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Sam Svoboda

Ms. Born

English 2-4

27 February 2017

After Julius Caesar was literally stabbed in the back by his friends, Marcus Brutus and

Marc Antony both make speeches at his funeral. In William Shakespeares Julius Caesar, two of

Caesars friends attempt to calm the people of Rome. Although both Marc Antony and Marcus

Brutus made strong speeches, Marc Antony achieved his purpose of swaying the people of Rome

to his cause by using the rhetorical strategies of pathos, dichotomies, and repetition better than

Marcus Brutus. He used pathos by appealing to the people of Romes sense of justice and

belonging, dichotomies by asking rhetorical questions, and using repetition to put emphasis on

key phrases he wanted his audience to remember.

Marc Antony and Marcus Brutus both used the rhetorical strategy of pathos to sway the

people of Rome to their side. However, Marc Antony used pathos to appeal to the people's sense

of justice and belonging which overall appealed to the people more than Marcus Brutuss use of

pathos targeting the peoples sense of anger. Marcus Brutus starts his speech by pointing out how

the people of Rome should listen to him because Brutus love to Caesar was no less than[the

people of Rome](III.ii). Then he goes on to explain why exactly he killed Caesar, and he starts

to notice that the people are starting to see his intentions through his point of view. Brutus then

proposes Had you rather Caesar were living and die all slaves than that Caesar were dead to live

all free? (III.ii). He uses rhetorical questions to appeal to the peoples sense of anger. During his

speech, Marc Antony points out to the people that [Caesar] hath brought many captives home to

Rome whose ransoms did coffers fill (III.ii). Antony appeals to the peoples sense of justice and
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belonging by reminding them of when Caesar made money for Rome and filled the peoples

banks. Antony points out to that if Caesar was considerate enough to help out the Romans, he did

not deserve to be killed. Marc Antony appeals better to the people by using pathos because he

reminds them of a time when they were thankful for Caesar, rather that reminding them of their

hatred for him, like Brutuss speech did.

A dichotomy as defined by Merriam-Webster Incorporation is a division into two

especially mutually exclusive or contradictory groups or entities(Merriam-Websters collegiate

dictionary, 2017). Marcus Brutus and Mark Antony must have loved dichotomies as much as

they loved Caesar, because they both used them effectively in their speeches. In his speech,

Marcus Brutus uses dichotomies as questions he asks the audience, that they can not answer

without looking like fools. He concludes major points in his speech with If any speak have I

offended? Who here is so rude that would not be a Roman?(III.ii). He uses dichotomies to tell the

audience that if they were offended by what Brutus said, they were not honorable enough to be

Roman. In his speech, Marc Antony defends the points made at Caesar by Marcus Brutus. As he

is defending Caesars name after Brutus called him ambitious, Antony points out a time when

Caesar was to be crowned to be king but he did thrice refuse: was this ambition? Yet Brutus

says he was ambitious(III.ii). The audience know that if they answer this question they will

either be taking Brutuss or Antonys side. Marc Antony appeals better to the people by using

dichotomies to prove to the Romans that the claims made against their beloved Caesar were


Repetition can be an essential piece of rhetorical strategy used to make a speech superior

to an opponent's. Many times after pointing out faults of Caesars, Brutus dares the audience to

speak, for him have I offended(III.ii). He repeats this many times throughout his speech, as if
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daring the audience to speak up if they got offended by the cutting remarks aimed at Caesar.

Marc Antony also uses repetition throughout his speech as well. After defending the remarks

made about his best friend, he follows up with Brutus is an honorable man(III.ii). He uses that

phrase as if he is mocking Brutuss social and political standing after proving what he had said

was wrong. Marc Antony uses repetition to make his speech superior to Brutuss by mocking his

opponent while proving his statements to be lies.

Whether Julius Caesars friends were fake or loyal, two of them spoke at his funeral.

Marcus Brutus spoke of all the faults of Caesar and tried to sway the Romans to hate Caesar.

Like a loyal son, Marc Antony spoke of all of the favors Caesar did for the Romans, and

reminded them of their previous love for him. Marc Antony achieved his purpose of swaying the

Romans better than his opponent, Marcus Brutus, by appealing to pathos, applying dichotomies,

and using repetition.