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Battle of Culloden

The Battle of Culloden (/kldn/) (Scottish Gaelic: further integrate the comparatively wild Highlands into
Blr Chil Lodair) was the nal confrontation of the the Kingdom of Great Britain; civil penalties were intro-
Jacobite rising of 1745 and part of a religious civil war in duced to weaken Gaelic culture and attack the Scottish
Britain. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles clan system.
Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by loyalist troops
commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland,
near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. 1 Background
Queen Anne died in 1714, with no living children; she
was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Under the
terms of the Act of Settlement 1701, she was succeeded
by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover,
who was a descendant of the Stuarts through his mater-
nal grandmother, Elizabeth, a daughter of James VI and
I. The Hanoverian victory at Culloden halted the Jaco-
bite intent to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore
the House of Stuart to the British throne; Charles Stuart
never again tried to challenge Hanoverian power in Great
Britain. The conict was the last pitched battle fought on
British soil.[4]
Charles Stuarts Jacobite army consisted largely of
Catholics and Episcopalians, mainly Scots but with a
small detachment of Englishmen from the Manchester
Regiment. The Jacobites were supported and supplied by Jacobite Banner showing the Latin motto Tandem Triumphans.
(The motto, meaning 'Triumphant at last', was said to have been
the Kingdom of France from Irish and Scots units in the
added after the events at Glennnan).
French service. A composite battalion of infantry ("Irish
Picquets") comprising detachments from each of the reg- Charles Edward Stuart, known as Bonnie Prince Char-
iments of the Irish Brigade plus one squadron of Irish in lie or the Young Pretender, arrived in Scotland in
the French army served at the battle alongside the regi- 1745 to incite a rebellion of Stuart sympathizers against
ment of Royal Scots (Royal Ecossais) raised the previous the House of Hanover. He successfully raised forces,
year to support the Stuart claim.[5] The British Govern- mainly of Scottish Highland clansmen, and slipped past
ment (Hanoverian loyalist) forces were mostly Protestants the Hanoverian stationed in Scotland and defeated a force
English, along with a signicant number of Scottish of militiamen at the Battle of Prestonpans. The city of
Lowlanders and Highlanders, a battalion of Ulstermen Edinburgh was occupied, but the castle held out and most
and some Hessians from Germany[6] and Austrians.[7] of the Scottish population remained hostile to the rebels;
The quick and bloody battle on Culloden Moor was over others, while sympathetic, were reluctant to lend overt
in less than an hour when after an unsuccessful Highland support to a movement whose chances were unproven.
charge against the government lines, the Jacobites were The British government recalled forces from the war with
routed and driven from the eld. France in Flanders to deal with the rebellion.
Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or After a lengthy wait, Charles persuaded his generals that
wounded in the brief battle. Government losses were English Jacobites would stage an uprising in support of
lighter with 50 dead and 259 wounded although recent his cause. He was convinced that France would launch an
geophysical studies on the government burial pit sug- invasion of England as well. His army of around 5,000
gest the gure for deaths to be nearer 300. The bat- invaded England on 8 November 1745. They advanced
tle and its aftermath continue to arouse strong feelings: through Carlisle and Manchester to Derby and a posi-
the University of Glasgow awarded Cumberland an hon- tion where they appeared to threaten London. It is of-
orary doctorate, but many modern commentators allege ten alleged that King George II made plans to decamp to
that the aftermath of the battle and subsequent crackdown Hanover, but there is no evidence for this and the king is
on Jacobitism were brutal, and earned Cumberland the on record as stating that he would lead the troops against
sobriquet Butcher. Eorts were subsequently taken to the rebels himself if they approached London. (George


had experience at the head of an army: in 1743 he had led 2.1 Jacobite army
his soldiers to victory at the Battle of Dettingen, becom-
ing the last British monarch to lead troops into battle.[8] )
The Jacobites met only token resistance. There was, how-
ever, little support from English Jacobites, and the French
invasion eet was still being assembled. The armies of
Field Marshal George Wade and of William Augustus,
Duke of Cumberland, were approaching. In addition to
the militia, London was defended by nearly 6,000 in-
fantry, 700 horse and 33 artillery pieces and the Jaco-
bites received (ctitious) reports of a third army closing
on them. The Jacobite general, Lord George Murray,
and the Council of War insisted on returning to join their
growing force in Scotland. On 6 December 1745, they
withdrew, with Charles Edward Stuart leaving command
to Murray.
On the long march back to Scotland, the Highland Army
wore out its boots and demanded all the boots and shoes
of the townspeople of Dumfries as well as money and hos-
pitality. The Jacobites reached Glasgow on 25 Decem-
ber. There they reprovisioned, having threatened to sack
the city, and were joined by a few thousand additional
men. They then defeated the forces of General Henry
Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk Muir. The Duke of Cum-
berland arrived in Edinburgh on 30 January to take over
command of the government army from General Hawley.
He then marched north along the coast, with the army be-
ing supplied by sea. Six weeks were spent at Aberdeen
The Kings forces continued to pressure Charles. He re- A private and corporal of a Highland regiment, circa 1744. The
tired north, losing men and failing to take Stirling Castle Highland units of the Jacobite army would have worn some-
thing very similar to the private illustrated, particularly the belted
or Fort William. But he invested Fort Augustus and Fort
George in Inverness-shire in early April. Charles then
took command again, and insisted on ghting a defensive The bulk of the Jacobite army was made up of High-
action. landers and most of its strength was volunteers. These
Hugh Rose of Kilravock entertained Charles Edward Stu- men made up the gentlemen (ocers), cavalry and Low-
art and the Duke of Cumberland respectively on 14 and land units, and as such did much of the ghting during the
15 April 1746, before the Battle of Culloden. Charles campaign. The clans which supported the Jacobite cause
manners and deportment were described by his host as tended to be Roman Catholic and Scottish Episcopalian,
most engaging. Having walked out with Mr. Rose, be- while clans which tended to be Presbyterian sided more
fore sitting down he watched trees being planted. He re- with the British government.[10] Nearly three-quarters of
marked, How happy, Sir, you must feel, to be thus peace- the Jacobite army was composed of Highland clansmen
ably employed in adorning your mansion, whilst all the who were either Roman Catholic or Episcopalian. The
country round is in such commotion. Kilravock was a Highlanders served in the clan regiments which were re-
rm supporter of the house of Hanover, but his adher- cruited largely from the Highlands of Scotland.[10]
ence was not solicited, nor were his preferences alluded One of the fundamental problems with the Jacobite army
to. The next day, the Duke of Cumberland called at the was the lack of trained ocers. The lack of professional-
castle gate, and when Kilravock went to receive him, he ism and training was readily apparent; even the colonels
bluy observed, So you had my cousin Charles here yes- of the Macdonald regiments of Clanranald and Keppoch
terday. Kilravock replied, What am I to do, I am Scots, considered their men to be uncontrollable.[11][note 1] A
to which Cumberland replied, You did perfectly right. typical clan regiment was made up of a small minor-
ity of gentlemen (tacksmen) who would bear the clan
name, and under them the common soldiers or clans-
men who bore a mixed bag of names.[13] The clan gen-
tlemen formed the front ranks of the unit and were more
2 Opposing forces heavily armed than their impoverished tenants who made
up the bulk of the regiment.[10] Because they served in the
2.2 Government Army 3

front ranks, the gentlemen suered higher proportional 2.2 Government Army
casualties than the common clansman. The gentlemen of
the Appin Regiment suered one quarter of those killed,
and one third of those wounded from their regiment.[13]
The Jacobites started the campaign poorly armed. At the
Battle of Prestonpans, some only had swords, Lochaber
axes, pitchforks and scythes. Although popular imagina-
tion pictures the common highlander as being equipped
with a broadsword, targe and pistol, it was only ocers
or gentlemen who were equipped in this way.[14] Further
illustrating this point, following the conclusion of the bat-
tle, Cumberland reported that there were 2,320 relocks
recovered from the battleeld, but only 190 broadswords.
From this, it can be determined that of the roughly 1,000
Jacobites killed at Culloden, no more than one fth car-
ried a sword.[15] As the campaign progressed, the Ja- Soldiers
cobites improved their equipment considerably. For in- of the 8th and 20th Regiments, circa 1742
stance, 1,5001,600 stack of arms were landed in Octo-
ber. In consequence, by the time of the Battle of Cullo-
den, the Jacobite army was equipped with 0.69 in (17.5 The Kingdom of Great Britain government army at the
mm) calibre French and Spanish relocks.[14] Battle of Culloden was made up of infantry, cavalry, and
artillery. Of the armys 16 infantry battalions present,
During the latter stage of the campaign, the Jacobites four were Scottish units and one was Irish.[18] The ocers
were reinforced with units of French regulars. These of the infantry were from the upper classes and aristoc-
units, like Fitzjames Horse, and the Irish Picquets, were racy, while the rank and le were made up of poor agri-
drawn from the Irish Brigade (Irish units in French ser- cultural workers. On the outbreak of the Jacobite rising,
vice). Another unit was the Royal cossais (Royal extra incentives were given to lure recruits to ll the ranks
Scots), which was a Scottish unit in French service.[16] of depleted units. For instance, on 6 September 1745, ev-
The majority of these troops were Irish born. Lists of ery recruit who joined the Guards before 24 September
prisoners at Marshalsea, Berwick and prison interviews was given 6, and those who joined in the last days of the
conducted by Captain Eyre show some of these men to month were given 4. Regiments were named after their
be English born, claiming to have been press-ganged or Colonel. In theory, an infantry regiment would comprise
seized as prisoners on British ships. Fitzjames Horse was up to ten companies of up to 70 men. They would then be
the only Jacobite cavalry unit to ght the whole battle on 815 strong, including ocers. However, regiments were
horseback.[16] Around 500 Irish Picquets in the French rarely anywhere near this large, and at the Battle of Cul-
army fought in the battle, some of whom were thought to loden, the regiments were not much larger than about 400
have been press-ganged from 6th (Guises) Foot taken at men.[19]
Fort Augustus. The Royal cossais also contained desert-
ers, and the commander, Drummond, attempted to raise a The government cavalry arrived in Scotland in January
second battalion after the unit had arrived in Scotland.[17] 1746. They were not combat experienced, having spent
The Jacobite artillery has been generally regarded as be- the preceding years on anti-smuggling duties. A stan-
ing ineective in the battle. Some modern accounts claim dard cavalryman had a Land Service pistol and a carbine.
that the Jacobite artillery suered from having cannon However, the main weapon used by the British cavalry
with dierent calibres of shot. In fact, all but one of the was a sword with a 35-inch blade.[20]
Jacobite cannon were 3-pounders.[17] The Royal Artillery vastly out-performed their Jacobite
counterparts during the Battle of Culloden. However,
up until this point in the campaign, the government ar-
tillery had performed dismally. The main weapon of the
artillery was the 3-pounder. This weapon had a range of
500 yards (460 m) and red two kinds of shot: round iron
and canister. The other weapon used was the Coehorn
mortar. These had a calibre of 4 2 5 inches (11 cm).[21]

3 Lead up to battle
On 30 January, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in Scot-
land to take command of the government forces after the

dusk and march to Nairn. Murray planned to have the

right wing of the rst line attack Cumberlands rear, while
Perth with the left wing would attack the governments
front. In support of Perth, Charles Edward Stuart would
bring up the second line. The Jacobite force however
started out well after dark at about 20:00. Murray led the
force cross country with the intention of avoiding govern-
ment outposts. This however led to very slow going in the
dark. Murrays one time aide-de-camp, James Chevalier
de Johnstone later wrote, this march across country in
Cumberlands route from Aberdeen towards Culloden. a dark night which did not allow us to follow any track,
and accompanied with confusion and disorder.[28] By
previous failures by Cope and Hawley. Cumberland de- the time the leading troop had reached Culraick, still 2
cided to wait out the winter, and moved his troops north- miles (3.2 km) from where Murrays wing was to cross
wards to Aberdeen. Around this time, the army was in- the River Nairn and encircle the town, there was only one
creased by 5,000 Hessian troops. The Hessian force, led hour left before dawn. After a heated council with other
by Prince Frederick of Hesse, took up position to the ocers, Murray concluded that there was not enough
south to cut o any path of retreat for the Jacobites. The time to mount a surprise attack and that the oensive
weather had improved to such an extent by 8 April that should be aborted. O'Sullivan went to inform Charles
Cumberland again resumed the campaign. The govern- Edward Stuart of the change of plan, but missed him in
ment army reached Cullen on 11 April, where it was the dark. Meanwhile, instead of retracing his path back,
joined by six battalions and two cavalry regiments.[22] Murray led his men left, down the Inverness road. In
Days later, the government army approached the River the darkness, while Murray led one-third of the Jacobite
Spey, which was guarded by a Jacobite force of 2,000, forces back to camp, the other two-thirds continued to-
made up of the Jacobite cavalry, the Lowland regiments wards their original objective, unaware of the change in
and over half of the armys French regulars. The Jaco- plan. One account of that night even records that Perth
bites quickly turned and ed, rst towards Elgin and then and Drummond made contact with government troops
to Nairn. By 14 April, the Jacobites had evacuated Nairn, before realising the rest of the Jacobite force had turned
and Cumberland camped his army at Balblair just west of home. Not long after the exhausted Jacobite forces had
the town.[23] made it back to Culloden, reports came of the advancing
government troops.[28] By then, many Jacobite soldiers
The Jacobite forces of about 5,400 left their base at had dispersed in search of food, while others were asleep
Inverness, leaving most of their supplies, and assembled in ditches and outbuildings.
5 miles (8 km) to the east near Drummossie,[24] around
12 miles (19 km) before Nairn. Charles Edward Stuart However, military historian Jeremy Black has contended
had decided to personally command his forces and took that even though the Jacobite force had become disor-
the advice of his adjutant general, Secretary O'Sullivan, dered and lost the element of surprise the night attack
who chose to stage a defensive action at Drummossie remained viable, and that if the Jacobites had advanced
Moor,[25] a stretch of open moorland enclosed between the conditions would have made government morale vul-
the walled Culloden[26] enclosures to the North and the nerable and disrupted their re discipline.[29][30]
walls of Culloden Park to the South.[27] Lord George
Murray did not like the ground and with other senior
ocers pointed out the unsuitability of the rough moor- 4 Battle on Culloden Moor
land terrain which was highly advantageous to the Duke
with the marshy and uneven ground making the famed
Highland charge somewhat more dicult while remain-
ing open to Cumberlands powerful artillery. They had
argued for a guerrilla campaign, but Charles Edward Stu-
art refused to change his mind.
Panorama of the battleeld, circa 2007. The ag on the left side
indicates the Jacobite lines, the ag on the right side shows the
3.1 Night attack at Nairn location of the Government lines.

On 15 April, the government army celebrated Cum- Early on a rainy 16 April, the well rested Government
berlands twenty-fth birthday by issuing two gallons of army struck camp and at about 05:00 set o towards
brandy to each regiment.[22] At Murrays suggestion, the the moorland around Culloden and Drummossie. Jaco-
Jacobites tried that evening to repeat the success of Pre- bite pickets rst sighted the Government advance guard
stonpans by carrying out a night attack on the govern- at about 08:00, when the advancing army came within 4
ment encampment. Murray proposed that they set o at miles (6.4 km) of Drummossie. Cumberlands informers
4.2 Highland charge 5

alerted him that the Jacobite army was forming up about of Lord Ogilvys Regiment; the Royal cossais; two bat-
1 mile (1.6 km) from Culloden Houseupon Culloden talions of Lord Lewis Gordon's Regiment. Farther back
Moor.[31][32] At about 11:00 the two armies were within were cavalry units. On the left were: Lord Strathallans
sight of one another with about 2 miles (3.2 km) of open Horse Bagots Hussars and possibly Balmerinos Life-
moorland between them.[31] As the Government forces guards. On the right were Lord Elchos Lifeguards and
steadily advanced across the moor, the driving rain and Fitzjamess Horse. And in the centre was Charles Ed-
sleet blew from the north-east into the faces of the ex- ward Stuarts tiny escort made up of Fitzjamess Horse
hausted Jacobite army. and Lifeguards. When Sullivans redeployment was com-
pleted Perths and Glenbuchats regiments were standing
on the extreme left wing and John Roy Stuart's was stand-
4.1 Opening moves ing beside Ardsheals.[33]
Cumberland brought forward the 13th and 62nd to ex-
The Jacobite army was originally arrayed between the tend his rst and second lines. At the same time, two
corners of Culloden and Culwhiniac parks (from left squadrons of Kingstons Horse were brought forward to
to right): the three Macdonald battalions; a small cover the right ank. These were then joined by two
one of Chisholms; another small one of Macleans and troops of Cobhams 10th Dragoons. While this was tak-
Maclachlans; Lady Mackintosh and Monaltries regi- ing place, Hawley began making his way through the Cul-
ments; Lord Lovats Regiment; Ardsheals Appin Stew- whiniac Parks intending to outank the Jacobite right
arts; Lochiels Regiment; and three battalions of the wing. Anticipating this, the two battalions of Lord Lewis
Atholl Brigade. Murray who commanded the right wing, Gordons regiment had lined the wall. However, since the
however became aware of the Leanach enclosure that lay Government dragoons stayed out of range, and the Jaco-
ahead of him, a wall that would become an obstacle in the bites were partly in dead ground they moved back and
event of a Jacobite advance. Without any consultation he formed up on a re-entrant at Culchunaig, facing south and
then moved the brigade down the moor and formed into covering the armys rear. Once Hawley had led the dra-
three columns. It seems probable that Murray intended to goons through the Parks he deployed them in two lines be-
shift the axis of the Jacobite advance to a more northerly neath the Jacobite guarded re-entrant. By this time the Ja-
direction, thus having the right wing clear the Leanach cobites were guarding the re-entrant from above with four
enclosure and possibly taking advantage of the downward battalions of Lord Lewis Gordons and Lord Ogilvys reg-
slope of the moor to the north.[33] iments, and the combined squadron of Fitzjamess Horse
and Elchos Lifeguards. Unable to see behind the Jaco-
bites above him, Hawley had his men stand and face the
Over the next twenty minutes, Cumberlands superior ar-
tillery battered the Jacobite lines, while Charles, moved
for safety out of sight of his own forces, waited for the
Government forces to move. Inexplicably, he left his
forces arrayed under Government re for over half an
hour. Although the marshy terrain minimized casualties,
the morale of the Jacobites began to suer. Several clan
leaders, angry at the lack of action, pressured Charles to
issue the order to charge. The Clan Chattan was rst of
the Jacobite army to receive this order, but an area of
Jacobite front line skews and stretches, Government forces com- boggy ground in front of them forced them to veer right
pensate; others break into and through Culwhiniac enclosure.
so that they obstructed the following regiments and the
attack was pushed towards the wall. The Jacobites ad-
However, the Duke of Perth seems to have misinterpreted vanced on the left ank of the Government troops, but
Murrays actions as only a general advance, and the Mac- were subjected to volleys of musket re and the artillery
donalds on the far left simply ignored him. The result was which had switched from roundshot to grapeshot.
the skewing of the Jacobite front line, with the (left wing)
Macdonalds still rooted on the Culloden Parks wall and
the (right wing) Atholl Brigade halfway down the Cul- 4.2 Highland charge
whiniac Parks wall. In consequence, large gaps imme-
diately appeared in the severely over-stretched Jacobite Despite this many Jacobites reached the government lines
lines. A shocked Sullivan had no choice but to posi- and, for the rst time, a battle was decided by a direct
tion the meagre 'second line' to ll the gaps. This sec- clash between charging highlanders and formed redcoats
ond line was (left to right): the Irish Picquets; the Duke equipped with muskets and socket bayonets. The brunt
of Perths Regiment; Glenbuchats; Lord Kilmarnocks of the Jacobite impact was taken by just two government
Footguards; John Roy Stuart's Regiment; two battalions regimentsBarrells 4th Foot and Dejeans 37th Foot.




Bayonet drill innovation said to have been developed to counter


the "Highland charge". Each soldier would thrust at the enemy on


his rightrather than the one straight aheadin order to bypass



rN the targe of Highlanders.[36]
Culloden Park

Forest Forest
units of Chisholms and the combined unit of Macleans
and Maclachlans. Every ocer in the Chisholm unit was
Jacobite front line charges the Government lines. killed or wounded and Col. Lachlan Maclachlan, who
led the combined unit of Macleans and Maclachlans, was
Barrells regiment lost 17 and suered 108 wounded, out gruesomely killed by a cannon shot. As the Macdonalds
of a total of 373 ocers and men. Dejeans lost 14 and suered casualties they began to give way. Immediately
had 68 wounded, with this units left wing taking a dis- Cumberland then pressed the advantage, ordering two
proportionately higher number of casualties. Barrells troops of Cobhams 10th Dragoons to ride them down.
regiment temporarily lost one of its two colours.[note 2] The boggy ground however impeded the cavalry and they
Major-General Huske, who was in command of the gov- turned to engage the Irish Picquets whom Sullivan had
ernments second line, quickly organised the counter brought up in an attempt to stabilise the deteriorating Ja-
attack. Huske ordered forward all of Lord Sempills cobite left ank.[note 4][40]
Fourth Brigade which had a combined total of 1,078 men
(Sempills 25th Foot, Conways 59th Foot, and Wolfes
8th Foot). Also sent forward to plug the gap was Blighs 4.3 Jacobite collapse and rout
20th Foot, which took up position between Sempills 25th
and Dejeans 37th. Huskes counter formed a ve battal- With the collapse of the left wing, Murray brought up the
ion strong horseshoe-shaped formation which trapped the Royal cossais and Kilmarnocks Footguards who were
Jacobite right wing on three sides.[34] still at this time unengaged. However, by the time they
had been brought into position, the Jacobite army was
Poor Barrells regiment were sorely pressed in rout. The Royal cossais exchanged musket re with
by those desperadoes and outanked. One Campbells 21st and commenced an orderly retreat, mov-
stand of their colours was taken; Collonel ing along the Culwhiniac enclosure in order to shield
Riches hand cutt o in their defence ... We themselves from artillery re. Immediately the half bat-
marched up to the enemy, and our left, talion of Highland militia commanded by Captain Colin
outanking them, wheeled in upon them; the Campbell of Ballimore which had stood inside the en-
whole then gave them 5 or 6 res with vast closure ambushed the Royal cossais. Hawley had pre-
execution, while their front had nothing left to viously left this Highland unit behind the enclosure, with
oppose us, but their pistolls and broadswords; orders to avoid contact with the Jacobites, to limit any
and re from their center and rear, (as, by chance of a friendly re incident. In the encounter Camp-
this time, they were 20 or 30 deep) was vastly bell of Ballimore was killed along with ve of his men.
more fatal to themselves, than us. The result was that the Royal cossais and Kilmarnocks
Captain-Lieutenant James Ashe Lee of Footguards were forced out into the open moor and were
Wolfes 8th Foot.[35] rushed at by three squadrons of Kerrs 11th Dragoons.
The eeing Jacobites must have put up a ght for Kerrs
11th recorded at least 16 horses killed during the entirety
Located on the Jacobite extreme left wing were the Mac- of the battle. The Irish picquets bravely covered the High-
donald regiments. Popular legend has it that these reg- landers retreat from the battleeld and prevented a mas-
iments refused to charge when ordered to do so, due to sacre. This action cost half of the 100 casualties suered
the perceived insult of being placed on the left wing.[37] in the battle.[41] The Royal cossais appear to have re-
Even so, due to the skewing of the Jacobite front lines, tired from the eld in two wings. One part of the regi-
the left wing had a further 200 metres (660 ft) of much ment surrendered upon the eld after suering 50 killed
boggier ground to cover than the right.[note 3] When the or wounded, but their colours were not taken and a large
Macdonalds charged, their progress was much slower number retired from the eld with the Jacobite Lowland
than that of the rest of the Jacobite forces. Standing regiments.[42]
on the right of these regiments were the much smaller This stand by the Royal cossais may have given Charles

artillerymen recorded as wounded died.[2] The only gov-

ernment casualty of high rank was Lord Robert Kerr, the
son of William Kerr, 3rd Marquess of Lothian.

5 Aftermath

One of at least fourteen standards or colours recorded as cap-

tured by Government forces at the battle.[43] This and a similar
blue saltire may have been used by the Atholl Brigade.[44]
The End of the 'Forty Five' Rebellion depicts the retreat of the
defeated Jacobites.
Edward Stuart the time to make his escape. At the time
when the Macdonald regiments were crumbling and ee-
ing the eld, Stuart seems to have been rallying Perths
and Glenbuchats regiments when O'Sullivan rode up to 5.1 Collapse of the Jacobite campaign
Captain Shea who commanded Stuarts bodyguard: Yu
see all is going to pot. Yu can be of no great succor, so As the rst of the eeing Highlanders approached Inver-
before a general deroute wch will soon be, Seize upon the ness they were met by a battalion of Frasers led by the
Prince & take him o ....[42] Shea then led Stuart from Master of Lovat. Tradition states that the Master of Lo-
the eld along with Perths and Glenbuchats regiments. vat immediately about-turned his men and marched down
From this point on the eeing Jacobite forces were split the road back towards Inverness, with pipes playing and
into two groups: the Lowland regiments retired in order colours ying. There are however varying traditions as to
southwards, making their way to Ruthven Barracks; the what happened at the bridge which spans the River Ness.
Highland regiments however were cut o by the Govern- One tradition is that the Master of Lovat intended to hold
ment cavalry, and forced to retreat down the road to In- the bridge until he was persuaded against it. Another is
verness. The result was that they were a perfect target that the bridge was seized by a party of Argyll Militia who
for the Government dragoons. Major-general Humphrey were involved in a skirmish when blocking the crossing
Bland led the charge against the eeing Highlanders, giv- of retreating Jacobites. While it is almost certain there
ing "Quarter to None but about Fifty French Ocers and was a skirmish upon the bridge, it has been proposed that
Soldiers He picked up in his Pursuit.[42] the Master of Lovat shrewdly switched sides and turned
upon the eeing Jacobites. Such an act would explain his
remarkable rise in fortune in the years that followed.[45]
4.4 Conclusion: casualties and prisoners Following the battle, the Jacobites Lowland units headed
south, towards Corrybrough and made their way to
Jacobite casualties are estimated at 1,5002,000 killed Ruthven Barracks, while their Highland units headed
or wounded.[2][3] Cumberlands ocial list of prisoners north, towards Inverness and on through to Fort Augus-
taken includes 154 Jacobites and 222 French prison- tus. There they were joined by Barisdales Macdonalds
ers (men from the 'foreign units in the French service). and a small battalion of MacGregors.[45] The roughly
Added to the ocial list of those apprehended were 172 1,500 men who assembled at Ruthven Barracks received
of the Earl of Cromarties men, captured after a brief en- orders from Charles Edward Stuart to the eect that all
gagement the day before near Littleferry. In striking con- was lost and to shift for himself as best he could.[46]
trast to the Jacobite losses, the government forces were Similar orders must have been received by the Highland
50 dead and 259 wounded, although a high proportion of units at Fort Augustus. By 18 April the Jacobite army was
those recorded as wounded are likely to have died of their disbanded. Ocers and men of the units in the French
wounds. For example, only 29 out of 104 wounded from service made for Inverness, where they surrendered as
Barrells 4th Foot survived to claim pensions. All 6 of the prisoners of war on 19 April. The rest of the army broke

up, with men heading for home or attempting to escape 5.2 Repercussions and persecution
Some ranking Jacobites made their way to Loch nan
Uamh, where Charles Edward Stuart had rst landed at
the outset of the campaign in 1745. Here on 30 April
they were met by the two French frigatesthe Mars and
Bellone. Two days later the French warships were spot-
ted and attacked by the smaller Royal Navy sloopsthe
Greyhound, Baltimore, and Terror. The result was the
last real battle in the campaign. During the six hours
in which the ferocious sea-battle raged the Jacobites re-
covered cargo on the beach which had been landed by
the French ships. In all 35,000 of gold was recovered
along with supplies.[45] Invigorated by the vast amounts
of loot and visible proof that the French had not deserted
them, the group of Highland chiefs decided to prolong After Culloden: Rebel Hunting by John Seymour Lucas depicts
the campaign. On 8 May, nearby at Murlaggan, Lochiel, the rigorous search for Jacobites in the days that followed Cullo-
Lochgarry, Clanranald and Barisdale all agreed to ren- den.
dezvous at Invermallie on 18 May. The plan was that
there they would be joined by what remained of Kep- The morning following the Battle of Culloden, Cumber-
pochs men and Cluny Macphersons regiment (which land issued a written order reminding his men that the
did not take part in the battle at Culloden). However, public orders of the rebels yesterday was to give us no
things did not go as planned. After about a month of quarter.[note 5] Cumberland alluded to the belief that such
relative inactivity, Cumberland moved his regulars into orders had been found upon the bodies of fallen Jacobites.
the Highlands. On 17 May three battalions of regulars In the days and weeks that followed, versions of the al-
and eight Highland companies reoccupied Fort Augus- leged orders were published in the Newcastle Journal and
tus. The same day the Macphersons surrendered. On the Gentlemans Journal. Today only one copy of the al-
the day of the planned rendezvous, Clanranald never ap- leged order to give no quarter exists.[50] It is however
peared and Lochgarry and Barisdale only showed up with considered to be nothing but a poor attempt at forgery, for
about 300 combined (most of whom immediately dis- it is neither written nor signed by Murray, and it appears
persed in search of food). Lochiel, who commanded on the bottom half of a copy of a declaration published in
possibly the strongest Jacobite unit at Culloden, was only 1745. In any event, Cumberlands order was not carried
able to muster about 300. The following morning Lochiel out for two days, after which contemporary accounts re-
was alerted that a body of Highlanders was approaching. port then that for the next two days the moor was searched
Assuming they were Barisdales Macdonalds, Locheil and all those wounded were put to death. On the other
waited until they were identied as Loudouns by the hand, the orders issued by Lord George Murray for the
red crosses in their bonnets. Locheils men dispersed conduct of the aborted night attack in the early hours of
without ghting. The following week the Government 16 April suggest that it would have been every bit as mer-
launched punitive expeditions into the Highlands which ciless. The instructions were to use only swords, dirks
continued throughout the summer.[45][46] and bayonets, to overturn tents, and subsequently to lo-
cate a swelling or bulge in the fallen tent, there to strike
Following his ight from the battle, Charles Edward Stu- and push vigorously.[50] [note 6] In total, over 20,000 head
art made his way towards the Hebrides with some sup- of livestock, sheep, and goats were driven o and sold at
porters. By 20 April, Stuart had reached Arisaig on Fort Augustus, where the soldiers split the prots.[52]
the west coast of Scotland. After spending a few days
with his close associates, Stuart sailed for the island of While in Inverness, Cumberland emptied the gaols that
Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides. From there he trav- were full of people imprisoned by Jacobite supporters,
elled to Scalpay, o the east coast of Harris, and from replacing them with Jacobites themselves. Prisoners
there made his way to Stornoway. [47]
For ve months were taken south to England to stand trial for high trea-
Stuart criss-crossed the Hebrides, constantly pursued by son. Many were held on hulks on the Thames or in
Government supporters and under threat from local lairds Tilbury Fort, and executions took place in Carlisle, York
who were tempted to betray him for the 30,000 upon and Kennington Common. The common Jacobite sup-
his head.[48] During this time he met Flora Macdonald, porters fared better than the ranking individuals. In total,
who famously aided him in a narrow escape to Skye. 120 common men were executed,[48] one third of them being
[note 7]
Finally, on 19 September, Stuart reached Borrodale on deserters from the British Army. The common
Loch nan Uamh in Arisaig, where his party boarded two prisoners drew lots amongst themselves and only one out
small French ships, which ferried them to France. He[47] of twenty actually came to trial. Although most of those
never returned to Scotland. who did stand trial were sentenced to death, almost all
of these had their sentences commuted to penal trans-

A contemporary engraving depicting the executions of

Kilmarnock and Balmerino at Great Tower Hill, on 18 August

portation to the British colonies for life by the Traitors

Transported Act 1746 (20 Geo. II, c. 46).[55] In all, 936
men were thus transported, and 222 more were banished.
Even so, 905 prisoners were actually released under the Memorial cairn erected in 1881.[60]
Act of Indemnity which was passed in June 1747. An-
other 382 obtained their freedom by being exchanged for
prisoners of war who were held by France. Of the total 6 Culloden battleeld today
3,471 prisoners recorded nothing is known of the fate of
648.[56] The high ranking rebel lords were executed on Today, a visitor centre is located near the site of the battle.
Tower Hill in London.
This centre was rst opened in December 2007, with the
Following up on the military success won by their intention of preserving the battleeld in a condition sim-
forces, the British Government enacted laws to incor- ilar to how it was on 16 April 1746.[61] One dierence
porate Scotlandspecically the Scottish Highlands is that it currently is covered in shrubs and heather; dur-
within the rest of Britain. Members of the Episcopal ing the 18th century, however, the area was used as com-
clergy were required to give oaths of allegiance to the mon grazing ground, mainly for tenants of the Culloden
reigning Hanoverian dynasty.[57] The Abolition of Heri- estate.[62] Those visiting can walk the site by way of foot-
table Jurisdictions Act of 1747 ended the hereditary right paths on the ground and can also enjoy a view from above
of landowners to govern justice upon their estates through on a raised platform.[63] Possibly the most recognisable
barony courts.[58] Previous to this act, feudal lords (which feature of the battleeld today is the 20 feet (6.1 m) tall
included clan chiefs) had considerable judicial and mili- memorial cairn, erected by Duncan Forbes in 1881.[60] In
tary power over their followerssuch as the oft quoted the same year Forbes also erected headstones to mark the
power of pit and gallows.[48][57] Lords who were loyal mass graves of the clans.[64] The thatched roofed farm-
to the Government were greatly compensated for the loss house of Leanach which stands today dates from about
of these traditional powers, for example the Duke of Ar- 1760; however, it stands on the same location as the turf-
gyll was given 21,000.[48] Those lords and clan chiefs walled cottage that probably served as a eld hospital
who had supported the Jacobite rebellion were stripped of for Government troops following the battle.[62] A stone,
their estates and these were then sold and the prots were known as The English Stone, is situated west of the Old
used to further trade and agriculture in Scotland.[57] The Leanach cottage and is said to mark the burial place of the
forfeited estates were managed by factors. Anti-clothing Government dead.[65] West of this site lies another stone,
measures were taken against the highland dress by an Act erected by Forbes, marking the place where the body of
of Parliament in 1746. The result was that the wearing of Alexander McGillivray of Dunmaglass was found after
tartan was banned except as a uniform for ocers and the battle.[66][67] A stone lies on the eastern side of the
soldiers in the British Army and later landed men and battleeld that is supposed to mark the spot where Cum-
their sons.[59] berland directed the battle.[68] The battleeld has been

inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the 7 Order of battle: Culloden, 16
Historic Environment (Amendment) Act 2011.[69]
April 1746

7.1 Jacobite army

Charles Edward Stuart

Colonel John William Sullivan

7.2 Government Army

Captain-General: HRH Duke of Cumberland

Commander-in-Chief North Britain: Lieutenant-General
Henry Hawley
See the following reference for source of tables[85]

Of the 16 British infantry battalions, 11 were En-

In 1881, Duncan Forbes erected the headstones that mark the glish, 4 were Scottish (3 Lowland + 1 Highland), and
mass graves of fallen Jacobite soldiers. They lie on either side of 1 Irish battalion.
an early 19th-century road which runs through the battleeld.[64]
Of the 3 British battalions of horse (dragoons), 2
were English and 1 was Scottish.
Since 2001, the site of the battle has undergone
topographic, geophysical, and metal detector surveys in
addition to archaeological excavations. Interesting nds 8 British Army casualties
have been made in the areas where the ercest ghting
occurred on the Government left wing, particularly where See following reference for source of table[89]
Barrells and Dejeans regiments stood. For example, pis-
tol balls and pieces of shattered muskets have been uncov-
ered here which indicate close quarters ghting, as pis-
tols were only used at close range and the musket pieces 9 The Battle of Culloden in art
appear to have been smashed by pistol/musket balls or
heavy broadswords. Finds of musket balls appear to mir- An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745, by David
ror the lines of men who stood and fought. Some balls Morier, often known as The Battle of Culloden, is
appear to have been dropped without being red, some the best-known portrayal of the battle, and the best-
missed their targets, and others are distorted from hitting known of Moriers works. It depicts the attack of
human bodies. In some cases it may be possible to iden- the Highlanders against Barrells Regiment, and is
tify whether the Jacobites or Government soldiers red based on sketches made by Morier in the immediate
certain rounds, because the Jacobite forces are known aftermath of the battle.
to have used a large quantity of French muskets which
red a slightly smaller calibre shot than that of the British Augustin Heckel's The Battle of Culloden (1746;
Armys Brown Bess. Analysis of the nds conrms that reprinted 1797) is held by the National Galleries of
the Jacobites used muskets in greater numbers than has Scotland.[90]
traditionally been thought. Not far from where the hand-
to-hand ghting took place, fragments of mortar shells
The Battle of Culloden and consequent imprisonment and
have been found.[70] Though Forbess headstones mark
execution of the Jacobite prisoners of war is depicted in
the graves of the Jacobites, the location of the graves of
the song Tam kde tee eka Flee (Where the Big Wa-
about sixty Government soldiers is unknown. The re-
ter Fleet ows) by the Czech Celtic-rock band Hakka
cent discovery of a 1752 silver Thaler, from the Duchy
of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, may however lead archaeolo-
gists to these graves. A geophysical survey, directly be-
neath the spot where the coin was found, seems to indi- SUMO The Italo-Argentine band Sumo made a song
cate the existence of a large rectangular burial pit. It is titled Crua Chan, perfectly chronicling the develop-
thought possible that the coin was dropped by a soldier ment of the battle. The work was composed by Ital-
who once served on the continent, while he visited the ian Luca Prodan, bandleader; he had knowledge of
graves of his fallen comrades.[70] the battle in his student years in England.
11.1 Footnotes 11

Frank Watson Wood, (1862-1953). Although he 11.1 Footnotes

was better known as a Naval artist who mainly
painted in water colours Frank Watson Wood [1] Colonel John William Sullivan wrote, All was confused
painted The Highland Charge at the Battle of Cullo- ... such a chiefe of a tribe had sixty men, another thiry,
den in oil. Frank Watson Wood exhibited at Royal another twenty, more or lesse; they would not mix nor
Scotland Academy, The Royal society of painters in seperat, & wou'd have double ocers, yt is two Captns
water Colours and The Royal Academy. & two Lts, to each Compagny, strong or weak ... but by
little, were brought into a certain regulation.

[2] An unknown British Army corporals description of the

10 The Battle of Culloden in ction charge into the Governments left wing: When we saw
them coming towards us in great Haste and Fury, we red
at about 50 Yards Distance, which made Hundreds fall, we
The Battle of Culloden is an important episode in red at about 50 Yards Distance, which made Hundreds
D. K. Broster's The Flight of the Heron (1925), the fall; notwithstanding which, they were so numerous, that
rst volume of her Jacobite Trilogy, which has been they still advanced, and were almost upon us before we
made into a TV serial twice: by Scottish Television had loaden again. We immediately gave them another full
in 1968 as eight episodes, and by the BBC in 1976. Fire and the Front Rank charged their Bayonets Breast
high, and the Center and Rear Ranks kept up a continual
Naomi Mitchison's novel The Bull Calves (1947) Firing, which, in half an Hours Time, routed their whole
deals with Culloden and its aftermath.[91] Army. Only Barrels Regiment and ours was engaged, the
Rebels designing to break or ank us but our Fire was so
Culloden (1964), a BBC TV docudrama written and hot, most of us having discharged nine Shot each, that they
directed by Peter Watkins, depicts the battle in the were disappointed.
style of 20th-century television reporting.
[3] James Johnstone, a member of Glengarrys Regiment
Dragony in Amber by Diana Gabaldon (1992, Lon- wrote that the ground was covered with water which
don) is a detailed ctional tale, based on historical reached halfway up the leg.[38]
sources, of the Scots, High and Lowlanders, mostly
[4] Cumberland wrote of the Macdonalds: They came run-
the Highlanders within Clan Fraser. It has the ele-
ning on in their wild manner, and upon the right where I
ment of time travel, with the 20th Century protago- had place myself, imagining the greatest push would be
nist knowing how the battle would turn out and was there, they came down there several times within a hun-
still once transported to the 18th century caught dred yards of our men, ring their pistols and brandish-
up in the foredoomed struggle. Basis for the STARZ ing their swords, but the Royals and Pulteneys hardly took
Series Outlander. their re-locks from their shoulders, so that after those
faint attempts they made o; and the little squadrons on
The Highlanders (1966-67) is a serial in the our right were sent to pursue them.[39]
BBC science ction television series Doctor Who.
The time-traveller known as the Doctor and his [5] Cumberland wrote: A captain and fty foot to march di-
companions Polly and Ben arrive in the TARDIS in rectly and visit all the cottages in the neighbourhood of
1746, hours after the Battle of Culloden. The story the eld of battle, and search for rebels. The ocers and
men will take notice that the public orders of the rebels
introduces the character of Jamie McCrimmon.
yesterday was to give us no quarter.[49]
Chasing the Deer (1994) is a cinematic dramatisa-
[6] A Highland Jacobite ocer wrote: We were likewise
tion of the events leading up to the battle, starring forbid in the attack to make use of rearms, but only of
Brian Blessed and Fish sword, dirk and bayonet, to cutt the tent strings, and pull
down the poles, and where observed a swelling or bulge in
Drummossie Moor Jack Cameron, The Irish the falen tent, there to strick and push vigorously.[51]
Brigade and the battle of Culloden is a historical
novel by Ian Colquhoun (Arima/Swirl, 2008) which [7] Out of 27 ocers of the English Manchester Regiment":
tells the story of the battle and the preceding days one died in prison; one was acquitted; one was pardoned;
from the point of view of the Franco-Irish regulars two were released for giving evidence; four escaped; two
or 'Piquets who covered the Jacobite retreat.[92] were banished; three were transported; and eleven were
executed. The sergeants of the regiment suered worse,
In Harold Coyle's novel Savage Wilderness the open- with seven out of ten hanged. At least seven privates were
ing chapter deals with the protagonists service battle executed, some no doubt died in prison, and most of the
of Culloden rest were transported to the colonies.[54]

[8] Farquharson of Monaltries Battalion is sometimes re-

ferred to as the Mar battalion of Lord Lewis Gordon's
11 References Regiment, and raised in Braemar and upper Deeside by
Francis Farquharson of Monaltrie.[76]

[9] This party of MacGregors were attached to Farquhar- [3] Harrington (1991), p. 83.
son of Monaltries battalion of Lord Lewis Gordons
Regiment. They were commanded by MacGregor of [4] The Making of the Union. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
[5] McGarry,Stephen, Irish Brigades Abroad Dublin 2013.
[10] Attached to the MacDonald of Keppochs Regiment was [6] Anderson, Peter (1920). Culloden Moor and story of the
MacDonald of Glencoes Regiment. It joined the Jacobite battle. Oxford: E. Mackay. p. 16.
army on 27 August 1745 and served the rest of the cam-
paign attached to MacDonald of Keppochs Regiment. [7] Pollard, Tony. Culloden: The History and Archaeology
This was a very small unit, of no more than 120 men, and of the last Clan Battle. Published 2009. ISBN 1-84884-
was commanded by Alexander MacDonald of Glencoe. 020-9.
It surrendered to General Campbell on 12 May 1746 and
had suered 52 killed, 36 wounded. Instead of a regimen- [8] Thompson, p. 148; Trench, pp. 217223.
tal standard, the regiment is said to have marched behind
[9] Harrington (1991), p. 53.; also Reid (2997), p. 45.
a bunch of heather attached to a pike.[81]
[10] Barthorp (1982), p. 1718.
[11] MacGregors serving in MacDonald of Keppochs
Regiment were commanded by John MacGregor of [11] Harrington (1991), pp. 3540.
[12] Reid (2006), pp. 2021.
[12] Grant of Glenmoristons Battalion was a very small unit of
abt 80100 men, from Glenmoriston and Glen Urquhart. [13] Reid (1997), p. 58.
The unit was commanded by Maj Patrick Grant of Glen-
[14] Reid (2006), pp. 2022.
moriston and Alexander Grant, younger of Shewglie.
About 30 men from this unit were killed at Culloden, [15] Reid (1997), p. 50.
though both Glenmoriston and Shewglie, younger es-
caped. Almost all of the 87 of the men from this unit [16] Harrington (1991), pp. 4043.
who surrendered on 4 May were transported.[82]
[17] Reid (2006), pp. 2223.
[13] Sometimes referred to as the Strathbogie Battalion of
Lord Lewis Gordons Regiment. Many of the 300 men [18] Reid (2002), p. authors note.
were highlanders, though most feudal levies and merce- [19] Harrington (1991), pp. 2529.
naries not clansmen. An intelligence report of 11 De-
cember 1745 stated that of the 300 men, only 100 have [20] Harrington (1991), pp. 2933.
joined; mostly herds and hiremen from about Strathbogie
and unaquainted with the use of arms; many are pressed [21] Harrington (1991), p. 33.
and intend to desert ....[82]
[22] Harrington (1991), p. 44.
[14] The unit was recruited in Edinburgh, by Stuart who was a
[23] Reid (2002), p. 5156.
captain in the Royal cossais at the time. For a time the
unit included some former members of the British Army. [24] Map of Drummossie. MultiMap.
At the battle it eventually stood in the front, next to the
Stewarts of Appin.[83] [25] Map of Drummossie Moor. MultiMap.

[15] A composite regiment formed in March 1746 by com- [26] Map of Culloden. MultiMap.
bining the dismounted Lord Kilmarnock's Horse, Lord
[27] Get map, UK: Ordnance Survey.
Pisligo's Horse, and James Crichton of Auchingouls
Regiment, as well as forced recruits from Aberdeen- [28] Reid (2002), pp. 5658.
shire courtesy of Lady Erroll (mother-in-law to Lord
Kilmarnock).[84] [29] Britain as a military power 16881815 (1999) Page 32

[16] At least two companies of MacGregors, commanded by [30] Black,Jeremy, Culloden and the '45(1990)
James Mor Drummond, served in the Duke of Perths
Regiment.[77] [31] Harrington (1991), p. 47.

[32] Roberts (2002), p. 168.

[17] Renamed the 48th Foot in 1748.[18]
[33] Reid (2002), pp. 5868.

11.2 Notes [34] Reid (2002), pp. 6872.

[1] Site Record for Culloden Moor, Battleeld; Culloden Muir; [35] Reid (2002), p. 72.
Culloden Battleeld; Battle Of Culloden. Royal Commis- [36] Reid (1996) British Redcoat 17401793, pp. 9, 5658.
sion on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scot-
land. [37] Roberts (2002), p. 173.

[2] Pittock (2016). [38] Reid (2002), p. 73.

11.2 Notes 13

[39] Roberts (2002), p. 173.; also Reid (2002), p. 77. [67] "'The Well of the Dead', Culloden Battleeld. www. ( Retrieved 9 November
[40] Reid (2002), pp. 7280. 2008.
[41] McGarry, Irish Brigades Abroad p. 122 [68] Cumberland stone. Culloden Battleeld Memorial
[42] Reid (2002), pp.8085. Project. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Re-
trieved 9 November 2008.
[43] Reid (2006), p. 16.
[69] Inventory battleelds. Historic Scotland. Retrieved 12
[44] Reid (2002), p. 93. April 2012.
[45] Reid (2002), pp. 8890. [70] Point of Contact: Archaeology at Culloden. University
of Glasgow Centre for Battleeld Archaeology. Retrieved
[46] Roberts (2002), p. 182183.
6 March 2009.
[47] Harrington (1991), p. 8586.
[71] Reid gives 650 in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however he gives
[48] Prebble (1973), p. 301. about 700 in Reid (2006), p. 16.

[49] Roberts (2002), p. 178. [72] Reid gives 150 in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however he states
The unit was just 250 strong at Culloden in Reid (2006),
[50] Roberts (2002), pp. 17780. p. 25.
[51] Lockhart (1817), p. 508. [73] Reid gives 500 in Reid (2002), p. 26.; he states that
[52] Magnusson (2003), p. 623. Inverallochies battalion that took part in the battle num-
bered about 300.
[53] Harrington (1996), p. 88.
[74] Reid (2006), p. 20.
[54] Monod (1993), p. 340.
[75] Reid gives 500'" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however gives
[55] An act to prevent the return of such rebels and traitors Some 300 strong at Falkirk, and about 350 strong at Cul-
concerned in the late rebellion, as have been, or shall be loden in Reid (2006), p. 22.
pardoned on condition of transportation; and also to hin-
der their going into the enemies country. [76] Reid (2006), p. 18.

[56] Roberts (2002), pp. 196197. [77] Reid (2006), p. 22.

[57] Britain from 1742 to 1754. Encyclopdia Britannica. [78] Reid gives 182 in Reid (2002), p. 26; however states the
Archived from the original on 20 March 2009. Retrieved unit was apparently with a strength of some 200 men in
4 March 2009. Reid (2006), p. 22.

[58] Brown (1997), p. 133. [79] Reid (2006), pp. 1526.

[59] Gibson (2002), pp. 2728. [80] Reid gives 100 in Reid (2002) p. 26.; however states no
more than about 80 strong in Reid (2006) p. 17.
[60] The Memorial Cairn. Culloden Battleeld Memorial
Project. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Re- [81] Reid (2006), p. 21.
trieved 9 November 2008.
[82] Reid (2006), p. 19.
[61] New Visitor Centre. Culloden Battleeld Memorial
Project. Archived from the original on 18 August 2008. [83] Reid (2006), p. 26.
Retrieved 9 November 2008.
[84] Reid (2006), p. 1920.
[62] Reid (2002), pp. 9192.
[85] Unless noted elsewhere, units and unit sizes are from, Reid
[63] Whats New?". Culloden Battleeld Memorial Project. (2002), pp. 2627.
Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Re-
trieved 9 November 2008. [86] Reid lists this as Howards, Reid (1996), p. 195.; and
Howards (3rd)", Reid (1996), p. 196.
[64] Graves of the clans. Culloden Battleeld Memorial
Project. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Re- [87] Reid lists this as Blighs, Reid (1996), p. 195.; and
trieved 9 November 2008. Blighs (20th)", Reid (1996), p. 197.
[65] Field of the English. Culloden Battleeld Memorial [88] Reid lists this as Campbells, Reid (1996), p. 195.; and
Project. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Re- Campbells (21st)", Reid (1996), p. 197.
trieved 9 November 2008.
[89] Reid (1996), pp. 195198.
[66] Well of the dead. Culloden Battleeld Memorial Project.
Archived from the original on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 9 [90] Augustin Heckel: The Battle of Culloden. National Gal-
November 2008. leries of Scotland. Retrieved 3 April 2013.

[91] Cairns, Craig (2012). Devine, T M; Wormald, Jenny, eds. Prebble, John (1962). Culloden. Atheneum.
The Literary Tradition. The Oxford handbook of modern
Scottish history. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Prebble, John (1973). The Lion in the North. Pen-
Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19-956369-2. guin Books. ISBN 0-14-003652-0.

[92] Colquhoun, Ian (2008). Drummossie Moor Jack Reid, Stuart (1996). British Redcoat 17401793.
Cameron, The Irish Brigade and the Battle of Culloden. Warrior series. 19. London: Osprey Publishing.
Swirl. ISBN 1-84549-281-1. ISBN 1-85532-554-3.
Reid, Stuart (1996). 1745, A Military History of the
11.3 Bibliography Last Jacobite Rising. Sarpedon. ISBN 1-885119-
McGarry, Stephen (2013). Irish Brigades Abroad.
The History Press. ISBN 978-1-84588-799-5. Reid, Stuart (1997). Highland Clansman 1689
1746. Warrior series. 21. Osprey Publishing. ISBN
Barthorp, Michael (1982). The Jacobite Rebellions 1-85532-660-4.
16891745. Men-at-arms series. 118. Osprey Pub-
lishing. ISBN 0-85045-432-8. Reid, Stuart (2002). Culloden Moor 1746: The
Death of the Jacobite Cause. Campaign series. 106.
Brown, Stewart J. (1997). William Robertson and Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-412-4.
the Expansion of Empire. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-57083-2. Reid, Stuart (2006). The Scottish Jacobite Army
174546. Elite series. 149. Osprey Publishing.
Patterson, Raymond Campbell (1998). A Land Af- ISBN 1-84603-073-0.
icted: Scotland & the Covenanter Wars, 163890.
Roberts, John Leonard (2002). The Jacobite Wars:
Cowan, Ian (1976). The Scottish Covenanters, Scotland and the Military Campaigns of 1715 and
16601688. London. 1745. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
ISBN 1-902930-29-0.
Duy, Christopher (2003). The '45: Bonnie Prince
Charlie and the Untold Story of the Jacobite Rising. Sadler, John (2006). Culloden: The Last Charge of
Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35525-9. the Highland Clans. NPI Media Group. ISBN 0-
Harrington, Peter (1991). Chandler, David G., ed.
Culloden 1746, The Highland Clans Last Charge. Smith, Hannah (2006). Georgian Monarchy: Poli-
Campaign series. 12. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1- tics and Culture. Cambridge University Press.
Smurthwaite, David (1984). Ordnance Survey Com-
Gibson, John G. (2002). Old and New World High- plete Guide to the Battleelds of Britain. Webb &
land Bagpiping. McGill-Queens University Press. Bower.
ISBN 0-7735-2291-3.
Thompson, Andrew C. (2011) George II: King and
Harris, Tim (2005). Restoration: Charles II and his Elector. New Haven and London: Yale University
Kingdoms, 16601685. London. Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11892-6
Harris, Tim (2006). Revolution: The Great Crisis of Trench, Charles Chevenix (1975) George II. Lon-
the British Monarchy, 16851720. London. don: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-0481-X
Lockhart, George (1817). The Lockhart papers:
Film and documentaries
containing memoirs and commentaries upon the af-
fairs of Scotland from 1702 to 1715. 2. London.
Watkins, Peter (director/writer) (15 December
Maclean, Fitzroy (1991). Scotland, A Concise His- 1964). Culloden. BBC.
tory. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27706-0.
Culloden: The Jacobites Last Stand. Battleeld
Magnusson, Magnus (2003). Scotland: The Story of Britain. 2004. BBC.
a Nation. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3932-9.
Monod, Paul Kleber (1993). Jacobitism and the 11.4 Further reading
English People, 16881788. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-44793-3. Black, Jeremy (April 2002). Culloden and the '45.
Pickering, W. (ed.) (1881). An Old Story Re-told Stroud: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5636-2.
From The Newcastle Courant. The Rebellion of The Battle of Culloden (TV Movie, BBC, 1964), http://

12 External links
Culloden Battleeld Memorial Project

Cumberlands dispatch from the battle, published in

the London Gazette

Ascanius; or, the Young Adventurer

Culloden Moor and the Story of the Battle (1867


Controversy over the redevelopment of the NTS vis-

itor centre at Culloden

A personal account of the battle.

Battle of Culloden Moor

Ghosts of Culloden including the Great Scree and

Highlander Ghost

The French Stone at Culloden


A plan of the battle of Coullodin moore fought on

the 16th of Aprile 1746, by Daniel Paterson, 1746

Plan of the Battle of Culloden, by Anon, ca 1748

Plan of the battle of Collodin ..., by Jasper Leigh
Jones, 1746
A plan of the Battle of Culloden and the adjacent
country, shewing the incampment of the English
army at Nairn and the march of the Highlanders
in order to attack them by night, by John(?) Fin-
layson, 1746(?)

13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

13.1 Text
Battle of Culloden Source: Contributors: Derek Ross, Mav, Berek,
Sjc, Maury Markowitz, Isis~enwiki, Leandrod, Llywrch, Nikai, Med, GCarty, Charles Matthews, Haukurth, Camerong, Eugene van der
Pijll, Phil Boswell, Sbbhattacharyya, Gentgeen, Robbot, Craig Stuntz, RedWolf, Ashley Y, Wjhonson, Halibutt, Demerzel~enwiki, Shan-
nonr, SoLando, Agendum, Richy, DocWatson42, Jriddell, Yak, Everyking, Joconnor, JimD, Bobblewik, R. end, Gdr, Doops, Necrothesp,
Willhsmit, Bbpen, Lacrimosus, Glasperlenspiel, Grstain, D6, An Siarach, Rich Farmbrough, Dave souza, Bender235, A purple wikiuser,
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MacAuslan, Maproom, Rosenknospe, Dlsnider, Jaust, Trip Johnson, Signalhead, Rodolph, Waes2, Mrjohnvrose, EH101, Station1, Philip
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RedStan, D'ohBot, Brianja2, Atlantia, Citation bot 1, Scotland Rules, Redrose64, Moonraker, Serols, Wikiain, Historian of Scotland,
Keri, Trappist the monk, Lotje, Overagainst, RockDrummerQ, Brianann MacAmhlaidh, Eastfarthingan, DASHBot, Anglecynn, Harvey
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Manytexts, ClueBot NG, NordhornerII, PKimage, Tmaynes, Costesseyboy, IgnorantArmies, Oddbodz, Helpful Pixie Bot, Westminster-
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conaFrere, Steveke140200, CAPTAIN RAJU, SmartyBootz, InternetArchiveBot, Derendila, GreenC bot, Jacobite45, Sammuell Carpenter
and Anonymous: 327

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