
Total number of computers (PC +
LP)
0 6 (1.0) 1.0
1 311 (51.1) 52.1
2 215 (35.3) 87.4
3 55 (9.0) 96.4
4 14 (2.3) 98.7
More than 5 8 (1.3) 100.0

Close to 4% of adolescents indicated that they secretly accessed the Internet

during class and less than one fourth of students accessed the Internet during class

with teachers permission. Over 30% of students used the Internet during lunch

breaks or after school hours (see Table 3b).


95

Table 3b. The nature of adolescent Internet use


Variables Yes No
N (%) N (%)
Use Internet at PC Bang* 302 (49.6) 307 (50.4)
Use Internet at Friends House 323 (53.0) 286 (47.0)
Use Internet at Library 208 (34.2) 401 (65.8)
Use Internet at Public Place 107 (17.6) 502 (82.4)
Use Internet at Home 593 (97.4) 16 (2.6)
Have own PC with Internet Access 317 (52.1) 292 (47.9)
PC is in Adolescents Room 223 (36.6) 386 (63.4)
PC is in Parents Room 115 (18.9) 494 (81.1)
PC is in Dining Room 298 (48.9) 311 (51.1)
PC is in Family Study Room 168 (27.6) 441 (72.4)
Use Internet at School 322 (52.9) 287 (47.1)
Use Internet secretly during class 23 (3.8) 586 (96.2)
Use Internet during class with teachers
permission 149 (24.5) 460 (75.5)
Use Internet after school or during extra-
curricular activities 194 (31.9) 415 (68.1)
Use Internet during lunch breaks or during recess 221 (36.3) 388 (63.7)
*PC Bang is a variation of a LAN gaming center, where one can play multiplayer computer
games with others. PC bangs are extremely popular among all ages of South Koreans and
foreigners visiting South Korea alike.

As the tables 4a and 4b indicate, most adolescents use the Internet primarily for

social blogging and watching movies during weekends. This finding is consistent

with the 2004 data about Internet use among 2000 Korean high school students (Lee,

2005, October). The report indicated that the average of Internet use is around one and

one half hour. And average frequency of Internet use is less than two times per day.

These findings are similar to that found in the previous studies.


96

Table 4a. Descriptive statistics on the number of times adolescents access the Internet for
various educational, social, and recreational activities during weekdays and weekends
Weekdays Weekends
Variables M (SD) M (SD)
To do study and do homework 2.14 (.85) 2.03 (.83)
To watch online classes 1.85 (.99) 1.76 (.89)
To do Internet surf for study 1.62 (.79) 1.57 (.74)
To do chatting 1.55 (.89) 1.64 (.92)
To access social blogs 1.53 (.85) 1.68 (.95)
To exchange social e-mails 1.56 (.87) 1.64 (.91)
To do Internet games 1.45 (.87) 1.62 (.92)
To watch/download movies, songs, etc. 1.94 (.93) 2.25 (.95)
To watch sports and surf sport-related information 1.78 (.94) 1.98 (.93)
* 1= None, 2= 1~2 times a day, 3= 3~4 times a day, 4= More than 5 times a day.

During typical weekdays and weekends, most adolescents reported that they

used the Internet a total of less than one hour. More than two third of the students

reported that they used the Internet for educational purposes for about less than an

hour per day. Around 80% of students watched online classes for less than an hour per

day. Only 16% of the students spent more than an hour doing social blogs on

weekdays, whereas 28% of them visited social blogs during weekends.

Table 4b. Descriptive statistics on the intensity of adolescents Internet use for educational,
social, and recreational activities on weekdays and weekends
Weekdays Weekends
Variables M (SD) M (SD)
To study and school work 1.59 (.82) 1.69 (.92)
To watch online classes 1.67 (.99) 1.69 (.96)
To do chatting 1.31 (.67) 1.47 (.94)
To access social blogs 1.68 (.91) 2.04 (1.00)
To do Internet games 1.35 (.78) 1.69 (.96)
To entertain 1.50 (.81) 1.85 (.94)
* 1=Less than one hour, 2=One to Two hours, 3=Two to three hours, 4=More than three
hours.
97

Fifty percent (50%) of adolescents accessed the Internet for study and

homework for 1 to 2 times per day whereas about 50% of all or the adolescents did

not access the Internet to watch online classes or get study-related answers. Almost

70% of students reported that they did not use the Internet for chatting or e-mail

exchanging. Seventy four percent (74%) of adolescents did not use the Internet for

games during the weekdays (61% during weekends). This figure is not similar to the

numbers reported in the 2003 report about Korean adolescents life (Korean

Educational Development Institute, 2003). According the 2003 report, over 45% of

1752 general high school students used the Internet for gaming. In this study,

adolescents indicated that they used the Internet more for watching/downloading

movies and songs than gaming. The frequency of the number of times when

adolescents accessed the Internet is presented in Table 4c.

Almost all the adolescents who participated in this study had access to one or

more computers at home (96.7%) and accessed the Internet more frequently on

weekends than weekdays. Adolescents accessed the Internet more often for

educational purposes on weekdays than weekends and accessed the Internet for social

and recreational purposes more often on weekends than weekdays.


98

Table 4c. The Frequencies for the Numbers of Functional Use of the Internet Use (N=609)
During a typical During a holiday or
weekday weekend
Variables N % N %
To do Study and do Homework
None 135 22.2 154 25.3
One to Two times a weekday 306 50.2 332 54.5
Three to Four times a weekday 118 19.4 74 12.2
More than Five times a weekday 50 8.2 49 8.0
To get answers about study-related topics
None 326 53.5 336 55.2
One to Two times a weekday 209 34.3 214 35.1
Three to Four times a weekday 53 8.7 43 7.1
More than Five times a weekday 21 3.4 16 2.6
To Watch Online Classes
None 297 48.8 290 47.6
One to Two times a weekday 166 27.3 217 35.6
Three to Four times a weekday 89 14.6 59 9.7
More than Five times a weekday 57 9.4 43 7.1
To Exchange Social E-mails
None 393 64.5 359 58.9
One to Two times a weekday 126 20.7 155 25.5
Three to Four times a weekday 58 9.5 52 8.5
More than Five times a weekday 32 5.3 43 7.1
To do Chatting
None 407 66.8 360 59.1
One to Two times a weekday 108 17.7 153 25.1
Three to Four times a weekday 56 9.2 50 8.2
More than Five times a weekday 38 6.2 46 7.6
99

Table 4c continued. The Frequencies for the Numbers of Functional Use of the Internet Use
(N=609)
During a typical During a holiday or
weekday weekend
Variables N % N %
To access social blogs
None 394 64.7 339 55.7
One to Two times a weekday 141 23.2 170 28.0
Three to Four times a weekday 40 6.6 67 11.0
More than Five times a weekday 34 5.6 33 5.4
To Watch or download Movies, Songs, and Pictures
None 231 37.9 132 21.7
One to Two times a weekday 233 38.3 280 46.0
Three to Four times a weekday 93 15.3 109 17.9
More than Five times a weekday 52 8.5 88 14.4
To do Internet Games
None 449 73.7 373 61.2
One to Two times a weekday 82 13.5 137 22.5
Three to Four times a weekday 40 6.6 56 9.2
More than Five times a weekday 38 6.2 43 7.1
To Watch Sports and Surf Information
None 307 50.4 219 36.0
One to Two times a weekday 177 29.1 238 39.1
Three to Four times a weekday 78 12.8 100 16.4
More than Five times a weekday 47 7.7 52 8.5

Factor Analysis and Reliability of Constructs

The purpose of this section is to identify the factor structure of specific

constructs. Factor analysis was run separately for fathers, mothers, and adolescents

on items related to adolescent Internet use, parent-adolescent closeness, parent-


100

adolescent conflict, parental academic expectations, and adolescents behavior

problems.

Adolescent Internet Use

Frequency of Adolescent Internet Use on Weekdays and Weekends. The

variables associated with the frequency of adolescent Internet Use were subjected to

factor analysis using principal component factor analysis and the number of factors

was determined by criterion of eigenvalue greater than 1.00. The Bartletts test of

sphericity was significant (p.001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin value was .77 for

weekdays and .74 for weekends. Varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization was

used to determine the best fit of the variables to each factor based on their loading.

Three factors (educational Internet use, social Internet use, and recreational Internet

use) emerged regarding adolescent Internet use on weekdays and weekends.

Based on the results from factor analysis, three items (the frequency of study e-

mail exchange, make new friends, and shopping) were dropped due to weak or double

loading. The factors explained 65.30 % and 62.52% of the variance for weekdays and

weekends respectively. Results of rotated matrix are presented in Table 5a.


101

Table 5a. Rotated Component Matrix Frequency of adolescents Internet use


Factors
Adolescents Internet Use for Weekdays 1 2 3
Educational Use Use Internet for study .83
Educational Use Watching Online Classes .80
Educational Use - Cyber learning .64
Social Use Chatting .91
Social Use Working on Blogging .57
Social Use Exchanging Social Emails .89
Variable 7 - Recreational Use Doing Online games .61
Variable 8 - Recreational Use Watching and downloading
.72
Movies
Variable 9 - Recreational Use Visit Sports related websites .79
Adolescents Internet Use for Weekends
Variable 1- Educational Use Use Internet for study .84
Variable 2 - Educational Use Watching Online Classes .79
Variable 3 - Educational Use - Cyber learning .63
Variable 4 - Social Use Chatting .80
Variable 5 - Social Use Working on Blogging .74
Variable 6 - Social Use Exchanging Social Emails .78
Variable 7 - Recreational Use Doing Online games .92
Variable 8 - Recreational Use Watching and downloading
.59
Movies
Variable 9 - Recreational Use Visit Sports related websites .68
Note: Only factor loadings that equaled or exceeded .40 in absolute value were selected.

Intensity of Adolescent Internet Use on Weekdays and Weekends. Intensity

of adolescent Internet use was also subject to factor analysis using similar criteria as

mentioned earlier (see Table 5b). The constructs explained 68% and 63% of the

variance for weekdays and weekends respectively.


102

Table 5b. Rotated Component Matrix Intensity of adolescents Internet use


Factors
Adolescents Internet Use for Weekdays 1 2 3
Variable 1 Educational Use - Use Internet for study .67
Variable 2 Educational Use - Watching Online Classes .82
Variable 3 Social Use Chatting .72
Variable 4 Social Use Social Searching .55
Variable 5 Recreational Use Gaming .91
Variable 6 Recreational Use Entertainments .54
Adolescents Internet Use for Weekends
Variable 1 Educational Use - Use Internet for study .59
Variable 2 Educational Use - Watching Online Classes .82
Variable 3 Social Use Chatting .80
Variable 4 Social Use Social Searching .69
Variable 5 Recreational Use Gaming .85
Variable 6 Recreational Use Entertainments .73
Note: Wording of variables has been shortened for convenience of presentation.

Parent-Adolescent Relationships.

Parent-Adolescent Closeness. The principal-component factor analysis with

Varimax rotation was conducted and a criterion of eigenvalue greater than 1.00 was

used to identify the number of factors. The Bartletts test of sphericity was significant

(p.00) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin value was .88 for the adolescent report, .89 for

the father report and .90 for the mother report.

Two factors emerged: (a) mother/father-adolescent closeness and (b)

mother/father-adolescent communication. Two items (Doing things together and

Expressing affection) were eliminated due to double-loading. The two-factor model

explained 65.7% (adolescent reports) and 64.3% (father reports) of the total variance
103

for F-A total closeness and 61.8% (adolescent reports) and 62% (mother reports) of

the variance for M-A total closeness. The results of factor analyses are presented in

Table 6a and 6b.

Table 6a. Rotated Component Matrix mother-adolescent closeness


Adolescent Reports Mother Reports
Mother Adolescent Closeness 1 2 1 2
Variable 1 Feel close .75 .70
Variable 2 Attentive to my problem .79 .74
Variable 3 Knows what I like .70 .80
Variable 4 Help me if I have a problem .81 .73
Variable 5 Expressing affection .62 .58
Variable 6 Talk about friends .79 .85
Variable 7 Talk about school .80 .88
Variable 8 Talk about problems/ concerns .79 .80
Variable 9 Talk about upcoming activities .80 .73
Variable 10 Talk about future plan .70 .62

Table 6b. Rotated Component Matrix father-adolescent closeness


Adolescent Reports Father Reports
Father Adolescent Closeness 1 2 1 2
Variable 1 Feel close .67 .71
Variable 2 Attentive to my problem .79 .73
Variable 3 Knows what I like .62 .80
Variable 4 Help me if I have a problem .84 .70
Variable 5 Expressing affection .62 .49
Variable 6 - Talk about friends .82 .84
Variable 7 - Talk about school .81 .87
Variable 8 - Talk about problems/ concerns .84 .79
Variable 9 - Talk about upcoming activities .81 .74
Variable 10 - Talk about future plan .69 .65
Note: Only factor loadings that equaled or exceeded .40 in absolute value are given.
104

Parent-Adolescent Conflict. Parent-adolescent conflict was conceptualized as a

multidimensional construct: frequency of disagreements and conflict-intensity. The

scores on the conflict-intensity items were multiplied by the frequency of

disagreement scores. The principal-component factor analysis was then conducted on

these scores. Factor analysis was run separately on the father, mother, and adolescent

reports. The Bartletts test of sphericity was significant (p .001) and the Kaiser-

Meyer-Oklin value was.83 for the adolescent reports, .95 for the father reports,

and .90 for the mother reports. Similar items loaded for mother/father-adolescent issue

conflict-intensity for adolescent, mother, and father reports. This factor solution

explained 38% to 49% in father reports and 43% of the variance in mother reports of

the total variance. Two items (Helping out at home and Relationships with family

members) were excluded due to double loading. The results are presented in Table 7a

and 7b.
105

Table 7a. Rotated Component Matrix Parent-adolescent conflict between mothers and
adolescents
Adolescent Reports Mother Reports
Variable 1 Money matters .38 .49
Variable 2 How you dress .41 .63
Variable 3 Your friends .45 .64
Variable 4 Behaviors in school .71 .63
Variable 5 Doing homework .45 .44
Variable 6 Your grades .68 .59
Variable 7 Playing video/Internet games .39 .68
Variable 8 Drinking or smoking .79 .66
Variable 9 Who you date .78 .74
Variable 10 Cursing .53 .64
Variable 11 General Internet use .61 .79

Table 7b. Rotated Component Matrix Parent-adolescent conflict between fathers and
adolescents
Adolescent Reports Father reports
Variable 1 Money matters .44 .63
Variable 2 How you dress .54 .63
Variable 3 Your friends .47 .66
Variable 4 Behaviors in school .78 .60
Variable 5 Doing homework .57 .44
Variable 6 Your grades .61 .67
Variable 7 Playing video/Internet games .70 .76
Variable 8 Drinking or smoking .79 .71
Variable 9 Who you date .62 .77
Variable 10 Cursing .67 .48
Variable 11 General Internet use .53 .77
Note: Only factor loadings that equaled or exceeded .40 in absolute value are given.

Parental Cultural Academic Expectations. The exploratory factor analysis

was conducted for parental academic expectations using the Principle Component
106

method. Factor analysis was run separately for fathers and mothers. The factor

analysis produced a two-factor solution (Personal achievement: goals around ones

educational achievement, Family achievement: family recognition through

achievement). The Bartletts test of sphericity was significant (p.001) and the Kaiser-

Meyer-Oklin value was .51 for the father reports and .50 for the mother reports. This

factor solution explained 40% in father reports and 40% in mother reports of the total

variance. The results were presented in Table 8.

Table 8. Rotated Component Matrix Parental cultural academic expectations


Fathers Mothers

Variable 1 - One need not focus all energies on ones studies .79 .75
Variable 2 - One should be discouraged from talking about
.39 .31
ones accomplishments
Variable 3 - One need not minimize or depreciate ones own .3
.33
achievement 1
Variable 4 Educational and career achievements need not be
.65 .68
ones top priority
Variable 5 - One need not achieve academically in order to
.75 .77
make ones parents proud
Variable 6 - Ones achievements should be viewed as familys
.61 .59
achievements
Variable 7 Educational or occupational failure does not bring
.52 .50
shame to the family
Note: Only factor loadings that equaled or exceeded .30 in absolute value are given.

Reliability analyses were performed on all the above scales and the results

indicated that Cronbachs alphas were in the acceptable range (> .70) (George &

Mallery, 2005) with the exception of parental cultural academic expectations. Table
107

9a shows a summary of the Cronbachs alphas of the independent variables in the

study.

Table 9a. Cronbachs alphas of constructs


Cronbachs alpha
Adolescent Internet Intensity Frequency
Use
Weekdays Weekends Weekdays Weekends
Educational Use .54 .55 .68 .67
Social Use .52 .49 .84 .79
Recreational Use .54 .38 .64 .55
Parent-Adolescent Adolescent Reports Father Reports Mother
Relationships Reports
Mother-A Closeness .90 .90
Father-A Closeness .92 .92
Mother-A Conflict .90 .84
Father-A Conflict .88 .90
Parental Expectations .57 .53

The Means and SDs along with the skewness and kurtosis of the constructs are

shown below.
108

Table 9b. Skewness and Kurtosis of Independent Variables


Mean SD Skewness SE Kurtosis SE
EDU-Intens-WDays 1.63 .75 1.22 .09 .97 .19
SOC-Intens-WDays 1.49 .65 1.49 .09 2.05 .19
REC-Intens-WDays 1.51 .62 1.16 .09 .89 .19
EDU-Intens-WKEnds 1.69 .77 1.16 .09 .76 .19
SOC-Intens-WKEnds 1.76 .74 .99 .09 .44 .19
REC-Inten-WKEnds 1.68 .74 1.18 .09 .88 .19
EDU-Freq-WDays 1.87 .68 .74 .09 .05 .19
SOC-Freq-WDays 1.54 .75 1.53 .09 1.67 .19
REC-Freq-WDays 1.73 .70 1.01 .09 .62 .19
EDU-Freq-WKEnds 1.79 .63 .90 .09 .89 .19
SOC-Freq-WKEnds 1.65 .77 1.29 .09 .99 .19
REC-Freq-WKEnds 1.95 .67 .68 .09 .06 .19
A-M Closeness 3.30 .58 -.92 .09 .70 .19
M-A Closeness 3.18 .51 -.54 .09 .23 .19
F-A Closeness 2.89 .58 -.29 .09 .18 .19
A-F Closeness 2.98 .66 -.38 .09 -.42 .19
M-A conflict 2.08 .36 -.15 .09 -.05 .19
A-M conflict 1.46 .51 .58 .09 -.02 .19
A-F conflict 1.28 .50 .97 .09 1.04 .19
F-A conflict 1.36 .49 .60 .09 -.03 .19
PE - Mother 2.74 .23 -.04 .09 2.36 .19
PE - Father 2.78 .24 -.36 .09 2.88 .19
Note. WDays Weekdays, WKEnds = Weekends

Adolescent Behavioral Problems and Academic Achievement

Adolescent Behavior Problems. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted

for items assessing adolescents behavior problems using the principle component

factor analysis. The factor analysis produced a five-factor solution (somatic

complaints, anxious/ depressed behaviors, withdrawal, aggressive behaviors and

delinquent behaviors) with 49 items. The Bartletts test of sphericity was significant

(p.001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin value was .86 for the adolescent reports. Ten
109

items were eliminated due to double loading or weak loading. The final five-factor

model explained 42% of the total percentages of variance. The results are presented in

Table 10a.

Table 10a. Rotated Component Matrix Adolescent behavioral problems


Factors
1 2 3 4 5
Variable 1 - Feel lonely .51
Variable 2 - Cry a lot .41
Variable 3 - Deliberately hurt or kill
.60
oneself
Variable 4 - Afraid of doing something
.61
bad
Variable 5 - Feel that no one loves me .42
Variable 6 - Feel worthless or inferior .46
Variable 7 - Nervous or tense .71
Variable 8 - Fearful or anxious .72
Variable 9 - Unhappy, sad, or depressed .58
Variable 10 Feel too guilty .54
Variable 11 Suspicious .53
Variable 12 Think about hurting or killing
.52
oneself
Variable 13 Worry a lot .70
Variable 14- Shy .60
Variable 15 Refuse to talk .48
Variable 16- Self-conscious or easily .67
embarrassed
Variable 17- Rather be alone than with .50
others
Variable 18- Secretive or keep things to .57
myself
110

Table 10a continued. Rotated Component Matrix Adolescent behavioral problems


Factors
1 2 3 4 5
Variable 19- Feel dizzy .62
Variable 20- Headaches .61
Variable 21- Aches or pains .50
Variable 22- Nausea, feel sick .73
Variable 23- Problems with eyes .47
Variable 24- Rashes or other skin problems .35
Variable 25- Stomach-aches or cramps .61
Variable 26- Vomiting, throwing up .52
Variable 27- Feel overtired without reason .54
Variable 28- Argue a lot .50
Variable 29- Mean to others .54
Variable 30- Destroy my own things .50
Variable 31- Destroy things belonging to
.57
others
Variable 32- Jealous of others .56
Variable 33- Stubborn .42
Variable 34- Scream a lot .48
Variable 35- Moods or feelings suddenly .45
Variable 36- Disobey at school .55
Variable 37- Get in many fights. .50
Variable 38- Louder than other kids .49
Variable 39- Talk too much .42
Variable 40- Tease others a lot .46
Variable 41- Have a hot temper .51
Variable 42- Rather be with older kids .37
Variable 43- Rather be with younger kids .35
Variable 44 Run away from home .50
Variable 45 Set fires .54
Variable 46 Steal at home .54
Variable 47 Steal from places other than
.55
home
Variable 48 Use searing or dirty language .51
Variable 49 Cut classes or skip school .49
Note: Only factor loadings that equaled or exceeded .30 in absolute value are given.
111

Reliability analyses were performed on adolescent outcome variables and the

results indicated that Cronbachs alphas were in the acceptable range (> .70) (Greorge

& Mallery, 2005) with the exception of social withdrawal and delinquent behaviors.

Table 10b shows a summary of the Cronbachs alphas of the independent variables in

this study.

Table 10b. Cronbachs alphas of constructs


Cronbachs alpha
Adolescents Behavioral Problems (adolescent report) .87
Internalizing behaviors
Anxious/Depressed .81
Social Withdrawal .66
Somatic Complaints .73
Externalizing behaviors .83
Aggressive Behaviors .78
Delinquent Behaviors .63

The Means and SDs along with the skewness and kurtosis of these constructs are

shown below (see Table 10c).

Table 10c. Means and SDs of Adolescents Behavioral Problems


Behavioral Problems Mean SD Skewness SE Kurtosis SE
Depression 1.72 .42 .29 .09 -.61 .19
Somatic Symptoms 1.58 .48 .64 .09 -.36 .19
Withdrawn 1.82 .55 .22 .09 -.82 .19
Aggression 1.71 .40 .28 .09 -.56 .19
Delinquency 1.63 .40 .43 .09 -.31 .19

Adolescent Academic Achievement. Academic achievement was assessed

based on student reported academic grades on 4 subjects Korean, English, Math,


112

and Social Science. In Korea, students are graded on a scale from 1 to 9. Scale 1

represents the highest grade and scale 9 represents the lowest grade. Students receive

the grade based on percentile scores instead of raw scores in the Korean Scholastic

Assessment Test. Scales used for this study were obtained from a pre-KSAT in 2009

fall. Students in this study scored between 1 and 8 grades on all subjects. The

average grade of subjects - Korean, English, Math, and Science- was approximately

3 (see Table 11).

Table 11. Descriptive Statistics for the Adolescent Academic Achievement


Adolescents Grades Mean SD Skewness SE Kurtosis SE
Korean 2.81 1.56 .80 .09 .12 .19
English 2.92 1.57 .84 .09 .33 .19
Math 2.99 1.71 .99 .09 .82 .19
Social Science 3.27 1.50 .59 .09 -.13 .19

Testing Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1. Boys and girls are different in the frequency and the intensity

of educational, social, and recreational use of Internet.

H1-1. Nature of Internet use on weekdays and weekends. To assess gender

differences in the nature of Internet use, Yates Chi-Square values were computed and

the results are presented in Table 12a. More boys (77%) used the Internet at PC Bang

than girls (30%), while more girls (65%, 41%) used the Internet at school and library

than boys (36%, 25% respectively). Fewer boys (46%) had their own PC than girls
113

(56%). Most boys and girls reported that PCs were located at public place in the home,

such as the dining room and/or family study room. Although more than half of

students reported that they had their own PC, only one third of the students reported

that PCs were located in their room. More boys (81%) did not use the Internet during

classes with teachers permission than girls (72%). More girls (37%, 43 %

respectively) reported that they used the Internet during their lunch break and after-

school activities than boys (24%, 27%).


114

Table 12a. The Results of Yates Chi-Square Test - Gender Differences/Similarities in the
nature of Internet Use
Boys Girls
No Yes No Yes
Variables N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) x
Internet use
At Home 7 (2.8) 244 (97.2) 9 (2.5) 349 (97.5) .0
At School 160 (63.7) 91 (36.3) 127 (35.5) 231 (64.5) 46.2**
At PC Bang 58 (23.1) 193 (76.9) 249 (69.6) 109 (30.4) 125.5**
At Friends House 123 (49.0) 128 (51.0) 163 (45.5) 195 (54.5) .58
At Library 189 (75.3) 62 (24.7) 212 (59.2) 146 (40.8) 16.3**
At Public Place 211 (84.1) 40 (15.9) 291 (81.3) 67 (18.7) .61
Student has own PC 136 (54.2) 115 (45.8) 156 (43.6) 202 (56.4) 6.23*
PC location at Home
In Parents Room 208 (82.9) 43 (17.1) 286 (79.9) 72 (20.1) .67
In Dining Room 119 (47.4) 132 (52.6) 192 (53.6) 166 (46.4) 2.04
In Student Room 166 (66.1) 85 (33.9) 220 (61.5) 138 (38.5) 1.20
In Family Study 185 (73.7) 66 (26.3) 256 (71.5) 102 (28.5) .26
Room
Using the Internet
During classes secretly 240 (95.6) 11 (4.4) 346 (96.6) 23 (3.8) .19
During classes
with permission 203 (80.9) 48 (19.1) 257 (71.8) 101 (28.2) 6.11*
During extra-curricular
activities 191 (76.1) 60 (23.9) 224 (62.6) 134 (37.4) 11.82**
During Lunch break 183 (72.9) 68 (27.1) 205 (57.3) 153 (42.7) 14.95**
*p<.05, **p<.01.

In conclusion, Korean boys and girls differed in the ways that they use the

Internet. Girls were more likely to own their own computers at home than boys. Girls

were also more likely to use the Internet at school and the library then boys, while

boys accessed the Internet at PC Bangs. Since girls used the Internet at school more

often than boys, they were also more likely to access the Internet during classes, extra-
115

curricular activity times, and lunch breaks than boys. Girls were more likely to use the

Internet to watch online education classes and blogged more frequently and for longer

times than boys, whereas boys were more likely to access the Internet more frequently

for playing Internet games than girls.

H1-2. Types of Internet use on weekdays and weekends. There were statistically

significant gender differences in total Internet use on weekdays (F (1, 606) = 14.67, p

.001) with effect size of 0.07, which is quite small (Cohen, 1988), and on weekends

(F (1, 606) = 25.1, p .001) with a quite small effect size. When the results for the

Internet use were considered separately, Educational use (F (1, 606) = 6.96, p .001)

and Recreational use (F (1, 606) = 27.89, p .001) reached statistical significance on

weekdays. Recreational use (F (1, 606) = 55.96, p .001) was statistically significant

on weekends. Boys reported less frequent use in Educational use (M=1.75, SD= .61)

than girls (M=1.88, SD= .58) on weekdays while they (M=1.77, SD= .04) spent more

hours for recreational use than girls (M=1.40, SD= .03) regardless of the day (see

Table 12b).
116

Table 12b. Multivariate analysis of variance Types of adolescent Internet use


Male Female Partial Eta Adjusted
Variables (N=251) (N=358) F (1,607) Squared R
M(SD) M(SD) squared
Weekdays
Educational Use 1.75(.61) 1.88(.58) 6.96** .011 .008
Social Use 1.62(.78) 1.58(.68) .46 .001 .003
Recreational Use 1.99(.68) 1.73(.55) 27.89*** .044 .043
*p<.05, **p<.01; Multivariate F (1, 606) = 14.67, p .001, Wilks
Lambda= .932, = .068.
Male Female Partial Eta Adjusted
Variables (N=251) (N=358) F (1,606) Squared R
M(SD) M(SD) squared
Weekends
Educational Use 1.60(.04) 1.70(.04) 2.94 .005 .002
Social Use 1.64(.03) 1.62(.03) .18 .000 -.002
Recreational Use 1.77(.04) 1.40(.03) 55.96*** .085 .082
*p<.05, **p<.01; Multivariate F (1, 606) = 25.1, p .001, Wilks Lambda= .89, =.11

Hypothesis 2-1. Adolescents Internet use has a direct effect on their

adolescent outcomes.

Hypothesis 2-2. Boys and girls are different in the association between

adolescents Internet use and their academic achievement.

H2-1.1. Adolescents Internet use has a direct effect on their academic

achievement.

Latent-variable structural equation models were used to empirically test the proposed

theoretical model. To begin the test the proposed conceptual model, first the

distribution of constructs was examined. Although constructs indicated univariate


117

normality, multivariate normality could not be assumed. Bloms transformation (Blom,

1958) was conducted and all direct and indirect models were run using the

transformed scores.

The fit of the model was assessed through fit indices, which provided an

indication of the proportion of the variance in the sample variance-covariance matrix

that was accounted for by the model. The acceptable range for the GFI is .90 and

above and the acceptable range for the Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) is .90

and above (Byrne, 2001; Kline 2005). The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation

(RMSEA) was also used to determine model fit. Generally accepted guidelines for the

RMSEA are values less that .05; values between .08 and .05 are indicators of

reasonable fit; values between .10 and .08 are indicators of fair fit. RMSEA values

greater than .10 represent a poor fitting model (Tate, 1998).

Models were first run with weekday and weekend Internet use data and the

models indicated similar pathways. Hence, data from both weekdays and weekends

were combined into a single model. Each model was run for the total sample and

separately for boys and girls.

The model of the direct effects of the association between Internet use and

academic achievement indicated a poor fit 2 (29, N = 609) = 168.2, p.001 with

GFI= .93, AGFI= .87 and RMSEA= .11. Figure 1a indicates that adolescent Internet
118

use was significantly associated with their academic achievement. Among three

structural paths in the hypothesized model, two were significant. Specifically, the path

from the educational use to academic achievement ( = .28, p .001) was significant

and positive, while the path from social use ( = -.28, p .01) to academic

achievement was negative. Results indicated that higher educational Internet use was

associated with a higher grade of academic achievement, while higher social Internet

use was associated with a lower grade of academic achievement.

This direct effects model was run to establish the presence of the direct paths

between type of Internet use and academic achievement (as required by Baron and

Kenny, 1986). Although this model only indicated poor fit (as indicated by the AGFI

and RMSEA fit indices above), further improvements to the model were not made as

those adjustments were made to the final model (after the mediators were entered).

Figure 1a. Direct effects between the types of adolescent Internet use and academic

achievement

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001.


119

H2-2.1. Boys and girls are different in the association between adolescents

Internet use and their academic achievement.

Simultaneous group analysis was conducted for boys and girls. The models

indicated moderate fit - 2 (52, N = 609) = 261.5, p.001 with GFI= .93, AGFI= .86,

RMSEA= .07. Critical Ratio (CR) of differences in the strength of specific pathways

was examined (if the CR difference was equal to or higher than 1.96, it indicates that

there is path varied in strength across the two groups) (Garson, 2005). The pathway

between educational Internet use and academic achievement was significant for boys

and not for girls. The pathway between recreational Internet use and academic

achievement was significant for boys and not for girls. The link between social

Internet use and academic achievement was significant for girls but not for boys. The

results are presented in Figure 1b.

Figure 1b. Gender differences in the direct relationship between the types of adolescent
Internet use and academic achievement

Note: Boys/ Girls. * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001
120

H2-1.2. Adolescents Internet use has a direct effect on their internalizing problematic

behaviors.

Figure 2a. Direct links between the types of adolescent Internet use and internalizing problem

behaviors

Note:* p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001

H2-2.2. Boys and girls are different in the association between adolescents Internet

use and their internalizing problematic behaviors.

Simultaneous group analysis indicated poor fit 2 (42, N = 609) = 247.9, p

.001with GFI= .92, AGFI=. 83, RMSEA=. 09. The pathway between educational

Internet use and internalizing behaviors was significant only for boys and not for girls.
121

Figure 2b. Gender differences on the direct relationship between the types of adolescent
Internet use and internalizing problem behaviors

Note: Boys/ Girls. * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001

H2-1.2. Adolescents Internet use has a direct effect on their externalizing

problematic behaviors.

The structural model of the direct effects of the Internet use on externalizing

behavior problems yielded the following results: 2 (15, N = 609) = 250.6, p

.001with GFI= .93, AGFI= .89, RMSEA= .14 (see Figure 1c) not a good fit.

Educational Internet use was negatively associated with externalizing behavior

problems ( = -.19, p .01). Social Internet use was positively associated with

externalizing behavior problems ( = .34, p .01). (see Figure 3a).


122

Figure 3a. Direct effect between the types of adolescent Internet use and externalizing
problem behaviors

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001

H2-2.3. Boys and girls are different in the association between adolescents Internet

use and their externalizing problematic behaviors.

The structural model of the direct effects of the Internet use on externalizing

behavior problems yielded a poor fit - 2 (28, N = 609) = 205.3, p .001 with

GFI= .93, AGFI= .81, RMSEA= .10. Educational Internet use is linked to

externalizing behaviors for boys but not girls. The association between social Internet

use and externalizing behaviors is similar for boys and girls. However, the Critical

Ratio (CR) of differences in the strength of this pathway was lower than 1.96, which

indicated that there was not a path varied in strength across the two groups. The

results are presented in Figure 3b.


123

Figure 3b. Gender differences on the direct relationships between types of adolescent Internet
use and externalizing problem behaviors

Note: Boys /Girls. * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001

Hypothesis 3-1. Does the nature of adolescents Internet use affect their

academic achievement/ behavioral adjustment through P-A closeness/ conflict

(Mediation effects)?

Research question 3-2. Are these pathways different for boys and girls?

(Moderating role of adolescent gender)

H3-1.1. Adolescents Internet use has a effect on academic achievement through

parent-adolescent relationships. (father-adolescent relationships)

The structural model of the indirect effects of Internet use on academic

achievement yielded a good overall fit X (62, N = 609) = 225.9, p .001; GFI=.95,

AGFI=.92, RMSEA=.06. The results are presented in Figure 4a.


124

Figure 4a. Indirect effects linking the types of adolescent Internet use and academic
achievement through father-adolescent relationships

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001.

Two significant indirect pathways were found:

(a) Educational Internet use to F-A conflict (=- .13, p .05), F-A conflict to

academic achievement (= -.11, p .05), and the direct effect between

educational Internet use and academic achievement ( = .25, p .01) partial

mediation

(b) Social Internet use to F-A conflict (= .29, p .01), F-A conflict to academic

achievement (= -.11, p .05), and the direct effect between social Internet

use and academic achievement (= -.34, p .001) partial mediation

These two pathways were examined its significance using the Sobel test and

bootstrapping. The results were presented in Table 13a.


125

Table 13a. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent Internet use
and academic achievement through father-adolescent relationships - Bootstrapping.
Unstandardized Bootstrapping 95% Confidence
Indirect Effect Interval
Mediational (Standardized/ SE) Z Percentile Bias-Corrected
Pathways Low /Upper Low /Upper
Unstandardized Direct Effect (Standardized /SE)
EDUFA CFAA .007 (.004/ .015) 2.40 -.031/ .027 -.030/ .028*
EDU FA CF: .330 (.200/ .066), EDUAA: .330 (.200/ .059) FA CF AA: -.716 (-
.223/ .047)
SOCFA CFAA -.073(-.073/ .013) 2.72 -.065/ -.013** -.069/ -.015***
SOC FA CF: .247 (.157/ .054), SOCAA: -.663 (-.336/.049) FA CF AA: -.463 (-
.149/ .046)
Note: Standardized effects are presented in parenthesis. Direct effects are presented in lower
row of the model: Unstandardized direct effect (standardized direct effect/ SE). EDU =
Educational Internet use, SOC = Social Internet use, AA = Academic Achievement, FA CF =
Father-adolescent conflict, z value of 1.96 or larger indicates a significant indirect effect (p .
05) (Sobel, 1982).

According to the results of the Sobel test and bootstrapping, two indirect

pathways from educational and social use to academic achievement through father-

adolescent conflict were significant.

H3-1.1. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on academic achievement through

parent-adolescent relationships. (mother-adolescent relationships)

The indirect effects model linking the types of adolescent Internet use and

academic achievement through mother-adolescent closeness and conflict indicated

poor fit (X (64, N = 609) = 650.1, p .001; GFI= .89, AGFI= .81, RMSEA= .12). To

improve the fit of the model, modification indices were examined. Error terms were

covaried based on information provided in the modification indices and whether


126

covarying the specific error terms made substantive sense. Five error terms were

covaried. Co-varying these error terms allowed for an improvement in model fit (X

(59, N = 609) = 213.9, p .001; GFI= .96, AGFI= .92, RMSEA= .06). The X (5, N

=609) = 436.8, p .001.

Figure 4b. Indirect effect of adolescent Internet use on academic achievement through mother-
adolescent relationships

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001

Two indirect pathways were found significant between social Internet use to

academic achievement through mother-adolescent conflict social Internet use:

(a) Educational Internet use to academic achievement through mother-adolescent

closeness educational Internet use to mother-adolescent closeness (= .25, p

.001), mother-adolescent closeness to academic achievement (= .14, p


127

.01), and educational Internet use to academic achievement (= .23, p

.001) partial mediation,

(b) Social Internet use to academic achievement through mother-adolescent

closeness - social Internet use to mother-adolescent closeness (= -.26, p

.001), mother-adolescent closeness to academic achievement (= .14, p

.01), and social Internet use to academic achievement (= -.31, p .01)

partial mediation,

These two pathways were examined its significance using Sobel test and

bootstrapping. The results were presented in Table 13b.

Table 13b. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent Internet
use and academic achievement through mother-adolescent relationships - Bootstrapping.
Unstandardized Bootstrapping 95% Confidence
Indirect Effect Interval
Mediational (Standardized/ SE) Z Percentile Bias-Corrected
Pathways Low /Upper Low /Upper
Unstandardized Direct Effect (Standardized /SE)
EDUMA .085 (.052/ .019) 2.15 .019/ .094*** .021/ .098***
CLAA
EDU MA CL: .122 (.210/ .059) EDUAA: .250 (.152/ .050) MA CL AA: .699
(.246/ .056)
SOCMA -.084 (-.042/ .018) 1.77 -.078/ -.008* -.087/ -.014**
CLAA
SOC MACL: -.158 (-.214/ .064) SOCAA: -.651 (-.330/ .050) MACL
AA: .531 (.198/ .063)
Note: Standardized effects are presented in parenthesis. Direct effects are presented in lower
row of the model: Unstandardized direct effect (standardized direct effect/ SE). EDU =
Educational Internet use, SOC = Social Internet use, AA = Academic Achievement, MA CL =
Mother-adolescent closeness, z value of 1.96 or larger indicates a significant indirect effect (p
. 05) (Sobel, 1982).
128

According to the results of the Sobel test and bootstrapping, two indirect

pathways were found to be significant.

H3-2.1. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use to

their academic achievement through parent-adolescent relationships (father-

adolescent relationships).

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and academic

achievement through father-adolescent closeness and father-adolescent conflict were

significant for boys and girls (see Figure 4c).

Figure 4c. The indirect relationship between adolescent Internet use, father-adolescent
relationship, and academic achievement by youth gender

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Boys (Regular)/ Girls(Italic). * p< .05, ** p< .01,
*** p< .001
129

H3-2.1. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use to

their academic achievement through parent-adolescent relationships (father-

adolescent relationships).

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and academic

achievement through mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent conflict

were significant for boys and girls (see Figure 4d).

Figure 4d. The indirect relationship among Internet use, mother-adolescent relationship and
academic achievement by youth gender

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Boys (Regular)/ Girls(Italic). * p< .05, ** p< .01,
*** p< .001

H3-1.2. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on internalizing behavior problems

through parent-adolescent relationships (father-adolescent relationships).


130

Although Baron and Kenny (1986) required the significant direct link between

independent and dependent variables, many significant indirect pathways have been

reported without this premise (MacKinnon, Fairchild, & Fritz, 2007).

The structural model of the indirect effects of the Internet use on academic

achievement yielded a good fit X (50, N = 609) = 176.0, p .001; GFI= .96,

AGFI= .93, RMSEA= .06 (Figure 5a).

Figure 5a. Indirect effect of Internet use through father-adolescent relationships on


internalizing behaviors

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001

Four indirect pathways were found between types of adolescent Internet use and

internalizing behaviors -

(a) Educational Internet use to F-A closeness (= .23, p .001), F-A closeness to

internalizing behaviors (=-.24, p .001) complete mediation,

(b) Social Internet use to F-A closeness (=-.33, p .01), F-A closeness to

internalizing behaviors (=-.24, p .001) complete mediation,


131

(c) Educational Internet use to F-A conflict (=-.12, p .05), F-A conflict to

internalizing behaviors (= .16, p .001) complete mediation,

(d) Social Internet use to F-A conflict (= .27, p .01), F-A conflict to

internalizing behaviors (=.16, p .001) complete mediation,

Four pathways were examined the significance using the Sobel test and

bootstrapping. The results were presented in Table 14a.

Table 14a. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent Internet use
and internalizing behaviors through father-adolescent relationships - Bootstrapping.
Unstandardized Bootstrapping 95% Confidence
Indirect Effect Interval
Mediational (Standardized/ SE) Z Percentile Bias-Corrected
Pathways Low /Upper Low /Upper
Unstandardized Direct Effect (Standardized /SE)
EDUFA CFIT -.008 (-.008/ .010) .21 -.028/ .012 -.029/ .010
EDU FA CF: -.018 (-.037/ .047) EDUIT: .029 (.028/ .040)
FA CF IT: .470 (.220/ .044)
SOCFA CFIT .097 (.059/ .017) 3.17 .031/ .101** .027/ .095***
SOC FA CF: .193 (.259/ .053) SOCIT: -.073 (-.044/ .054)
FA CF IT: .503 (.227/ .045)
EDUF-A CLIT -.035 (-.035/ .011) 3.31 -.060/ -.015*** -.061/ -.015***
EDU F-A CL: .104 (.145/ .040) EDUIT: .058 (.057/ .041)
FA CL IT: -.341 (-.241/ .042)
SOCFA CLIT .137 (.074/ .027) 3.24 .025/ .131*** .028/ .137***
SOC FA CL: -.281 (-.262/ .066) SOCIT: -.089 (-.048/ .055)
FA CL IT: -.486 (-.282/ .056)
Note: Unstandardized effects are presented in parenthesis. Direct effects are presented in
lower row of the model (standardized direct effect/ SE). EDU = Educational Internet use,
SOC = Social Internet use, FA CF = Father-adolescent conflict, FA CL = Father-adolescent
closeness, IT = Internalizing problematic behaviors. A z value 1.96 or larger indicates a
significant indirect effect (p . 05) (Sobel, 1982).
According to the results of Sobel test and bootstrapping, three indirect pathways were found
to be significant.
132

H3-1.2. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on internalizing behavior problems

through parent-adolescent relationships (mother-adolescent relationships).

The structural model of the indirect effects of the Internet use on internalizing

problem behaviors yielded poor overall fit X (52, N = 609) = 617.4, p .001;

GFI= .88, AGFI= .90, RMSEA= .13). Modification indices were examined and

specific error terms were covaried based on whether it made substantive sense. This

was done one by one starting with the largest modification index and done one by one

and the improvement in fit was noted. Three error terms were covaried. Co-varying

these error terms allowed for an improvement in fair model fit (X (48, N = 609) =

237.7, p .001; GFI= .95, AGFI= .90, RMSEA= .08). The X (3, N =609) =397.7, p

.001.

Figure 5b. Indirect effect of types of Internet use on internalizing behaviors through mother-
adolescent relationships

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001.


133

One indirect pathway was found between types of Internet use to internalizing

behaviors through mother-adolescent conflict:

(a) Education Internet use and M-A conflict (= -.10, p .05), M-A conflict to

internalizing problem behaviors (=.29, p .001) complete mediation,

These four pathways were examined the significance using the Sobel test and

bootstrapping. The results were presented in Table 14b.

Table 14b. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent Internet use
and internalizing behaviors through mother-adolescent relationships - Bootstrapping.
Unstandardized Bootstrapping 95% Confidence
Indirect Effect Interval
Mediational (Standardized/ SE) Z Percentile Bias-Corrected
Pathways Low /Upper Low /Upper
Unstandardized Direct Effect (Standardized /SE)
EDUMA CF IT -.008 (-.014/ .018) 2.25 -.051/ .021 -.051/ .014
EDU MA CF: -.011 (-.039/ .014) EDUIT: .029 (.049/ .024)
MA CF IT: .737 (.366/ .096.)
Note: Unstandardized effects are presented in parenthesis. Direct effects are presented in
lower row of the model (standardized direct effect/ SE). EDU = Educational Internet use, MA
CF = Mother-adolescent conflict, IT = Internalizing problematic behaviors. A z value 1.96 or
larger indicates a significant indirect effect (p . 05) (Sobel, 1982).

According to the results of the Sobel test and bootstrapping, the indirect

pathway from educational use to internalizing behaviors through mother-adolescent

conflict was significant.


134

H3-2.2. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use to

their internalizing behavior problems through parent-adolescent relationships.

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and internalizing

problem behaviors through father-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent conflict

were significant for boys and girls.

Two of the pathways were statistically significant. However, none of indirect

linking type of adolescents Internet use and internalizing problem behaviors through

mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent conflict was significant for boys

and girls (see Figure 5c).

Figure 5c. The indirect relationship between Internet use, mother-adolescent relationship and
internalizing behaviors by youth gender

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Boys (Regular)/ Girls (Italic). * p< .05, ** p< .01,
*** p< .001
135

H3-1.3. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on externalizing behavior problems

through parent-adolescent relationships (father-adolescent relationship).

The model linking the types of adolescent Internet use and externalizing

behavior problems through father-adolescent relationships indicated good overall

model fit (X (39, N = 609) = 144.8, p .001; GFI= .97, AGFI= .93, RMSEA=. 06).

Among the eleven structural paths, four indirect paths were found to be statistically

significant (Figure 6a).

Figure 6a. Indirect effects of Internet use on externalizing behaviors through father-adolescent
relationships

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001.

Four indirect pathways were found between types of Internet use to

externalizing behaviors through mother-adolescent conflict:


136

(a) Educational Internet use to F-A closeness (= .24, p .001), F-A closeness to

externalizing behavior (= -.15, p .01), educational Internet use to

externalizing behavior (= -.13, p .05) partial mediation

(b) Educational Internet use to F-A conflict (= -.12, p .05), F-A conflict to

externalizing behavior (= .26, p .001), educational Internet use to

externalizing behavior (= -.13, p .05) partial mediation

(c) Social Internet use to F-A closeness (=-.38, p .001), F-A closeness to

externalizing behavior (= -.15, p .01), social Internet use to externalizing

behavior (= .22, p .05) partial mediation

(d) Social Internet use to F-A conflict (= .30, p .01), F-A conflict to

externalizing behavior (= .26, p .001), social Internet use to externalizing

behavior (= .22, p .05) partial mediation

These four pathways were examined its significance using the Sobel test and

bootstrapping. The results were presented in Table 15a.


137

Table 15a. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent Internet use
and externalizing behaviors through father-adolescent relationships - Bootstrapping.
Unstandardized Bootstrapping 95% Confidence
Indirect Effect Interval
Mediational (Standardized/ SE) Z Percentile Bias-Corrected
Pathways Low /Upper Low /Upper
Unstandardized Direct Effect (Standardized /SE)
EDUFACFEX -.012 (-.023/ .021) 2.14 -.063/ .017 -.069/ .013
EDUFCF: .049 (.074/ .066) EDUEX: .173 (.118/ .062)
FACFEX: .314 ( .116/.053)
EDUFACLEX -.026 (-.052/ .021) 2.44 -.097/ -.014** -.117/ -.021***
EDUFCL: .148 (.221/ .069) EDUEX: 074. (.146/ .066)
FACLEX: .178 (.235/.062)
SOCFACFEX .068 (.062/ .019) 2.84 .025/ .100** 029/ .106***
SOCFCF: .140 (.193/ .055) SOCEX: .334 (.305/ .062)
FACFEX: .488 (.323/ .052)
SOCFACLEX .075 (.072/ .031) 1.93 .009/ .134** .015/ .143**
SOCFACL: -.231 (-.258/ .086) SOCEX: .169 (.162/ .083)
FACLEX: -.326 (-.280/ .065)
Note: Unstandardized effects are presented in (). Direct effects are presented in lower row of
the model (standardized direct effect/ SE). EDU = Educational Internet use, SOC = Social
Internet use, FA CF = father-adolescent conflict, FA CL = father-adolescent closeness, EX =
Externalizing problematic behaviors. A z value 1.96 or larger indicates a significant indirect
effect (p . 05) (Sobel, 1982)

According to the results of the Sobel test and bootstrapping, all of indirect

pathways were significant.

H3-1.3. Adolescents Internet use has an effect on externalizing behavior problems

through parent-adolescent relationships (mother-adolescent relationship).

The indirect effects of the Internet use on adolescents externalizing behavior

problems through mother-adolescent relationships indicated poor model fit (X (41, N

= 609) = 575.9, p .001; GFI= .88, AGFI= .78, RMSEA= .14). Modification indices
138

were examined and specific error terms were covaried based on whether it made

substantive sense, which was done one by one starting with the largest modification

index and the improvement in fit was noted. Six error terms were covaried. Co-

varying these error terms allowed for an improvement in good model fit (X (35, N =

609) = 160.3, p .001; GFI= .96, AGFI= .91, RMSEA= .07). The X (6, N =609)

=415.6, p .001.

Figure 6b. Indirect effect of types of adolescent Internet use on externalizing behaviors
through mother-adolescent relationships

Note: * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001.

One indirect path was statistically significant (Figure 17b).

(a) Educational Internet use to M-A conflict (= -.11, p .05), M-A conflict to

externalizing behavior (=.37, p .001), educational Internet use to

externalizing behavior (= -.18, p .01) partial mediation,


139

This one pathway was examined its significance using the Sobel test and

bootstrapping. The results were presented in Table 15b.

Table 15b. Significance of indirect effects of links between the type of adolescent Internet use
and externalizing behaviors through mother-adolescent relationships - Bootstrapping.
Unstandardized Bootstrapping 95% Confidence
Indirect Effect Interval
Mediational (Standardized/ SE) Z Percentile Bias-Corrected
Pathways Low /Upper Low /Upper
Unstandardized Direct Effect (Standardized /SE)
EDUMCFEX .003 (.005/ .019) 0.25 -.033/ .043 -.036/ .041
EDUMACF: .010 (.011/ .044) EDUEX: -.043 (-.069/ .047)
MACFEX: .316 (.431/ .045)
Note: Unstandardized effects are presented in (). Direct effects are presented in lower row of
the model (standardized direct effect/ SE). EDU = Educational Internet use, SOC = Social
Internet use, MA CF = mother-adolescent conflict, EX = Externalizing problematic behaviors.
A z value 1.96 or larger indicates a significant indirect effect (p . 05) (Sobel, 1982)

According to the results of the Sobel test and bootstrapping, the indirect

pathway from educational use to externalizing behaviors through mother-adolescent

conflict was not significant.

H3-2.3. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use to

their externalizing behavior problems through parent-adolescent relationships

(father-adolescent relationships).

None of the pathways linking the types of adolescents Internet use and

externalizing problem behaviors through father-adolescent closeness and father-

adolescent conflict were significant for boys and girls (see Figure 6c).
140

Figure 6c. Link between Internet use, father-adolescent relationship and externalizing
behaviors by youth gender

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Boys (Regular)/ Girls (Italic). * p< .05, ** p< .01,
*** p< .001

H3-2.3. Boys and girls are different in the pathways from adolescents Internet use to

their externalizing behavior problems through parent-adolescent relationships

(mother-adolescent relationships).

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and externalizing

problem behaviors through mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent

conflict were significant for boys and girls (see Figure 6d).
141

Figure 6d. Gender differences on the indirect relationship among Internet use, mother-
adolescent relationship and externalizing behaviors

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Boys (Regular)/ Girls (Italic). * p< .05, ** p< .01,
*** p< .001

Hypothesis 4. The link between pathways from adolescents Internet use to their

academic achievement through parent-adolescent relationships varies by parental

cultural academic expectations (mean split).

H4-1-1. The link between pathways adolescents Internet use and academic

achievement through father-adolescent closeness and father-adolescent conflict varies

by father cultural academic expectations.

Pathways were similar for adolescents whose fathers indicated high and low

parental academic expectation. None of the pathways linking type of adolescents

Internet use and academic achievement through father-adolescent closeness and


142

father-adolescent conflict differed by father cultural academic expectations (see

Figure 7a).

Figure 7a. Link between adolescent Internet use, father-adolescent relationships, and
academic achievement by fathers academic expectations

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Low PE (Regular)/ High PE (Italic). * p< .05, **
p< .01, *** p< .001

H4-1-2. The link between adolescents Internet use to academic achievement through

mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent conflict varies by mothers

cultural academic expectations

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and academic

achievement through mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent conflict

differed by mothers cultural academic expectations (see Figure 7b).


143

Figure 7b. Link between adolescent Internet use, mother-adolescent relationships, and
academic achievement by mothers academic expectations

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Low PE (Regular)/ High PE (Italic). * p< .05, **
p< .01, *** p< .001

H4-2-1. The link between pathways from adolescents Internet use to internalizing

problem behaviors through father-adolescent closeness and father-adolescent conflict

varies by fathers academic expectations

The analysis of the moderating effects of parental education for the indirect

pathways from the Internet use on adolescents internalizing problematic behaviors

through father-adolescent relationships indicated good model fit (X (109, N = 609) =

375.0, p .001; GFI= .92, AGFI= .87, RMSEA= .06).

Pathways were similar for youth whose fathers indicated high and low parental

academic expectation:
144

(a) Social Internet use and father-adolescent closeness (low PE group: = -.33, p

.001, high PE group: = -.22, p .05) and father adolescent closeness and

internalizing problem behaviors (low PE group: = -.19, p .01, high PE

group: = -.32, p .001) full mediation.

Figure 8a. Different effects of parental expectation (PE) among Internet use, father-adolescent
relationships, and internalizing behaviors

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Low PE (Regular)/ High PE (Italic). * p< .05, **
p< .01, *** p< .001

H4--2. The link between pathways from adolescents Internet use and internalizing

problem behaviors through mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent

conflict varies by mothers academic expectations.


145

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and internalizing

problem behaviors through mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent

conflict differed by mothers academic expectations (see Figure 8b).

Figure 8b. Link between adolescent Internet use, mother-adolescent relationships, and
internalizing behaviors by mothers parental expectations

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Low PE (Regular)/ High PE (Italic). * p< .05, **
p< .01, *** p< .001

H4-3-1. The pathways linking types of adolescents Internet use and externalizing

problem behaviors through father-adolescent closeness and father-adolescent conflict

varies by fathers academic expectations.

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and externalizing

problem behaviors through father-adolescent closeness and father-adolescent conflict

differed by fathers academic expectations (see Figure 9a).


146

Figure 9a. Link between adolescent Internet use, father-adolescent relationships, and
externalizing behaviors by fathers academic expectations

Note: Only significant values are presented. Low PE (Regular)/ High PE (Italic). * p< .05, **
p< .01, *** p< .001

H4-3-2. The pathways linking types of adolescent Internet use and externalizing

problem behaviors through mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent

conflict varies by mothers academic expectations.

None of the pathways linking type of adolescents Internet use and externalizing

problem behaviors through mother-adolescent closeness and mother-adolescent

conflict differed by mothers academic expectations (see Figure 9b).

Parental expectations do not show any moderating effects on the pathways

between the Internet use and adolescents outcomes. Considering the low reliability of

the measurement of parental expectation ( .57 - .53), no significant results are

understandable. It may be need to replicate this study using a more reliable or new

measurement.
147

Figure 9b. Different effects of parental expectation (PE) among Internet use, mother-
adolescent relationships, and externalizing behaviors

Note: Only significant paths are presented. Significant differences were presented as bold (CR
> 1.96). Low PE (Regular)/ High PE (Italic). * p< .05, ** p< .01, *** p< .001

Discussion

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among adolescent

Internet use, parent-adolescent relationships, and academic/behavioral adjustment in

South Korean families. Four main research questions were tested in this study. First,

the nature of Korean adolescents Internet use and the frequency and intensity of

educational, social, and recreational Internet usage were examined. Second, the direct

associations between adolescents Internet use (frequency and intensity of educational,

social, and recreational use of the Internet) and adolescent academic and behavioral

outcomes were examined. Third, the indirect effects of adolescents Internet use on

academic and behavioral outcomes through parent-adolescent relationships were


148

tested. Fourth, the moderating effects of parental cultural expectations in the

association between adolescent Internet use and academic and behavioral outcomes

through parent-adolescent relationships was finally examined. The patterns of these

relationships in four questions were all examined for gender variations.

Findings from the Nature of Internet Use

Girls and boys accessed the Internet differently. Adolescent girls used the

Internet at school and library more often than boys. A significantly higher number of

adolescent girls owned their own PCs than boys did. At school, adolescent girls used

the Internet during classes, extra-curricular activities, and lunch breaks more often

than boys. However, boys used the Internet at PC Bangs (Internet cafs), which is

consistent with the findings from previous research (Korean Statistical Information

Service. 2004, May; Lee, 2005, October).

The results of this study also indicate that boys and girls used the Internet for

different purposes. Specifically, adolescent girls used the Internet for educational

purposes more often and longer than boys, while adolescent boys used the Internet for

recreational purposes more often and longer than girls. More specifically, an analysis

of educational Internet use results indicated that girls more frequently and intensely

used the Internet for online classes and cyber learning than boys did. This is consistent

with findings from previous studies that found females were more likely than males to
149

use the Internet for academic purposes (Jackson, Zhao, Kolenic III, Fitzgerald, Harold,

& von Eye, 2008).

Second, the results of social Internet use indicated that boys used the Internet

more frequently and for longer hours than girls for chatting. Girls used the Internet

more often than boys for blogging. These findings are not similar to findings from

other studies that found girls were more likely to use the Internet for chatting,

blogging, and e-mails than were boys (Korean Statistical Information Service. 2004,

May, 2008; Lee, 2005, October; Tsai & Tsai, 2010).

Interestingly, boys in this study used the Internet for chatting more frequently

and intensely than girls. Differences in digital skills between individuals may be one

of the potential reasons for this finding. It is unknown, but a lack of some specific

digital skills may result in more use of certain Internet functions, such as chatting,

than other functions, such as blogging, Internet surfing, shopping, and so on. Another

reason may be because of the place of the Internet use. Students appear to use the

computer and the Internet at home far more often than they do at school (van Braak &

Kavadias, 2005; Livingstone, 2002). Boys possess fewer home computers than girls

do. An absence of home computers may force them to go to PC Bangs. Under these

circumstances, those who dont have home computers may be more likely to do chat

than those who have home computers.


150

Finally, the results of recreational Internet use indicated that boys more

frequently and intensely used the Internet than girls for gaming. This is consistent with

previous literature and the results of a recent national survey, conducted by the

National Internet Development Agency of Korea (2007). However, in contrast to

previous literature, girls used the Internet more for educational purposes than did the

boys in this study.

Why was there a difference between the results of previous literature and this

study? Perhaps, the results of the current study differed from that of previous research

because girls used the Internet more at school than at any other place, such as PC

Bangs. The frequent use of school computers and public computers may increase

educational Internet use. Boys in this study used the Internet significantly more often

than girls at PC Bangs, which possibly explains their greater engagement in

recreational use. School and library computers are more likely to be set up for

educational related purposes only, and recreational access, such as access to gaming

sites, may be blocked. As a result, those who use school computers frequently are

more likely to access the Internet to search for academic information.

Another plausible explanation is that adolescent girls did not want to go to PC

Bangs because they were more intently interested in using the Internet for educational

purpose. Likewise, it is also likely that boys intentionally went to PC Bangs to game,
151

and they were less interested in the Internet for educational use. Since most parents do

not like their children to do games, the children may prefer to go to the PC Bangs to

play games in secret. Girls tend to use the Internet at home for nongaming activities,

but they rarely use the PC Bangs, which is consistent with previous studies (Huh,

2008; Stewart & Choi, 2003).

The PC Bang culture can be interpreted as an unique Korean culture that differs

from those in North America, which is primarily based on home entertainment

systems. The Korean entertainment industry thrives outside of the home, and the PC

Bang is one of the various entertainment Bangs (Stewart & Choi, 2003). Since the

Bang culture has become an integral part of the socializing environment for Koreans,

this may have unique influences on the nature of Internet use among Korean

adolescents.

Although it is not accounted for in this study, private tutoring for schoolwork

takes up a significant amount of time in the lives of Korean adolescents. Studies of

Korean adolescents have indicated that many of the Korean teen students are involved

in out-of-school education, such as private tutoring and extra-curricular activities (e.g.,

music, karate, etc.). It was reported that 72.6% of Korean students used private

tutoring in 2003 (Choi et al., 2003). In regards to the parents expenditures on private

tutoring, it was reported that Korean families spent around 13.6 trillion Korean won
152

(approximately 12 billion U.S. dollars) on all forms of private tutoring in 2003 (Choi

et al., 2003). Previous studies indicated that students from high-SES families tend to

participate more in private tutoring than those of low-SES families (Choi et al., 2003).

Considering the nature of this sample, it is anticipated that a significant number of

participants would be involved in any kinds of out-of-school educational activities.

Hence, adolescents may have less time to be involved in the use of PC Bangs etc.

The results from this study differ from other studies conducted in different

countries. Extant research indicates that boys use the Internet more frequently, for

longer periods of time, and for a wider variety of uses than do girls; these findings

were present among samples of American children (Gross, 2004; Haythronthwaite &

Wellman, 2002; Morahan-Martin, 1998; Subrahmanyam, Greenfield, Kraut, & Gross,

2001), European children (Durndell & Haag, 2002; Madell & Muncer, 2004;

Valkenburg & Soeters, 2001), and Asian children (Ho, & Lee, 2001; Nachmias,

Mioduster, & Shelma, 2000). Therefore, these findings of this study may reflect a new

trend of Internet use in industrialized nations.

Recent research reported that 74% of American adults use the Internet,

regardless of gender (Pew Research Center Publications, 2010, May). Multiple

surveys from U.S. and U.K. samples have also found no gender differences in Internet

use, and others have actually found that female users out number male users in the
153

U.S. For example, eMarketer estimated that there were an estimated 97.2 million

female Internet users, ages 3 and older, in 2007, accounting for 51.7% of the total

online population. In 2011, 109.7 million U.S. females will go online, amounting to

51.9% of the total online population (cited in Boing Boing, 2007). A recent study in

the U.K. found that there have been few gender differences in the online experience,

with the notable exception of more online pornographic risk for boys than for girls

(Livingstone & Helsper, 2010). These findings contribute to recent reports of a

decreased gender gap in Internet use (Break News, 2010, Aug. 11). Based on recent

findings, the increase of female Internet use may be an upward trend.

In conclusion, considering the different nature of the place of Internet access in

this study, the evidence of some significant gender differences, in terms of functional

Internet use in this study, seem to correctly reflect the nature of Korean adolescents

Internet use and indicate that Korean adolescent boys and girls access the Internet

differently. In terms of intensity and frequency of Internet use, there are some

significant gender differences among Korean adolescents. Similar to previous studies,

Korean adolescent boys are more likely to use the Internet for gaming than girls, and

girls are more likely use the Internet for educational purpose than boys. However, the

results did not support the popular findings of past research in social Internet use

(Papastergiou & Solomonidou, 2005; Tsai, & Tsai, 2010). Also, in general, the gender
154

gap in Internet use seems to have disappeared. The generation gap in Internet use also

seems to have disappeared. Although adolescents spend less time online than adults,

they are more involved in Internet activities than adult. Therefore, it is important to

know the exact nature of the adolescents Internet use. And more exploration about

gender differences seems to be necessary to find some evidence of a change in the

next generation regarding Internet use.

Findings from the Direct Models

My second hypothesis was about the direct association between the Internet use

and academic achievement, as behavioral adjustment. It was hypothesized that there

were some direct effects of Internet use on academic achievement, internalizing and

externalizing problematic behaviors. Some gender differences were expected;

however, no gender differences in the direct pathways were found. Although

adolescent boys and girls access and use the Internet differently in the current study,

the effects of Internet use do not differ among boys and girls on academic

achievement and problematic behaviors.

As expected, adolescents educational use of the Internet was positively

associated with adolescent academic achievement and negatively associated with

adolescent externalizing problematic behaviors, while social use of the Internet was

negatively associated with adolescent academic achievement and positively associated


155

with adolescent externalizing problematic behaviors. Although the effects of

recreational Internet use were in the expected direction, they did not reach statistical

significance. There was also no significant effect of adolescents Internet use on

internalizing behaviors.

These results are consistent with the results of previous studies. Current findings

also expand upon those of Attewell and colleagues (1999, 2001, & 2003), who

reported positive outcomes in association with adolescences computer technology.

Other studies about educational computer use and/or educational software programs

have similarly reported positive outcomes in academic domains, such as math

(Clements, 2002; Hess, & McGarvey, 1987; Cuffaro, 1984), and language and literacy

(Cuffaro, 1984; Mioduser, Tur-Kaspa, & Leitner, 2000; Hess, & McGarvey, 1987).

This culmination of current research indicates that the Internet is an effective tool to

enhance students learning. Unfortunately, the adolescents increased use of

technology has also been accompanied by an increase in attention difficulties

(Anderson & Maguire, 1978; Chan & Rabinowitz, 2006; Levine & Waite, 2000;

Schmidt & Vanderwater, 2008).

Similar findings regarding the negative effects on behavioral adjustment may be

found from Choi (2007) and other professionals, who suggest that the Internet can

have direct negative effects (Sirgy, Lee, & Bae, 2006), such as increased
156

psychological problems, including social isolation, depression, loneliness, difficulties

with time management (Brenner, 1997; Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler,

Mukhopadhyay, & Scherlis, 1998; Young, & Rodgers, 1998), daily routines, family

relationships, school performance, and a wide range of behavioral problems (Block,

2008; Choi, 2007), as a result of excessive Internet use (Rickert, 2001).

Findings indicate that online communication often detracts from the time that

adolescents could have, otherwise, spent outside engaging in social activities (Kraut et

al., 1998; Nie, Hillygus, & Erbring, 2002, Sanders et al., 2000). In the current study,

adolescents social and recreational use of the Internet hindered time that could be

used for their studies and/or school work. The findings are supported under the social

displacement paradigm. Jackson et al. (2006) hypothesized that reading achievement

could be improved while navigating the Internet, because students encounter a

significant amount of text during their use. Based on the current study, the

improvement of academic achievement may be a specific result of educational use of

the Internet, while non-educational Internet use consequently hinders academic

achievement. However, these results may be influenced by some advantages of the

high socioeconomic status of the participants. Although the family income variable

was statistically controlled in this study, it is likely that families with the high-income
157

status have easier access to technology, to quality educational resources, to parental

support and to regulations.

Findings from the Indirect Models

Although the significant impact of parent-adolescent relationships on adolescent

development and adjustment has been well documented, the unique influence of

father- and mother-adolescent relationships on adolescent adjustment needs to be

better understood. There are many findings that support the importance and

uniqueness of father-adolescent relationships on adolescent development and

adjustment. For example, Youniss (1987) found that father-adolescent relationships

contribute differently to psychological development; adolescents perceived their

relationships with fathers and mothers differently. Although adolescence represents a

time of independence and autonomy, teens seems to place a great deal of value on

how their parents perceive them. They want their parents to acknowledge that they are

mature enough to be recognized, as an independent individual (Youniss & Smollar,

1985).

Moreover, there is evidence that a unique influence of fathers on adolescents

adjustment exists. For example, within a nationally representative sample of

adolescents, Videon (2005) found that adolescents have more volatile relationships

with their fathers than with their mothers. This difference in the nature of the parent-
158

child relationship existed, despite indications that both relationships were considered

equally crucial for the adolescents well-being. In addition, emotionally close father-

adolescent relationships decreased the likelihood of adolescents alcohol consumption

(Habib, Santoro, Kremer, Toumbourou, Leslie, & Williams, 2010).

It has not been common practice to examine father-adolescent relationships and

mother-adolescent relationships separately (Forehand, Wierson, Thomas, Fauber,

Armistead, Kempton, & Long, 1991; Galamos, Sears, Almeida, & Kolaric, 1995). In

order to provide a more accurate picture, this study assessed mother- and father-

relationships separately, assessing the relational domains of conflict and closeness. In

addition, the data was obtained from multiple sources, including the adolescents,

fathers, and mothers.

Just as previous research has indicated that there are some associations between

familial relationships and outcomes of Internet use (Cho, Kim, Kim, Lee, & Kim,

2008; Lei & Wu, 2007; Liau, Khoo, & Ang, 2005), the findings from the current study

indicates that adolescent educational Internet use is positively associated with

academic achievement through parent-adolescent relationships, while social Internet

use is negatively associated with academic achievement. However, the current study

did not find any effects from recreational Internet use (Figure 4a, 4b). More

specifically, the adolescents educational Internet use was positively associated with
159

academic achievement through father-adolescent conflict and mother-adolescent

closeness. Adolescents social Internet use was negatively associated with academic

achievement through father-adolescent conflict and mother-adolescent closeness. The

positive effects of educational Internet use seem to be actively affecting their

academic achievement, especially when adolescents have close relationships with

their mothers, and seem to be passively affecting, when they have conflicts with their

fathers. In addition, negative effects of social Internet use have same influence on

academic achievement under conflicts with fathers and close relationships with

mothers.

While adolescents educational Internet use was indirectly and negatively

associated with internalized problematic behaviors through the father-adolescent

conflict, the social Internet use was positively and indirectly associated with

internalized problematic behaviors through the father-adolescent closeness and

conflict. Educational and social Internet use seems to have active effects on

internalized problems behaviors, when they have strong relationships with fathers.

While father-adolescent relationships fully mediated the association between

educational/social Internet use and internalized problematic behaviors, mother-

adolescent relationships didnt show any significant medicating effects on the


160

association between Internet use and internalized problematic behaviors. And this is

true for the association between Internet use and externalized problematic behaviors.

In addition, the adolescents educational Internet use was negatively associated

with externalized problematic behaviors through the father-adolescent closeness and

conflict. Social Internet use was positively associated with externalized problematic

behaviors through both the father-adolescent closeness and conflict. Mother-

adolescent relationships did not mediate the association between Internet use and

externalized problematic behaviors.

After all, positive effects of educational Internet use and negative effects of

social Internet use on academic achievement are true under the umbrella of parent-

adolescent relationships. Parent-child relationships are vital to the childs adjustment;

and as demonstrated in the current study, parent-adolescent relationships play a

significant role in the association between adolescent Internet use and academic

behavioral outcomes.

Specifically, the positive effects of educational Internet use on academic

achievement were actually strengthened by parent-adolescent closeness, and

weakened by parent-adolescent conflict. Adolescent educational Internet use might

lead to parent-adolescent closeness; whereas adolescence social use of the Internet led
161

to parent-adolescent conflict; and both the parent-adolescent conflict and closeness

each uniquely contributed to academic achievement and problematic behaviors.

In conclusion, relationships with fathers and mothers seem to be related to

specific aspects of adolescent adjustment and academic achievement. These findings

support previous empirical studies and provide some evidence of significant

association between the Internet use and parent-adolescent relationship with Internet

use (Liau, Khoo, & Ang, 2005; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004a, 2005), as well as the

association between parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents outcomes (Hair,

Moore, Garrett, Ling, & Cleveland, 2008; Steinberg, 2008).

In this study, some significant mediating effects of the parent-adolescent

relationships on the association between adolescent Internet use and adolescent

adjustment were found. There is some indication of a bi-directional effect with the

adolescents behaviors impacting parent-adolescent relationships. To date, there are

few studies that have examined the bi-directional nature of these models. For future

research, bi-directional influence should be explored.

Few studies have addressed the associations between Internet use and parent-

adolescent relationships. The present study, therefore, addresses the connection

between adolescent Internet use and parent-adolescent relationships and finds

significant associations between them. Further investigations between these two


162

variables should be continued. Specifically, the possible bi-directional nature of the

association between the parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent Internet use

should also be explored. Several previous studies have reported finding a bi-

directional association between parent-adolescent relationships and the Internet use

(Ko, Yen, Yen, Lin, & Yang, 2007; Liu & Kuo, 2007; Yen et al., 2007). For instance,

the quality of the parent-adolescent relationships has been found to be negatively

associated with level of Internet addiction among students (Lio & Kuo, 2007). Recent

research, involving Dutch students compulsive Internet use, revealed a bi-directional

effect between the frequency and quality of the adolescents Internet use and parent-

adolescent communication (van den Eijnden, Spijkerman, Vermulst, van Rooij, &

Engels, 2010). In the current study, only the effects of Internet use on parent-

adolescent relationships were explored, so the opposite effects may be explored for

future study.

Adolescents gender did not moderate the mediating pathways for either the

mother or father models. Future studies that assess gender effects on Internet use may

include other variables like cell phone usage or other diverse computer technologies

that more closely mirror the modern adolescent world. In other words, gender gaps in

Internet use may still exist, and they should continue to be addressed and rectified.
163

Finally, moderating effects of parental expectations were examined. It was

hypothesized that strong educational expectations of parents might strengthen parent-

adolescent closeness, when adolescents used the Internet more for educational

purposes. It was expected that when non-educational Internet use was increased, the

level of parent-adolescent may conflict was increased as well. However, significant

effects were not found. The strong effects of parental expectations on their childrens

achievement and adjustment have been consistently well documented (Sandefur,

Meier, & Campbell, 2006; Schneider & Lee, 1990; Schwarz, et al., 2005).

In fact, past research has found parental expectations to be the strongest

influence than any other parenting factor (Fan, 2001; Fan & Chen, 2001; Singh,

Bickley, Trivette, Keith, Keith, & Anderson, 1995). The reason that parental

expectations did not reach significant levels in the current study could be related to

some effects of the adolescents own educational expectations. Korean teen students,

in this study, might have their own educational aspirations, regardless of the level of

their parental expectations. Goldenberg and colleagues (2001) also found that parental

expectations have no significant effects on childrens achievement in a longitudinal

study of kindergarten through sixth-grade children.

It has been well known that Koreans hold a very strong educational aspiration

(Chung, 1991a). Korean high school students are allocating the majority of their time
164

to study. Adolescents, who participated in current study, are no exception to this

phenomenon. It could be assumed that high parental expectations might have been

embedded in the adolescents personal values, as the parental expectations have likely

been present throughout their school years. Therefore, personal and parental

expectations may not be an entirely separate construct. As a result, parental

expectations do not seem to have a strong or unique contribution to familial

relationships or academic performance in this study. Future research should consider

new variables, such as the adolescents own expectation or sibling relationships.

These findings indicate that future research studies should investigate how

Koreans cope with the influx of rapidly developing technology and its use as an

educational tool. The findings from this investigation also highlight the need for

understanding parent-adolescent relationships in a technological world. Parents and

teachers may focus more on the quantity of the adolescents educational Internet use

and not on how the Internet use shapes adolescents relationships with family

members and others, within a relational context. As found in the study, male and

female adolescents indicated both differences and similarities in the nature of Internet

use. This issue should also be further investigated in future studies on the subject.
165

Theoretical Contributions, Limitations, and Future Research

The findings from this study indicate that modern technologies have brought

about changes in the lives of adolescents, especially in terms of their family

relationships. The closeness and conflicts between parents and adolescents may

facilitate the positive effects of educational Internet use and buffer the negative effects

of non-educational Internet use on adolescent outcomes. While the findings of this

study support the human ecology theory and attachment theory, future research should

investigate how parents can utilize the Internet to provide its benefits to adolescents

within the family context.

One of the strengths of the current study is that Internet use functions were

differentiated into educational, social, and recreational functions. In addition, findings

from this study contribute to the growing body of research that indicates a decrease in

the gap between male and female Internet usage. As noted above, gender differences

on the impact of Internet usage have been mostly descriptive information.

Another contribution is the complexity of the model examined. Multiple

informants were used for the data. For example, parent-adolescent relationships

measurements include adolescents, their fathers, and their mothers reports. This

study also used a large dataset to evaluate the models. The current study has 609 sets

of families as participants.
166

This study has several limitations that are inherent to survey methodology.

Surveys are a good way to gain exploratory information about a particular

phenomenon, especially when little is known. However, the use of surveys tends to

give researchers rough, broad measures that are unable to divulge deeper

understanding.

Another limitation of the survey methodology is that surveys rely on self-

reported data and, therefore, may introduce measurement error into the data (Singleton

& Straights, 1999). In some cases, respondents may report inaccurate information

because of poor memory or misunderstanding of survey questions. In other cases,

respondents may intentionally give false responses because of a desire to be viewed

positively by an unknown investigator, or because of fear related to reporting sensitive

information. This study relied on adolescents report of Internet use, which can be

considered a sensitive topic in some families; therefore, intentional inaccurate answers

may play a role in the measurement errors. Although there were multiple informants

in this study, the inclusion of observational data in real-life settings is desirable. Also,

the inclusion of Qualitative information, based on in-depth interviews, contributes to

the picture of adolescent Internet use.

Self-reported data can be inaccurate because of respondent fatigue, and the

respondents in the current study may have found that the surveys were also relatively
167

lengthy. According to Dillman (2000), this may be problematic, as participants may

become tired, bored, or uninterested mid-way through the survey. Therefore, succinct

surveys are preferred. Although I do not have information about the average length of

time required for each survey, a practice run through the survey suggested that it

would take approximately twenty five to thirty minutes to complete. It is possible that

the respondents burden may have affected the accuracy of the data.

As adolescents technology use has increased, research has been conducted to

explore its effect on adolescent school achievement. The results in this area have been

highly variable, since previous studies didnt differentiate the function of Internet use.

The nature of Internet use is multi-functional. For example, adolescents use the

Internet to get academic information and help, to communicate with friends and

families, and to enjoy movies and gaming. Inconsistency of previous findings seems

to be due to a lack of clear division of Internet functions, regardless of its multifaceted

nature.

The sample for this study may not adequately represent Korean families. Most

families in this study were from high-income, well educated, and lived in urban

settings. High SES families have access to better resources, social support, and

opportunities (Evans, 2004; Mackner, Black & Starr, 2004). Teen children in this

study may have benefited from having gone to better school districts and family
168

support than children from lower socioeconomic families. Therefore, the findings

from this study may not fully apply to lower income families, where parents may be

less educated and from more traditional families. Parental use of the Internet was not

included in the current study, and the parents familiarity with the use of the Internet is

more likely to be more involved in their teenage childrens Internet use.

Since the nature of this study is exploratory, it is hard to actually compare

findings of this study with results of a few previous studies. This is especially true for

association with relationships with parents. Considering the uniqueness of the Korean

culture, results of this study may differ according to the cultural context. Continued

investigation is needed to contextualize the research findings, since the use of Internet

must be continuously evolving. Future research should be directed toward continuing

to investigate the relationship among adolescents Internet use, parent-adolescent

relationships, and academic and behavioral outcomes. Since technology is such an

integral part of most adolescents lives, it is important to understand the impact on

their academic achievement and behavioral adjustment.

The current study used a survey-based, correlational design, to assess the

relationship between adolescent Internet use, parent-adolescent relationships, and

behavioral adjustment and academic performance. Similar correlational research has

dominated the literature to date on adolescent Internet use (Livingstone, 2002). Such
169

studies should now be complemented by more research using experimental and

longitudinal designs as well as cross cultural studies, to allow conclusions about

causality and long-term effects, including the impact that Internet use by teenagers

might have on the quality and intimacy of their present and future lives across

different populations.

Considering that the majority of populations use the Internet almost every day,

regardless of gender, age, and SES status, this researcher plan to include the following

topics in future research areas. First, longitudinal investigation into the association

between experience and exposure to computer technologies during early childhood

through parental usage and in later youth development and adjustment seem to be

needed.

This study also employed a cross-sectional design, which does not address

causality. This study investigated the effects of Internet use and the parent-adolescent

relationships on adolescents outcomes. Conversely, parent-adolescent relationships

may impact an adolescents Internet use, and adolescents outcomes can also influence

parent-adolescent relationships and Internet use. Parent-child relationships may also

change overtime, and in order to understand potential reciprocal relationships among

these variables, longitudinal studies are necessary.


170

References

Aarsand, P. A. (2007). Computer and video games in family life: The digital divide as

a resource in intergenerational interactions. Childhood, 14, 235-256.

Achenbach, T.M. (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist/ 4-18 and 1991

profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.

Achenbach, T.M. (1991b). Manual for the youth self-report. Burlington, VT:

University of Vermont.

Adams, G. R., Gullotta, T., & Clancy, M. A. (1985). Homeless adolescents:

Descriptive study of similarities and differences between runaways and

thruways. Adolescences, 20, 715-724.

Adams, R. E., & Laursen, B. (2007). The correlates of conflict: Disagreement is not

necessarily detrimental. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 445-458.

Aderson, D. R., Huston, A. C., Schmitt, K. L., Linebarger, D. L., Wright, J. C., &

Larson, R. (2001). Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior:

The recontact study. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child

Development, 66, 1-154.

Adachi-Mejia, A. M., Longacre, M. R., Gibson, J. J., Beach, M. L., Titus-Ernstoff, L.

T., & Dalton, M. A. (2007). Children with a TV in their bedroom at higher risk

for being overweight. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 644-651.


171

Ahonen, T., & O' Reilly, J. (2007). Digital Korea: Convergence of Broadband

Internet, 3G Cell Phones, Multiplayer Gaming, Digital TV, Virtual Reality,

Electronic Cash, Telematics, Robotics, E-Government and the Intelligent Home.

London, UK: Futuretext.

Ahn, D. H. (2007). Korean policy on treatment and rehabilitation for adolescents

Internet addiction. International Symposium on the Counseling and Treatment

of Youth Internet Addiction. Secoul, Korea, National Youth Commission (p.49).

Allison, P. (2002). Missing data. New York: Sage.

Amato, P. R., & Gilbreth, J. G. (1999). Nonresident fathers and childrens well-being:

A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 557-573.

Amato, P. R., & Rivera, F. (1999). Parental involvement and childrens behavior.

Journal of Marriage and Family, 61, 375-384.

AMD Global Consumer Advisory Board. (2003). Charting and bridging digital

divides: Comparing socio-economic, gender, life stage, and rural-urban Internet

access and use in eight countries. Retrieved from www.amdgcab.org

Anderson, C. & Maguire, T.O. (1978). The effect of TV viewing on the educational

performance of elementary school children. Alberta Journal of Educational

Research, 24, 156-163.


172

Angrist, J., & Lavy, V. (2002). New evidence on classroom computers and pupil

learning. The Economic Journal, 112, 735-765.

Aseltine, R. H., Gore, S., & Colten, M. E. (1998). The co-occurrence of depression

and substance use in late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 10,

549-570.

Astone, N. N., & McLanahan, S. S. (1991). Family structure, parental practices and

high school completion. American Sociological Review, 56, 309-320.

Attewell, P. (2001). The First and Second Digital Divides. Sociology of Education 74,

252-259.

Attewell, P., & Battle, J. (1999). Home computers and school performance. The

information Society, 15, 1-10.

Attewell, P., Suazo-Garcia, B., & Battle, J. (2003). Computers and young children:

Social benefit or social problem? Social Forces, 82, 277-296.

Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models.

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.

doi:10.1007/BF02723327

Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revising a neglected construct.

Child Development, 67, 3296-3319.


173

Barber, B. K., (1994). Cultural, family, and personal contexts of parent-adolescent

conflict. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 375-386.

Barber, J. G., & Delfabbro, P. (2000). Predictors of adolescent adjustment: Parent-

peer relationships and parent-child conflict. Child and Adolescent Social Work,

17, 275-288.

Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in

social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical

considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Baundura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant &

D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research. Hillsdale,

NJ: Erlbaum.

Bradford, K., Vaughn, L. B., & Barber, B. K. (2008). When there is conflict:

Interparental conflict, parent-child conflict, and youth problem behaviors.

Journal of Family Issues, 29, 780-805.

Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. In P.

Cowen, & E. Hetherington (Eds.), Family transitions (pp. 111-163). Hillsdale:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


174

Baym, N. K., Zhang, Y. B., & Lin, M. (2004). Social interactions across media:

Interpersonal communication on the internet, telephone and face-to-face. New

Media & Society, 6, 299-318.

Bayraktar, F., & Gun, Z. (2007). Incidence and correlates of Internet usage among

adolescents in North Cyprus. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 191-197.

BBC NEWS. (2005, September 13). South Korea's education success. Retrieved from

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/4240668.stm

Bell, S. M., & Ainsworth, M. D. (1972). Infant crying and maternal responsiveness.

Child Development, 43, 1171-1190.

Beltran, D. O., Das, K. K., & Fairlie, R. W. (2006). Do home computers improve

educational outcomes? Evidence from matched current population surveys and

the national longitudinal survey of youth 1997. National Poverty Center

Working Paper Series #06-1. Retrieved from

http://www.npc.umich.edu/publications/workingpaper06/paper01/compeduc14i

zawptitle.pdf

Benner, A. D., & Mistry, R. S. (2007). Congruence of mother and teacher educational

expectations and low-income youths academic competence. Journal of

Educational Psychology, 99, 140-153.


175

Bessire, K., Kiesler, S., Kraut, R., & Boneva, B. S. (2008). Effects of Internet use

and social resources on changes in depression. Information, Communication &

Society, 11. 47-70.

Bigner, J. J. (2009). Parent-child relations: An introduction to parenting (8th Ed.).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Blanton, W. E., Moorman, G. B., Hayes, B. A., & Warner, M. L. (1997). Effects of

participation in the fifth dimension on far transfer. Journal of Educational

Computing Research, 16, 371-396.

Block, J. J. (2008). Issues for DSM-V: Internet Addiction. American Journal of

Psychiatry, 165, 306-307.

Blom, G. (1958). Statistical Estimates and Transformed Beta Variables. New York:

John Wiley.

Boersma, F.J., & Chapman, J.W. (1982). Teachers and mothers academic

achievement expectations for learning disabled children. Journal of School

Psychology, 2, 216-225.

Boingboing. (2007). Female Internet users outnumber males. Retrieved from

http://boingboing.net/2007/04/15/female-internet-user.html
176

Bollen, K.A., & Stine, R.A. (1992). Bootstrapping goodness-of-fit measures in

structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 205-229.

doi:10.1177/0049124192021002004

Bong, M. (2003). Choices, evaluations, and opportunities for success: Academic

motivation of Korean adolescents. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.),

Adolescence and education: Vol. 3. International perspectives. Greenwich, CT:

Information Age.

Bong, M. (2004). Academic motivation in self-efficacy, task value, achievement goal

orientations, and attributional beliefs. Journal of Educational Research, 97,

287-297.

Bong, M. (2008). Effects of parent-child relationships and classroom goal structures

on motivation, help-seeking avoidance, and cheating. The Journal of

Experimental Education, 76, 191-217.

Borzekowski, D. L. G.., & Robinson, T. N. (2005). The remote, the mouse, and the

no.2 pencil-The household media environment and academic achievement

among third grade students. Achieves of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159,

607-613.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment. New York: Basic Books.


177

Bradford, K., Vaughn, L. B., & Barber, B. K. (2008). When there is conflict:

Interparental conflict, parent-child conflict, and youth problem behaviors.

Journal of Family Issues, 29, 780-805.

BreakNews. (2010, Aug. 11). Korean Internet Users are now 33,570,000. Retrieved

from http://www.breaknews.com/sub_read.html?uid=23180&section=section8

Brenner, V. (1997). Parameters of Internet use, abuse and addiction: The first 90 days

of the Internet usage survey. Psychological Reports, 80, 879-884.

Brewster, A. B., & Bowen, G. L. (2004). Teacher support and the school engagement

of Latino middle and high school students at risk of school failure. Child and

Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21, 47-67.

Brody, G.H., Murry, V.M., Kim, S., & Brown, A.C. (2002). Longitudinal pathways to

competence and psychological adjustment among African American children

living in rural single-parent household. Child Development, 73, 1505-1516.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1990). Rebuilding the nest: A new commitment to the American

Family. Retrieved from http://www.montana.edu/www4h/process.html

Brown, J.D. (1997). Skewness and kurrttosiis. JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG

Newsletter, 1, 20-23.
178

Bryant, J. A., Sanders-Jackson, A., & Smallwood, A. K. (2006). IMing, text

messaging, and adolescent social networks. Journal of Computer-Mediated

Communication, 11, article 10. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue2/bryant.html

Buchanan, C., Eccles, J., & Becker, J. (1992). Are adolescents the victims of raging

hormones: Evidence for activational effects on moods and behavior at

adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 62-107.

Buchanan, C. M., Maccoby, E. E., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Caught between

parents: Adolescents experience in divorced home. Child Development, 62,

1008-1029.

Buchanan, C. M., Maccoby, E. E., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1996). Adolescents after

divorce. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Buckingham, D., Scanlon, M., & Sefton-Green, J. (2001). Selling the digital dream:

Marketing educational technology to teachers and parents. In A. Loveless, & V.

Ellis (Eds.), Subject to change: Literacy and digital technology (pp. 20-40).

London: Routledge.

Buist, K. L., Dekovic, M., Meeus, W., & Van Aken, M. A. (2004). The reciprocal

relationship between early adolescent attachment and internalizing and

externalizing problem behavior. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 251-266.


179

Burt, A. S., McGue, M., Krueger, R. F., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). How are parent-

child conflict and childhood externalizing symptoms related over time? Result

from a genetically informative cross-lagged study. Development and

Psychopathology, 17, 145-165.

Byrne, B.M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts,

applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cairncross, F. (1997). The death of distance: How the communications revolution will

change our lives. London: Orion.

Campbell, E. Q. (1969). Adolescent socialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of

Socialization (pp. 821-859). Chicago: Rand McNally.

Campbell, S. B. (1994). Hard-to-manage preschool boys: Externalizing behavior,

social competence, and family context at two-year follow-up. Journal of

Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 147-166.

Campbell, S. B., March, C. L., Pierce, E., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1991).

Hard-to-manage preschool boys: Family context and stability of externalizing

behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 19, 301-318.

Campuzano, L., Dynarski, M., Agodini, R., Rall, K., & Pendleton, A. (2009).

Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products: Findings from the

two student cohort. U.S. Department of Education: National Center for


180

Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from

http://www.mathematica-

mpr.com/publications/pdfs/education/effectreadmath09.pdf

Caplan, S. E. (2002). Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being:

Development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument.

Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 553-575.

Caplan, S. E. (2003). Preference for online social interaction: A theory of problematic

Internet use and psychosocial well-being. Communication Research, 30, 625-

648.

Caplan, S. E. (2005). A social skill account of problematic Internet use. Journal of

communication, 55, 721-736.

Castells, M. (2001). The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business, and

society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Catterall, J. S. (1998). Risk and resilience in student transitions to high school.

American Journal of Education, 106, 302-333.

Cellular News. (2008). Asia-Pacific Leads High-speed Internet Connectivity, but

Wide Divide Prevails. Retrieved from http://www.cellular-

news.com/story/33361.php
181

Chan, D. K-S., & Cheng, G. H-L. (2004). A comparison of offline and online

friendship qualities at different stages of relationship development. Journal of

Social and Personal Relationships, 21, 305-320.

Chan, P.A., & Rabinowitz, T. (2006). A cross-sectional analysis of video games and

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents. Annals of

General Psychiatry, 5(16). Retrieved July 28, 2008 from http://www.annals-

general-psychiatry.com/content/5/1/16

Charney, T., & Greenberg, B. (2001). Uses and gratifications of the Internet. In C. Lin

& D. Atkin (Eds.), Communication, technology and society: New media

adoption and uses (pp. 383-406). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

Cheung, G.W., & Lau, R.S. (2008). Testing mediation and suppression effects of

latent variables: Bootstrapping with structural equation models. Organizational

Research Methods, 11, 296-325. doi:10.1177/1094428107300343

Cho, S.C., Kim, J.W., Kim, B.N., Lee, J.H., & Kim, E.H. (2008). Biogenetic

temperament and character profiles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

Disorder symptoms in Korean adolescents with Problematic Internet Use.

CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 735-737.


182

Cho, S., & Yoon, Y. (2005). Family processes and psychosocial problems of the

young Korean gifted. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling,

27, 245-261.

Choi, S. G. (2004 February). The study about private education in Korea. Seoul,

Korea: Korean Educational Development Institution. Retrieved from

http://mailzine.kedi.re.kr/Material/MailZine/MaterialViw.php?PageNum=8&S_

Key=&S_Menu=&Ac_Code=D0010204&Ac_Num0=1703

Choi, Y. (2007). Advancement of IT and seriousness of youth Internet addiction.

International Symposium on the Counseling and Treatment of Youth Internet

Addiction. Seoul, Korea, National Youth Commission (p.20).

Choi, Y., He, M., & Harachi, T. W. (2008). Intergenerational cultural dissonance

(ICD), parent-child conflict and bonding, and youth problem behaviors among

Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrant families. Journal of Youth Adolescence,

37, 85-96.

Christensen, C. A. (2004). Relationship between orthographic-motor integration and

computer use for the production of creative and well-structured written text.

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 551-564.


183

Christensen, M. H., Orzack, M. H., Babington, L. M., & Patsdaughter, C. A. (2001).

Computer addiction: When monitor becomes control center. Journal of

Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 39, 40-47.

Christenson, S.L., Rounds, T., & Gorney, S. (1992). Family factors and student

achievement: An avenue to increase students success. School psychology

Quarterly, 7, 178-206.

Chuang, Y. C. (2006). Massively multiplayer online role-playing game-induced

seizures: a neglected health problem in Internet addiction. Cyberpsycholgical

Behavior, 9, 451-456.

Chung, B. (1991a). Analyses of Educational Predicament. Nanam Publication, Seoul.

Chung, B., Kim, H., Lee, S., Kwon, K., & Lee, J. (1993). Restoring Korean Education

from the Bandage of Entrance Examination Education. Nanam Publication,

Seoul.

Chung, W. S. (1991 b). The dynamics of Korean youth in family and community.

International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 3, 99-116.

Clements, D. H. (2002). Computers in early childhood mathematics. Contemporary

Issues in Early Childhood, 3, 160-181.


184

Clemente, M., Espinosa, P., & Vidal, M. A. (2008). The media and violent behavior in

young people: Effects of the media on antisocial aggressive behavior in a

Spanish sample. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 2395-2409.

Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2008). Scaling the digital divide: Home

computer technology and student achievement. Unpublished paper of Duke

University. Retrieved from

http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/events/colloquia/Vigdor_ScalingtheDigi

talDivide.pdf

CNET News. (2004, August 11). South Koreans face digital divide. Retrieved from

http://news.cnet.com/South-Koreans-face-digital-divide/2100-1025_3-

5305190.html

Cohen, J. (1987). Parents as educational models and definers. Journal of Marriage

and the Family, 49, 339-349.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.).

Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.

Coleman, J., Hoffer, T., & Kilgore, S. (1982). High school achievement: Public,

catholic, and private schools compared. New York: Basic Books.


185

Coley, R. J., Cradler, J., & Engel, P. K. (1996). Computers and classrooms: The status

of technology in U.S. schools (Policy information report). Princeton, NJ:

Educational Testing Service.

Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic

stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents.

Child Development, 65, 541-561.

Cooper, A., & Sportolari, L. (1997). Romance in cyberspace: Understanding online

attraction. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 22, 7-14.

Croswell, C., OConnor, T. G., & Brewin, C. R. (2008). The impact of parents

expectations on parenting behavior: An experimental investigation. Behavioral

and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 483-490.

Cuffaro, H. K. (1984). Microcomputers in education: Why is earlier better? Teachers

College Record, 85, 559-568.

Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model.

Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487-496.

DeBell, M., & Chapman, C. (2006). Computer and Internet use by students in 2003:

Statistical analysis report. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006065.pdf
186

Dekovic, M. (1999). Parent-adolescent conflict: Possible determinants and

consequences. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 977-1000.

Dekovic, M., Noom, M. J., & Meeus, W. (1997). Expectations regarding development

during adolescence: Parental and adolescent perceptions. Journal of Youth and

Adolescence, 26, 253-272.

Dillman, D.A. (2000). Mail and Internet surveys: The tailored design method. New

York: Wiley.

DiMaggio, P., Hargitti, E., Neuman, W. R., & Robinson, J. P. (2001). Social

implications of the Internet. Review of Sociology, 27. 307-336.

Dixon, S. V., Garber, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). The roles of respect for

parental authority and parenting practices in parent-child conflict among

African, Latino, and European American families. Journal of Family

Psychology, 22, 1-10.

Dornbusch, S. M., Rirter P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J.

(1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child

Development, 58, 1244-1257.

Dong-A Il Bo. (2005, February 9). Korean teens use of the Internet. Retrieved from

http://www.donga.com/fbin/output?f=k_s&n=200502090024&main=1
187

Dumka, L. E., Roosa, M. W., & Jackson, K. M. (1997). Risk, conflict, mothers

parenting, and childrens adjustment in low-income, Mexican immigrants, and

Mexican American families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 309-323.

Durndell, A., & Haag, Z. (2002). Computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, attitudes

towards the Internet and reported experience with the Internet, by gender, in an

east European sample. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 521-535.

Dynarski, M., Agodini, R., Heaviside, S., Novak, T., Carey, N., Campuzano, L., et al.

(2007). Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products: Findings

from the first student cohort. Report to Congress. U.S. Department of

Education: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pdf/20074005.pdf

Eighmey, J., & McCord, L. (1998). Adding value in the information age: Uses and

gratifications of sites on the World Wide Web. Journal of Business Research,

41, 187-194.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., & Reiser,

M. (1999). Parental reactions to childrens negative emotions: Longitudinal

relations to quality of childrens social functioning. Child Development, 70,

1055-1071.
188

Eisenberg, N., Sallquist, J., French, D. C., Purwono, U., Suryanti, T. A., & Pidada, S.

(2009). The relations of majority-minority group status and having an other-

religion friend to Indonesian youths' socioemotional functioning.

Developmental Psychology, 45, 248-259.

Elkins, I.J., McGue, M., & Iacono, W.G. (1997). Genetic and environmental

influences on parent-son relationships: Evidence for increasing genetic

influence during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 33, 351-363.

Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook

"friends:" Social capital and college students' use of online social network sites.

Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, article 1. Retrieved from

http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue4/ellison.html

Englund, M.M., Egeland, B., & Collins, W.A. (2008). Exceptions to High School

Dropout Predictions in a Low-Income Sample: Do Adults Make a Difference.

Journal of Social Issues, 64, 77-94.

Englund, M. M., Luckner, A. E., Whaley, G. J. L., & Egeland, B. (2004). Childrens

achievement in early elementary school: Longitudinal effects of parental

involvement, expectations, and quality of assistance. Journal of Educational

Psychology, 96, 723-730.


189

Evans, G. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist. 59,

77-92.

Fan, X. (2001). Parental involvement and students academic achievement: A growth

modeling analysis. Journal of Experimental Education, 70, 27-61.

Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students academic

achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1-22.

Fanti, K. A., Henrich, C. C., Brookmeyer, K. A., & Kuperminc, G. P. (2008). Toward

a transactional model of parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent

psychological adjustment. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 252-276.

Feldman, S. S., & Brown, N. (1993). Family influences on adolescent male sexuality:

meditational role of self-restraint. Social Development, 2, 15-35.

Feldman, S. S., Wentzel, K. R. & Gehring, T. M. (1989). A comparison of the views

of mothers, fathers, and pre-adolescents about family cohesion and power.

Journal of Family Psychology, 3, 39-60.

Finney, S.J., & DiStefano, C. (2006). Non-normal and categorical data in structural

equation modeling. In G.R. Hancock, & R.O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural

equation modeling (pp. 269-314). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Flanagin, A. J., & Metzger, M. J. (2001). Internet use in the contemporary media

environment. Human Communication Research, 27, 153-181.


190

Forehand, R., Wierson, M., Thomas, A., Fauber, R., Armistead, L., Kempton, T., &

Long, N. (1991). A short-term longitudinal examination of young adolescent

functioning following divorce: The role of family factors. Journal of Abnormal

Child Psychology, 19(1), 97-111.

Forkel, I., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2001). Family economic hardship and depressed

mood among young adolescents from former East and West Germany.

American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 1955-1971.

Formoso, D., Gonzales, N. A., & Aiken, L. S. (2000). Family conflict and childrens

internalizing and externalizing behavior: Protective factors. American Journal

of Community Psychology, 28, 175-199.

Fuligni, A.J. (1997). The academic achievement of adolescents from immigrant

families: The roles of family background, attitudes, and behavior. Child

Development, 68, 351-363.

Fuligni, A.J. (1998). Adolescents from immigrant families. in V.C. McLoyd &

Steinberg (Eds.), Studying minority adolescents: Conceptual, methodological,

and theoretical issues, (pp. 127-143). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Furstenberg, F.F., & Hughes, M.E. (1995). Social capital and successful development

among st-risk youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 580-592.
191

Galambos, N. L., Sears, H. A., Almeida, D. M., & Kolaric, G. C. (1995). Parents'

work overload and problem behavior in young adolescents. Journal of

Research on Adolescence, 5(2), 201-223.

Garber, J., Robinson, N., & Valentiner, D. (1997). The relation between parenting and

depression: Self-worth as a mediator. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 12-

33.

Garson, G. (2005). Structural equation modeling example using WinAMOS. Retrieved

from http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/semAMOS1.htm

George, M., & Mallery, P. (2005). SPSS for windows 12.0 update. Allyn and

Bacon:Boston.

Gerbing, D.W., & Anderson, J.C. (1993). Monte Carlo evaluations of goodness-of-fit

indices for structural equation models. In K.A. Bollen, & J.S. Long (Eds.),

Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Giacquinta, J. B., Bauer, J. A., & Levin, J. E. (1993). Beyond technologys promise:

An examination of childrens educational computing at home. New York:

Cambridge University.

Glebova, T.N. (2002). An investigation of the association between Russian mothers'

differentiation of self and the mother-daughter relationship during their


192

daughters' adolescence. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Fuller Theological

Seminary, CA.

Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., & Garnier, H. (2001). Cause or effect? A

longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents aspirations and expectations, and their

childrens school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 547-582.

Goolsbee, A., & Guryan, J. (2006). The impact of Internet subsidies in public schools.

The Review of Economics and Statistics, 88, 336-347.

Grinter, R. E., & Eldridge, M. A. (2003). Want2tlk?: Everyday text messaging.

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing

Systmems (pp. 441-448). New York: ACM Press. Retrieved from

http://delievery.acm.org/10.1145/650000/642688/p441-grinter.pdf.

Grinter, R. E., & Palen, L. (2002). Instant messaging in teenage life. Proceedings of

the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 21-30).

New York: ACM Press. Retrieved from http://www.grinter.org/cscw02.pdf

Gross, E. F. (2004). Adolescent internet use: what we expect, what teems report.

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 633-649.

Gross, E. F., Juvonen, J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Internet use and well-being in

adolescence. Journal of Social Issues Special Issues: Consequences of the

Internet for self and society: Is social life being transformed? 58, 75-90.
193

Grusec, J. E., & Davidov, M. (2007). Socialization in the family: The roles of parents.

In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Handbook of socialization: Theory and research

(pp.284-308). New York: The Guilford Press.

Habib, C., Santoro, J., Kremer, P., Toumbourou, J., Leslie, E., & Williams, J. (2010).

The importance of family management, closeness with father and family

structure in early adolescent alcohol use. Addiction, 105, 1750-1758.

Doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03021.x

Hair, E. C., Moore, K. A., Garrett, S. B., Kinukawa, A., Lippman, L., & Michelson, E.

(2005). The parent-adolescent relationship scale. In K. A. Moore & L.

Lippman (Eds.), Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive

development: What do children need to flourish? (pp. 183-202). New York:

Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers.

Hair, E. C., Moore, K. A. Garrett, S. B., Ling, T., & Cleveland, K. (2008). The

continued importance of quality parent-adolescent relationships during late

adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 187-200.

Halle, T. G., Kurtz-Coster, B., & Mahoney, J. L. (1997). Family influences on school

achievement in low-income, African American children. Journal of

Educational Psychology, 89, 527-537.


194

Hanna, A. C., & Bond, M. J. (2006). Relationships between family conflict, perceived

maternal verbal messages, and daughters disturbed eating symptomatology.

Appetite, 47, 205-211.

Harris, K.M. (1999). Health risk behavior among adolescents in immigrant families.

Paper presented at the meeting of the Urban Seminar Series on Childrens

Health and Safety. Harvard University, MA. Retrieved from

http://www.hks.harvard.edu/urbanpoverty/Urban%20Seminars/December1999

/Harrispaperwtables.pdf

Harris, C., & Straker, L. (2000). Survey of physical ergonomics issues associated with

school childrens use of laptop computers. International Journal of Industrial

Ergonomics, 26, 337-346.

Haugland, S. W. (1992). The effect of computer software on preschool childrens

developmental gains. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 3, 15-30.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for

alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood:

Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64-

105.

Hartup, W.W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendships and adaptation in the life course.

Psychological Bulletin, 121, 355-370.


195

Haythronthwaite, C., & Wellman, B. (2002). The internet in everyday life. In B.

Wellman, & C. Haythronthwaite (Eds.), The internet in everyday life (pp. 3-

44). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Hedges, L. V., Konstantopoulos, S., & Thoreson, A. (2000, November). Computer use

and its relation to academic achievement in mathematics, readings, and writing.

NAEP Validity Studies, American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from

http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/researchcenter/nvspapers.asp

Heine, S. J. (2001). Self as cultural product: An examination of East Asia and North

American selves. Journal of Personality, 69, 881-906.

Hess, R. D., & McGarvey, L. J. (1987). School-relevant effects of educational uses of

microcomputers in kindergarten classrooms and homes. Journal of

Educational Computing Research, 3, 269-287.

Hetherington, E. M. (1993). An overview of the Virginia longitudinal study of divorce

and remarriage with a focus on early adolescence. Journal of Family

Psychology, 7, 39-56.

Hill, N. E. (2001). Parenting and academic socialization as they relate to school

readiness: The roles of ethnicity and family income. Journal of Educational

Psychology, 93, 686-697.


196

Hill, J. O., & Peter, J. C. (1998). Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic.

Science, 280, 1371-1374.

Hindin, M. J. (2005). Family dynamics, gender differences and educational attainment

in Filipino adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 299-316.

Ho, S., & Lee, T. (2001). Computer usage and its relationship with adolescent lifestyle

in Hong Kong. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 258-266.

Hovey, J. D., & King, C. A. (1996). Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal

ideation among immigrant and second-generation Latino adolescents. Journal

of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1183-1192.

Howard-Jones P. A. & Martin, R. J. (2002). The effect of questioning on concept

learning within a hypertext system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18,

10-20.

Howell, R. D., Scott, P. B., & Diamond, J. (1987). The effects of instant Logo

computing language on the cognitive development of very young children.

Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3, 249-260.

Huesman, L. R., & Miller, L. S. (1994). Long-term effects of repeated exposure to

media violence in childhood. In L. R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior:

Current perspectives. New York: Pleanum.


197

Hughes, R., & Hans, J. (2001). Computers, the Internet and families. Journal of

Family Issues, 22, 776-790.

Huh, J. S. (2008). Culture and business of PC Bangs in Korea. Games and Culture, 3,

26-37.

Hunley, S.A., Evans, J.H., Delgado-Hachey, M., Krise, J., Rich, T., & Schell, C.

(2005). Adolescent computer use and academic achievement. Adolescence, 40,

307-318.

Huston, A. C., Wright, J. C., Marquis, J., & Green, S. B. (1999). How young children

spend their time: Television and other activities. Developmental Psychology,

35, 912-925.

Ingoldsby, E. M., Shaw, D. S., Winslow, E., Schonberg, M., Gilliom, M., & Criss, M.

M. (2006). Neighborhood disadvantage, parent-child conflict, neighborhood

peer relationships, and early antisocial behavior problem trajectories. Journal

of abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 303-319.

International Herald Tribune. (2008, August 4). South Korea seeks Internet standards.

Retrieved from http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/08/03/business/won.php

Internet World Stats. (2008, December 31). The Internet big picture: World Internet

users and population stats. Internet usage statistics. Retrieved from

http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
198

Israel, B. (2000). Understanding the Web: Social, political, and economic dimensions

of the Internet. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 77, 931-933.

Ito, M., Horst, H., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Herr-Stephenson, B., Lange, P., et al. (2008).

Living and learning with new media: Summary of findings from the digital

youth project. The John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved

from http://www.macfound.org

Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural

perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 76, 349-366.

Iyengar, S. S., Lepper, M. R., & Ross, L. (1999). Independence from whom?

Interdependence with whom? Cultural perspectives on ingroups versus

outgroups. In D. Miller & D. Prentice (Eds.), Cultural divides: Understanding

and overcoming group conflict (pp. 273-301). New York: Russell Sage

Foundation.

Jackson, L. A., von Eye, A., Barbatis, G., Biocca, F., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. E.

(2003). Internet attitudes and internet use: Some surprising findings from the

HomeNetToo project. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59,

355-382.
199

Jackson, L.A., von Eye, A., Biocca, F. A., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H.

(2006). Does home Internet use influence the academic performance of low-

income children? Developmental Psychology, 42, 429-435.

Jackson, L.A., Zhao, Y., Kolenic III, A.K., Fitzgerald, H., Harold, R., & von Eye, A.

(2008). Race, gender, and information technology use: The new digital divide.

CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(4), 437-443. DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2007.0157.

Jennings, N., & Wartella, E. (2004). Technology and the family. In A. L. Vangelisti

(Ed.), Handbook of Family Communication (pp. 593-608). Mahwah, NJ:

Erlbaum.

Jimersn, S., Egeland, B., Sroufe, L. A., & Carlson, E. (2000). A prospective

longitudinal study of high school dropouts: Examining multiple predictors

across development. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 525-549.

Jin, D. Y., & Chee, F. (2008). Age of new media empires: A critical interpretation of

the Korean online game industry. Games and Culture, 3, 38-58.

Joinson, A. N. (2001). Self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication: The role

of self-awareness and visual anonymity. European Journal of Social

Psychology, 31, 177-192.


200

Jonson-Reid, M., Williams, J. H., & Webster, D. (2001). Severe emotional

disturbance and violent offending among increased adolescents. Social Work

Researh, 25, 213-222.

Johnson, G. (2006). A Theoretical Framework for Organizing the Effect of the

Internet on Cognitive Development. In E. Pearson & P. Bohman (Eds.),

Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia

and Telecommunications 2006 (pp. 3041-3048). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Ju, Y. A. (2007). School-based programs for Internet addition prevention.

International Symposium on the Counseling and Treatment of Youth Internet

Addiction. Seoul, Korea, National Youth Commission. (p. 243).

Judge, S. (2005). Impact of computer technology on academic achievement on young

African American children. Journal of Research on Childhood Education, 20,

91-101.

Jupiter Communications. (2000a). Teens spend less than half as much time online as

adults. Retrieved from

http://www.jup.com/company/pressrelease.jsp?doc+pr0009127

Jupiter Communications (2000b). Targeting teens is a gender game: Focus on

marketing to girls and programming to boys. Retrieved from http://www.e-

global.es/016/016_jupiter_focus.pdf
201

Kapinus, C. A., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). Closeness with parents and perceived

consequences of pregnancy among male and female adolescents. The

Sociological Quarterly, 45, 691-717.

Kandel, D. B., Raveis, V. H., & Davies, M. (1991). Suicidal ideation in adolescence:

Depression, substance use, and other risk factors. Journal of Youth

Adolescence, 20, 289-309.

Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2000). What parents know, how they know it, and several

forms of adolescent adjustment: Further support for a reinterpretation of

monitoring. Developmental Psychology, 36, 366-380.

Kiesler, S., Zdaniuk, B., Lundmark, V., & Kraut, R. (2000). Troubles with the

Internet: The dynamics of help at home. Human-Computer Interaction, 15,

322-251.

Kilbourne, B. S., Farkas, G., Beron, K., Weird, D., & England, P. (1994). Returns to

skill, compensating differentials, and gender bias: Effects of occupational

characteristics on the wages of white women and men. American Journal of

Sociology, 100, 689-719.

Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 2nd Ed.

New York: The Guilford Press.


202

Kim, B. N. (2007). From Internet to family-net: Internet addict vs. digital leader.

International Symposium on the Counseling and Treatment of Youth Internet

Addiction. Seoul, Korea, National Youth Commission (p.196).

Kim, Y. C. (2001). Current state of art of private tutoring in Korea. Seoul: Korean

Educational Development Institute.

Kim, B.S., Atkinson, D., & Yang, P.H. (1999). The Asian Values Scale: Development,

factor analysis, validation, and reliability. Journal of Counseling Psychology,

46, 342-352.

Kim, K. J., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Elder, G. H. (2001). Parent-adolescent

reciprocity in negative affect and its relation to early adult social development.

Developmental Psychology, 37, 775-790.

Kim, J. E., Hetherington, E. M., & Reiss, D. (1999). Associations among family

relationships, antisocial peers, and adolescents externalizing behaviors:

Gender and family type differences. Child Development, 70, 1209-1230.

Kim, B.S., & Hong, S. (2004). A psychometric revision of the Asian Value Scale

using the Rasch model. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and

Development, 37, 15-27.


203

Kim, K. S., Kim, M. J., Park, H. I., You, Y. I., Yoon, C. H., et al. (1994). College

entrance exam, educational aspirations, and functional strategies of the Korean

family. Korean Journal of Family Research, 32, 161-178.

Kim, U., & Park, Y. S. (1999). Psychological and behavioral pattern of Korean

adolescents: With specific focus on the influence of friends, family, and school.

Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 8, 75-95.

Kim, U., & Park, Y. S. (2006). Indigenous psychological analysis of academic

achievement in Korea: The influence of self-efficacy, parents, and culture.

International Journal of Psychology, 41, 287-292.

Kim, U., Park, Y. S., & Koo, J. (2004). Adolescent culture, socialization practices,

and educational achievement in Korea: Indigenous, psychological, and cultural

analysis. Korean Journal of Psychological and Social Issues, 10, 177-209.

Kim, K., Ryu, E., Chon, M-Y., Yeun, E-J., Choi, S-Y., et al. (2006). Internet addiction

in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a

questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 185-192.

Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., & Kurokawa, M. (2000). Culture, emotion, and well-

being: Good feelings in Japan and the United States. Cognition and Emotion,

14, 93-124.
204

Kline, R.B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New

York:The Guilford Press.

Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.).

New York:The Guilford Press.

Ko, C.H., Yen, J.Y., Yen, C.F., Lin, H.C., & Yang, M.J. (2007). Factors predictive for

incidence and remission of Internet addiction in young adolescent: a

prospective study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(4), 545-551.

Korean Educational Development Institute. (2003). An analytical Study on the life and

culture of Korean secondary school students. Retrieved from

http://www.kedi.re.kr/

Korean Statistical Information Service. (2004, May). Survey on Korea adolescents

2004. Retrieved from http://kosis.nso.go.kr

Korean Statistical Information Service. (2008). National Survey on Koreans Internet

Use. Retrieved from http://kosis.nso.go.kr

Korean Statistical Information Service. (2007). National Statistics. Retrieved from

http://kosis.nso.go.kr

Korean Statistical Information Service. (2011). Survey on the computer and internet

usage 2007. Retrieved from http://kosis.nso.go.kr


205

Korea Times. (2008, September 31). All Adults Under 40 Become Internet-Connected.

Retrieved from

http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/biz/2008/09/123_31918.html

Koshal, R. K., Koshal, M. A., & Gupta, A. K. (1996). Academic achievement and

television viewing by eighth graders: A quantitative analysis. Applied

Economics, 28, 919-928.

Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A.

(2002). Internet paradox revisited. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 49-74.

Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukhopadhyay, T. & Scherlis, W.

(1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement

and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53, 1017-1031.

Kraut, R., Scherlls, W., Mukhopadhyay, T. Manning, J., & Kiesler, S. (1996). The

HomeNet field trial of residential internet services. Communications of the

ACM, 39 (12), 55-63.

Krcmar, M., & Strizhakova, Y. (2007). Computer-mediated technology and children.

In C. A. Lin & D. J. Atkin (Eds.), Communication technology and social

change: Theory and Implications (pp.59-76). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lam, W.K.K., Cance, J.D., Eke, A.N., Fishbein, D.H., Hawkins, S.R., & Williams,

J.C.W. (2007). Children of African-American mothers who use crack cocaine:


206

Parenting influences on youth substance use. Journal of Pediatric Psychology,

32, 877-887.

Lamborn, S., Mounts, N., Steinburg, L., & Dornbusch, S. (1991). Patterns of

competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian,

and indulgent, and neglectful homes. Child Development, 62, 1049-1065.

Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, G., Holmbeck, G., & Duckett, E. (1996).

Changes in adolescents daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to

18: Disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32, 744-

754.

Larson, R. W., & Verma, S. (1999). How children and adolescents spend time across

the world: work, play, and developmental opportunities. Psychological

Bulletin, 125, 701-736.

LaRose, R., Eastin, M. S., Gregg, J. (2001). Reformulating the Internet paradox:

Social cognitive explanations of Internet use and depression. Journal of Online

Behavior, 1. Retrieved from http://www.behavior.net/JOB/v1n1/paradox.html

LaRose, R., Mastro, D., & Eastin, M. S. (2001). Understanding Internet usage: A

social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer

Review, 19, 395-413.


207

Lee, M.R. (2005, October). Differences in Korean highschool students' psychological,

behavioral, and interpersonal characteristics depending on the amount of time

spent in doing computer. Paper presented at the 1st Korean Education &

Employment Panel Conference. Seoul, R.O.Korea.

Lee, S., & Chae, Y. (2007). Childrens internet use in a family context: Influence on

family relationships and parental mediation. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10,

640-644.

Lee, Y.S., Han, D.H., Yang, K.C., Daniels, M.A., Na, C., Kee, B.S., & Renshaw, P.F.

(2008). Depression like characteristics of 5HTTLPR polymorphism and

temperament in excessive internet users. Journal of affective disorders,

109,165-169.

Lee, W., & Kuo, E. (2002). Internet and displacement effect: Childrens media use

and activities in Singapore. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 7,

http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol7/issue2/singapore.html

Lee, M. Y., Wong, B. P., Chow, B. Y., & McBride-Chang, C. (2006). Predictors of

suicide ideation and depression in Hong Kong adolescents: Perceptions of

academic and family climates. Suicide Life-Threatening Behavior, 36, 82-96.

Lei, L., & Wu, Y. (2007). Adolescents paternal attachment and Internet use.

CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, 633-639.


208

Lenhart, A., Madden, M., & Hitlin, P. (2005). Teens and technology. Washington,

DC: PEW and American Life Project.

Lenhart, A. Rainie, L., & Lewis, O. (2001). Teenage life online: The rise of the

instant-message generation and the Internets impact on friendships and family

relationships. PEW Internet & American Life Project, Washington, D.C.

Retrieved from www.pewinternet.org

Levine, L.E. & Waite, B.M. (2000). Television viewing and attentional abilities in

fourth and fifth grade children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,

21(6), 667-679.

Li, X., & Atkins, M. (2004). Early childhood computer experience and cognitive and

motor development. Pediatrics, 114, 1715-1722.

Li, X., Atkins, M. S., & Stanton, B. (2006). Effects of home and school computer use

on school readiness and cognitive development among Head Start children: A

randomized controlled pilot trial. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 239-263.

Liau, A. K., Khoo, A., & Ang, P. H. (2005). Factors influencing adolescents

engagement in risky Internet behavior. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, 513-

520.

Lieberman, M., Doyle, A., & Markiewicz, D. (1999). Developmental patterns in

security of attachment to mother and to father. Child Development, 70, 202-213.


209

Lindahl, K. M., & Malik, N. M. (2000). System for coding interactions and family

functioning (SCIFF): A coding system for family problem discussions.

Unpublished manuscript, University of Miami, Florida.

Liu, C.Y., & Kuo, F.Y. (2007). A study of Internet addiction through the lens of the

interpersonal theory. CyberPsychoogy & Behavior, 10(6), 799-804.

Livingstone, S. (2002). Young people and new media. London: Sage.

Linvingston, S. (2003). Childrens use of the Internet: Reflections on the emerging

research agenda. New Media & Society, 5, 147-166.

Livingston, S., & Bober, M. (2005). UK Children go online: Final report of key

project findings. UK: Economic and Social Research Council.

Livingstone, S., & Bovill, M. (2001). Children and their changing media

environment: A European comparative study. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2010). Balancing opportunities and risks in teenagers

use of the internet: the role of online skills and internet self-efficacy. New

Media & Society, 12(2), 309-329. DOI: 10.1177/1461444809342697.

Lucia, V. C., & Breslau, N. (2006). Family cohesion and childrens behavior

problems: A longitudinal investigation. Psychiatry Research, 141, 141-149.

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family:

Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen, & E. M. Hethrington (Eds.),


210

Handbook of child psychology (4th ed.): Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and

social development (pp.1-101). New York: Wiley.

MacKinnon, D.P. (2000). Contrasts in multiple mediator models. In J.S. Rose, L.

Chassin, C.C. Presson, & S.J. Sherman (Eds.), Multivariate applications in

substance use research: New methods for new questions (pp. 141-160).

Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

MacKinnon, D.P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. The

Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593-614.

MacKinnon, D.P., Lockwood, C.M., Hoffman, J.M., West, S.G., & Sheet, V. (2002).

A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable

effects. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 83-104. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.83

Mackner, L.M., Black, M.M., & Starr, R.H. (2003). Cognitive development of

children in poverty with failure to thrive: a prospective study through age 6.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 44, 743-751.

Madden, M., & Rainie, L. (2003). Americas online pursuits: The changing picture of

whos online and what they do. Washington, DC: PEW Internet & American

Life Project.

Madell, D., & Muncer, S. (2004). Gender differences in the use of the Internet by

English secondary school children. Social Psychology of Education, 7, 229-251.


211

Maier, H. W. (1978). Three theories of child development. Washington: University of

Washington.

Malamud, O., & Pop-Eleches. P. (2008). The effect of computer use on child

outcomes. Columbia University. Retrieved from

http://www.columbia.edu/~cp2124/papers/computer.pdf

Marcus, R. F., & Betzer, P. D. S. (1996). Attachment and antisocial behavior in early

adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 16, 29-248.

Marjoribanks, K. (1988). Perceptions of family environments, educational and

occupational outcomes: Social-status differences. Perceptual and Motor Skills,

66, 3-9.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition,

emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.

Marmorstein, N. R., & Iacono, W. G. (2004). Major depression and conduct disorder

in youth: associations with parental psychopathology and parent-child conflict.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 377-386.

Matherne, M. M., & Thomas, A. (2001). Family environment as a predictor of

adolescent delinquency. Adolescence, 36, 655-664.

Matute-Bianchi, M. E. (1986). Ethnic identities and patterns of school success and

failure among Mexican-descent and Japanese American students in a California


212

high school: An ethnographic analysis. American Journal of Education, 95,

233-255.

Mau, W. C. (1997). Parental influences on the high school students academic

achievement: A comparison of Asian immigrants, Asian Americans, and White

Americans. Psychology in the Schools, 34, 267-277.

McHale, J. P., & Rasmussen, J. L. (1998). Coparental and family group-level

dynamics during infancy: Early family precursors of child and family

functioning during preschool. Developmental and Psychopathology, 10, 39-59.

McKenna, K. A., & Bargh, J. A. (2000). Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implication of

the Internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social

Psychology Review, 4, 57-75.

McQuail, D. (2005). McQuails mass communication theory (5th Ed.). London: Sage.

Meneese, W. B., Yutrzenka, B. A., & Vitale, P. (1992). An analysis of adolescent

suicidal ideation. Current Psychology Research & Reviews, 11, 51-58.

Merz, E-M., Schuengel, C.S., & Schulze, H-J. (2008). Inter-generational relationships

at different ages: an attachment perspective. Aging & Society, 28, 717-736.

Mesch, G. S. (2001). Social relationship and Internet use among adolescents in Israel.

Social Science Quarterly, 82, 329-339.


213

Mesch, G. S. (2003). The Internet and intergenerational relationships. Social Science

Quarterly, 84, 1083-1050.

Mesch, G. S. (2006). Family characteristics and intergenerational conflicts over the

internet. Information, Communication & Society, 9, 473-495.

Miller, B. C., Benson, B., & Galbraith, K. A. (2001). Family relationships and

adolescent pregnancy risk: A research synthesis. Developmental Review, 21, 1-

38.

Miller, D., & Slater, D. (2000). The Internet: An ethnographic approach. Oxford:

Berg.

Mioduser, D., Tur-Kaspa, H., & Leitner, I. (2000). The learning value of computer-

based instruction of early reading skills. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,

16, 54-63.

Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2003). The exposure of youth to unwanted

sexual material on the internet: A national survey of risk, impact, and

prevention. Youth & Society, 34, 330-358.

Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2007). Youth Internet users at risk for the

most serious online sexual solicitations. American Journal of Preventive

Medicine, 32, 532-537.


214

Montemayor, R. (1986). Family variation in parent-adolescent storm and stress.

Journal of Adolescent Research, 1, 15-31.

Moore, K. A., Guzman, L., Hair, E. C., Lippman, L., & Garrett, S. B. (2004). Parent-

teen relationship and interactions: Far more positive than not. Washington,

DC: Child Trends.

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1994). Family and environment scale manual:

Development, applications, research. 3rd ed. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting

Psychologists Press, Inc.

Morahan-Martin, J. (1998). Males, females, and the Internet. In J. Gackenbach, (Ed.),

Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersoanl, Interpersonal, and Transpersonal

Implications (pp.169-197). New York: Academic Press.

Morgan, C., & Cotton, S. R. (2003). The relationship between Internet activities and

depressive symptoms in a sample of college freshmen. CyberPsychology &

Behavior, 6, 133-142.

Morling, B., Kitayama, S., & Miyamoto, Y. (2002). Cultural practices emphasize

influence in the United States and adjustment in Japan. Personality and Social

Psychology Bulletin, 28, 311-323.

Mutti, D. O., Zadnik, K. (1996). Is computer use a risk factor for myopia? Journal of

American Optometric Association, 67, 521-530.


215

Mutz, D., Roberts, D. F., & van Vuuren, D. P. (1993). Reconsidering the displacement

hypothesis: Televisions influence on childrens time use. Communication

Research, 20, 51-75.

Nachmias, R., Mioduster, D., & Shelma, A. (2000). Internet usage by students in an

Israel high school. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22, 55-73.

N vdal, F. (2007). Home-PC usage and achievement in English. Computers &

Education, 49, 1112-1121.

National Center for Educational Statistics. (2000). Mathematics and science in eighth

grade: Findings from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study.

Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

National Center for Educational Statistics. (2003). Computer and Internet Use by

Children and Adolescents in 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of

Education. Retrieved April 8, 2009 from

http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2004014

National Center for Education Statistics. (2005). Internet Access in U.S. Public

Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of

Education. Retrieved April 8, 2009 from

http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005015
216

National Internet Development Agency of Korea. (2007 August). Survey of Internet

usage in Korea, 2007. Seoul, Korea: National Internet Development Agency of

Korea.

National Internet Development Agency of Korea. (2006). White paper Internet Korea.

Seoul, Korea: National Internet Development Agency of Korea.

National Public Radio, Kaiser Family Foundation and Kennedy School of

Government. (2000). National survey of American adults on technology and

National survey of American kids on technology. Retrieved from www.kff.org.

Nie, N. H. (2001). Sociability, interpersonal relations, and the Internet: Reconciling

conflicting findings. American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 420-435.

Nie, N. H., & Erbring, L. (2002). Internet and Society: A Preliminary Report. IT &

Society, 1, 275-283.

Nie, N. H., Hillygus, D. S., & Erbring, L. (2002). Internet use, interpersonal relations

and sociability: Findings from a detailed time diary study. In B. Wellman & C.

Haythornthwaite, The Internet in everyday life (pp. 214-5-243). Malden, MA:

Blackwell.

Nie, N. H., Simpser, A., Stepanikova, I., & Zheung, L. (2004). Ten years after the

birth of the Internet, How do Americans use the Internet in their daily lives?

Stanford, CA: Stanford Center fro the Quantitative Study of Society.


217

Neuenschwander , M. P., Vida, M., Garrett, J. L., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). Parents

expectations and students achievement in two western nations. International

Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 594-602.

Neuman, S. (1991). Literacy in the television age. Norwood: Ablex Publishing.

New York Times. (2006, April 2). In a Wired South Korea, Robots Will Feel Right at

Home. Retrieved from

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/02/world/asia/02robot.html?_r=1

Oh, W. O. (2005). Patterns of the Internet usage and related factors with Internet

addiction among middle school students. Journal of Korean Sociology of

Maternal Child Health, 9, 33-49.

Oh, K.J., Lee, L.H., Hong, K.E., & Ha, E.H. (1997). K-CBCL. Seoul, Korea:

ChungAng Publishing.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2003). Education at a

glance: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD.

Olson, D., Sprenkle, D., & Russell, C. (1979). Circumplex model of marital and

family systems: I. Cohesion and adaptability dimensions, family types, and

clinical applications. Family Process, 18, 3-28.


218

Ong, A.D., Phinney, J.S., & Dennis, J. (2006). Competence under challenge:

Exploring the protective influence of parental support and ethnic identity in

Latino college students. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 961-979.

Orleans, M., & Laney, M. C., (2000). Early adolescent social networks and computer

use. Social Science Computer Review, 18, 56-72.

Otto, R. K., Greenstein, J. J., Johnson, M. K., & Friedman, R. M. (1992). Prevalence

of mental disorder among youth in the juvenile justice system. In J. J. Cocozza

(Ed.), Responding to the mental health needs of youth in the juvenile justice

system (pp.7-48). Seattle, WA: The National Coalition for the Mentally Ill in the

Criminal Justice System.

Packel, D., & Rainie, L. (2001). More online, doing more. Washington, DC: PEW

Internet & American Life Project.

Paikoff, R. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1991). Do parent-child relationships change during

puberty? Psychological Bulletin, 110, 47-66.

Papacharissi, Z., & Rubin, A. M. (2000). Predictors of Internet usage. Journal of

Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 44, 175-196.

Papastergiou, M., & Solomonidou, C. (2005). Gender issues in Internet access and

favorite Internet activities among Greek high school pupils inside and outside

school. Computer & Education, 44(4), 377-393.


219

Park, H. (2001). Educational expansion and inequality in Korea. Center for

Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved from

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/cdewp/home.htm

Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. (2006). Family, parent-child relationship, and academic

achievement in Korea: Indigenous, cultural, and psychological analysis. In U.

Kim, K. S. Yang, & K. K. Hwang (Eds. 2006). Indigenous and cultural

psychology: Understanding people in context. (pp.421-444). New York:

Springer.

Park, Y. S., Kim, U., & Chung, K. (2004). Longitudinal analysis of the influence of

parent-child relationship on adolescents academic achievement: With specific

focus on the mediating role of self-efficacy and achievement motivation.

Korean Journal of Psychological and Social Issues, 10, 37-59.

Parks, M. R. & Roberts, L. D. (1998). "Making MOOsic": The development of

personal relationships on-line and a comparison to their off-line counterparts.

Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15, 517-537.

Paschall, M. J., Ringwalt, C. L., & Flewelling, R. L. (2003). Effects of parenting,

father absence, and affiliation with delinquent peers on delinquent behavior

among African-American male adolescents. Adolescence, 38, 15-34.

Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family processes. Eugene, OR: Castalia.


220

Patterson, G. R., Dishion, T. J., & Bank, L. (1984). Family interaction: A process

model of deviance training. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 253-267.

Petti, G. S., Laird, R. D., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Criss, M. M. (2001).

Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and

psychological control in early adolescence. Child Development, 72, 583-598.

PEW Internet and American Life Project. (2000). Tracking online life. Retrieved from

http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2000/Report1.pdf.pdf

PEW Internet and American Life Project. (2001). Teenage life online. Retrieved from

http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2001/Teenage-Life-Online.aspx

PEW Internet and American Life Project. (2007a). Parent and teenager internet use.

Retrieved from

http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teen_Parents_data_memo_Oct2007.pdf

PEW Internet and American Life Project. (2007b). Teens and technology. Retrieved

from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Tech_July2005web.pdf

PEW Internet and American Life Project. (2007c). Writing, Technology and Teens.

Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/247/report_display.asp

PewResearchCenterPublications. (2010, May). Internet user profiles reloaded:

Updated Demographics for Internet, Broadband and Wireless Users. Retrieved


221

from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1454/demographic-profiles-internet-

broadband-cell-phone-wireless-users

Policy Information Center of the Educational Testing service Network. (1999).

Computers and classrooms: The status of technology in U.S. schools- Summary

and highlights. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/research/pic/cc-sum.html.

Ponton, L. E., & Judice, S. (2004). Typical adolescent sexual development. Child and

Adolescent Psychiatric clinics of North America, 13, 497-511.

Portes, P. R., & Zady, M. F. (2002). Self-esteem in the adaptation of Spanish-

Speaking adolescents: The role of immigration, family conflict, and depression.

Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 296-318.

Preacher, K.J., & Hayes, A.F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for

assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior

Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

Prinz, R., Foster, S., Kent, R., & OLeary, K. (1979). Multivariate assessment of

conflict in distressed and nondistressed mother-adolescent dyads. Journal of

Applied Behavior analysis, 12, 691-700.

PRI's THe World. (2008). Internet addiction in South Korea. Retrieved from

http://www.pri.org/science/technology/internet-addiction-south-korea.html
222

Qin, D. B. (2008). Doing well vs. feeling well: Understanding family dynamics and

the psychological adjustment of Chinese Immigrant Adolescents. Journal of

Youth Adolescence, 37, 22-35.

Radziszewska, B., Richardson, J.L., Dent, C.W., & Flay, B.R. (1996). Parenting style

and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement:

ethic, gender, and SES differences. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 19, 289-

305.

Ramirez, M. A. (1997). A closer look at parenting and parent qualities as protective

factors in childhood and adolescence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

University of Minnesota.

Random House Dictionary. (2005). Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

New York: Random House.

Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et

al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National

Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Journal of American Medical

Association, 278, 823-832.

Reuters. (2003). Youth spend more time on web than TV-study. Retrieved from

http://www.forbes.com/technology/newswire/2003/07/24/rtrl1037488.html
223

Rhee, K. Y., & Kim, W. B. (2004). The adoption and use of the Internet in South

Korea. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 9, Retrieved from

http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol9/issue4/rhee.html

Richmond, M. K., & Stocker, C. M. (2006). Associations between family cohesion

and adolescent siblings externalizing behavior. Journal of Family Psychology,

20, 663-669.

Rickert, B. (2001). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: a new resource

that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-

817.

Rimm, S., & Lowe, B. (1988). Family environments of underachieving gifted students.

Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 353-359.

Rivera, F. I., Guarnaccia, P. J., Mulvaney-Day, N., Lin, J. Y., Torres, M., & Alegria,

M. (2008). Family cohesion and its relationship to psychological distress among

Latino groups. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 30, 357-378.

Robin, A.L., & Foster, S.L. (1989). Negotiating parent-adolescent conflict: A

behavior-family systems approach. New York: Guilford Press.

Robin, A.L., & Weiss, J.G. (1980). Criterion-related validity of behavioral and self-

report measures of problem-solving communication skills in distressed and non-

distressed parent-adolescent dyads. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 339-352.


224

Rocheleau, B. (1995). Computer use by school-aged children: trends, patterns, and

predictors. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12, 1-17.

Rompaey, V. V., Roe, K., & Struys, K. (2002). Childrens influence on Internet access

at home. Information, Communication & Society, 5, 189-206.

Rosenbaum, E., & Rochford, J. A. (2008). Generational patterns in academic

performance: The variable effects of attitudes and social capital. Social Science

Research, 37, 350-372.

Rouse, C. E., & Krueger, A. B. (2004). Putting computerized instruction to the test: A

randomized evaluation of a Scientifically Based reading program. Economics

of Education Review, 23, 323-338.

Rude, S.P. (2000). Parental participation and offspring well-being in early adulthood.

Working Paper Series 00-04. Bowling Green State University. Retrieved from

http://www.bgsu.edu/downloads/cas/file35312.pdf

Salgado de Snyder, N. (1987). Factors associated with acculturative stress and

depressive symptomatology among married Mexican immigrant women.

Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 475-488.

Sameroff, A. J., & MacKenzie, M. J. (2003). Research strategies for capturing

transactional models of development: The limits of the possible. Development

& Psychopathology, 15, 613-640.


225

Sandefur, G. D., Meier, A. M., & Campbell, M. E. (2006). Family resources, social

capital, and college attendance. Social Science Research, 35, 525-553.

Sanders, C. E., Field, T. M., Diego, M., & Kaplan, M. (2000). The relationship of

Internet use to depression and social isolation among adolescents. Adolescence,

35, 237-242.

Schmidt, M. E., & Vanderwater, E. A. (2008). Media and attention, cognition, and

school achievement. Future of Children, 18, 63-85.

Schneider, B., Hieshima, J. A., Lee, S., & Plank, S. (1994). East-Asian academic

success in the United States: Family, school, and community explanations. In P.

M. Greenfield & R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Cross- cultural roots of minority child

development (pp. 323-350). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schneider, B., & Lee, S. (1990). A model for academic success: The school and home

environment of East Asian students. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 21,

358-377.

Schumacher, P., & Morahan-Martin, J. (2001). Gender, Internet and computer

attitudes and experiences. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 95-110.

Schwarz, B., Schafermeier, E., & Trommsdorff, G. (2005). Relations between Value

Orientation, Child-Rearing Goals, and Parenting: A Comparison of German and

South Korean Mothers. In W. Friedlmeier, P. Chakkarath, & B. Schwarz (Eds.).


226

Culture and human development: The importance of cross-cultural research for

the social sciences. (pp. 203-230). Hove, England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum

Seyfried, S. F., & Chung, I. J. (2002). Parental involvement as parental monitoring of

student motivation and parent expectations predicting later achievement among

African American and European American middle school age students. Journal

of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 11, 109-131.

Shantz, C. U., & Hartup, W. W. (1992). Conflict and development: An introduction.

In C. U. Shantz & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), Conflict in child and adolescent

development (pp. 1- 14). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shaw, L. H., & Gant, L. M. (2002). In defense of the Internet: The relationship

between Internet communication and depression, loneliness, self-esteem, and

perceived social support. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, 157-171.

Shapley, K., Sheehan, D., Maloney, C., & Caranikas-Walker, F. (2008). Evaluation of

the Texas technology immersion pilot: Outcomes for the third year (2006-07).

Texas Center for Educational Research. Retrieved from

http://www.etxtip.info/images/y3_etxtip_quan.pdf

Sheedy, J., & Shaw-McMinn, P. (2002). Diagnostic and treating computer-related

vision problems. Portsmouth, NH: Butterworth-Heinemann.


227

Shejwal, B. R., & Purayidathil, J. (2006). Television viewing of higher secondary

students: Does it affect their academic achievement and mathematical

reasoning? Psychology and Developing Societies, 8, 201-213.

Shin, N. (2004). Exploring pathways from television viewing to academic

achievement in school age children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 165,

367-381.

Shin, Y. (2007). Peer relationships, social behaviors, academic performance and

loneliness in Korean primary school children. School Psychology International,

28, 220-236.

Shrout, P.E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental

studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 4, 442-

445. doi:10.1037//1082-989X.7.4.422

Shute, R., & J. Miksad. (1997). Computer Assisted Instruction and Cognitive

Development in Preschoolers. Child Study Journal, 27, 237-253.

Silverberg, D. (2007 November). Korean boot camp hopes to curb Internet addiction.

Digital Journal. Retrieved from

http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/246348/Korean_Boot_Camp_Hopes_to_

Curb_Internet_Addictio
228

Silverberg, S.B., & Steinberg, L. (1987). Adolescent autonomy, parentadolescent

conflict, and parental well-being. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, Special

issue: Sex differences in family relations at adolescence, 293-312.

Simons, R.L., Lorenz, F.O., Wu, C., & Conger, R.D. (1993). Social network and

marital support as mediators and moderators of the impact of stress and

depression on parental behavior. Developmental Psychology, 29, 368-381.

Simons, R. L., Johnson, E., Beaman, J., Conger, R. D., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1996).

Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on

adolescent problem behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24,

145-171.

Simons, R. L., & Murphy, P. I. (1985). Sex differences in the causes of adolescent

suicide ideation. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 14, 423-434.

Singh, K., Bickley, P. G., Trivette, P., Keith, T. Z., Keith, P. B., & Anderson, E.

(1995). The effects of four components of parental involvement on eighth-grade

student achievement: Structural analysis of NELS-88 Data. School Psychology

Review, 24, 299-317.

Singleton, R.A., & Straights, B.C. (1999). Approaches to social research. New York:

Oxford University Press.


229

Siomos, K. E., Dafouli, E. D., Braimiotis, D. A., Mouzas, O. D., & Angelopoulos, N.

V. (2008). Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students.

CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 653-657.

Sirgy, M. J., Lee, D. J., & Bae, J. (2006). Developing a measure of Internet well-

being: Nomological (predictive) validation. Social Indicators Research, 78,

205-249.

Small, S. A., Eastern, G., & Cornelius, S. (1988). Adolescent autonomy and parental

stress. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 17, 377-391.

Smetana, J. G., Crean, H. F., & Daddis, C. (2002). Family processes and problem

behaviors in middle-class African American adolescents. Journal of Research

on Adolescence, 12, 275-304.

Smith, M.H., Beaulieu, L.J., & Seraphine, A. (1995). Social capital, place of residence,

and college attendance. Rural Sociology, 60, 363-380.

Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural

equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290312).

San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/270723

Spada, M. M., Langston, B., Nikcevic, A. V., & Moneta, G. B., (2008). The role of

metacognitions in problematic internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 24,

2325-2335.
230

Steinberg, L. (1987). Impact of puberty on family relations: Effects of pubertal status

and pubertal timing. Developmental Psychology, 24, 122-128.

Steinberg, L. (1998). Reciprocal relation between parent-child distance and pubertal

maturation. Developmental Psychology, 24, 122-128.

Steinberg, L. (2008). We know some thing: Parent-adolescent relationships in

retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1-19.

Steinburg, L., Lamborn, S., Darling, N., Mounts, N., & Dornbusch, S. (1994). Over-

time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from

authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child

Development, 65, 754-770.

Steinburg, L., Lamborn, S., Dornbusch, S., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting

practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school

involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-

1281.

Steinberg, L., & Silk, J. S. (2002). Parenting adolescents. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.),

Handbook of parenting: children and parenting, (2nd ed.) (pp. 103-134).

Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.


231

Stevens, G., Vollebergh, W., Pels, T., & Crijnen, A. (2005a). Predicting externalizing

problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands. Social

Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 571-579.

Stevens, G., Vollebergh, W., Pels, T., & Crijnen, A. (2005b). Predicting internalizing

problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands. Social

Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 1003-1011.

Stevens, G., Vollebergh, W., Pels, T., & Crijnen, A. (2007). Problem behavior and

acculturation in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands: Effects of

gender and parent-child conflict. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38,

310-317.

Stewart. K., & Choi. H.P. (2003). PC-Bang (Room) culture: A study of Korean

college students private and public use of computers and the Internet. Trends In

Communication, 11, 61-77.

Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut, R., Greenfield, P., & Gross, E. (2000). The impact of

home computer use on childrens activities and development. Children and

Computer Technology, 10, 123-143.

Subrahmanyam, K., Greenfield, P., Kraut, R., & Gross, E. (2001). The impact of

computer use on childrens and adolescents development. Applied

Developmental Psychology, 22, 7-30.


232

Su, S. K., Chin, C. Y., Hong, Y. Y., Leung, K., Peng, K., & Morris, M. W. (1999).

Self organization and social organization: American and Chinese constructions.

In T. R. Tyler, R. Kramer, & O. John (Eds.), The psychology of the social self

(pp. 193-222). Mahwah, N. J: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Suinn, R.M., Rickard-Figueroa, K., Lew, S., & Vigil, P. (1987). The Suinn-Lew Asian

Self-Identity Acculturation Scale: An initial report. Educational and

Psychological Measurement, 47, 401-407.

Suler, J. (1998). Adolescents in cyberspace: The good, the bad, and the ugly.

Retrieved from http://www.rider.edu/users/suler/psycyber/adoles.html.

Sun, R., & Hui, E. (2007). Psychological factors contributing to adolescent suicidal

ideation. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 36, 775-786.

Sung, Y-T., Chang, K-E., & Lee, M-D. (2008). Designing multimedia games for

young children's taxonomic concept development. Computers & Education, 50,

1037-1051.

Tallman, I., Marotz-Baden, R., & Pindas, P. (1983). Adolescent socialization in cross-

cultural perspective: Planning for social change. New York: Academic Press.

Tarpley, T. (2001). Children, the Internet, and other new technologies. In D. G. Singer

& J. L. Singer (Eds), Handbook of children and the media (pp.73-99). Thousand

Oaks, CA: Sage.


233

The New York Times (2010, September 5). Class size around the world. Retrieved

from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/09/11/class-size-around-the-

world/

Thompson, M.S., Alexander, K.L., & Entwisle, D.R. (1988). Household composition,

parental expectations, and school achievement. Social Forces, 67, 424-451.

Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects

on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one

another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348.

Trenit, G. A., van der Beld, G., Heynderickx, I., & Groen, P. (2004). Visual Stimuli

in Daily Life. Epilepsia, 45, 2-6.

Tsai, M-J., & Tsai, C-C. (2010). Junior high school students Internet usage and self-

efficacy: A re-examination of the gender gap. Computers & Education, 54,

1182-1192. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.11.004.

Turow, J. (1999). The family and the Internet: The view from parents/the view from

the press. Philadelphia, PA: Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of

Pennsylvania.

Turow, J. (2001). Family boundaries, commercialism, and the Internet: A framework

for research. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 73-86.


234

Tzn, H., Yilmaz-Soylu, M., Karakus, T., Inal, Y., & Kizilkaya, G. (2009). The

effects of computer games on primary school students' achievement and

motivation in geography learning. Computers & Education, 52, 68-77.

UCLS Center for Communication Policy. (2003). UCLA Internet Project Reports:

Surveying the digital future. University of California, CA. Retrieved from

http://www.digitalcenter.org/pdf/InternetReportYearThree.pdf

Ullman. J.B. (1996). Structural equation modeling. In B.G. Tabachnick & L.S. Fidell,

(Eds.), Using Multivariate Statistics, 3rd Edition, (pp. 709-819). New York,

NY: HarperCollins College Publishers.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). Computer and Internet use in the United States: 2003.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic and Statistics Administration.

Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p23-

208.pdf

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007a). Online communication and adolescent well-

being: Testing the stimulation versus the displacement hypothesis. Journal of

Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, article 2.

http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue4/valkenburg.html
235

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter., J. (2007b). Preadolescents and adolescents online

communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology, 43,

267-277.

Valkenburg, P. M., & Soeters, K. (2001). Children's positive and negative experiences

with the Internet. Communication Research, 28 (5), 653-676.

Valkenburg, P. M., & van der Voort, T. H. A. (1994). Influence of TV on

daydreaming and creative imagination: A review of research. Psychological

Bulletin, 116, 316-339.

van Braak, J. P., & Kavadias, D. (2005). The influence of social-demographic

determinants on secondary school childrens computer use, experience, beliefs

and competence. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 14, 4360.

Van den Eijnden, R. M., Meerkerk, G., Vermulst, A. A., Spijkerman, R., & Engels,

R.E, 2008). Online communication, compulsive internet use, and psychosocial

well-being among adolescents: A longitudinal study. Developmental

Psychology, 44, 655-665.

van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M., Spijkerman, R., Vermulst, A.A., van Rooij, T.J., & Engels,

R.C.M. (2010). Compulsive Internet use among adolescents: Bidirectional

parent-child relationships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 77-89.

DOI 10.1007/s10802-009-9347-8.
236

Videon, T.M. (2005). Parent-child relations and childrens psychological well-being:

Do dads matters? Journal of Family Issues, 26 (1), 55-78.

Voedisch, L. (2000). You must be 18 to enter. Retrieved from

http://www.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/01/17/are.you.18.idg/index.html

Vogelwiesche, U., Grob, A., & Winkler, B. (2006). Improving computer skills of

socially disadvantaged adolescents: Same-age versus cross-age tutoring.

Learning and Instruction, 16, 241-255.

Wastlund, E., Norlander, T., & Archer, T. (2001). Internet blues revisited: Replication

and extension of an Internet paradox study. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 4,

385-391.

Watt, D., & White, J. M. (1999). Computers and the family life: A family

development perspective. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30, 1-15.

Weinberger, J. (1996). A longitudinal study of children's early literacy experiences at

home and later literacy development at home and school. Journal of Research

in Reading, 19. 14-24.

Wainer, J., Dwyer, T., Dutra, R.S., Covic, A., Magalhes, V.B., Ferreira, L.R.,

Pimenta, V.A., & Claudio, K. (2001). Too much computer and Internet use is

bad for your grades, especially if you are young and poor: Results from the

2001 Brazilian SAEB. Computers & Education, 51, 1417-1429.


237

Weiser, E.B. (2001). The functions of Internet use and their social and psychological

consequences. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 4, 723-740.

Wellman, B., Salaff, J., Dimitrova, D., Garton, L., Gulia, M., & Haythornthwaite, C.

(1996). Computer networks as social networks: Virtual community, computer-

supported cooperative work and telework. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 213-

238.

Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Family functioning and academic achievement in middle

school: A social-emotional perspective. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 268-

291.

Wentzel, K. R., & Feldman, S. S. (1993). Parental predictors of boys self-restraint

and motivation to achieve at school: A longitudinal study. Journal of Early

Adolescence, 13, 193-203.

White, J. M. (1991). Dynamics of Family Development. New York: Guilford.

Willoughby, T. (2008). A short-term longitudinal study of internet and computer game

use by adolescent boys and girls: Prevalence, frequency of use, and

psychosocial predictors. Developmental Psychology, 44, 195-204.

Windle, M. (1992). A longitudinal study of stress buffering for adolescent problem

behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 28, 522-530.


238

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Internet-related sex crimes against

minors: Implications for prevention based on findings from a national study.

Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 411-424.

Wolak, J., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkelhor, D. (2002). Close online relationships in a

national sample of adolescents. Adolescence, 37, 441-455.

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K. J. & Ybarra, M. L. (2008). Online Predators

and their victims: Myth, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment.

American Psychologist, 63, 111-128.

Woodward, E. H., & Gridina, N. (2000). Media in the home 2000: The fifth annual

survey of parents and children. Philadelphia: Annenberg Public Policy Center,

University of Pennsylvania.

Yan, Z., Hu, L., Chen, H., & Lu, F. (2008). Computer vision syndrome: A widely

spreading but largely unknown epidemic among computer users. Computers in

Human Behaviour. 24, 2026-42.

Ybarra, M. L., Alexander, C., & Mitchell, K. J. (2005). Depressive symptomatology,

youth Internet use, and online interactions: A national survey. Journal of

Adolescent Health, 36, 9-18.


239

Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004a). Youth engaging in online harassment:

Associations with caregiver-child relationships, Internet use, and personal

characteristics. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 319-336.

Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004b). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and

targets: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child

Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1308-1316.

Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2005). Exposure to Internet pornography among

children and adolescents: A national survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8,

473-486.

Yen, J. Y., Yen, C. F., Chen, C. C., Chen, S. H., & Ko, C. H. (2007). Family factors of

internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents.

Cyberpsychol Behavior, 10, 323-329.

Young, K. & Rodgers, R. C. (1998). The relationship between depression and Internet

addiction. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 1. Retrieved from

http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/Addictions/netaddiction/articles/cy

berpsycholog.htm

Youniss, J. (1987). Communication and connectedness in mother- and father-

adolescent relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(3), 265-280.


240

Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and

friends. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Zhan, M. (2006). Assets, parental expectations and involvement, and childrens

educational performance. Children and Youth Service Review, 28, 961-975.

Ziajka, A. (1983). Microcomputers in early childhood education? A first look. Young

Children, 38, 61-67.


241

Appendix A

Survey questions about demographic information


242

These questions are general information questions. Read each question on the list and
check the box that best describes who you are.

1. Todays date _______YYYY _______MM_________DD


2. Your date of birth _______YYYY _______MM_________DD

3. Gender Female Male

4. Your relationship to the child in Bio-Mother Bio-Father



this study
Step-Mother Step-Father

Grandmother Grandfather

Other (please specify) :

5. Please list all the people living in your house starting with yourself and their relationship to
you.

Relationship Highest degree earned


Persons name Age

a. yourself

b. your teen child

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.
243

These are general information questions. Read each question on the list and check the
box that best describes who you are.
6. What is your highest Completed middle school

level of education?
Completed high school

Completed business or trade school (2-year)


Completed college education (4-year)


Completed Graduate school (M.S./ Ph.D)


7. Are you employed Yes, part-time



now?
Yes, full-time

Retired; If yes, when? _______ years ago


Unemployed and looking for work


Home maker

Too disabled or ill to work


7-1. How many hours do you work every week? _________________hours/ week

8. What is the familys total


Less than 2,000,000
monthly income before
taxes?
2,000,000 to less than 2,500,000

2,500,000 to less than 3,000,000

3,000,000 to less than 3,500,000

3,500,000 to less than 4,000,000

More than 4,000,000


244

These are general information questions. Read each question on the list and check the
box that best describes who you are.

9. What is your marital Married Separated



status?
Remarried Widowed

Divorced

10. What is your religious Catholic Buddhist



preference?
Christian None

Other:
245

Appendix B

Survey questions about Internet use


246

Now I would like to ask you about your use of the Internet. There is no right or wrong
answers. Please answer the questions to the best of your knowledge.

1. I have been using the Internet since the age of ________________.

2. How many computers with internet access are there in your home? (For example, 0, 1, 3)

______________PCs ________________Laptops

______________Cell Phones ________________Others, Specify:

3. Where do you use the Internet?


Home
Yes No

School
Yes No

PC Bang (Cyber caf)


Yes No

Friends house
Yes No

Library, Community facilities


Yes No

Other places, please specify:

4. Do you have a PC, cell phone, laptop with Internet access that you alone use?

Yes No

5. Where are PCs or laptops with Internet computer in your home?


Parents room
Yes No

Open family area (living room)


Yes No

My room
Yes No

Study room
Yes No

Other place, specify:


247

6. Do you go on the Internet at school, do you use it .


During class (when the teacher is not watching)
Yes No

When teacher allows for computer use


Yes No

After school or extra activities


Yes No

During lunch breaks


Yes No

Other, place explain:

Please indicate how long you stay online to do following activities during weekdays and
weekends respectively for the following purposes. Please circle your best answer

1=Less than 30 mns, 2= to 2 hrs, 3= 2 to 3 hrs, 4=More than 3 hrs a day


Monday to Friday Weekends, Holidays
1. How long do you stay online to do 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
your study related work or search
study related information?
2. How long do you stay online to 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
watch online classes?
3. How long do you stay online to chat, 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
talk and meet with friends and
families?
4. How long do you stay online to visit 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
blogs and online communities
5. How long do you stay online to have 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
fun and relax (such as watching
movies, listening songs, playing
games)?
6. How long do you stay online to do 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
online games.
248

Please indicate how often you use the Internet on weekdays and weekends. Please circle
your best answer.

1=None, 2= 1~2 times a day, 3= 3~4 times a day, 4=More than 4 times a day.
Monday to Friday Weekends, Holidays
1. How often do you go online to search 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
for information to do homework and/or
school assignment?
2. How often do you go online to post 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
study questions?
3. How often do you go online to watch 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
educational online classes/ programs?
4. How often do you go online to 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
exchange study related e-mails with
teachers and friends?
5. How often do you go online to 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
exchange personal e-mails with friends?
6. How often do you go online to chat 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
with your friends?
7. How often do you go online to post 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
pictures and to write stories on social
networks (e.g., Facebook)?
8. How often do you go online to make 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
new friends or meet new people?
9. How often do you go online to 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
download movies, tv series, songs, and
music videos?
11. How often do you go online to play 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
online games?
12. How often do you go online to 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
buying things at internet shopping malls?
13. How often do you go online to visit 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
sports, movies, and celebrities websites?
249

Appendix C

Survey questions about parent-adolescent relationships


250

Below is a list of questions about relationships between you and your MOTHER
and FATHER. Please indicate how much you can agree to following statements
regarding relationships with your mother. Please circle 1, if the following
statements are not true and circle 4 if it is true.
MOTHER FATHER
1. I feel close to my parent. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
2. My parent is attentive to my problems. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
3. My parent knows what I am really like. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
4. I am confident that my parent would help me if I 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
had a problem

5. My parent often expresses affection or liking me. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


6. My parent and I do things together that I enjoy. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
7. Talk about how things are going with my friends. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
8. Talk about how things are going in school. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
9. Talk about problems and/or concerns I have (in 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
school, community, etc.).

10. Talk about my activities and things for upcoming 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


days.
11. Talk about my plans for the future. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

In the last few weeks, how often did the following things happen between you
and your MOTHER and FATHER? Please circle your best answers.
1=Definitely false, 2=Probably false, 3= Probably true, 4=Definitely true

MOTHER FATHER

1. My parent often criticizes me. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


2. Before I finish saying something, my parent often 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
interrupts me.
3. My parent often irritates me. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
4. Often there are misunderstandings between my 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
parent and myself.
5. I treat others with more respect than I teat my 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
parent.
6. My parent often hurts my feelings. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
7. My parent does not trust me to make my decisions. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
8. My parent and I often get into arguments. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
9. I often seem to anger or annoy my parent. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
10. My parent often loses her/his temper with me. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
251

Please indicate whether you and your parent discussed following issues over
the last two weeks. If discussed, how heated were you and your parent? Please
circle your best answer.
O=Discussed, X=Not discussed
1=Very calm, 2=Calm, 3= Angry, 4=Very angry
MOTHER FATHER
8. Money matters O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

9. How you dress O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

10. Your friends O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

11. Behaviors in school O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

12. Doing homework O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

13. Relationships with family O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

members
14. Your grades O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

15. Playing video/ Internet games O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

16. Drinking, or smoking O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

17. Who you date O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

18. Helping out at home O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

19. Cursing O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4

20. Internet use O X 1 2 3 4 O X 1 2 3 4


252

Appendix D

Survey questions about parental expectations


253

Below is a list of statement about cultural norms and values. Please use the
scale below to indicate the extent to which you agree with the value expressed
in each statement.
0 = Strongly Disagree 1 = Disagree 2 = Agree 3 = Strongly Agree
1. One should not deviate from familial and social norms. 0 1 2 3
2. Children should not place their parents in retirement homes. 0 1 2 3
3. One need not focus all energies on ones studies. 0 1 2 3
4. One should be discouraged from talking about ones 0 1 2 3
accomplishments.
5. Younger persons should be able to confront their elders. 0 1 2 3
6. When one receives a gift, one should reciprocate with a gift of 0 1 2 3
equal or greater value.
7. One need not achieve academically in order to make ones 0 1 2 3
parents proud.
8. One need not minimize or depreciate ones own achievement. 0 1 2 3
9. One should consider the needs of others before considering 0 1 2 3
ones own needs.
10. Educational achievements need not be ones top priority. 0 1 2 3
11. One should think about ones group before oneself. 0 1 2 3
12. One should be able to question a person in an authority position. 0 1 2 3
13. Modesty is an important quality for a person. 0 1 2 3
14. Ones achievements should be viewed as familys 0 1 2 3
achievements.
15. One should avoid bringing displeasure to ones ancestors 0 1 2 3
16. One should have sufficient inner resources to resolve emotional 0 1 2 3
problems.
17. The worst thing one can do is bring disgrace to ones family 0 1 2 3
reputation.
18. One need not remain reserved and tranquil. 0 1 2 3
19. One should be humble and modest. 0 1 2 3
20. Familys reputation is not the primary social concern. 0 1 2 3
21. One need not be able to resolve psychological on ones own. 0 1 2 3
22. Educational failure does not bring shame to the family. 0 1 2 3
23. One need not follow the role expectations (gender, family 0 1 2 3
hierarchy) of ones family
24. One should not make waves. 0 1 2 3
25. One need not control ones expression of emotions. 0 1 2 3
254

Vita

EDUCATION
Ph.D., Child and Family Studies, Syracuse University, December 2011
M.A., Creative Art Therapy, Drexel University, 2003
Masters Thesis Title: The Draw-An-Animal Projective Art Therapy Assessment
Tool as an Expression of Self-Concept in Normal Latency Aged Children A
pilot study, advised by Nancy Gerber, Ph.D.
B.A., Special Education, Ewha Womans University, R.O.Korea, 2000
B.F.A., Fine Art-Sculpture, Seoul National University, R.O.Korea, 1992.

WORK EXPERIENCE
- Assistant Lecturer, Early Childhood Education, The College of Education,
Idaho State University, 2010-2011
- Teaching Assistant, Child and Family Studies, The College of Human
Ecology, Syracuse University, 2005-2010
- Educational Specialist, CNY Korean School, Syracuse, NY, 2008-2010
- Medical Art Therapist, Samaritan Sunlin Hospital Handong University,
R.O.Korea, 2004-2005
- Behavioral Specialist Consultant/ Therapist, Holcomb Behavioral Health
Center, Allentown, PA, 2003-04
- Consultant & Educational Specialist, Northern Home for Children and Family
Services, Philadelphia, PA, 2002

PUBLICATION
Kim, S., & Smith, C. J. (2009). Analysis of intercountry adoption policy and
regulations: The case of Korea. Children and Youth Service Review,
doi:10,1016/j.childyouth.2009.04.006