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Fariza Khalid
#Is the development of new knowledge,
skills or attitudes as an individual
interacts with information and
environment (Smaldino et al., 2005, p.
#Deliveryof information
#An appropriate environment
#Learners interests in that
#The arrangement of information
and the environment to facilitate
#Gagne (1985) Instruction as a set
of events external to learner
designed to support the internal
process of learning.
#Ameans of communication and
source of information
#Derived from Latin word meaning
between which refers to anything
that carries information between a
source and a receiver.
# (1) as the media born of the communications revolution
which can be used for instructional purposes alongside the
teacher, textbook and blackboard,
# (2) as a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and
evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in
terms of specific objectives, based on research in human
learning and communications, and employing a
combination of human and non-human resources to bring
about more effective instruction (The Commission of
Instructional Technology)
#Theapplication of our scientific
knowledge about human learning to
the practical tasks of teaching and
learning (Heinich, Molenda &
Russell, 1993)
#The systematic applications of specific or
other knowledge to practical tasks
(Galbraith, 1967)
#The theory and practice
#of design, development, utilization,
management and evaluation
#of processes and resources
#and for learning (Seels & Richy, 1994)
Print technologies
Audiovisual technologies
Integrated technologies

Media utilization
Instructional Diffusions of
system design innovations
Message design Implementation
Instructional DEVELOPMENT and
strategies institutionalization
characteristics DOMAINS

Problem analysis management
referenced management
measurement Delivery
Formative management
evaluation Information
Summative management
# instructionaldesign is an organised
procedure that includes the steps of
analyzing, designing, developing,
implementing and evaluating
instructions. (Seels & Richey, 1994, p.
# Analyzing:
o Defining what is to be learned
# Designing:
o Specifying how it is to be learned
# Developing
o Authoring or producing the instructional material
# Implementing
o Using the materials and strategies in context
# Evaluating
o Determining the adequacy of the instruction
# Involves planning for the manipulation of the
physical form of the message (Grabowski, 1991, p.
# Encompasses:
# Principles of attention and perception that direct
specifications for the physical forms of message
which are intended to communicate between a
sender and a receiver.
#Deals with the most micro of levels through
small units such as individual visuals,
sequences, pages and screen.
#Design must be specific to both medium and
the learning tasks.
#..Are specifications for selecting and
sequencing events and activities within a
lesson (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31)

#Strategies differ depending on learning

situation, the nature of content and the
types of learning desired (Merril, Tennyson &
Posey, 1992)
#are those facets of the learners
experiential background that impact the
effectiveness of a learning process.
#Learner characteristics impact the
components of instruction.
Involves the area of media production and media

Development is the process of translating the

design specifications into physical form.

Development is driven by theory and design and

must respond to the formative demands of
evaluation and utilization practices and
management needs.
(content driven)

manifestation of the
technology Instructional strategy
(hardware, software, (theory driven)
# ..are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as
books and static materials, primarily through
mechanical or photographic representation and
# Includes:
o Text
o Graphic
o Photographic representation and reproduction
Verbal text
Visual text
# ..are ways to produce or deliver materials by using
mechanicals or electronic machines t present
auditory and visual messages
# Audio visual instruction = the production and
utilization of materials that involve learning through
sight and hearing and that do not depend
exclusively on the comprehension of words or other
similar symbols.
# Characteristics:
o Linear in nature
# Examples: o Present dynamic visuals
o Films o Used in a manner pre-determined by the
o Slides designer
o Transparencies o Physical representations of real and abstract
o Television ideas
o Video o Developed according to principles of both
behavioural and cognitive psychology
o Often teacher-centered / low degree of
learner interactivity
# ..are ways to produce or deliver materials using
microprocessor-based resource
# Information is stored electronically in the form of
digital data
# Computer-based instruction (CBI)
# Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
# Computer-managed instruction (CMI) etc
# are ways to produce and deliver materials which
encompass several forms of media under the
control of a computer
# E.g: computer + video player + display devices +
audio system
# Characteristics of integrated technologies:
o Used in random and non sequential
o Can be used the way the learner desires
o Ideas are often presented realistically in context of the
learners experiences (according to what is relevant to
the learners)
o Learning is cognitively-centered and organised so that
knowledge is constructed as the lesson is used
o Demonstrate high degree of learner interactivity
o Integrate words and imagery from many media
# ..is the act of using processes and resources for learning

Preparing learners to interact with materials

Matching learners with specifies materials and activities

Providing guidance during engagement

Providing for assessment of the results

Incorporating this usage into the continuing procedures of the organization

#..isthe systematic use of the process of
communication through planned strategies
for the purpose of gaining adoption
#Is a decision-making process based on
instructional design specifications
# ..isthe process of communication through planned
strategies for the purpose of gaining adoption
# To bring about change
# Stages of DoI (Rogers, 1983):

Awareness Interest Trial Adoption

is using instructional materials or
strategies in real (not simulated) settings
Implementation Purpose = to ensure proper use by
individuals in the organization

is the continuing, routine use of

instructional innovation in the structure
and culture of an organization
Institutionalization Purpose = to integrate the innovation in
the structure and life of the organization
# Are the rules ad actions of society that affect the diffusion and
the use of instructional technology
# E.g. copyright law, standard for equipment and programs etc
# Management involves controlling instructional techolgoy

Planning Organizing

Coordinating Supervising
Project Involves planning, monitoring, and controlling
management ID and development projects

Resource Involves planning, monitoring and controlling

resources support systems and services e.g.
management budget, supplies, time, facilities

Delivery system Involves planning, monitoring, and controlling

the method by which distribution of
management instructional materials is organised

Involves planning, monitoring, and

Information controlling the storage, transfer and
management processing of information in order to provide
resources for learning
# ..Is the process of determining the adequacy of instruction
and learning

Problem analysis

Criterion referenced measurement

Formative and summative evaluation