Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 113




PART 1 NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW............................................................................................7
(a) J.L. Brierly Basis of Obligation in International Law.....................................................................7
PART 2 INTERNATIONAL LEGAL SUBJECTS .......................................................................................8
A- STATES.............................................................................................................................................................8
A - How do we characterize Statehood?.........................................................................................................8
Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States...........................................................................8
Austro-German Customs Union Case [PCIJ 1931].....................................................................................9
B - Sovereignty and Equality...........................................................................................................................9
Island of Palmas Case Netherlands v. U.S.............................................................................................10
Namibia Case.............................................................................................................................................11
C - State Succession.......................................................................................................................................11
Tinoco Arbitration: Great Britain v. Costa Rica........................................................................................12
S.A. Williams Succession to Public Debts.............................................................................................12
D Recognition.............................................................................................................................................13
S. Williams & A. De Mestral Theories of Recognition...........................................................................13
Tinoco Arbitration: Great Britain v. Costa Rica........................................................................................15
Reparations Case.......................................................................................................................................16
UN High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change......................................................................17
C International Legal Subjects - Peoples...................................................................................................18
Declaration of the Granting of Independence to Colonial Territories and Peoples...................................19
Western Sahara Case.................................................................................................................................20
East Timor Case Portugal v. Australia...................................................................................................20
Reference Re Seccession of Qubec...........................................................................................................20
Mikmaq Case............................................................................................................................................21
D International Legal Subjects Corporations and NGOs......................................................................21
The Prosecutor v. Simic.............................................................................................................................22
PART 3 SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW........................................................................................24
English Channel Arbitration......................................................................................................................25
Military Activities In and Against Nicaragua, ICJ 1986..........................................................................26
A TREATIES......................................................................................................................................................26
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties....................................................................................................27
Anglo Iranian Oil Co. Case.......................................................................................................................28
Nuclear Test Cases Aus v. France; NZ v. France...................................................................................28
Reservations to the Convention on Genocide............................................................................................29
Free Zones Case, France v. Switzerland,..................................................................................................30
Invalidity and JUS COGENS........................................................................................................................31
B CUSTOM.......................................................................................................................................................33
North Sear Continental Shelf Cases - Germany v. Denmark and v. Netherlands......................................34
The Steamship Lotus France v. Turkey...................................................................................................35



Right of Passage over Indian Territory Case Portugal v. India.............................................................36

PART 3C SOURCES GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND SOFT LAW..........................................................................37
International Status of South West Africa Case.........................................................................................38
Erdemovic Case.........................................................................................................................................39
Texaco v. Libya...........................................................................................................................................39
Foreign Legations Case.............................................................................................................................41
Saint John v. Raser-Brace Overseas Corp.................................................................................................41
Gordon v. R................................................................................................................................................42
Treaty Implementation...................................................................................................................................42
Labour Conventions Case,.........................................................................................................................42
R. v. Crown Zellerbach..............................................................................................................................43
Conflicts between Treaties and Statutes........................................................................................................43
Re Arrow River and Tributaries Slide and Boom Co. Ltd.,.......................................................................43
INFLUENCE OF IL ON CDN LAW DETERMING THE APPLICABLE LAW TO APPLY:............................................44
COMPARATIVE APPROACHES TO NATIONAL APPLICATION.................................................................................44
European Union:...........................................................................................................................................44
Cosa v. Ente Nazionale Per lEnergia Ellettrica, [1964] ECJ Advisory Opinion under art. 177.............45
H.P. Bulmer Ltd. v. J. Bollinger SA,..........................................................................................................45
Factortame Case,........................................................................................................................................45
United States..................................................................................................................................................45
Sei Fujii v. California,................................................................................................................................46
PART 5 - STATE JURISDICTION OVER TERRITORY...............................................................................46
LAND TERRITORY...............................................................................................................................................47
(b) Acquisition of Territory.....................................................................................................................47
Island of Palmas Case; Netherlands v. United States (1928), 2 R.I.A.A. 829..........................................48
Western Sahara Case Adv. Op. [1975] I.C.J. Rep. 12...............................................................................49
Legal Status of Eastern Greenland Case; Denmark v. Norway.................................................................49
(c) Boundary Disputes............................................................................................................................50
Case Concerning the Frontier Dispute; Burkina Faso v. Republic of Mali,.............................................50
ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC AREAS........................................................................................................................51
PART 6 LAW OF THE SEA............................................................................................................................53
A MARINE ZONES............................................................................................................................................54
1. Territorial Sea...........................................................................................................................................54
Anglo-Norwegian Fisheries Case UK v. Norway...................................................................................54
Exclusive Economic Zone..............................................................................................................................55
Continental Shelf...........................................................................................................................................55
The Truman Proclamation.........................................................................................................................55
Re Newfoundland Continental Shelf..........................................................................................................56
PART 7 - NATIONALITY..................................................................................................................................57
A. INDIVIDUALS.................................................................................................................................................57
Nottebohm Case Liechtenstein v. Guatemala.........................................................................................57
Flegenheimer Claim Italian United States Conciliation Commission................................................58



Canevaro Case Italy v. Peru...................................................................................................................59

Iran US case A/18...................................................................................................................................59
Stoeck v. Public Trustee.............................................................................................................................59
B. CORPORATIONS..............................................................................................................................................59
Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Co. Case Belgium v. Spain.........................................................60
Electronica Sicula SpA (ElSI Case) US v. Italy.........................................................................................60
PART 8 STATE JURISDICTION OVER PERSONS...................................................................................61
A SUBJECT-MATTER JURISDICTION.................................................................................................................61
The Steamship Lotus France v. Turkey...................................................................................................61
Six Bases of Criminal Jurisdiction:...............................................................................................................63
Libman v. R................................................................................................................................................64
B JURISDICTION OVER THE PERSON................................................................................................................64
Eichmann Case..........................................................................................................................................65
United State v. Toscanino [US CA 2nd Cir. 1974]......................................................................................66
United States v. Alvarez Machain (US SC, 1992].....................................................................................66
PART 9 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW............................................................................................68
Nuremburg War Crimes Trials...................................................................................................................69
R. v. Imre Finta..........................................................................................................................................70
The Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion...................................................................................................71
B The Ad Hoc Tribunals as Precedents......................................................................................................72
The Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic..................................................................................................................73
The Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic..................................................................................................................74
The Prosecutor v. Delalic, Mucic, Delic & Landzo The Celebici Case..................................................75
RWANDA - ICTR...........................................................................................................................................75
The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu........................................................................................................75
C. The International Criminal Court............................................................................................................76
PART 10 PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS..........................................................................................77
A) INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS......................................................................................................................................77
Toonen v. Australia....................................................................................................................................79
Velasquez Rodriguez Case.........................................................................................................................80
B. HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS.........................................................................................................................80
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment The nature of States Parties
C) CUSTOMARY HUMAN RIGHTS.......................................................................................................................82
D) UNIVERSALITY OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY.................................................................82
E) COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT................................................................................................................82
Filartiga v. Pena-Irala...............................................................................................................................83
PART 10 B COLLECTIVE RIGHTS AND SELF-DETERMINATION....................................................83
Mikmaq Case............................................................................................................................................84
PART 11 STATE RESPONSIBILITY.............................................................................................................85
The Schooner Exchange v. MFaddon.......................................................................................................86
Trendex Trading Corp. Ltd. v. Cental Bank of Nigeria [1977 UK CA].....................................................88



B. STATE RESPONSIBILITY..................................................................................................................................88
Draft Articles on State Responsibility...........................................................................................................89
Corfu Channel Case: UK v. Albania [ICJ 1949]........................................................................................89
The Jessie, Thomas F. Baynard, and Pescawha.........................................................................................90
Cosmos 954 Claim Canada v. USSR......................................................................................................90
T.H. Youmans Claims: US v. Mexico [General Claims Commission, 1926]............................................91
State Responsibility for Private Individuals..................................................................................................92
Acts of Insurgents..........................................................................................................................................93
Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness......................................................................................................93
C. Enforcement of Claims..............................................................................................................................95
North American Dredging Company.........................................................................................................95
PART 12 INTERNATIONAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION............................................................................97
Fisheries Jurisdiction................................................................................................................................98
Construction of the Wall Advisory Opinion.............................................................................................100
Aerial Incident at Lockerbie Case...........................................................................................................101
PART 13 USE OF FORCE.............................................................................................................................101
A. PROHIBITION OF THE USE OF FORCE...........................................................................................................101
B. JUSTIFICATIONS FOR THE USE OF FORCE.....................................................................................................104
1. The Right to Self Defence........................................................................................................................105
The Caroline, UK vs US..........................................................................................................................105
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials.................................................................................................................105
Israeli Attack on Iraqi Nuclear Research Centre.....................................................................................106
2. Self-Defence of Nationals........................................................................................................................107
The Entebbe Raid....................................................................................................................................107
3. Humanitarian Intervention......................................................................................................................108
4. Collective Measures Pursuant to the UN Charter..................................................................................109



PIL born out of the collective violence of the 20th century. Born in the matrix two world wars, holocaust, genocide.
Look at is as a mirror reflecting society
Look at the absence of actual sovereign
o Relfection of power realities.
o Law as essentially an apology for power.
o Reflects rather than imposes existing order.
o Redress the historical imbalance that has been created by a system

Brief Overview
Can be traced to antiquity and ancient civilizations
Mistake to say only emerged at reformation, but, in many ways went along with development of nation states in
Europe and the colonialism that went along with it.
End of 30 years war 1648 Peace of Westphalia. Embodied dissolution of holy roman empire that church was
no longer the authority. Emergence of national identity and rise of absolutist monarchies. SUM: Notion that nation
is central or as supreme entity. Sovereignty
Dominance, supremecy in relation to the right to wage war, right to impose ones will on others to the
extent that power realities allowed

Key figure: Hugo Grotius Dutch

Proverbial father of international law. Book De jure belli ac pacis The law of war and peace classical work of
international law.
Reflection of reality westphalian era normal status was states were at war unless they concluded a peace treaty between

Development of war from knights in shining armour to total war with ideology attached had profound effect on PIL.

Civilized and uncivilized nations Peace of Westph was only among Christian sovereigns (b/n protest and cath). These nations
were part of the civilized world.
Laws of war were different when fighting b/n civilized nations and fighting non-civilized nations (which continued into
the times of Churchill and, to a certain extent today)

Transition from Tradition to Modernity

Traditional world view at time of HRE had particular mindset one aspect of which was notion of devine law that was
God given. Grotius subsequently still recycled or repackaged this under the guise of natural law.
With the enlightenment and Webers disenchantment we saw rise of Positivism. Notion that sovereignty did not belong
to God or nature but to man. Only law that was rightfully law was that which could be imposed by sovereign with
o This was captured in Hitlers mite is right.
o International order is reflection of survival of fittest.

First stage in transformation to modern intntl system.
Key devel 1928 Pact of Paris Kellog-Briand Pact
o Outlawed wars of aggression sovereign rights do not extend to right to wage wars of aggression but only to
right to self defence.
Gave rise to League of Nations
o Short lived experiment of collective security that ended with Italian colonisation of a part of Ethiopian and
Japan in Manchuria




Bluring of distinction b/n civilians and military.

Other thing that shocked intrntl community Holocaust.
Marked a change in our conception of law return to Natural Law idea that there are sacred values and an elementary
level of humanity that cannot be transgressed. Showed that violence had to be regulated by an international system.
Showed the dialectic b/n the increasing level of violence and the evolution of the international legal system.

Elements of Change
UN charter. Made treatment of states of their own subjects an issue of international law. Violence is still subject of
international law. Creation of ICC result of Yugoslavia genocide and ICTR was result of Rwanda.

Some speak of this as a tranasition from state centered Grotian model to Kantian model.
Contained express prohibition for use of armed force.
Nazi war in forefront of minds of drafters.
Only legit use of force was self defence. Only other legit use is with SC of UN allows for it.
o Eg Korea, Kuwait.
UN charter succeeded where LofN failed.
Intro of HR as universal concept. 1948 Gen Ass.
o Universal Decl of HR (UDHR)
o Genocide Convention (adopted one day before UDHR)
Revolutionary documents. Early glimmerings of constitutional order (charters, etc.)

Note that under classical international law, the victims and the offenders had to be of two different nations. How then could the
Nuremburg trials deal with cases where both were from same country. Enter notion of crimes against humanity some crimes
so shock the conscience of international community. This was done retroactively which is against the principles of legality b/c
of an overwhelmingly compelling situation.
Introduced notion of individual criminality into an area where states were central - movement away from the idea that
the state was an abstraction. Now composed of individs who should be held responsible for their conduct.

Vast majority of UN member states gained independence after UDHR. Post colonialism and right to self-determination.

Move away from obsession with violence

External sovereignty becomes curtailed and internal sovereignty becomes curtailed through HR.
Most signif aspect is proliferation with all sorts of international regimes dealing with trade, develop, law of sea, civil
aviation, postal services..
New ethos created much of which is imposed by realities. Convergence between power realities and ideals.

Cold War
Shaped the international system. Context within which international law was interpreted.
End of Cold War we have entered into period of uncertainty.

Questions to consider
Who makes it?
It is a reflection of culture and should not be seen as a set of abstract norms.

Structure of International Legal Sys

Sovereign equality is central all states are equally sovereign. Legal fiction.
Point is that there is no central sovereign. The state is at center of international law. Can there be any form of law
without a central sovereign no one to legislate, no exec to institute, no compulsory jurisdiction. So how can one say
that there is such a thing as international law.



L. Pospisil in 1971 argued that primitive society law worked based on consent law is internalized. This only works,
according to some, in a society closely knit by kinship.living in stability.etc.

Part 1 Nature of International Law

Reading Sept 6th

(a) J.L. Brierly Basis of Obligation in International Law

Two alternate theories of international law

1) Fundamental rights doctrine notion that there are primordial rights rather than rights that are endowed by society.
Hobbsean state of nature type argument. Five rights:
o Preservation
o Independence
o Equality
o Respect
o Intercourse
Rejected by Brierly State has not been around since the beginning of time but is historically contingent.
Most fundamental criticism is that these are legal rights that cannot exist outside a
legal system. Rights cannot exist outside legal system.

2) Doctrine of Positivism: Some of the rules to which states are consented to be bound. International law is law b/c of
consent. Consent can be implied.
Problem with this theory: Does not explain why the law is binding. States consent to be bound but does not
explain why they consent to be bound. Could equally not consent to be bound.
o Central critique of Positivism Facts of international life dont fit into international law.
Obligated by force of circumstance to consent to be bound.
o Consent also does not provide an explanation Auto-limitation to sovereignty: There are limits
but they are self-imposed.

Brierlys response:
Debunks fundamental rights theory
Critiques positivism.
There needs to be new mystery about the source of obligation. Why? the answer for this question is for philosophy not
for law according to Brierly.
What composes international law how far does it extend and is consent the basis for

In 1951 when ICJ was pronouncing (Reservations to Genocide Case) on why genocide was unlawful, it could not use customary
or general principles. Could only rely on Treaty Law.
Note that the convention of 1948 was open for signature and put into force in 1951. How can we assert custom in 1951
after only three years. Therefore, court referred to general principles (based only on genocide being a monsterous
crime). Every subsequent case that is referring to this case alludes to customary law and not general principles.
This all to say that Brierlys point has validity

Brierly recognises that the difference b/n national and international law does not lie in mystical but rather in thelook this

Brierly emphasises custom as basis for international law. Order and not chaos the governing principle of the world.
Basic idea is not dis-similar to that Hobbes. Emphasis on custom.
International system is pragmatic social arrangement
Distinguishes from national system where there are compulsory powers. In international is a loose system with custom
as a basis. (Remember that custom at its base is a primitive legal system as opposed to complex).



International legal system reflects a primitive legal order in which spiritual cohesion is weak. Remarkable according
to Akhavan Remember Pospisil spiritual community allows for sustaining of law in national system.
Purpose of the international legal system (thoughts?) and does Brierlys response saying that international law is regulating inter-
state relations satisfy you?
Pragmatic approach with genocide: spill over of refugees, economic effects for the region, etc. Therefore, there are
many inter-state effects.
Other approach: In this increasing globlized world, must we be confined by interstate relations. Goes along with idea
that no genocide is not a threat to peace and security.

Genocide as an example of an issue of international law.

Both in Rwanda and Srebrenica (Yugo.) UN security forces were on the ground and there were early warnings.
Waren Zimmerman (US ambassador in Belgrade) says case of Yugo, spontaneous combustion did not happen. There was
plenty of kindling but etho-nationalists (like Milosovic) were the spark. Nothing inevitable about the conflict but
international community failed to intervene. Catestrophic effects:
o HR
o Regional Stability
- Political Realism (which adheres to idea that might is right and state self-interest): Values and principles are totally
irrelevant if not an impediment.
- Idealism: Those values and principles

Rwanda and Yugo both had implications in the region Yugo in Masadonian and Rwanda the effects were felt in Zaire, Tanz,
etc. Similarly in Cambodia.

Reality is that ideals are becoming increasingly central. Expressions of mass violence will inevitably reverberate into the
international community.

Part 2 International Legal Subjects

A- States
States are the primary subjects of international law
International law applies to certain entities subjects. W/out this capacity, entity will be unable to maintain any claims.
Used to be only states until 20th C. HR law, IHL and International Econo Law changed this and now some individs
have legal character internationally.
Questions to ask:
o Does a particular entity fulfil the prerequisites for subject status?
o What does this capacity for legal personality entail?
o In new candidates, sucha s peoples seeking self-determination, individs, international orgs and multinational
corps, is there or must there be demonstrable legal capacity and, if so, what are its parameters?

Significance of having legal personality capacity to enter into international legal relations.

A - How do we characterize Statehood?

Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States

Reflects the customary norms of Intl law
There is no official legal process to verify these facts based on political act of other states
Statehood is therefore a relative concept
1. (Permanent) Population



- note there is no minimum pop requirements

2. Territory
- Defined boundaries are not absolutely essential disputed borders are a-ok
3. Government
- Type of government is not important
- Ability to exercise effective & exclusive control over the population.
- Civil strife can obscure recognition as state
4. Capacity to enter into relations with other states
- Capacity is both a requirement and a consequence of statehood (circular)
- Reciprocity of recognition flows from this idea
- Eg.s of issues with Taiwan, Somaliland, and the Bantustans in SA.
- Demonstrates extremes of positivistic thinking in the inter war period.
- Demonstrates dominance of principle of effectiveness, that is - Effects on the ground dictates statehood rather than some
sort of normative structure.
- Look to eg. of Bosnia-Herz Bosnian govt barely controlled 1/3 of territory and were not in control of the population
but still were recognised by EU. Shows movement away from Principle of Effectiveness with increase in HR law, etc.
Must consider:
Role which ethno-centric conceptions have played in developing principle of effectiveness as distinct from the more modern
variant which is based on more democratic notions.

In Class debate States as only subjects of international law

For: Only states can lay claim to legal authority in the international system. The status of other actors are contingent on the
consent of states themselves. States as the ultimate locus of power and, thus legality.

Against: Advances in HR, IHL and humanitarian aid have changed the old system which was purely based on states as subjects.
Post WWII, legal capacity of UN was raised in a case. Decided that the UN had international personality could make claims,
etc. Also, look to the rise of civil society NGOs, and other international private orgs. Post WWII and holocaust, civil society
began to respond. According to argument, state is not capable to respond to international issues civil society and the private
sector must step in. (but Civil Society cant enter into international agreementsso)
- Do international orgs enjoy sovereignty rights such as states?
- Could a state against which coercive action has been taken by the SC remove itself from the UN? no.

Austro-German Customs Union Case [PCIJ 1931]

Facts There was a request for an opinion on the meaning of independence from the Council of the LN. Art 88 of the
Treaty of St. Germain stipulated that Germany and Austria must remain independentexcept with LN consent.
Protocol No 1 of Geneva 1922 stipulated similar conditions. Austria and Germany were attempting to establish a
free trade customs union
Issues Does such a union violate Austrian independence?
Holding No, but it is incompatible with the Protocol.
Ratio Independence of Austria = continued existence with present borders of a separate state with the sole right of decision
in all matters economic, political, financial etc
o Compare to dependent states, which are subject to the authority of the superior state
o restrictions on a states liberty following from IL or contracted engagements do not affect its independence
Ratio: Independence refers to the legal independence of a state to act as sovereign within its borders.

B - Sovereignty and Equality



A state has certain rights and corresponding duties rights include: exclusive control over territory, permanent pop and other
aspects of domestic affairs. Duties are to not intervene overtly or covertly in the affairs of other states and thus not to intervene
with their exclusive domestic jurisdiction.

Island of Palmas Case Netherlands v. U.S.

Jurisdiction 1928 RIAA
Facts US takes over Spanish Colonial possession. Dutch flag flying over islands. Case revisited later in course.
Relevance Sovereignty signifies independence which represents the right to exercise therein, to the exclusions of any other state,
the functions of a state. Dutch had been there since the 1700s and the Spanish could not transfer to the US more rights than they had
in the Island.
- Manifestations of sovereignty Continued and peaceful occupation. Problematic: Self-determination by indigenous
peoples seems to be considered wholly irrelevant by the court.
Akhavan on Island of Palmas
- If Sovereignty is vested it cannot be taken away through use of force or acts of aggression. this is a movement away
from principle of effectiveness.
- Note it abolished the distinction between civilized and uncivilized by extending the right of sovereignty and statehood to

UN Charter Art 1 and 2(4) &(7)

Art 1 Idealistic objectives agreed upon by the allied victors of WWII. Still the sought after goals in the very different
circumstances of world society today.
The principles that both guarantees and obliges compliance with by the member states of customary rights
associated with statehood.

2(1) provides for legal equality. (i.e. 18(1) provides for one vote for each member but art. 27(3) gives special veto
power to the five permanent members of the Security council!)

Art 2(4) 2(4) Members not to use threats or force against other states.

Art 2(7) 2(7) Restriction of interference in the matters that are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.
(What qualifies as essentially within and how does this interact with other essential elements of the Charter
such as H.R.s which enlarge the scope of intrusion?)

Principle is: If something is essentially in the domestic jurisdiction of the state, other states cannot intervene.
Eg. Govt of France provides advice and support to Bloc Que is this intervention in domestic affairs of Canada?
Maybe look to nature of intervention.
Eg. Indonesian govt makes contributions to Pres. Clintons campaign is this intervention?

Is there some magic to sovereignty? Look to the Basques in Spain, the First Nations in Canada.

Most significant state

Federal States constituent units are not international subjects. Not settled.
Can federal entities conclude international treaties contingent on law in state.
Look to Canada: Sired in warfare, mothered in treaties and nurtured in the crche ofinternational law.
o Signed Versailles but did not ratify it. Separate declaration of war in WWII.
o External affairs set up in 1901 and actually dept in 1928.
o Central occupation is with US. Sovereign equals on a plane of majestic inequality.


Mandated territories of the League of Nations. Many of them in the Middle East.
Art 22 of UN



More modern states hold in trust for the people of those nations.

Under the UN, became a trusteeship system which led to independent nations last trusteeship became independent in 1994.

Namibia Case
Jurisdiction 1971 Adv Op.
Facts Resolution 2145 terminated SAs mandate in South West Africa.
Issues Discussion of General Assemblys actions including 2145
Holding Resolutions with respect to Namibia were made in accordance with UN charter.
Ratio Only a material breach of a treaty justifies termination a) a repudiation of the treaty not sanctioned by the
present convention; or b) the violation of a provision essential to the accomplishment of the object or
purpose of the treaty.
Basis of South Africas control over the area was based on a mandate and did not constitute sovereignty over
the area. If the mandate lapsed b/c of violations to the object or purpose of the treaty, the authority over the
territory is said to have lapsed as well.
Nature of breach - the actions of SA were designed to destroy the national unity and territorial integrity of
Namibia through the establishment of Bantustans are contrary to the provisions of the UN charter.
When the SC adopts a decision it is for all member states to comply with that decision even those on the
SC who voted against it and those members of the UN who are not represented on the SC
SA must withdraw from the territory and, until that point, remains responsible for its obligations and
responsibilities to Namibia under international law. Physical control of a territory, and not sovereignty or
legitimacy of title, is the basis of State liability for acts affecting other states.
Akhavan on Namibia
Obligations erga omnes SA owed rights to other nations.

C - State Succession
Continuity & Sucession: 4 Possibilities
Succession is not the same as continuity
Succession is when one state replaces another continuity is when a govt changes within a state.

1. State is transform internal institutions change

2. Two states form a new state: Ex. Germany
3. New state forms on the territory of an old state: ex. decolonization
4. Break-up of a state into several entities: ex. Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia

Subjects that would be relevant

Treaty obligations
Contracts concessions given to investors etc.
Public Debts
Public funds and property

Estrada Doctrine: Canada will only recognize states, not governments.

Implication: A state is responsible for the international obligations of past govts, whether they were constitutional or not.

Transfer of Rights & Obligations



1. Transformed state
- due to the rule of continuity, the state does not disappear and reappear, it remains the same actor and is bound by past
- Germany is responsible for the acts done by Nazis; South Africa is responsible for Apartheid Govt
- A govt can ignore the obs of past govts (1917 Russia) but they will be excluded from the international system
- The binding force of obligations in normative bound through your relations with other states

Tinoco Arbitration: Great Britain v. Costa Rica

Tinoco takes over Costa Rica, changes constitution, etc.
o New government reverts to old constitution, passes a law nullifying obligations incurred by the previous Tinoco government
on the grounds that that government was unconstitutional.
o The arbiter found the state is always bound by the obligations of the previous governmentregardless of its constitutionality
(i.e. de facto governments responsibilities are passed on, regardless of their de jure status)
o but, the obligations were not upheld because the obligations contracted were contrary to the Constitution of Costa Rica at the
time they were made
o Legitimacy of the govt is without importance in international law probably would not be made today



S.A. Williams Succession to Public Debts

2 theories (Sharon Williams, re QC):
o Successor state takes their portion of previous obligations
o None of the obligations are transferred (non-devolution)

Succession To Treaties
- Personal Treaties
o The original state will continue to be a party
o New state will have to rejoin ex. NATO the other members may or may not allow the new state to join

- Territorial Treaties (also called Real Treaties)

o These remain binding for whichever state controls the territory concerned
o Ex. Case Concerning the Gabckovo-Nagymarus Project: Hungary v. Slovakia
- Hungary tried to say it was no longer bound b/c the treaty was with Czechoslovakia
- They were bound b/c it was essentially a territorial treaty linked to the river
o ILC drafted the Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties - purports to codify
customary law not widely accepted by the intl community
o not consistent with practice, therefore customary law continues to govern, which also favours non devolution
except for (i) customary international law (ii) localized treaties concerning territory and (ii) international
boundary treaties

Succession to Public Property

- generally, seceding states succeeds public property (including debts, rights, and interests) situated in its territory
- 1983 Convention on Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debts is controversial and

Succession to Public Debts

- custom: inherit only localized debt. (i.e building a local airport)
- national debt could be divided according to a plethora of formulas
- in QC/Canada, succession would require successful negotiation in this area because the status in international law is
indeterminate, even if the 1983 convention is ratified
- In Yugoslavia there was a combination of territorial debts and debts prorated based on GDP enforced by international
creditors who wouldnt do business with new states otherwise

Questions for consideration for next class:

1) Recognition merely declares but does not constitution the fact of statehood.
For: Decarlatory or evidentiary theory. Constit theory raises a few problems two problems written below. Legal limbo of being
recognized by some but not all states. Declaratory approach is more de facto. (Tinoco case is not pertinent as it is a govt).
Israel is a good example of being recogd by some but not all. Taiwan would be another.
Right to self-determination constitutive approach reps an impediment as would discourage
Legal clarity

Constitutive approach does not reflect practical reality on the groundwhich is not a response to the question.

2) The right of peoples to self-determination necessarily implies the right to statehood.

Western Sahara case. Competing theory of Morocco was that they had historic title. Spain had colonized in 1884
Court says it is for the people to define the destiny of the territory and not the
o In the case, no exact definition of peoples. Non-self governing territory. No geographical proximity (makes
it easier).



o These colonies are ethnically heterogeneous.

o Determination of the right to self determination based on the existence of non-self governing territory.
Colonized peoples are given the right to self-determination (alien domination).
Status quo right to self-determ does not necessarily lead to statehood. In Colonized peoples or alien domination case,
then right does exist.
Notion of peoples not static term in international law. Temptation to associated it with territory.
Right of self-determ is heavily attenuated by right to sovereignty.
SCC does not define people. People of Que deemed not to be oppressed. Effectivity priniciple if a group of people
of engage in armed resurrection, discussion becomes irrelevant.

D Recognition
The free act by which one or more states acknowledge the existence on a definite territory of a human society politically
organized, independent of any other existing State, and capable of observing the obligations of international law, and by which
they manifest therefore their intention to consider it a member of the international community. (Resolution of the Institute of
International Law Brussels (1936))

Two Criteria
Claimant must satisfy legal criteria for statehood
Publicly expressing its decision to respect the claimant as an independent state

Not limited to states Also applies to

New govts
States in condition of belligerency
Organized and effective insurgents
More loosely to the territorial claims of states

Geneva Convention Protocol 1 (1977) gave legal personalities to liberation movements. Self-determination to struggles.
This was controversial.
Geneva Convention Proto 2 Injurgency for limited purposes of application of Geneva conventions, insurgency can be given

S. Williams & A. De Mestral Theories of Recognition

What is the actual effect of recognition? Two conflicting theories.
Constitutive Theory recognition has a constitutive effect only through this act is an international personality
conferred and not the process by which they (state and govt) were factually formed. States are only established by the
will of the international community
Two problems: is an unrecogd state bound by international law? What if a state is only recogd by some and
not others.
Declaratory Theory or the Evidentiary Theory recognition is only formal acceptance of an already existing situation
factual situation that produces legal constitution of the entities and recognition does not have to be awaited for this
purpose. Majority opinion supports this theory.
Majority of laws are still binding on unrecogd states or govts. In reality both are partially true it is declaratory based on
factual qualifications and it is constitutive as it brings the state into the vacuum of international relations as an equal.
Both theories are open to abuse.

Express recognition versus Tacit Recognition



With an unconstitutional change in govt, review occurs and decision is made Clear and precise statement
Business is carried on as usual position is inferred by nature of relations with new govt or state.
Recognition of State approach
No recog of govts only states. if asked if a new govt is recogd, answer is only that there is a recog of states and
not govts and inferences can be drawn from relations.

Estrada Doctrine: Canada will only recognize states, not governments.

Implication: A state is responsible for the international obligations of past govts, whether they were constitutional or not.
At worst recog of govt could be at worst seriously detrimental or at best unnecessary.
This is a version of the declaratory theory.
Canada has shifted away from an express recognition theory. Tacit recognition focused on the principle of effectiveness
combined with other principles (including HR, etc.) and Canadas national interest.

Note that the principle of effectiveness is a recognition of a situation on the ground does not take into consideration HR and
self-determination. This has been rejected by Canada in their employment of the declaratory theory and the Estrada doctrine.

NOTE: Recognition must be clear and unambiguous a state that signs a multilateral treaty cannot be assumed without question
to recognize all other signatories.
UN C. art 4 provides for admission of all states who satisfy a certain criteria hard to argue that a member was not

Is there a duty to recognize if the criteria of statehood is satisfied?

Difference b/n recog of states and govts

Look to situation where govts are or are not recognized Situation of civil war. Two competing govts (Spain in
1930s facists and commis or Angola, Sierra Leone)
o Both had all attributes of state
o What are effect of declaratory or constitutive theory and the Estrada recog of state and every govt that
passes through that state without judgement. What if there is more than one govt.
Do recog of govts have any particular implication? Is it necessary
o Cambodia in 1979 Viet force overthrew Khmer Rouge after which, a number of govts (US and Euro and
others) decided they would not recog govt in Penom Phen but instead a coalition of exiled groups. They
occupied the seat of Cambodia in the UN. Which would be better in this case constitutive or declaratory?
This seems more constitutive.
o Afghanistan Taliban controlled 90% of territory. 10% controlled by Northern Alliance. UN did not give recog
to Talliban. Govt occupying seat in Afghanistan had virtually no power in the country. What is the alternative
recog of Talliban and give them power to enter into treaties, etc or recog another which has no power in the

International effects of Recog

Ability to enter into treaties, diplomatic relations. Without it, limitations in pressing the claimants rights as a state and other
states asserting responsibilities.

EC Guidelines on Recognition
Case of Former Yugoslavia
With disintegration of the republic and outbreak of war, EC issued guidelines to the recognition of new states. Requirments
included adherence to UN charter, guarantees for ethnic and minority groups, respect for inviobility of all frontiers and
peaceful settlements of disputes thereof, respect of commitments to disarm and non-proliferation, acceptance to settle by
agreement all issues concerning state succession. The EC also said it would not recog entities which were the result of
EC granted recog to three new states after they satisfied the above.
Federal Republic of Yugo (formed by two former portions of the old repub) was denied recog based on its part as



Problem: How do you respect the inviobility of frontiers when you have a state that is dismembered?

1991 Federation is wanted. Serbian strong-man (Milosovic) resists and war breaks out.
Uti possidetis juris colonial boundaries continue to apply when independence comes. (applied to decolonization in
Africa and Asia)
Serbian population in Bosnia-Herz and Muslim population in Croatia. Does it make sense to say that the boundaries
must be respected at all costs? These are, afterall, internal boundaries.
o Self-determination Notion of the people is connected to territory.
o Refusal of recognition of Greece b/c of their concern of attempts to unite Macedonia and their province of
Kosovo 80-90% Albanian why should Kosovo not have the same status as the other republics? Permanence of
boundaries can be a matter of controversy.

Charter of Org [paraphrase] Political existence is independent of recognition by other states. Rights exist prior to recognition
of Amer States (defend territory, provide for preservation and prosperity, admin services, etc.) Limited only by the exercise of
Art 12 the rights of other states in accordance with international law.
Art 13 [paraphrase] Recog implies that the state granting it accepts the personality of the new state with all the rights
and duties that international law prescribes for the two states,

Tinoco Arbitration: Great Britain v. Costa Rica

Jurisdiction 1923
Facts o Tinoco takes over Costa Rica, changes constitution, etc.
o New government reverts to old constitution, passes a law nullifying obligations incurred by the previous
Tinoco government on the grounds that that government was unconstitutional.
Issues Costa Rica contends that the U.K. is stopped in its claim because it had not recognized the Tinoco regime. The U.K.
claims that the Tinoco regime was a de facto govt.
Holding Non-recognition cannot outweigh the evidence of the de facto character of Tinocos govt.
Ratio Recognition by other states is the chief and best evidence of the birth, existence and continuity of succession
of a govt.
De facto character of Tinocos regime and the tacit recognition of state were taken into consideration.
The arbiter found the state is always bound by the obligations of the previous governmentregardless of its
constitutionality (i.e. de facto governments responsibilities are passed on, regardless of their de jure status) but, the
obligations were not upheld because the obligations contracted were contrary to the Constitution of Costa Rica at the
time they were made

B International Legal Subjects International Organizations (IGOs)

Other candidates can have personality in terms of international law. To do so, the claim must be respected by other international
persons that is, by the existing community of states. This is based on the practice of the states a functional question.

Chief candidates: International orgs, individs and peoples seeking self-determination.

UN C art 104 the organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its members such legal capacity as may be necessary for
the exercise of its functions and the fulfillment of its purposes.
UN has personality under the domestic laws of all its members.

Look to effectiveness of current set-up of the UN

Illustration of current procedure is seen p.39 where questions asked with refs to UN charter.
Posed: HAS time come to alter the composition of the SC? Is the permanent member status (and their ID) too much of a
reflection of 20th C.



How is it determined if an action of (say) the SC exceeds its powers? Charter is silent Art 96 of the UNC only says
the SC or the GA can ask for an advisory opinion from the court.

There are well over 400 IGOs: 50 universal, rest regional

Reparations case the only case dealing with their status as intl legal persons

IGOs in Municipal Law

Has to follow the laws of the state in which it is operating ex. The UN in NY has to follow NY K law
Usually has full legal personality in that state Art. 104 UN Charter gives legal status to UN in states where it operates
However, some IGOs have diplomatic privileges & immunities Art. 105 UN Charter

IGOs in International Law

Functional approach IGOs have the elements of legal personality needed to exercise the activities delegated to them by
their member states
They can protect their rights & preserve their mandate
Very few procedural rights cannot bring binding case to ICJ (just reference questions)
It is uncertain whether they are bearers of obligations under IL (i.e. if you could sue peacekeepers for actions taken while
on duty are they agents of the UN or of their state?)

Reparations Case
Jurisdiction Adv Op. [1949] IJC Rep. 174
Facts Sweedish national and a UN mediator killed in Palestine (Jerusalem which was under Israeli control)
Issues Legal capacity of the UN to bring a claim Can the UN bring a claim for compensation against Israel? Does the
UN have international legal personality?
Holding Yes, but legal personality is unique and limited to functional approach
Ratio Practice in particular the conclusions of the conventions to which the org is a party has confirmed the character
of the UN, which occupies a position in certain respects in detachment from its members, and which is under a
duty to remind them, if need be, of certain obligations.
Could not carry out the intentions of its founders if it was devoid of international personality.
The UN has privileges and immunities within territories of its members practice has confirmed its
status as an international personality
still not co-equal to states or a superstate, its personality is unique
but, it is a subject of international law, capable of possessing rights and duties, and capable of
maintaining its rights by bringing international claims
Can recover in the name of the victim because it must (a) be able to assure safety of its agents and (b) it
must be able to do so without relying on a states exercise of diplomatic rights in order to maintain its
truly international character (Art 100)
all of this is implied by the provisions of the Charter
Can it bring a claim against a non-member government?
Yes, because it has objective international personality, independent of its 50 member states (seems a little
strange though agreement between states effects non-contracting parties)
There can be concurrent claims with member states conflict between Sweden and UN in bringing
claim should be resolved via political goodwill with the recognition of Swedens duty to render assistant
to the UN under Art 2(5)
Doctrine of Inherent and Implied powers: p. 45 top para Powers not expressly provided in the Charter, the
UN must be presumed to have those powers that are necessary to the performance of its duties.

UN High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change

High -level Panel to assess current threats to international peace and security; to evaluate how our existing policies and



institutions have done in addressing those threats; and to make recommendations for strengthening the United Nations so that it
can provide collective security for all in the twenty -first century.

The Panels insistence that we must see the interconnectedness of contemporary threats to our security is particularly
important. We cannot treat issues such as terrorism or civil wars or extreme poverty in isolation. The implications of this
interconnectedness are profound.

New UN proposal from the GA is to be tabled soon not clear as to the shape of it.
Proposes reform of SC
Proposes establishment of a HR Council to replace HR Commission.

Organisation of the UN
Key parts of the UN (SC, GA, Econo and Social Council, ICJ, Scretariat, Trusteeship Council)
Secretariat is composed of SG and his staff supposed to be merely implementing will of member states. No really the
case as the office has grown and is extremely important at this time.
Peace keeping is central (Congo where there is move away from peace keeping to peacemaking- , East Timor, some
in Bosnia, Eritrea-Ethiopia) Peacemaking more prevalent in post-Rwanda where there was no peace to be made so
UN pulled out.
Powers and capacities have explanded significantly. In 1945, would not have been imagined that these powers would have been
With these powers comes accountability Sierra Leon and UN peacekeepers w/ child prostit, Oil for Food scandal.
Move to reform Office of Internal Oversight to ensure accountability.

Trusteeship Council
Largely defunct as last trusteeship ended in 1994

Composition of GA
Art 9 all members of the UN

Powers and Functions of GA

Art 10 Any matters under the charter, make recommendations to SC. It is not a legislature.
Eg. Resolution 1514 codification of pre-existing customary law and norms. Will of sovereign states is made manifest.
GA has quasi-legislative power but not as we would understand in a domestic

Powers of Security Council

Art 36 Recommend appropriate procedures
Art 39 (part of Chapter VII) - determine existence of any threat to the peace, or an act of agression..decide what measures shall
be taken in accordance with Arts 41 and 42 to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Actions of SC
Binding on member states Art 25 Agree to accept and carry out decisions of SC

NOTE: Art 103 Obligation of charter prevails over other international obligations. It is the supreme international treaty.
(See Lockerbie case state whose nationals were implicated had the right to extradite or presecute under Montreal Convention.
SC resolution compelled extradition. Libya said was going to presecute but the court said Art 103 makes Charter and art 25

Composition of SC
Art 23 15 Members ROC, France, USSR, UK, US victors of WWII permanent members. GA elects other non-permanent 10
members. Art 27 details veto of permanent members.

Complex relation b/n the GA and SC

GA is more representative but the SC has more power.
Purse strings technically held by the GA Art 17 so in effect the GA can control the SC b/c it controls the budget
- Peacekeeping is often funded in a different manner.



- Poorer countries still see sending peacekeeper s as money making measure

1. The SC cannot be effective or legitimate without changing its composition.
New threats require reform. Efficiency requires it. Dilution voice of dominant states.

Restriction would erode the decision making ability. Increased size would cause inefficiency. Ability to respond rapidly. Dilute
consensus. Other organs can exist (under Chapter VIII). Dilution of the permanent members importance while still asking a
lot from these nations would be problematic. Could change obligations

2. Permanent members of the SC should have the right to exercise their veto power even where a situation of genocide exists.
Histrically reflection of power realities contributions by certain states at inception.
Prof power, is this a good reason for a veto power is this representative (France UK?? No India). Would this be an
incentive to get nuclear power for nations to show.

Art 24 and Chapter VII responsibility of the SC to intervene in case of genocide. UN report of High Panel states SC is best
Why Genocide is singled out massive destruction that is possible in a short period of time.
Prof what about situation where Perm Member thinks intervention would make situation worse? Not clear.

C International Legal Subjects - Peoples

1) Individuals
Individuals have gotten standing in certain circumstances but it still may be difficult for individual to assert rights under
international law. No doubt exists that an individ can be tried under international law:
War crimes against the laws of war
Crimes against peace and security initiating war
Crimes against humanity murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and genocide.

2) Peoples Seeking Self-Determination

It must be considered as to whether principle of self-determination has achieved the statues of a rule of customary international
This is an assertion of collective rights under the UN charter (in which self-determination is referred to but not defined)
this right has been used as the basis for the decolonization of dependent territories during the 1960s and 70s

Art 1(2) UN C. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and
self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
Art 55 With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful
and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-
determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:

a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and

b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural



and educational cooperation; and

c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all
without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
Art 73 Members of the United Nations which have or assume responsibilities for the administration of territories
whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government recognize the principle that the interests
of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the
utmost, within the system of international peace and security established by the present Charter, the well-being
of the inhabitants of these territories, and, to this end:

a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and
educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses;

b. to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them
in the progressive development of their free political institutions, according to the particular circumstances of
each territory and its peoples and their varying stages of advancement;

c. to further international peace and security;

d. to promote constructive measures of development, to encourage research, and to co-operate with one another
and, when and where appropriate, with specialized international bodies with a view to the practical
achievement of the social, economic, and scientific purposes set forth in this Article; and

e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for information purposes, subject to such limitation as security
and constitutional considerations may require, statistical and other information of a technical nature relating to
economic, social, and educational conditions in the territories for which they are respectively responsible other
than those territories to which Chapters XII and XIII apply.
Discussion in class:
Ethno-nationalism as basis for statehood? Kurds of Turkey were in situation where they were denied right to speak their
Is it a total waste of time to talk about self-determination as a legal concept?
Mao the barrel of a gun.
Theory imposition of Western style of gov

Declaration of the Granting of Independence to Colonial Territories and Peoples

Art 3 Inadequacy of political economic, social or educational preparedness should never serve as a pretext for delaying
Particularly interesting when compared with LofN article above talking about tutelage, etc.
Is Art 3 a good idea? Prof refers to East Timor where UN was involved in the transition should the UN be held
accountable for its actions in this period.
There is here a rush to self-determ which is understandable because of the treatment under colonial powers. But this
rush has led to internal violence on many occasion (DRC for eg).

Rights asserted by every group seeking independence yet decried by every nation threatened with dismemberment. Not
clearly defined and therefore controversy over defn and scope.
What does peoples mean must they have a territory, similar ethnic background what are the marks of homogeneity?

Elements of a Nation
Objective Elements: language, history, culture, religion, ethnicity



Subjective Elements: people must see themselves as different

o question does the majority have to recognize them as a unique group as well?
Yes: should prevent people from claiming rights on a superficial basis
No: May limit legitimate efforts through ignorance, politics, etc.

Western Sahara Case

Jurisdiction Adv. Op. [1975] ICJ
Facts WS has been colony of Spain since 1884. Pop mostly nomads. B/c of res. 1514 and specific request of res
2229, Spain consulted neighbouring Mauritania and Morocco to determine procedures for holding a
referendum. Both countries claimed territory based on historic title that predated Spains acquisition.
Advisory opinion sought as to the status of the territory
Issues Issue of self-determination
Holding It is up to the people of WS to decide. Ancient ties to the territory are secondary.
Ratio Declaration (listed above) and res 1514 confirm and emphasize that the application of this right requires a
free and genuine expression of will of the peoples concerned.
Three possibilities in this case: emergence as Sovereign Nation; free Association with an independent
state; or integration with an independent State.
In all cases, wishes of the people must be taken into account.
Separate judgment of Dillard J. It is for people to determine the destiny of the territory and not the
territory the destiny of the people.
Was never terre nullius as there were people on the territory. They had some form of organization.

East Timor Case Portugal v. Australia

Jurisdiction [1995] ICJ
Facts Port claimed that Aus had failed to respect its rights as administering power of East Timor as well as the right of
the people to self-determ when it entered treaty with Indonesia delimiting the continental shelf b/n Aus and East
Timor. Indo had occupied East Timor by force and claimed title over it since 1975.

Court did not take jurisdiction b/c Indo was a non-party before the court and therefore did not give consent.
Court instead only dealt with issue of self-determ
Issues Self-determination
Ratio Principle of self-determination is recogd as one of the essential principles of contemporary international law.
Discussion of an erga omnes obligation which is an obligation to the international community rather than just to one state
an issue where all states have an interest.

Reference Re Seccession of Qubec

Jurisdiction [1998] SCC
Issues Question 2. Does IL give the National Assembly the right to affect the secession of QC from Canada
unilaterally? Is there a right of self-determination granting such a power?
Ratio (1) Seccession at international law
SCC IL doesnt grant component parts legal rights to secede unilaterally from parent
(a) some argue that it is not specifically prohibited and therefore inferentially permitted
(b) Implied duty of states to recognize the right to self-determination
(a) denial of this right is implicit in the importance placed on territorial integrity and in
the exceptional circumstances for self-determination to be legally exercises



(b) clearly a principle of IL. Hard to define peoples but not necessary here because
QC is neither (i) a colonial or oppressed people (ii) subject to alien subjugation nor (iii)
denied access to meaningful exercise of its right to self-determination internally
self determination can only be exercised if the people are internally oppressed
(2) secession, if successful in streets, could lead to a new state, but that would not retroactively
confer a legal right on QC to secede
- international recognition, essential for a new state, is likely to consider the legality and legitimacy of
secession having regard to the conduct of both QC and Canada
- Succession must take place as a democratic negotiation
- Note that right to self-determ in many international covenants is not to be construed as authorizing or
encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity
or political unity of sovereign and independent states conducting themselves in compliance with the
principle of equal rights and self-determ of peoples .(Vienna Decl)

Mikmaq Case
Jurisdiction UN HRC Communication No.[1990 and 1992]
Facts - Group of Mikmaq petition UNHRC after refusal of Can govt to allow them individual seat at
constitutional convention re: scope of s.25/35 rights allege violation of right to self-determination
- Canada argues: Not a people scattered population, minority
- Mikmaq argue: concentration in reserves, recognized as a unique population
Issues Collective Rights assertion
Holding Halted on procedural grounds UNHRC only has mandate over individ rights not collective rights
under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (art 1) (ICCPR)
Ratio Claim brought under art 1. Collective right, individs
Art 25 internal self-determ. b/c they were denied right to participate in constitutional
conference. Native representatives were enough according to the court.

Problems with Right to Self-Determination

- The possibility for infinite subdivision of the individual & overlapping communities Charles Taylor
- Pushed to the extreme, people-hood leads to exclusion, even ethnic cleansing
- Characteristics change over time identity must be constantly reassessed
- The Right to Self-Determination is the only legal element of peopledom, but no international actor has obligations to enforce
this premise right with no real remedy

D International Legal Subjects Corporations and NGOs

(Aside for interest read un.org/summit2005/documents.html)

Do NGOs have legal personality

Do not even have limited legal personality according to IGOs. This ignores host of factors that show the exertion of
major influence by NGOs on the creation and application of international law.
NGOs place in IL has been based on Art 71 of the UN C consultative status can be given to NGOs which allows them
access and participation in the creation and application of IL.

Art 71 UN C. The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental
organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence. Such arrangements may be made with
international organizations and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the
Member of the United Nations concerned.

Power hierarchy that exists (based on scope, national/international, funding, clout) Note that International federation of
societies of Red Cross and Crescent (different from ICRC)
What sort of NGOs have some quasi-law making capacity



IOC Olympic committee laws and rules for international competitions. Exercise regulatory functions
ICC International Chamber of Commerce Paris reg of trade, payments

NB: NGOs are better defined by what they are not. Dont use force, not governmental

What about the Red Cross

Foremost example of the NGO and its influence.
One of the most influential actors starting 1859 and the human slaughter that took place in Solferino was originally
an expression of nobless oblige hearing of appalling conditions of war. Bourgeois class horrified with std of life of other
Devel of IHL linked with ICRC private org leading the way.
Under Geneva convention promote respect for IHL visiting prisoners of war, etc.
ICRC has international legal personality according to the Simic case as its mandate was conferred upon it by the
international community.
Can it conclude treaties no?
Rights and responsibilities given by Geneva conventions what powers are necessary for the exercise of its functions
e.g. immunity. They cannot operate
What is basis for the ICRCs legal rights when they approach a state? unique NGO which has been created through
multilateral treaty unique place. Same cannot be said about other NGOs.

Earth Summitt in Rio 1992

NGOs decided they would have parallel conference that was very successful power of NGOs seen. Inter-gov
conference was said to only look at certain elite interest. NGOs have been seen to be a bulwark against Inter-gov
domination of certain discussions.
1998 Rome Conference ICC statute
NGOs had umprecedented level of influence
Not within the UN system

Is this a good thing -

If there is no democratic space, do not NGOs become the only form of popular expression.
Proliferation of NGOs goes to show the increasing importance of international law.
Even conservative groups have entered the fray influence is seen.

The Prosecutor v. Simic

Jurisdiction ICTY decision [1999]
Facts Sinic and other D on trial for lives. Former employer (local staff of ICRC) wants to testify
ICRC claiming that they do not want former employee to testify b/c they have immunity
The Prosecution emphasises that the witness took the initiative to contact the Prosecution and is willing to give
evidence before the International Tribunal.
the Prosecution states that it understands the ICRCs concern to be that national authorities might deny ICRC
personnel access to places where persons protected by the Geneva Conventions are located if they think that
these ICRC personnel might subsequently testify in criminal proceedings about what they have seen and heard
in those places. Although sympathetic to the ICRC concerns, the Prosecution reiterates its view that the ICRC
does not enjoy, as a matter of law, any immunity or privilege that would enable it, unilaterally, to prevent any
of its former employees from testifying.
It is the ICRCs general position that the testimony of a former ICRC employee would involve a violation of
principles of international humanitarian law concerning the role of the ICRC and its mandate under the Geneva
Issues Does the ICRC have international legal personality? Do it and its employees have immunity? In the Trial
Chambers view, the issue to be considered is whether the ICRC has a relevant and genuine confidentiality interest
such that the testimony of a former employee, who obtained the Information while performing official duties,



should not be admitted.

Holding Employee of the ICRC has immunity and cannot be forced to testify
Ratio It is conceded by both sides and the court agrees that the ICRC has an international legal personality.
The International Tribunals Rules may be affected by customary international law, and that there may be
instances where the discretionary power to admit any relevant evidence with probative value may not be
exercised where the admission of such evidence is prohibited by a rule of customary international law.
the ICRC, an independent humanitarian organization , enjoys a special status in international law, based on the
mandate conferred upon it by the international community9. The Trial Chamber notes that the functions and
tasks of the ICRC are directly derived from international law, that is, the Geneva Conventions and Additional
Protocols . Another task of the ICRC, under its Statute, is to promote the development, implementation ,
dissemination and application of international humanitarian law.
The fundamental principles on which the ICRC relies in the performance of its mandate are the principles of
humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality
The three principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence have been described as derivative principles,
whose purpose is to assure the Red Cross of the confidence of all parties, which is indispensable to it.
Neutrality and impartiality are means enabling the ICRC to carry out its functions. According to these
principles, the ICRC may not be involved in any controversy between parties to a conflict.
the ICRC needs to have access to camps, prisons and places of detention, and in order to perform these
functions it must have a relationship of trust and confidence with governments or the warring parties..also,
effect on the safety of its delegates and staff in the field as well as the safety of the victims

Requirement of impartiality and confidentiality sufficient to shield ICRC delegates form testimony
No question of balancing with wish for justice arises customary law binds so no balancing is at issue.
This case was brought on by a member of the prosecution that was convinced she could take on the ICRC under art. 7.
The outcome was that despite the cautious words of the dissent who advocated a pragmatic, balancing of interests
approach, the majority affirmed the ICRCs special status and gave them absolute immunity.
The result the ICRC was able to legislate that immunity through statute.

Corporations Commercial enterprise of one sort or another.

Transnational corps diff types:
o Govt
state owned Quantus, CBC, etc.
They mix both private national law and international law. In form they are private but often act at the
behest of govt policy; they have access to diplomatic assistance and directly invoke certain rights
explicable only in terms of a developing public commercial law.
o Inter-govt corps
diff from gov corps Chunnel is an eg. multilateral corps two or more states own an enterprise.
Like above, they appear to fall somewhere between the private and public domain and by linking
govts, IL seems to apply to the joint enterprise.
o Non govt corps
Private corps top ten have greater econo power than the vast majority of govts
Globalisation power of these corps is much more than states
They have such power to be able to negotiate and agree as equals with govts. Today there is no
certain body of transnational law resulting in a large number of legal uncertainties such as their
nationality, the governing law concerning their agreements with foreign govts, and their amenability
to the jurisdiction of national authorites extra-territorially. Since the 1970s there have been some
efforts to regulate them and define the rights and duties of states commercially connected to them (i.e.
UN Code of Conduct on Transnational Corporations, Intl Labour Organizations, WTO).

History HBC, Dutch east India, etc. helped shape international law by attempting to carve out monopolies.
All have profound effect on trade, enviro, HR, etc.



Issue of immunity state immunity. Cannot sue a state with certain exceptions (taking of property and torture). An example
would be FSIA Federal state immunity act in the US.
jus imperii (governmental acts) and jus geestionis (acting in a commercial capacity). Immunity only extends to jus imperii. If
acting in a commercial capacity then immunity does not exist.

Issues of nationality of Corp

Based in Bermuda, manufacture in Taiwan, sell in Usetc,
ICSID Arbitor for disputes b/n foreign investors and sovereign states. The claimant (corporation) cannot have the
same nationality as the respondent (the state).
Attempts at regulation
International code of conduct
International labour org
Increasing blurring of lines b/n sovereigns and private bodies (WTO, NAFTA, etc)
Increasing and substantial contribution by private actors.

1. NGOs are not democratically elected or accountable and should therefore not have a significant role in the international
lawmaking process.
Although not democratically elected, still legit and accountable
Derive rights from coorperation of those people with whom they work
Often role is to protect minorities from the majority therefore could not be democratic
Not being accountable to the states is invaluable
Acquisition of reputation of an NGO allows them to have influence on the international scene.
(NB. That PLO or ANC not state entities but fall under prot. 1 of Geneva conventions struggles. Other types that use
violence are call insurgents fall under another category).

Different weights should be given to different types of NGOs - KKK versus a NGO for the public good.
Not all NGOs are equal and therefore influence (which would most likely be from western countries b/c of wealth in
NGOs) is unbalanced.
Language barrier (only six to be spoken if appealing to the UN)

2. Simic Case One argue for the prosecution One for the ICRC.
Sinic and other D on trial for lives. Former employer (local staff of ICRC) wants to testify
ICRC claiming that they do not want former employee to testify b/c they have immunity

Args for the prosecutor no explicit mention pre-Geneva and even there not clear. should be a balanced exercise
especially in cases where testimony of employee would make or break case. W/out testifying gives the message that
ICRC will never testify and people can commit crimes in their presence without fear of..
Response if forced to testify then will not be allowed to complete duties will not be allowed in. Greater good
argument risk that future will be compromised for the ICRC

Requirement of impartiality and confidentiality sufficient to shield ICRC delegates form testimony.

Part 3 Sources of International Law

Article 38 Statute of the International Court of Justice



1. The Court, whose function is to decide in accordance with international law such disputes as are submitted to it, shall apply:

a. international conventions, whether general or particular, establishing rules expressly recognized by the contesting states;
b. international custom, as evidence of a general practice accepted as law;
c. the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations;
d. Subject to the provisions of Article 59, judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the
various nations, as subsidiary means for the determination of rules of law.
These are called firm law lex lata. There exists soft law lex ferenda that is not legally binding though they affect the conduct
of international relations by states and may lead to the devel of new international law. E.g. Helsinki Accords and OECD

Firm law versus Soft Law:

The rules the come from the law-making process from art. 38.1 (a) (c) ICJ are firm law (lex lata).

Soft law (lex ferenda) comes from instruments that are not directly enforceable in domestic or intl tribunals but are still
enforceable. (i.e. Helsinki Accords or OECD Guidelines for Multiateral Enterprises).
Soft law is not to be disregarded:
a. as stated it is still enforceable.
b. the objectives of hard law may require these non-treaty instruments to be achieved (i.e. UN Convention on
the Law of the Sea)

no hierarchical distinction b/n three law creating processes all of equal authority. Potential exists for conflict.
Judicial decisions it is questionable whether they create international law or simply reflect & confirm existing norms
Judicial decisions & doctrine are the lowest level of intl law does this make sense
o Reality of international law in that they dont reflect the consent of states. Source of law is consent of state will.
Unlike municipal court systems, the ICJ is not the apex of the intl law system
ICJ decisions are only binding on the parties
ICJ decisions do not set precedent, though they have strong persuasive authority
All states who are members of the UN have ratified the Statute of the ICJ, but not all states recognize its jurisdiction

Where does the court look for relevant customary law. Practice of states. What they actually do conduct. Conduct that they
regard as binding.
Where there is conflict usually go back to ICJ jurisprudence.

What about writing of publicists:

In Civil law doctrinal writers (jurists consults). Aid in terms of interpretation.

B/n customary and treaty.
English Channel Arbitration customary law can in certain situations, modify and trump treaty law but not in this case.
In this case, there was no conflict. Look to 1958 continental shelf convention. 4 separate treaties that were amalgamated
in 1982. 58 convention says states have rights over the shelf (transport rights excepted) for resources.
Rule of treaty law (1958) and an emerging norm which differs in some sense with the convention. The court side-steps
it. No court wants to say there is a contradiction. In many cases they will read the treaty as custom.
Lex lata vs. lex ferenda in this case is at issue. They say customary is still emerging so it is not at issue.

2 examples of the Court AVOIDING the question of conflict between treaties and custom:
1. Question of Hierarchy and the interplay between Treaties and Usage:
English Channel Arbitration 1977
Facts There was a suggested conflict between the 1958 Continental Shelf Convention (which gave states rights on
the continental shelves which though not exclusive did give them control over the exploitation of the natural
resources) and customary law given the evolution of the law of the sea (UN Conference on the law of the



Sea was still in progress at this time).

Holding The court agreed that there may be valid reasons to apply customary law despite the presence of a binding
concerning the treaty. However they limited this to only the most conclusive indications of the intention of the partiesto
hierarchy of regard (the treaty) as terminated. Despite this conclusion the court warned that they still were entitled to
treaties and take into account the recent developments in customary law as relates to the case at hand.
customary law
My conclusion Basically then the court did suggest somewhat of a hierarchy in that a treaty would take precedence over
customary law if the court was not convinced that the states in question no longer wished to be bound,
however the evolution of customary law would not be disregarded by the court during the proceedings and
therefore may have some ultimate influence over how the courts interpret the application of the treaty to the
Professors The court has neatly sidestepped the question of priority faced with the conflict between the two.

2. When the rule in a Treaty can also be found in Customary Law:

Military Activities In and Against Nicaragua, ICJ 1986

Facts The U.S. argued that the existence of certain principles in the U.N. Charter or other treaties
precluded the possibility that similar rules could exist independently in customary law.

In this case it was decided, despite relevant treaties, that the U.S. had violated its customary IL
obls (a) not to intervene in the affairs of Nicaragua and (b) not to use force against it.
Holding - Treaty and customary norms retain a separate existence even if they have exactly the same
identical content content. The operation of a treaty process does not deprive the customary norm of its separate
to a treaty-rule applicability.
does not negate
the independent If A breaches a treaty-rule with B, B is exempt from his treaty-rule. But if the same rules exist
existence of in customary law the breach of treaty by A does not justify Bs refusal to apply the other rule as
customary rules. he is also bound by customary law.

If there is a treaty, this will be latched on to. Treaty is the closest semblances to legislation. Resolution under treaty law is much
easier rather than debating custom and general principles
CIL strategic advantage of element of consensus. Social agreement. When there is agreement then you can
side-step all those ambiguities of general principles.
CIL begins from the bottom up
Often consensus is a myth importing where none exists
CIL certain element of objectivity relating to the social facts that underlie the evidence
There is objective evidence as to the practice
General principles imposed from the top down
Look to all the different law systems and objectively say that something like pacta sunt
servanda is a gernal principle
More problematic when dealing with notions of fundamental justice natural law or devine
law. Notion is that there are certain bedrock principles or the German grundnorm. An
unimpeachable axiom.
Eg. Genocide reservations case in 1951 genocide is unthinkable it is a grundnorm.
Problem imposition of subjective cultural values under the guise of universality.

Is this privileging of objectivity, ration, order necessarily the best was to approach these subjects? Is subjectivity, intimacy better?

A Treaties
Most easily acertable source. For most part have a written text to refer to.



Difference b/n law-making treaties and treaty contracts.

Law making treaties:
May codify, define, interpret, or abolish existing customary law or conventional rules of international law or create rules
for future international conduct.
Cannot be renounced
E.g. Human Rights convention. Universal ratification creates customary law.
Treaty Contracts:
Creation of special rights and obligations b/n nations.
Can lead to the formation of customary law or be evidence of the existence of such rules.
Can be renounced
E.g: Navigation and Trade treaty b/n two nations

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

This is the source of the basic principles of the law of treaties. It highlights the paramount importance of treaties as a source of
intl legal obls and states that this Convention should be viewed as virtually the constitutional basis, 2nd in importance only to
the U.N. Charter, of the intl community of states.
Arts 1,2,3,5 and 6 are of importance
Essential elements of a treaty:
Parties must be subjects of international law
They must intend to create binding obligations under international law
Their agreement must be governed by international law
- Has been widely ratified, but some major states missing (France, US)
- Seeks to codify customary law on written treaties (ex. Art. 6 every state has capacity to enter treaties)
- Some elements of the treaty are not totally solidified as custom, but their inclusion speeds this process up
o Ex. Art. 18 countries that have signed but not ratified will not act against the purpose of the treaty
o US violated this Clinton signed the ICC, then Bush started passing resolutions saying he would not allow
Americans to be submitted to its jurisdiction (asshole!)
o However, the US then sent a letter to the UN declaring that it did not intend to ratify the treaty, getting itself out of
this breach of the law
o Shows how this art is now considered customary law; US is not party to the Convention
- There are a few non-customary elements, mostly technical stuff relating to withdrawal, delay, notification, etc.
- Treaty does not have retroactive effect

Signature & Ratification of Treaties

- this is a 2 step process:
- Signature:
o The people negotiating the treaty usually do not have the power to give it binding effect within their state
o Representative must have full treaty making powers to give consent of his or her state (see art 7 of Vienna
- Ratification:
o Federal states often require sub-unit to approve; Canada tries to put in Federal reservation but this isnt well
o Executive approval: Usually the Queen, or the Governor-in-Council
o In US President needs approval of the Senate

Privity of Treaties
- just like Ks, treaties cannot bind 3rd parties (non-signatories)
- not an absolute rule diff when treaty creates a benefit
- Art 36 Vienna Convention allow for assumed acceptance for treaties that confer benefits
- Art 35 allows for third party obligations, but the 3rd party must acknowledge the obligation in writing



Entry into force certain number of states have to ratify it in order for it to enter into force Vienna Convention art 24-25
provisional application prior to ratification.
Date varies according to intention of parties (art 24 Vienna)
First signatories may not be bound by the convention qua treaty for some time (ie prior to ratification) though they are
bound to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of the treaty (Art 18 of Vienna)
Publication and Registration: Once it has come into force, it is registered with UN Secretariat (art 102 UNC and art 80
In Canada, treaties, are published in own registries separate from understandings

Note that internal law is not at issue it does not matter according to international law. See art 27 of Vienna Convention.
In Canada treaty power is royal prerogative of gov in council. In practice, massive commitment of financial resources
then parliament will be called on to approve it.
E.g heavily intoxicated foreign minister makes deal. Only valid if under Art 7 have full treaty making powers.
Could include:
o Heads of state
o Ministers
o Consularetc
NB: not all agreements b/n states are treaties low level inter-gov arrangements may not be if not intended to be of binding
- Usually writtennothing to prevent otherwise. Legal Status of Eastern Greenland case where unilateral declaration orally
was at issue.
- Nominclature used to describe agreement does not mean it is or is not a treaty

What about Fraud?:

See art 49 in Vienna convention. Very difficult to prove. Mostly not wanted to be raised.

When the agreement is NOT between states = Concession K versus a Treaty:

Anglo Iranian Oil Co. Case

example where two elements were not satisfied b/n a state and a corp no privity of K b/n two govts.
Practical signif: Difference b/n treaties and contracts may not be as signif as we think. Similar outcomes may come.
This case showed the Anglo Iranian Co did not have standing in the World Court as they were not a state
Facts K between Iranian govt and company. Seems that the question was whether that K created
obligations and rights between the U.K. and Iran. (Maybe the company was govt owned?))
Holding This Concession K is only binding between the parties to it and therefore does not have any
bearing on the U.K. It does not in any way regulate the relations between the two states.
Practical In substantive terms the difference between law-making and contract treaties in really no so
considerations significant. The subject-matter is becoming blurred.

The Potentially Binding Nature of a Unilateral Declaration:

Asked in class how this fits into art. 38(1) ICJ. No easy answersomething to discuss.

Nuclear Test Cases Aus v. France; NZ v. France

Jurisdiction ICJ [1974]
Facts France conducted nuc tests in South Pacific as it was not a party to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Not being party to
the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty France did some testing. Two countries protested and started these actions. Before
they were heard France stopped and unilaterally announced they would not hold any more tests in the atmosphere.
Issues Moot case as Fr announced end of tests - This unilateral statement, regardless of its form (oral or in writing),
was binding on France.
Ratio Declarations made by way of unilateral acts can be binding if it is the intention of the state making the declaration



to be so. Undertaking of this kind, if given publicly, with the intent to be bound, even when made in the context
of international negotiations, is binding.
- Fr Govts statement that no more tests were to be held is binding.
- Note that no quid pro quo is needed in unilateral declaration.

In summary, it is from the actual substance of these stmts and from the circumstances attending their making that
the legal implications of the unilateral act must be deduced.

No special form and no principle of quid pro quo is necessary.

- Interesting b/c circumstances for withdrawal might be at issue. Unilateral so can it be withdrawn. Analogies can be made in
domestic private law.

(1) Declaration and Art 38 of UNC. where does it fit? Is it an agreement that might not be under the Vienna
Convention? Perhaps under heading of custom? It remains unclear.

In Canada:
Treaty mostly only used for a peace treaty. Exchange of notes is most often used.
Voluntary restraint, memo of understanding or assurance must be distinguished from a treaty
Ratification process does not require Parl approval

- Unilateral statement made by a state when signing, ratifying, accepting, approving, acceding to a treaty whereby it purports to
exclude or modify the legal effect of certain provisions.
- Generally accepted that a state (if they did not participate in the drafting of the text) will not become a party subject to
reservation unless all other contracting states accepted this reservation (classical theory)
- Unanimous Reservation rule [ I dont know if this is the real rule] some treaties change the rights of all of the parties
involved, so all states must consent to them: Ex. GATT
- Some allow for minor reservations (within spirit of treaty) in order to encourage more states to join
o See Convention Against Genocide Case
o This disrupts the synallagmatic view of treaties
- Some do not allow for any reservations, despite desire for wide adhesion:
- Cannot make reservations to treaty provisions that reflect customary norms

Reservations to the Convention on Genocide

Jurisdiction IJC Adv Op. [1951]
Facts Advisory opinion requested by the GA regarding the reservation that had been attached to the treaty.
Issues Can states make unilateral reservations to the Convention on Genocide?
Reasoning General Principle: States cannot be bound to anything without their consent. No state has a right to
frustrate or impair the objectives of a treaty
seems to imply that no reservation valid until it is accepted by all parties
but, in the past, there has been room for tacit allowance in the past, authors who have objected to
reservations have nevertheless been considered parties to the treaty
intention was to gain broad acceptance, but without sacrificing the object of the treaty
So, the compatibility of the reservation with the object furnishes the criteria for the attitudes of both the
reserving and objecting states with respect to accession
signatories have more leeway with objections to reservations than non-signatories



Rule (1) State can be a party to a treaty if its reservation is objected to by some others, as long as it is not
incompatible with the purpose of the treaty
(2) If an objecting party considers a reservation inconsistent with the object, it can treat the other party as a
non-party to the convention (b) If the objecting party accepts the compatibility it can consider the reserving
party a party to the convention
(3) An objection to a reservation made by a signatory state that hasnt yet ratified can have the legal effect
indicated in I only on ratification, until then it is only notice of the eventual attitude of the signatory state
(b) An objection to a reservation made by a state which is entitled to sign or accede but has not done so is
without legal effect
Today!!! The Vienna Convention has codified much of what the ICJ proposed with art. 2, 19, 20, 21, and 22.

Today much of the problem is therefore dealt with by specifying the rules of reservation within the treaty itself
(i.e. Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction in which reservations are limited
to the use of language and costs).
Canada and Canada often tries to have a federal-state clause inserted in multilateral conventions in order to reserve
Reservations Canadas obligations at IL concerning s.92 matters.
Debate still raged for years after this case as to what to do with reservations. There are now specific rules found in art
2,19,20, 21 and 22 of the Vienna Convention.
Now, trend to specifying in the treaty which provisions can and cannot be the subject of reservations
Canada finds important as it usually strives to have federal-state clause put in treaties or enters a reservation.

1. There is a de facto, hierarchy of sources of international law b/c treaties are more authoritative than other sources.
Treaties are more authoritative:
Note that in 1958 continental shelf treaty was only to 200m isobath depth. In 1982, changed to convention was
to 200 miles off coast but if not ratified what would trump treaty or customary.
Customary must be consistent practice over a period of time.
What if two treaties one earlier, one later. Which is to be applied? The later treaty is to be applied lex
No hierarchy

2. Multilateral treaties more closely resemble legislation than a mere contractual obligation.
For - legislation:
Although sounds contractual consent to be bound, etc. That is oversimplification. Does not explain binding
Question: What if a country does not ratify and then declares that they consider themselves bound with the view of
creating a norm of customary international law. can it still be binding? perhaps not technically but politically
would be binding.
Against - contract:
Can make analogies to domestic law for analogies but.multilateral treaties are still not binding on everyone.
Legislation domestically do not allow for reservations.
Fits better with contract. Based on consent, like contract.
Treaty to commit genocide would not work under Art 53 of Vienna cannot conclude treaty that is in violation of
peremptory norm.
Series of little contracts that require consent does not make legislation.

Art 53 is the notion of constitutional norm that is so important. Use the fiction of independent state consent. Would be
interesting to see what would happen if a state objected to Art 53 and to see the response of international community.
Still paying lip-service to state consent.


See arts. 26, 27, and 30 of Vienna Convention



Treaties in force are binding on the parties and must be performed in good faith
Party cannot use its internal law as justification for not performing obligations (art 27 VCLT). E.g. Polish Nationals in
Danzig Case (which we did not read).
If there are successive treaties on the same matter, refer to art 30 of VCLT

Free Zones Case, France v. Switzerland,

Jurisdiction PCIJ [1932] Advisory Opinion
Facts Treaty of Versailles, to which Switzerland was not a party, stated that the 2 countries should settle the status of
certain territories on their common border b/t themselves. The question was whether the Treaty creates any
rights for Switzerland.
Issues Does this treaty create any obligation for S?
Holding treaty is NOT binding on S, except to the extent they accepted it -- A number of instruments led the court to
conclude that the intention of the Powers was to create in favour of Switzerland a right to the withdrawal of the
French customs barrier.
Ratio - they did accept a proposal about the placement of French Customs, which therefore became a territorial
agreement in their favour (by earlier agreement)
- If they hadnt accepted it, it would still be possible for other states to grant S (any third state) certain rights
so long as it can be established that that is their intentionas would have been the case here
- The question of the existence of a right acquired under an instrument drawn b/t other states isone to be
decided in each particular case: it must be ascertained whether the states which have stipulated in favour of
a 3rd state meant to create for that state an actual right which the latter has accepted as such.
Vienna CLT adopted this distinction between rights and obligations of 3rd states [Art 34-38]

Art. 34 38 of the Vienna Convention Treaties and 3rd parties:

Art. 34 rts and obls can only be created with the consent of the 3rd party
Art. 35 clear intention of the parties to the treaty to establish obls
Art. 36 clear intention as in art. 35 and 3rd party assent is assumed unless the contrary indicated, unless the treaty otherwise
Art. 37 any obl or rt from art. 35 and 36 may be revoked or modified only with parties consent and the 3rd state.
Art. 38 Nothing in art. 34 to 37 precludes a rule set forth in a treaty from becoming binding upon a 3rd state as a customary rule
of IL!

Invalidity and JUS COGENS

Derived from Article 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Article 53 - Treaties conflicting with a peremptory norm of general international law (jus cogens)
A treaty is void if, at the time of its conclusion, it conflicts with a peremptory norm of general international law. For the purposes
of the present Convention, a peremptory norm of general international law is a norm accepted and recognized by the international
community of States as a whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted and which can be modified only by a
subsequent norm of general international law having the same character.

- a notion similar to public order in international law refers to a hierarchy of norms

- shows a move away from consent-based idea of international law
- Determining JC Norms
o Art. 53 does not specify how to do this
o Must be accepted by community of states as a whole this does not mean unanimity
o Can be treaty or customary law
o Examples of accepted jus cogens norms:
prohibition of slavery, genocide, & racial discrimination
right to self-determination



prohibition of use of force

some human rights norms
pacta sunt servanda

NB: The provisions on jus cogens are some of the VCLTs most controversial articles.

Internal Rule:
A state may try to escape liability for a breach of a treaty by claiming that it was never bound b/c of some technical requirement
of its internal law (such as a Cdn province entering into a treaty for something which does not fall under their heads of power).
Art. 46 is an important limitation on that by requiring that the internal law be of fundamental importance and that violation was

Jus cogens:
Jus cogens are obligations owed by a state to the intl community as a whole, preemptory norms of IL that cannot be set aside by
treaty or acquiescence but only by the formation of a subsequent peremptory norm of contrary effect.

i.e.: use of force, pacta sunt servanda, inviolable norms because of their wide and deeply ingrained acceptance such as the
principle of freedom of navigation on the high seas or the elementary considerations of human dignity.

Critiques of Jus Cogens

- may be contradictory (i.e. prohibition of force vs. humanitarian intervention) often resolved by redefining what the norms
- difficult to determine what a jus cogens norm is
- violates sovereign autonomy of states imposes rules from above
- some states may be more influential than others in creating and determining what these norms are

Termination and Suspension

Conditions what are they and what types can and cannot
HR, non-use of force and fundamental constitutional norms will survive others might be renounced

Rebus sic stantibus

Fundemental change of circumstance will allow for renunciation or termination of treaty court not happy to accept
Iamoco International Financial Corp v. Iran.There the court said that changed circumstances in Iran and violations on
the part of the US did not automatically terminate the treaty. If one party concludes that the circumstances legally justify
termination then it must take suitable steps. But. Revolutionary events in Iran could not be without consequences on
the implementation of the treaty.
NB: A treaty may also be suspended but not denounced or withdrawn from according to art 57, 58 , 59 of the VCLT

Treaties dont just terminate because the original parties are no longer controlling the territory. For instance in Canada treaties
entered into by the Commonwealth on behalf of Canada did not terminate simply because of Confederation. It would be even
nonsensical to allow for the nullity of all treaties. It is however acceptable for Canada to enter into new treaties or substituting
arrangements for the ones within the terms of the treaties signed by U.K. but until there is a conscious and acted upon decision to
do so the former treaties remain in force. (see Ex Parte ODell and Griffen, [1953] O.R. 190 (H.C.)).

In the Namibia Case the ICJ concluded on the legitimacy of the U.N.s termination of S.A.s mandate over South-West Africa (see
earlier notes on this case).

Clausula Rebus Sic Stantibus Changing Circumstances:

The principle does exist in IL that changing circumstances which lead to the impossibility of performance may render a treaty



The basic criteria for this principle is that the change be fundamental (see art. 62 Vienna Convention).

However the nature of those changing circumstances is unclear.

i.e. Does changes in fishing techniques or in a countrys situation count? (see Fisheries Jurisdiction Case, U.K. v. Iceland, ICJ
Does revolutionary changes count? (see Amoco Intl Finance Corp. v. Iran, 1987).

Suspension is a possible alternative to denunciation of or withdrawal from a treaty.

It may be by consent of all the parties (art. 57)
Or by some of the parties providing the decision does prejudice the other parties to the treaty (art. 58)
A treaty that is incompatible with an earlier agreement will impliedly terminate or suspend that agreement (art. 59)

Prof Allott Honestly, this is a piss poor set of notesget somebody elses

Law as necessary element of international transformation.

Analysis of fundament social transformation How does one do it? particularly if you want to take part in it.
[British society has been constantly reconstructed in a revolutionary way.]
Now been transferred from national society to international level.

Imagine three players of scoail change. Put in hierarchial terms from the bottom.
- Bottom material change economic change labour
- Second level social institutions, forms and processes
- Top - Mental ideas, values.
Could see these three as a circle rather than a hierarchy. This is the post-marxian view. Constant circle of
interaction. Material level does not determine or cause the social and mental levels. Social can determine

Ideas of democracy and capitalism are just ideas by which we then act accordingly.

What is the role of Law?

- Positivist law imposed by the sovereign manifestation of power.
- Law is a transformatory social mechanism.

Are we in a situation where social change is be externalized to the international scene

Universal legal system

- Top- Intergovermental law.
- International administrative law
- Transnational law
- National law

Sovereignty has a value content.

B Custom
Customary International Law (CIL) is comprised of two elements:
(1) Consistent and general international practice among states (material conduct of states)
(2) The practice must be accepted as law by the international community. (known as opinio juris) (how they
perceive the conduct)



Matters of protocol (eg. ships saluting others flags on the high seas) are practices but are not obligations.
How does a new rule emerge? Opinio Juris. State practice that is accepted by the community.
New rule means that a state unilaterally decides that doesnt not like existing norm so it will change it.
NB: Violation of a norm does not create a new norm ex injuria jus non oritur
Especially important with use of armed force (Iraq and NATO in Kosovo). Some say US is creating a new norm.

Theories or analogies that we can derive from general principles of law in determining binding nature of CIL
Three concepts as to why international custom, as evidence of a general practice accepted as law:
Estoppel estopped from changing your conduct

Operations of creation and basis for determining application of CIL are very controversial derived from unilateral action by a
number of states (not multilateral action which would constitute a treaty of sorts)

Prof. McDougal states It is not of course the unilateral claims but rather the reciprocal tolerances of the external decision-
makers which create the expectations of pattern and uniformity in decision, of practice in accord with rule, commonly regarded as

Rule of the Persistent Objector:

E.g New Treaty (eg. land mines) to which some states are persistent objectors. As such (for eg.) the US which wants to
precent rule from becoming customary law.
Jus cogens becomes such when CIL is imbued with this uber-important crown.
Remember, treaty cannot be against Jus Cogens. Jus cogens renders any treaty invalid that violates it.

How does new norm emerge

Is jus cogens derived from custom or treaty can come from custom or general principles.
Can new jus cogens replace old jus cogens? Jus cogens norm can also be modified.

Qualitative question: how much practice do you need and how much opinio juris changes depending on how important the
norm is
For eg. crimes against humanity will adapt faster than 12 mile sea boundary line.

Most often treaties are best way of seeing if a customary law exists.
In other cases, treaty only codifies existing CIL. (eg. law of the sea convention)

North Sear Continental Shelf Cases - Germany v. Denmark and v. Netherlands

Jurisdiction ICJ [1969]
Facts Dispute over location of delimiting of boundaries between these nations Article 6 of the Geneva Convention
on Continental shelf is not opposable to Germany this is the equidistance principle. Question is maritime

Dispute as to how to divide the continental shelf between Netherlands, Germany & Denmark. Germany has
signed, but not ratified the treaty and claims it is not bound. DK and Neth argue Geneva Convention on
Continental Shelf had crystallized emerging international customary law on equidistance. Germany relies on
doctrine of just & equitable share as, under the equidistant theory, Germany would receive more.

Art 6 calls for agreement first if not, equidistance.

- provision in art 12 which allows states to derogate or enter reservations except under art 1-3
Issues Is equidistance theory a part of customary international law and therefore applicable to Germany even though



art. 6 is not opposable to Germany?

Holding No. Equitable principles apply and parties must hammer out agreement.
Ratio - Art. 38: ICJ Statute- Intl custom is evidence of general practice accepted at law.
- Two distinct components: 1. General practice; 2. Accepted at law Opinio Juris
- Possibility of reservations to this provision shows that states do not think this is customary
- Consider object and purpose of the convention - in this case the issue is not against the object and
purpose, therefore a reservation is possible
- If derogations exist can this really be CIL.
- Did it become CIL because of subsequent state practice?
- no evidence that states acted the way they did because they believed they were obliged to do so, i.e. no
evidence of opinio juris
- What has attained opinio juris is (a) that such delimitations are the result of agreements and (b) that they
are equitable
- neither of these imply the equidistance method, in fact, (b) mitigates against it in some circumstances
- From the Lotus case only if such abstention were based on their being conscious of having a duty to
abstain would it be possible to speak of an international custom.
- State practice to date has not demonstrated a clear understanding that state were conforming b/c they
believed themselves to be bound this is the subjective component of the opionio juris.

Tanka Dissenting:
- Number of ratifications/accession must be considered in context. Should not try to seek evidence of
subjective motives when investigating opinio juris, objective acts are sufficient
Lachs Dissenting:
- Ratifications alone are not conclusive with respect to general acceptance of a given instrument.
-bindingness does not require universal acceptance
- have to remember that rules of IL are never the result of fiat in the modern context, i.e. they always result
from consensus and negotiations
- when we look at a state practice we should look at states with coastlines are states are not equal in this
Sorensen Dissenting:
- custom can emerge rapidly in some contexts
- Geneva Convention rules have become generally accepted
- Germany previously accepted the convention formally, in so far as it claimed it to reflect IL, and is
therefore no longer in a position to escape its authority, even though it has not yet ratified
- Possibility of reservation is not relevantmany rules of IL are suppletive (all except jus cogens)
- Acting contrary to the prima facie rule but justifying the act as exempt because exceptional = recognizing
the rule (Military Activities in and Against Nicaragua)
- Rule that emerged in 3rd LOS conference was: agreement on the basis of IL in order to achieve an
equitable solution (i.e. the courts ruling)
Quality of practice is point at issue. Question: whether Chad or other land-locked country in equal weight to UK and
Japan which are old sea-fairing nations.
1982 convention codifies equitiable principles in determining shelf delimitation.
In practice what does equitable consideration mean? Equidistance/special circumstances applies. Special
circumstances are ones where inequitable result would come out of equidistance theory. Modify to reflect
proportionality. (e.g Malta and Libya where equal would not have been equitable.)

What constitutes State Practice does the legislation of states constitute state practice? It is debatable. Should we disregard
this and only look at the situation on the ground. What about court decisions? Should be taken into account as evidence but not
as primary. What about diplomatic notes? UN resolutions? Could be yes, negotiations go on and there is agreement (hopefully).
What about if called declarations? Not necessarily.

Customary law becomes significant even if there is treaty there is always added value. Some sort of legitimacy bedrock that
doesnt rest on treaties. May also dilute quality of practice.



The Steamship Lotus France v. Turkey

Facts Turkey prosecuted a French captain, after he landed in Turkey, for negligence after the French boat crashed into
a Turkish boat in intl waters.
Issues Is Turkey is violating a principle of international law by prosecuting a foreign national? What is their basis for
doing so?
Holding No. Territorial effect
Ratio - Rules of IL flow from the consent of states, therefore restrictions on states can never be presumed.
- France has to show that such a violation of IL exists, rather than compelling Turkey to establish a ground
for its national jurisdiction
- France raised three arguments to this effect, all of which faili.e. Turkey did not act in conflict with
principles of IL because France failed to establish that any such principles exist
- territoriality is the first, and most solid basis of jurisdiction
- There is a valid provision in the Turkish Crim code asserts extra-territorial application of Turkish law
- But, the basis of jurisdiction is actually the impact of the criminal behaviour on Turkish territory (i.e. the
impact of the capts behaviour on the ship which is Turkish territory)
- I.e. if the death takes place on Turkish territory, the country has TERRITORIAL jurisdiction (the ship is
Turkish, so the impact of the wrongful act was felt on Turkish territory
Comment - jurisdiction is territorial, but it doesnt follow that a state cannot exercise that jurisdiction with respect to
events that occurred extra-territorially
- Ex. If you shoot a gun across the border, and kill someone on the other side, both states have jurisdiction
over the crime, on a territorial basis
Did the court look for a specific norm of customary law that permitted jurisdiction orlook for a prohibitory norm.
They looked for prohibitory norm none, therefore it is not prohibited.
Permissive versus restrictive approach.

2. Regional or Special Customary Law

Right of Passage over Indian Territory Case Portugal v. India

Jurisdiction ICJ [1960]
Facts Portugal claims right of passage b/n Daman and the enclaves (that it controls) across intervening Indian
territory in order to exercise sovereignty subject to Indias right of control and regulation of passage
and without any immunity in Ports favour.

Basis of claim is local custom

Issues Can this right be asserted on the basis of local custom
Holding Yes custom established.
Ratio Local custom must not involved more than two nations. During British and post-British periods, passage
has been allowed and, therefore custom has been established and has given rise to a right and obligation.

Case goes back to a time when relations b/n neighbouring states were regd by practice. Practice hear was
clearly established by the two parties this must prevail over any general rules.

1. The notion of customary law is merely an apology for power realities. (ex post facto legitimization)
Customary law is usally enforced by actors themselves rather than institutions. Power can be used to form law in a very
clear and direct way.
Way the court decides powerful states are going to impose practice on weaker states entrench power realities
States will acquiesce based on worries of reprisals from other states.



Can weaker states leverage themselves through treaty making process? Treaty process is probably more fair process.
States can imput reservations on a treaty. Still, bullying happens in treaty making.
Custom codifies an existing reality whereas treaty sets out future state action.
Law still said to exist all law could be considered a reflection of power realities. HR could be seen to restrain that
but, could be seen to impose western ideas on other states still an imposition of power realities
Binding selves as others should bound. Reciprocal nature of the agreement. IS THERE REALLY SUCH A THING given
vastly different amounts of power. Idea that powerful would be open to an attack later on should power realities shift.
Does IL not have to be a reflection of power realities, as we are an independent community.
Two extremes are ideals and power realities.

2. In determining customary law, the increasing importance of a norm implies the decreasing relevance
of state practice and a propensity to substitute conduct with opinio juris.

Two elements of customary law 1. State practice 2. Opino Juris.

In cases with continental shelf court was quite conservative in approach of rejecting use of equidistance line. What
about cases of torture could torture be considered under the customary law. Many nations practice this but you could
not consider it widespread.
o Do we just make opinio juris the basis of the argument without looking too much at state practice.
Look to the case of use of armed force norm is not to do so. Therefore this could be considered customary.
Post 1945 there has been a proliferation of conventions and declarations that do not go to state practice but instead on
opinio juris.
Expression of a collective norm declarations, resolutions. The concept of Instant Custom. Butwhy call it custom
why not legislation.
What about the Security Council resolutions not so representative. Should it be setting standards???
Does this not create a total distortion of reality? There is no practice is involved.
Declarations that are far beyond the reach of states could create the illusion of progress. Danger of having platitudes
out there and realities of practice down here.
Customary law sounds like we have achieved this normbut we have not. Should we not be calling it aspiration?
Are declarations or regulations practice themselves.

What about supreme court decisions? Are they state practice or opinio juris or both?
Where does legislation fit in? Is this state practice?
Why are we so caught up with Customary law why not call it a General Principle and skip state practice?
Look to Rwanda, Yugoslavia tribunals call genocide CIL even though both countries ratified Geneva Convention.
Maybe b/c of universality. Treaty does not have that.
CIL has something more concrete
Look to the example of Female Genital Mutilation. It is a general principle that it is cruel and unusual. Cultural
relativists would not like this. Morality leaves open the question of whose morality? Consensus is at the basis of
custom not the imposition of morality on another nations.

Part 3C Sources General Principles and Soft Law

Found in art 38(1)(c) of the Stat. of International Court the general principles of law recognized by the civilized nations
Most commonly accepted as those which exist in all municipal systems of law primarily related to issues of private law
or procedure
Some disagree say could only mean general principles of international law. (municipal would be included to the extent
that they have been adopted by states as custom or in a treaty)



Some, such as Tanaka J., b/c they have the character of jus rationale or are valid through all kinds of human societies
Court has referred to principles in cases dealing with breaches of obligations, error and vitiation of consent, res judicata,
estoppel (in relation to good faith and equity), unjust enrichment,
Cdn Charter includes s.11(g) which refers to general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

General principles of law are generally considered to be less important than custom and treaty (this is confirms by Art 21(1)(c) of
the ICC statute. Only resorted to when there are not clear answers in CIL
History when ICJ was created, there was very little international law when the court was created, so there needed to
be a mechanism for the court to enforce international obligations
Until 5 yrs ago it was used rarely there are now lots of treaty law & jurisprudence recognizing custom
However, ICTY & Rwanda tribunal created an international criminal law very new area of law, no treaty/custom in int.
law the tribunals drew on criminal procedures in municipal laws
But the ICC tried to relegate principles of law to a lesser status reaction against judicial activism of ICTY & Rwanda
The goal is to make analogies to institutions in the international sphere (i.e. you cannot import a prohibition of murder
b/c domestic law takes care of this)
In international tribunals, do we use municipal cultural norms or international ideas (i.e. custom of forced marriage is
this a form of rape?)
However, incest is the most universal cultural taboo is there a prohibition of it in international law?

Process by which general principles of law are found and applied by International court.

International Status of South West Africa Case

Jurisdiction ICJ [1950]
Facts UN GA asked court to advise on the status of SW Africa (Namibia). Interpretation of the mandate of that territory
to SA.
Issues General principles of the sacred trust of civilization what does this mean?
Ratio The goal of using principles is not to enact municipal law lock, stock & barrel but to look for general
policy & principles.
Look to Common Law and Civil Law and fiduciary duties.

J. McNair When new legal institutions resemble rules and institutions of private law the role of the ICJ is to take
the private law as an indication of policy and principles but not to import lock, stock and barrel a set of rules.

So the court must look at the issue (in this case the meaning of sacred trust of civilization) and seek to discover
what the underlying policy and principles of the issue are.

To do this he looked to scholars writings from different countries on the meaning of sacred trust to identify the
presence in nearly every legal system of some institutions that embody the idea of sacred trust ie trustees or
tuteurs for people who are not sui juris devised to protect the weak.

In these various institutions McNair identified G.P.s common to them all:

Control without ownership
Legal obliation based on confidence and conscience to fulfill his mission
A prohibition on any attempts by the trustee to assume ownership

- 3 types:
o Equity intra legem (adapt the law to the facts of an individual case attempt o arrive at equitable outcome)
Itl tribunals may apply this type
E.g. Continental Shelf Case Equitable principles were applied. Application of the rule was
inappropriate. Now would likely be treated differently now equidistance/special circumstances



o Equity prater Legem (use equity to fill the gaps in IL)

More doubtful Iternational tribunals can apply this
Somewhat more controversial b/c it assumes that the court can engage in some sort of legislative task
(less so in Common Law system where courts, to a certain extent, create the law)
o Equity Contra Legem (Court determines that a particular law is unjust and thus doesnt apply it. Similar to
equity in the common law
Only will be applied if an international tribunals statute expressly allows
Art 38(2) of ICJ statute. power of the court to decide the case ex aequo et bono. Disregarding of a
rule in favour of equity. VERY FEW cases where tribunals are given this power. this is not the
usual idea of equity

Question: Where is equity derived from? Perhaps justice, fairness but will everyone agree on these concepts Problem of
indeterminacy (we want determinate well define norms cant just leave it up to the judge)
Probem: Equity falls under jus rationale and not municipal law. Equity is indeterminate whereas municipal law is not.

Sometimes a principle of international law, sometimes its considered a source of international law
- Namibia Case: uses idea of trust to define the role of UN mandates nations (rather than trying to find local customs)
- Diversion of Water Case: both parties were not complying with their treaty but one party tried to complain
o Court applies rule of equity that you can only complain if you have clean hands (judge Hudson)
o Equity as principle of law states: If by treaty 2 states bind themselves in a way were the obligations are
interconnected, if one state does not comply, it cannot force the compliance of the other state

Jus cogens, according to Akhavan, more generally resembles general principles. Go to the prohibition of genocide which
could not be customary law (although it is often referred to as such) b.c it would be instant custom

Erdemovic Case
Jurisdiction ICTY appeals camber
Facts Erdemovic, locksmith of Croatian origin married to Serb. Caught in b/n competing factions. Part of different
armies. Promised swiss passport went to Serb stronghold for passport, paid and was stranded in the Serb
stronghold. In order to secure money for family and protect as croate, joined Bosnian Serb army. Laid land-
mines, etc. In 1995, Bosnian Serb forces took muslim civilians, let the women go but bused men for execution.
Erdemovic was brought with others to farm and muslim men arrived. Told that he will be executed if he does
not kill muslim men (despite his protest). Takes part. Later on he disagrees again, is shot and taken to a
hospital where he reveals what happened to journalist. This is the first exposure of what was happening in
Svrebonincia (cant spell).

Normally would not prosecute Erdemovic small fry. Indicted to save his life secret service would have
gotten to him

Brought to the Hague plea of guilty (common law notion). Therefore, no need for judge to be hearer of facts
prosecution and defense discuss and sentence given. In civil law there is no such thing as guilty plea only a
confession which is suspect. Defense lawyer and judge were not from common law jurisdictions.

On appeal, they say never entered a plea of guilty, only confessed. Explained that by his not participating he
would have been killed (duress). In a sense, there was no plea of guilty and we dont understand plea of guilty.

Problem, sole piece of evidence was his own testimony. If it was taken back to trial, he would not be sentenced,
would be sent back to Serbia (possible death) and would not be able to testify against others.

ICTY statute did not contain list of defences largely regulated by domestic law. Stat was rudimentary.
Question revolved around distinctions b/n common and civil law.
Common law, duress is an excuse to all crimes (had mens rea but should be excused as harm was
unavoidable)except, murder and treason against Her Majesty more pragmatic/policy oriented



Civil Law duress available to all crimes. All or nothing approach

Issues Court posed questions to itself: Is duress a defence in situations of crimes against humanity? (Here, mass
murder but could include torture, enslavement, rape when committed on a widespread scale)
Holding Soldier will not be allowed to rely on duress based on the Common law.
Ratio Court looks to other systems (Japan and China)
Court resolves diffs b/n civil and common by joint opinion says that there is no general principle and
that common law should be looked to b/c of policy considerations.
Italian judge gives that a big boooo. Policy considerations are not liked by Italian judges.
Principle of legality problematic as give judges the retroactive right to judge which law applies based
on policy.

Texaco v. Libya
Jurisdiction 1977 arbitration
Facts Libya was trying to nationalize oil resources. Texaco did not like this. Landmark cases in foreign
investment arbitration. Wanted prompt, adequate and effective compensation based on resolution 1803
of 1962. In 1974 developing countries adopted the economic charter of rights and duties in resolution
3281 to change economic system for poor countries to catch up in that, standard of compensation was
left to the discretion of the state. 3281 is a resolution was abstained by practically all the western states
and therefore not adopted by them even though most of the GA did adopt. 1803 was unanimous.
Issues Which resolution is binding? What is the relative weight of the different resolutions.
Holding 1803 is binding and 3281
Ratio Binding effect of a UN resolution depends on the voting pattern. 1803 was voted by all countries and
therefore had more weight. 3281 cannot be considered binding on countries that did not ratify it.
Recalls argument of Lachs in Continental Shelf in terms of the weight in customary law.
3281 is dead and could not be used in front of arbitration tribunal.
Protected investment in countries b/c based on 1803 and adequate compensation what company would invest with
thought that investment would be lost.

1. In determining general principles only the common law and civil law systems are relevant.
For: International law is based in Western law so this should be continued.
Time required to canvass all legal systems in the world.
Against: If this is to be legit should look to other. If they are to consider the decisions binding, how can we not look to others
jurisdictions when.
Why should we look at sub-state systems? Can help inform us of general principles.

Notion of lex talionis (punishment fits nature of the crime torture, drawn and quartered, publically). What if such a system
exists in a traditional system of law general principle is therefore not general? How do we approach this? Fiction that there
is a general principle. Reasonable majority is all that is required?

2. Criminal liability based on general principles violates the principle of legality. (prohibition of the retroactive
criminalization of conduct)
Does this principle protect the idea of lex certa (certainty of law). Nuremburg tribunal which relied on general
principles of law to buttress the principle of legality. S. 11(g) of Cdn Charter refers to Cdn and international law
or is criminal according to general principles of law.
Also International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) Art 15(2) on p 92 of the supplement. Was
specifically addressed to deal with Nuremburg.
Based on Nuremburg, should they have been prosecuted for crimes against humanity? Is it not in the case of really important
crimes that the principle must be used?



Discussion of principle of humanity as taking precedence in certain cases over the principle of legality.

Part 4a National Application of International Law - Custom

Federal govt has exclusive international personality in the sense that only it may bind Can to an international agreement.
Whether it may enact legislation giving internal affect to such an agreement.

Influence of the commercial field.

Question of adoption vs transformation depends on the constitution of the state in practice.

Adoption Doctrine: (incorporation) Automatic incorporation unless in conflict with act of parl
Transformation Doctrine : Not considered part of Can law except insofar as they have already been adopted by judges,
parliament or long established custom.
Vital when dealing with change of international law. Under adoption, will change with international law. With
Transformation, change will not affect national law.
Room for the view that the law in Canada is same as is in England where Denning says it is based in adoption.

Exist 2 theoretical departure points which are complicated because of little agreement in doctrine and cases due to the
diversity of approaches from different States.

Analysis of 2 approaches from Canadian perspective based on case law:

Adoptionist (or incorporation) approach for CIL. Transformist approach for conventional law. Basically for
Means that IL is automatically considered part of conventional IL to apply it must be transformed into law by the
domestic law unless there is a conflict. leg.

(This approach was implicitly adopted by SCR in Re Good test of a States reception to IL = the extent to which the
Nfld. Continental Shelf 1984). court, in interpreting such legislation, will look to the intl norms
or rules that gave rise to the domestic law.
There is tension here with the rule of parliamentary
Considerations to keep in mind concerning the national application of CIL in Canada:

1. Fed. can bind Canada but the enacted legislation will depend on the division of powers.
2. The issue of integrating intl treaties, norms or rules is important due to the increasing source of domestic law in intl
undertakings (i.e. tax treaties, law of the sea, labour standards, etc.)
3. When there is a conflict between intl and domestic law the division of powers again complicates things.
4. The Canadian Charter of H.R.s to what extent intl accepted HR norms should be relied upon for its interpretation

Direct applicability that some international norms should have effect. In Canada, HR law is a part of the constitution as it is a
new constitution.

Notion of Parliamentary Supremacy: English tradition, domestic law is supreme with idea of adoption or direct applicability of
international law in English law.
Some constitutions Germany, Japan Require that international law be accorded supremacy. Imposed on them by the
allies after the war (although the allied powers did not do the same for them)

Very often judges know very little of international law but are called upon to make judgments that will deal with it. Labour
conventions, tax treaties, International Commercial Arbitration,



Foreign Legations Case

Jurisdiction SCC [1943]
Facts Reference as to the powers of the city Ottawa to levy rates of foreign legations. Asked to advise whether the
Assessment Act of Ontario could allow the municipalities could collect taxes on the foreign legations. CIL
allowed for immunity for diplomats and legations.
Issues Ottawa city council had power to levy taxes/rates on foreign legations (property)
Holding Foreign legations will not be taxed
Ratio Duff Does not overrule the Act but says that, in this case, jurisdiction is not there. Adoption of customary
law is taken based on England. Law is applied but not enforced. Immunity from legal process. Province has
the right to tax whoever it wants.

Presumption that the legislature did intend to legislate in accordance with international law.

Saint John v. Raser-Brace Overseas Corp.

Jurisdiction SCC [1958]
Facts Agreement to build continental radar system. Corp owns works in Saint John
Issues The Q of tax liability of a private company for the use of property owned by the U.S. govt in the pursuit of
the construction of a radar defense system contracted by Canada and the U.S.
Holding Rand - Referred to Duffs decision above and the G.P. of immunity from legal processes accorded to a foreign
Ratio He appears to be adoptionist in his approach

When Conflicts arise b/t CIL and a Statute:

Gordon v. R.
Jurisdiction 1980 SCC
Facts Gordon was fishing in what was considered international waters but Canada had declared it was Canadian
waters. Note that this is before the 1982 UNCLOS. International law was recogd at 12 miles for High Seas
by 1958 convention. [Continental shelf has no relevance as it deals with sub-surface rights not fishing.]
1982 Exclusive Economic Zone 200 mile to exploit resources not yet applicable.
Holding Faced with the conflict court must apply domestic law.
Ratio Canada acted clearly and unambiguously and therefore the Canadian Law would prevail.

Adoption approach is used but is countered by explicit.

Meredith - Can only apply CIL when it has been accepted and adopted into domestic law.
This case is relevant for custom as well as treaty as mentioned in class. It indicated that treaty law is
transformationist, that is to say only applicable through valid implementing legislation, whereas
customary law is adoptionist,
directly applicable, though the latter does not prevail over unambiguous
legislation to the contrary (whereas it may when it is ambiguous such as in the Legation case).
Relevance Can Canada legislate in contravention to entrenched CIL? (Off-shore fishing rights).
Seems odd as could be seen to bring up the principle of legality.
How should the adoptionist view be shaped by these considerations. Should right to liberty, etc., influence the court to
adopting and adoptionist.
Should we move to transformationist approach to get rid of uncertainty. Would be too difficult to keep up as Customary
law is constantly changing.



Treaty Implementation
Without implementation by legislation (according to ordinary rules governing the division of power) Canada as a country is
bound but the provisions of the treaty do not affect internal law.

Two Methods of Implementation:

1. Incorporate the text into domestic law such that the treaty becomes a Cdn law and a source or rts and oblseither
In toto (1949 Geneva Conventions, 1929 Warsaw In part (Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations)

2. Incorporate the substance of the treaty into Cdn law. In this case the treaty is not part of domestic law and any rts or
obls are sourced from the domestic law that reflects the treatys substance.
Difficulties with this approach how to tell whether a particular act implements a particular treaty. When individual rts are
affected by the subject matter of the treaty this is especially significant.

Laskin the answer is that implementation must be manifest and not inferred.
The Adoption of Laws for Implementing Treaties is based on the Ordinary Rules governing the Division of Powers under
the Constitution:
Labour Conventions Case, [1937] House of Lords
Facts and holding After ratifying 2 International Labour conventions the fed govt proceeded to legislate in accordance with
the conventions provisions. The court ruled the legislation to be ultra vires the fed govt as the
legislative competence on the subject-matter of the conventions lied with the provinces.
Lord Atkins Within the British Empire:
water-tight Executive act = making of a treaty
compartments Legislative act = implementation of those obligations into domestic law

In Canada there is no such thing as treaty legislation in ss.91 and 92. Rather the distribution is based on
classes of subjects which will require the participation of the legislative power having control over a
particular class.
Will this position More recent SCC cases have suggested a trend towards a reconsideration of this case. Does this make
be maintained? sense given the increasingly interdependent nature of our world society that the fed govt have the power
to not only bind Canada but implement even when prov jurisdiction is touched upon?

POGG (referred to by Akavan as a residual power) and the general trace and commerce power in s.91 are
two sources of possible authority. (i.e. cases in which the economy of Canada is treated as a single
national unit).

POGG as a source of legislative authority:

R. v. Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd, [1988] SCR
Facts Fed govt had implemented their obls under the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine
Pollution with the Ocean Dumping Control Act. The was charged with dumping waste. As the site was
within the internal waters of B.C. the trial and CofA held that the Act was ultra vires Parliament insofar as
the B.C. waters were concerned.
Holding Le Dain While he agreed with the logic of the lower courts (the Act was unjustifiable under the feds
navigation or fisheries jurisdictions) he did conclude that it was operable under the POGG power.
Ratio The nature of the subject-matter, marine pollution, is clearly a matter of concern to all of Canada being
of a single and indivisible nature that cannot distinguish between coastal water pollution and territorial
sea pollution.

Conflicts between Treaties and Statutes

A treaty does not ipso facto, become part of our law and enforceable in the Courts. (R. v Cdn Labour Relations Board).

(The Gordon case is also a good example of the treatment of conflicts as Canada had in fact ratified the Geneva Convention in
1970 but had failed to implement it).



Treaty predates the statute:

Re Arrow River and Tributaries Slide and Boom Co. Ltd., [1931] Ontario CofA and SCC
Each judge emphasizes a different phrase in the Treatywhat are the different effects?

Each one is attempting to construe away a conflict between a statute and a treaty. Should courts attempt to simply defuse the
conflict or should they take a proactive stance and attempt to further the treaty as far as possible?

The case illustrates the tensions b/t judges trying to make it fix and ultimately giving deference to the division of powers if
no fit can be arrived at.
Facts Arrow River Co. was entitled to fix tolls under the Provincial Lakes and Rivers Improvements Act (1927)
for the movement of timber down the river including Pigeon River which serves as a part of the border
between Ontario and the U.S. The Pigeon TimberCo. objected to paying the tolls because of a conflict
with a treaty from 1842 which provided free access to those waters.
Ratio Riddell J.A. (CofA) Unless the statute is so explicit as to prohibit an alternative interpretation it is
1. Riddell prior acceptable to interpret it in such a way as to remove any conflict and to therefore to promote the
commitments execution of the Kings plain duty.
must be upheld if Therefore, in Ontario in the Act does not mean partly in Ontario which is the case of the river in
possible. question. It was therefore not meant to be covered by the Act and the toll cannot be charged on the
Pigeon River. (Echos of Legations Case, trying to import meaning to render the statute consistent with the
Smith also
creative Smith J (SCC) Riddell incorrectly interpreted the Act. The treaty was referring to waters which were in
interpreting treaty use and navigable at the time of the treaty. The part of the Pigeon River in question was non-navigable at
intent. the time and therefore the treaty does not apply. The tolls can be charged.

Lamont Lamont J He also construes the treaty. The treaty states that the use was to be free and open to any
construes too navigable waters even if they require a portage, then or in the future. He finds it an unnatural use of
but Statute language to limit that liberty. Based on this the tolls cannot be charged. However he finds another reason
prevails! to permit the tolls

On whether the Lamont J Provincial legislative power is plenary as concerns s.92 powers. As this Act is clearly within
Act was valid and s.92 it is enforceable. To be overruled there must be affirming legislation that a treaty provision shall be
enforceable enforced.
Treaties between Canada and foreign states are only contracts binding in honour upon the contracting
states The treatys provision of free and open access to the waters had only the force of a K b/t
Canada and the U.S. and therefore cannot impose any limitiation on Ontarios legislative powers.

Influence of IL on Cdn Law Determing the Applicable Law to Apply:

Procedural the means the courts use to determine Substantive reflects the impact of intl legal principles on the
applicable IL, Judicial Notice. contents of Cdn law (i.e. Charter of HR)

Procedural Influences, the giving of Judicial Notice:

Judicial notice can (and maybe should) be given to CIL in domestic situations.

Judicial notice to CIL greatly assists the entry of CIL into our domestic law.

Judicial notice the act by which a court, in conducting a trial or framing its decision, will of its own motionrecognize the
existence and truth of certain facts, having a bearing on the controversy at bar, which, from their nature, are not properly the
subject of testimony, or which are universally regarded as established by common notoriety, e.g. the laws of the state, IL,
historical events, the constitution and course of natureetc
Judicial notice means that there is an assumption that what is presented IS the law, so the court is not bound to justify it (versus
the law of another state which requires proof). This can be problematic because much of IL is not certain, such as CIL or



Substantive Influences:
International norms can play an impt role in Cdn law.

In Keegstra Case on hate speech legislation Dickson stated that a value that has obtained the status of an intl right should be
indicative of a high degree of importance attached to that objective. The court relied on the CERD as well as ICCPR (Intl
Convenant on Civil and Personal Rights) given the absence of any specific provision in the Charter prohibiting hate speech. The
meaning for the purposes of Canadian law was inferred by using these treaties.

Comparative Approaches to National Application

European Union:
The EUs legal structure is a matrix of intl agreements.

The EU itself has ILP.

1957 Treaty of Rome the framework agreement which set out the basic rights and obligations and created the institutions by
which new and binding rules may be enacted.

1992 The Maastricht Agreements Established the EU, further extended integration process and paved the way for the euro.

1997 Treaty of Amsterdam deepened the EU, enhanced fundamental rights of European citizens and began the common
European foreign and security policy.

The EUs legal strength rests on 2 fundamental principles: the primacy of Union law over conflicting national legal
provisions, and the right of individuals to rely on the Union norms before their domestic tribunals.

Should domestic courts apply European Community Law (ECL):

Cosa v. Ente Nazionale Per lEnergia Ellettrica, [1964] ECJ Advisory Opinion under art. 177
Facts Italian refused to pay electric bill claiming that the nationalization of the electric company was contrary
to Italys obligations under the Treaty of Rome. For our purposes issue is whether the Italian court must
refer to the treaty.
Holding Yes the Treaty applies to domestic tribunals.
Ratio Real powers resulting from a limitation or transfer of powers from the States to the Community were
created and accepted by the member-States which clearly limits their sovereign right to enact and enforce
a subsequent unilateral law incompatible with the aims of the Community.
It appears that ECL plays a much more central role than IL in terms of its place in EU members domestic legal systems.

In this sense the issue of conflict and legislative competence does not seem to be as important as in Canada in that the court
clearly states that despite any discontent on the part of member states they must still give force to a ECL over their domestic law.

The relationship b/t ECL and English law:

H.P. Bulmer Ltd. v. J. Bollinger SA, [1974] English C of A
Denning indicates that European Community law has been incorporated into UK law by statute, meaning s.2(1) of the
European Communities Act of 1972. The provisions that Denning referred to have been called transformation in advance.

This case is interesting because parliamentary supremacy always had been the rule in England.
Transformation in The statute is expressed in such forthright and unequivocal terms as to the legal effect of any rts or obls
advance under the Act without more ado. By signing the treaty the UK automatically submitted domestic law to
the treaty as to its subject-matter.

Whether procedural remedies should be adjusted to the requirements of ECL:

Factortame Case, [1990] House of Lords
Can we construe this as an abandonment of parliamentary sovereignty?



Facts On the question of whether or not a UK Act violated provisions of ECL the domestic court was asked to
issue an interim injunction to enjoin the Crown from enforcing the Act pending the ECJ ruling. The CofA
declared it had no jurisdiction to stop the Crown from applying UK law and evoked the principle of
Parliamentary Sovereignty. The H.L.s sought the advisory opinion of the ECJ who declared that
domestic courts are within their jurisdiction to override national law if necessary to enable interim
relief to be granted in protection of rights under ECL. The H of Ls therefore granted the injunction.
Ratio Lord Bridge the supremacy of the ECL over national law had been well established in ECJ jurisprudence
long before the UK enacted the act in 1972. Thus the UK has voluntarily submitted itself to that

United States
Customary Law:
CIL may be in questions of IL where there is no treaty and no controlling executive or legislative act or judicial decision.

In terms of conflicts with statutes, the U.S. takes a similar position to Canada and attempts where possible to interpret statutes in a
way so as to avoid conflit.

The US Constitution gives the President treaty-making power with the advice and consent of the Senate.

As for implementation, a 2/3 majority vote of the Senate to adopt a treaty makes it part of the supreme law of the land. This
permits them to override domestic law in the case of a conflict.

Self-Executing Agreements:
In the US intl agreements are called self-executing if the intention of the signatories according to the provisions was to create rts
and obls capable of direct enforcement by the courts.

Sei Fujii v. California, [1952] Supreme Court of California

Issue Whether or not HR provisions in the UN Charter were self-executing so as to render nugatory
provisions of a California law.
Holding The UN Charter is not self-executing.
Ratio The intent of the signatories for a treaty to be self-executing must be manifest by the language of the

A treaty cannot be self-executing if it cannot operate without the aid of any legislative provision. When
the terms import a K with the engagement to perform a particular act then the treaty addresses itself to the
political and not the judicial dept; the Legislature must execute the K before it can be a rule for the court.

The UN Charter lacks the language customary to self-executing treaties.

Executive Agreements:
Three kinds:
Treaty-based these enjoy the same legal status as the treaties that authorize them as long as they are consistent with
the treaty
Congressional authorized by statute, this is now accepted as a complete alternative to a treaty in which a
simple majority approval is sought from both houses of Congress and not just the Senate. Like a treaty with a
2/3 vote these agreements become the law of the land and supersede inconsistent state law or provisions in earlier
Unilateral these are made solely under the Presidents authority.

1. Instead of adoption, customary law should always be transformed to ensure consistency with the Canadian Constitution.



2. Within their sphere of competence, Provinces have the right to legislate in violation of international law. THIS

Part 5 - State Jurisdiction Over Territory

Can you have jurisdiction over territory without sovereignty?
- you can exercise jurisdiction without sovereignty, with respect to continental shelf or exclusive economic zone. You can
exercise jurisdiction with respect to specific matters without having sovereignty. States do not necessarily have sovereignty
over EEZ because there is a freedom of passage. Pollution and environmental jurisdiction extends over EEZ in Canada but
does not imply sovereignty. Sovereignty extends over the land mass and internal waters.

Res nullius: some lands are really res nullius such as Antarctica. But then it was also used for Indigenous areas. This concept has
somewhat given way to common heritage of man kind. This is different from the idea of res communis which means it belongs to
everybody, more of a free for all.

Sovereignty and Jurisdiction do not always mean the same thing.

- Sovereignty always implies jurisdiction.
- Jurisdiction does not always imply sovereignty.

- competence of a court; or
- scope of authority of a particular state organ or organ of an internal organization; or
- scope of authority of a state over its territory.

Territorial Jurisdiction in intl law:

- competence of a state to prescribe and enforce rules of domestic law governing conduct within its territory. Authority of a
state to regulate conduct within its territory is supreme and is subject only to specific limitations set by CIL or by treaty.

In traditional IL, area of earth may be:

- sovereignty of a state
- res communis high seas and outer spacce:shared by all nations incapalbe of lawful appropriation by any state;
- res nullius: capable of lawful national appropriation.
- New legal category: Common Heritage of Mankind governed by special rules: seabed, ocean floor and subsoil thereof,
moon and other celestial bodies. Similar to Res Communis, but differs it incorporates the idea that the management,
exploitation and distribution of the natural resources of the area in question are matters to be decided by the international
community and are not to be left to the initiative of individual States or nationals. Even though incorporated in certain
conferences and agreements, it is a subject of controversy.

Under Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (1935), a defined territory is one of the indispensable
attributes of statehood.
- Territory of state is tri-dimensional:
o surface,
o subsurface and
o column of air to an as yet undetermined altitude.
- Territory of coastal states, extends seaward to the outer limit of their territorial seas (maximum 12 nautical miles) and to the
continental shelf (200 nautical miles off shore, or even beyond Canada).



Land Territory
(b) Acquisition of Territory
Traditional international law recognizes five different modalities for the acquisition of territory:
- Occupation. Two conditions:
o Territory thus acquired must be res nullius.
o Occupying state exercises effective control over such territory.
island of Palmas case
- Cession : transfer of territory from one state to another by a treaty of cession. Similar to cession would be the acquisition of
territory by a new state through independence by a former colonial power. Since UN Charter, treaty of cession obtained
through use of force is no longer valid. (article 2(4) and article 52 of Vienna Convention). Manner in which Bolivia lost part
of its territory to Chile after the Great Pacific War (this was under force). For Canadian context 1763 Treaty of Paris by which
French NA became part of British NA.
- Prescription: when a state peaceably occupied a territory with the knowledge of and without protest by the original
sovereign for a period of time, may acquire title to the territory. Occupation + Acquiescence. Statute of Greenland Case
where Denmark argued that Norway acquiesced to its sovereignty over Greenland. There are also cases where oil
concessions are used for inferring acquiescence.
- Conquest: war and subsequent annexation. No longer reconcilable with modern intl. law.
- Accretion: enlargement of a states territory though natural forces change in course of river. The emergence of volcanic
islands, land territory with implications on claims of EEZ.

In reality none of these work in isolation. relative title is used, meaning the court will ask who has the better title.

Island of Palmas Case; Netherlands v. United States (1928), 2 R.I.A.A. 829

F - When US General visits island of Palmas, discovers that the island is considered part of the Netherlands Dutch East
Indies territory.
- US contended that the island was included in the Philippine Archipelago ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 Treaty of
Paris (claim of cession and discovery).
- Netherlands claimed sovereignty by virtue of its continuous and undisputed display of authority over the island during
a long period of time (claim of effective display of authority.
Dispute submitted to arbitrator
I Relatively, who has better title?
H 18th and 19th century Dutch display authority with gaps. Context of island of Palmas, gaps are insignificant as island of
Palmas is a small and distant inhabited only by natives.
R General remarks on sovereignty in its relation to territory:
- sovereignty in the relation between States signifies independence.
- Territorial sovereignty belongs always to one, or in exceptional circusmtances to several states to the exclusion of all
- Territorial sovereignty is a situation recognized and delimited in space.

If a dispute arises as to the sovereignty over a portion of territory, it is customary to examine which states claiming
sovereignty possesses a title cession, conquest, occupation, etc. superior to that which the other State ight possibly bring
forward against it.

Practice and doctrine recognize that the continuous and peaceful display of territorial sovereignty is as good as a title.

Territorial sovereignty involves the exclusive right to display the activities of a State. This right has a corollary duty: the
obligation to protect within the territory the rights of other States, in particular their right to integrity and inviolability in
peace and war, together with the rights which each State may claim for its nationals in foreign territory. Territorial
sovereignty cannot limit itself to its negative side: exclusind the activiteis of other States.



Essential question: whether the island of Palmas a thte moment of the conclusion of the Treaty of Paris formed a part of the
Spanish or Netherlands territory.
- Cannot apply principle that islands belong to lands that are closest to them.
- Did Spain have sovereignty over Palmas at the time of the coming into force of the Treaty of Paris?
o US has not established the fact that sovereignty was displayed at any time.
- Did Netherlands display continuity?
o Continuous display not in the literal sense. Enough that a the time another Power ascertaining the local
conditions had a reasonalbe possibility seeing the existence of other state rights.
o Netherlands never recorded any protests.
o No evidence of display of sovereignty over the island by Spain or another Power.
indirect prroof of the exclusive display of Netherlands sovereignty.

Consider whether the display of state authority might not be legally defective and thereforeunable to create a valid title of
sovereignty ?
- display has been open and public.

Whether the US as sucession of Spain in a position to bring forward an equivalent or stronger title? NO:
- title of discovery doesnt apply.
- Title of contiguity has no foundation in intl. law.
- Title of recognition by treaty does not apply

Compare Palams Island with the Western Sahara. Despite the 1884 colonization of the Rio de Oro by the Spaniards there was no
terra nullius because the practice was to conclude agreeements with tribes and peoples. Therefore Spains title was derivative and
not original.

Western Sahara Case Adv. Op. [1975] I.C.J. Rep. 12

I 1) Was the Western Sahara at the time of colonization by Spain a territory belonging to no one (res nullius)?
2) What were the legal ties between the territory and the Kingdom of Morocco and the Mauritanian entity?
H 1) No not terra nullius. 2)
R Spanish colonization occurred in period beginning in 1884.

Question 1 needs to be answered by reference to the law in force at that period. The expression terra nullius was a legal
term of art employed in connection with occupation as one of the accepted legal methods of acquiring sovereignty over
territory. It was a cardinal condition of a valid occupation that the territory should be terra nullius. Sate practice of the
relevant period indicates that territories inhabited by tribes or peoples having a social and political organization were not
regarded as terra nullius. Acquisition of territory was effected through agreements with local rulers. Such agreements with
local rulers, whether or not considered as an actual cession of territory, were regarded as derivative roots of title. At the
time of colonization, Western Sahara was inhabited by peoples.

Question 2 depends on the meaning of legal ties in the context of colonization. Legal ties of allegiance between the Sultan
of Morocco and some of the tribes living in the territory of Western Sahara. Existence of rights which constituted legal ties
between Mauritanian entity and the territory of Western Sahara. No tie of territorial sovereignty between the territory of
Western Sahara and the Kingdom of Morocco or the Mauritanian territory.
N Is the court creating a myth ? Was there a better way of achieving this result ?

Legal Status of Eastern Greenland Case; Denmark v. Norway

(1933), P.C.I.J. Rep., Ser. A./B., No.53
F Norway proclaimed sovereignty over Eastern Greenland, an uncolonized part of the island. Denmark, which claimed



sovereignty over the whole island, instituted proceedings against Norway in the Permanent Court of Intl. Justice asking the
Court to declare the Norwegian Act invalid.
H Held that Greenland has displayed through legislation enacted, treaties and conventions, during the period of 1814 to 1915
her authority over the uncolonized territory.

Held that Denmark has demonstrated occupation on July 10 1931 activity of Denmark in area.
R Denmarks arguments:
- sovereignty which Denmark now enjoys over Greenland existed for a long time, has been continuous and peacefully
exercised, and up until now, has not been contested by any Power.
- Norway has by treaty or otherwise herself recognized Danish sovereignty over Greenland as a whole and therefore
cannot now dispute it.

- Denmark possessed no sovereignty over the area in question
- at the time of occupation, area was res nullius.

Danish claim is not founded upon any particular act of occupation, but alleges a title founded on the peaceful and
continuous display of State authority over the island.

To establish the contention that Denmark has exercised in fact sovereignty over all Greenland Council for D have laid stress
on the long series of conventions in which a stipulation has been inserted to the effect that the convention shall not apply to
Greenland. Show a willingness from other states to admit Ds right to exclude Greenland. Norway has been party to these

Held that Greenland has displayed through legislation enacted, treaties and conventions, during the period of 1814 to 1915
her authority over the uncolonized territory.

Held that Denmark has demonstrated occupation on July 10 1931 activity of Denmark in area.

- In Minquiers and Ecrechos Case ICJ called to determine whether France or Uk had sovereignty over islets and rocks in the
English Channel. Court unanimously found for UK. Decisive factor was the more recent evidence of the exercise of State
functions over the disputed territory by the UK.
- Dispute between Thailand and Cambodia over Preah Vihear Temple. ICJ case in 1962. The decisive piece of evidence was
that in 1930 a Thai Prince visiting the temple was hosted by a French Superior. Based on that principle, that Cambodia was a
French colony, the court held that the hosting of the Prince by France constituted recognition of French sovereignty.

(c) Boundary Disputes

Boundary disputes would often be decided by war, resulting in the territorial expansion of the victor. In more recent times, states
have been showing greater readiness to have their minor territorial disputes resolved through non-violent means such as

S.P. sharma arguest that there is a distinction between a boundary dispute and a territorial dispute. A boundary dispute is an
exercise of dividing territory whereas a territorial dispute is one where the goal is the exclusive sovereignty over a particular area.

Case Concerning the Frontier Dispute; Burkina Faso v. Republic of Mali,

[1986] I.C.J. 554
F In 1960 Burkina Faso and Mali achieved independence from France. They shared an administrative boundary. The question
before the Chamber of the ICJ was the location of the boundary. The preliminary comments of the Court are important.



R How the present dispute should be classified?
- frontier disputes or delimitation disputes: refer to delimitation operations affecting what has been described as a
portion of land which is not geographically autonomous
- disputes as to attribution of territory: attribution of sovereignty over the whole of a geographical entity.

The effect of any delimitation no matter how small the disputed areas crossed by the line, is an apportionment of the areas
of land lying on either side of the line.

Principle of intangibility of frontiers inherited from colonization gives rise to the principle of uti possidetis juris, the
application of which gives rise to this respect for intangibility of frontiers.

Principle of uti possidetis juris was first invoked in Spanish America. But the principle is not a specific rule which pertains
solely to one specific system of intl. law. It is a general principle which is logically connected with the phenomenon of the
obtaining of independence, wherever it occurs. Its purpose is to prevent the independence and stability of new states from
being endangered by fratricidal struggles provoked by challenging frontiers.

Different aspects of the principle of uti possidetis juris:

- pre-eminence accorded to legal title over effective possession as a basis of sovereignty.
- Primary aim of securing respect for the territorial boundaries at the moment when independence is achieved.
- Upgraded former administrative delimitations, established during the colonial period, to intl. frontiers.
- Territorial boundaries that have to be respected and also be derived from intl. frontiers.

Problems with this principle:

- conflicts outright with right of peoples to self-determination. But emphasis is made on the requirement for stability in
order to survive has induced African States to consent to the respecting of colonial frontiers. Deliberate choice of
African States to choose uti possidetis.

International law and the principle of uti possidetis applies to the new State not with retroactive effect, but immediately
and from that moment onwards. It applies to the State as it is, ie to the photograph of the territorial situation then existing.
N Uti possidetis means intangibility of frontiers.

Should uti posssidetis be restricted to colonial situations? Or where new states have a common colonial past? It was the legal
opinion of the Arbitration Commission of the Conference on Yugoslavia that uti possidetis was the governing principle of intl. law
respecting the boundaries between Croatia and Serbia and b/n B-H and Serbia.

Class Presentation
1. The doctrine of uti possidetis juris creates artificial States and should be abandoned in favour of historic national
territorial definitions
- So much death in Africa because of this principle. Zaire, Sudan, Niegeria etc. But then again, where we have had
separation as in India and Pakistan there has also been conflict.
- Should these boundaries be kept at all cost ie. Kurds. Kosovo, province of Serbia, was 90% Albanian. Today Kosovars
have effectively created their own state. Should the intl. community force them to go back to Serbia ?
- Example of Armenia and Azerbaijan. There is an enclave in Azerbaijan with an Armenian majority. The two countries
were republics of the Soviet Union and inherited the boundaries. Stalin purposely drew republic lines dividing ethnic
communities. The boundaries were a policy of divide and conquer. Should we respect Stalins boundaries at all costs?

The notion of juris is about pre-eminence of legal title over effective possession. This seems to be in conflict with the Island of
Palmas. Uti possidetis was used to decolonize South America and they wanted to prevent the encroachment of other colonial
powers. They knew that if effective possession was going to be the criterion they were going to lose their land because they could
not possibly occupy all the territory. The drawing of boundaries is pre-eminent over occupation. So it may not have been about
stability in the beginning.



Arctic and Antarctic Areas

Biggest issue is whether the ice should transform the arctic into a different type of territory.

The Artic is basically defined by the tree line.

Importance of the arctic: resources (oil + gas), environment (eco-system is very fragile), during cold war years strategic
importance (early warning systems).

What is the status of ice islands? Canada is trying to claim that they create an archipelago. In the Law of the Sea Convention,
group of islands and waters closely interrelated that form an intrinsic geographical and economic entity. Indonesia is an
archipelago state. Canada is not an archipelago state it has a massive land mass. There is also the fisheries case. The ICJ case on
Fisheries of Norway holds that you draw straight base lines. Therefore Canada wants to apply the case to its Arctic islands.

US position is that the Northwest passage is not part of Canadas internal waters. You cannot draw straight baselines. Internal
waters is no different then land territories, there is no right of passage therefore. The only time you can draw straight baselines is
if you are an archipelago state or if you fall under a.7. Doesnt Baffin island look like the Norwegian coast line? Norway case
says that straight baselines needs to be tempered by general international right.

Does US agreement show acquiescence ?

Does ice change the legal regime? It means that the water is connected to the land. The claim that there is an archipelago is
solidified by the ice.

Features of the Arctic from D. Pharand, The Legal Status of the Arctic Regions (1979), 163 Hague
Recueil 51
Criterion retained to define the Arctic is the tree line.

Differences between Arctic and Antarctic

Arctic: warmer, consists of a deep ice-covered ocean surrounded by a continental belt.
Antarctic: colder, ice-covered continent surrounded by a vast maritime belt

Arctic region is of considerable strategic importance (USSR submarine fleet, US Laboratory, Ballistic Missile early warning). +
Econ importance: new supplies of oil and gas.

The Sector Theory from I. Head., Canadian Claims to Territorial Sovereignty in the Arctic Regions
(1963), 9 McGill L.J. 200
Arctic sector theory is was first offered by Canada and is associated with Canada.
Arctic sector is deceptively simple: a base line or arc described along the Arctic Circle through territory unquestionably within
the jurisdiction of a temperate zone state, and sides defined by meridians of longitude extending from the North Pole south to the
most easterly and westerly points on the Arctic Circle pierced by the state.

Canadas claims to territorial sovereignty over the Active mainland and the islands of the archipelago within the Canadian
sector have never been challenged.

USSR also adopted sector theory.

US has neither disputed nor made its own claim. Policy being one of reservation in both Arctic and Antarctic.

Legal Status of the Arctic Regions by D. Pharand (1979), 163 Hague Recueil 51
No question as to the territorial sovereignty in the Arctic.



Legal Status of the Arctic Ocean

Waters of the Arctic Ocean must be considered as high seas, as in any other ocean. US considers Arctic Ocean as high seas
and open to all nations. USSR has engaged in similar activities to US and therefore must subscribe to freedom of the seas.
Canada has expressed doubt to high seas, particularly the Beaufort sea, when discussing the status of the Northwest
passage. But Canada did explore Lomosnov Ridge

Legal Status of Ice Islands

Ice islands used for marine scientific research. They need a legal regime. No customary law has developed.

Air Space over Arctic Lands and Islands

Since territorial sovereignty is established, Arctic states have complete and exclusive sovereignty over the air space above
their respective territories.

Air Space over the Arctic Ocean

Freedom of overflight exists all over the water of the Arctic Ocean beyond the territorial sea. States have respected freedom
of overflight.

Air Space over the Northeast and Northwest Passage

No freedom of over flight where there is an overlap of territorial waters in those straits.
1. After the controversial voyage of US Polar Sea through Canadian Arctic, PM Mulroney unequivocally asserted
Canadas sovereignty over the NW Passage.
2. Joe Clark, Secretary of State for External Affairs said Canadas sovereignty in the Arctic is indivisible. It
embraces land, sea and ice. It extends without interruption to the seaward-facing coasts of the Arctic islands.
Canadas Inuit people have occupied them from time immemorial.
3. On Jan 11, 1988 Can and US concluded an agreement on Arctic Cooperation. US pledged that all navigation
within waters claimed by Canada to be internal will be undertaken with the consent of the Government of Can.
4. Can Canadas claim to sovereignty over the Arctic waters be reconciled with customary law of the sea?
5. Donat Pharand says that Arctic ocean should fall within the general regime, in spite of the presence of ice. Cans
claim without basis in international law for jurisdiction. But then looked at maps and said that Canadian Arctic
archipelago is a coastal archipelago and not a coastal archipelago.

Class Presentations
1. The doctrine of uti possidetis juris creates artificial States and should be abandoned in favour of historic national
territorial definitions
2. The U.S. icebreaker Polar Sea violated Canadian sovereignty by passing through the Northwest passage without
Canadas consent.

1. The most democratic and effective approach is for parliament to ratify treaties.
2. Compare reception of international law in Canada with that of other jurisdictions.

Part 6 Law of the Sea

Issue is territorial claim in the seas immediately adjacent to their coastline. Otherwise there is an acceptance that the high seas
are open to all.
Starts in the Roman times and continues. Famous debate b/n Grotius (free for navigation) and Selden (closed seas).
Virtually all modern laws of the sea are grounded in custom
In 1958, four conventions on laws of the sea were written and ratified by many (and followed by more who believed that
the conventions merely codification of existing law). First attempt to regulate the seas.



o Contiguous zone (extended for customs and enforcement) and territorial sea
o High seas
o Fisheries (controversial resistance by coastal states saying that distant states had too many rights and did not
have to deal with environmental outcomes)
o Continental Shelf. (see Continental Shelf Case which still says (in 1969) that this does not reflect CIL)
North Sea Continental Shelf Case shows how not all the provisions were considered CIL.
By the 1960s, these conventions were already outdated.
o Definition of continental shelf technology in 1958 for drilling did not allow for it beyond 200m isobar. In
60s this was possible and therefore convention outdated
1973 UN held first conference on Law of the Sea. (Father of convention Tommy Koh of Singapore)
Resulting constant changes made another codification process essential Thus, UN Convention of the Law of the Sea
in 1982.
o Very extensive 17 parts, 320 arts, 9 annexes.
o Does not deal with military uses
o Entered into force (as set out in convention) 12 months after 60th ratification in 1994. Also b/c of reservations
of US and other western countries who did not like the common heritage of mankind bit regarding the deep
o Canada has signed (1999) but not ratified until (2003).
Law of sea particularly important for Canada longest coastline in the world and 70% of oil reserves in the seabed.
o Is it an advantage for Canada to ratify. Not everyone has done so Venezuela among others.

A Marine Zones

1. Territorial Sea
Notion related to the capacity of coastal states to project their power in regulating who can sail off their shores (the
cannon-shot rule how far the territorial sea extended. 3 mile rule was related to this rule.)
Established by 120 nations as being 12 nautical miles from the low-water mark.
Articles 2-14 delineate the territorial sea definitions of baselines from where 12 nautical mile-line should be drawn,
definition of a bay, etc.

Rights in the territorial sea are Sovereign Rights (see article 2 UNCLS) which continue to its airspace and seabed and
Exception for archipelagic see art 2

Drawn along the low-water lines. Principle here is that the land dominates the sea.
Generally follow contour of the coast.
Article 7 Straight baselines dont force into the deep contours.
Note the difference b/n an archipelagic state and archipelagic area.
Cabott strait, Bay of Fundy and Gulf of St. Lawrence are all considered by Canada to be internal waters.
Also, on the west coast, Queen Charlotte.
All of these based on historical waters claim.

Mouths of Rivers
Where the fresh water ends and salt water begins the baseline is drawn
See also art 9

Anglo-Norwegian Fisheries Case UK v. Norway

Jurisdiction ICJ [1951]



Facts Norways action of enclosing a coastal archipelago (with straight baselines marking the inner limit of its territorial
sea) fringing its territory came under dispute. Foreign vessels were excluded from these waters. Several baselines
were more than 30 miles long one was 44.
Issues Where are the baselines to be drawn from and how?
Holding Based on historical and local considerations, Norways delimitation is an adaptation rendered necessary by local
Ratio Act of delimitation is a unilateral act as only the coastal state is competent to undertake it but the validity of the
delimitation depends on international law.
Court accepts use of baselines which, in cases of very indented or cut, may depart from the physical line
of the coast.
Considerations to be taken into account when deciding what section of the sea to include
Close dependence of the territorial sea on the land domain drawing of baselines must not depart to
any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast
Are certain sea areas lying within these lines (between islands and coasts) sufficiently linked to the
land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters
Look to non-geographic factors eg. economic, long-usage.

Consistent with Canada as set out in Oceans Act?

Is enclosure of Historical waters (as described above) consistent with the UNCLS or is this a case of creeping
Look also to Sable Island can you draw a 200 mile EEZ around it? No See art 121(3) Cannot sustain economic

Islands and Archipelagos

Arts. 46-49, 121

Exclusive Economic Zone

Arts 55-60
Measured from the baselines of the territorial sea to no more than 200 nautical miles. (In conflict with the Cdn Oceans
Act which describes the zone as having its inner limit as the outer limit of the territorial sea.
All rights to anything in the water, the seabed and its soil. Have exclusive right to artificial islands and constructions in
this zone.
Almost as soon as convention was enacted, 200 mile fishing zones were proclaimed by several influential states.
Therefore, amazing speed which has become international law by state practice.
Note the preservation of all high seas freedoms in this zone so long as they are not in conflict with the rights enjoyed by
the coastal states.

Major question is how this applies to non-signatories. What are their rights or obligations in the EEZs of other states.

Oceans Act art. 13(1) 200 nautical miles from the baselines of Canadas territorial sea.
Art. 14(a) confirms Canadas sovereign rights in the EEZ. Canadas EEZ also includes all the waters over which Canada has
historical claims to full sovereignty.

Under the UNCLS, the provisions for an EEZ are the most remarkable in many respects, especially the speed in which states have
enacted them.

Is this zone to be understood as sovereign rights or jurisdiction? Might have to wait and see from state practice and
authoritative interpretation of the UNCLS.

Continental Shelf
UNCLS Arts 76-82



The Truman Proclamation

Of 1945
Assertion of control and jurisdiction over the subsoil and seabed of the continental shelf
Where it extends to another nation or is shared with an adjacent state, boundary determined on equitable principles.
Lead to similar claims being made throughout the world.
Prior to Truman had occurred b/n Venezuela and UK regarding Trinidad. Claimed it as terre nullius. This changed
Now, it is an extension of land territory.

Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf

Defn Adjacent to the coast but outside the territorial sea to a depth of 200 meters or to where the depth will admit of
exploitation of the natural resources of the area.

In Canada the Oceans Act is fully consistent with art. 76 of the UNCLS.
(laurie, ck art. 76 and the cont. shelf on Cdn coasts b.c. and east coastsee page 884 casebook).
Oceans Act 1996
17(1) Continental Shelf (CS) includes EEZ
18 Sovereign rights of Canada over CS for exploration and exploitation of mineral and other non-living natural
20(1) Application of federal laws CS installation, artificial islands including a security zone surrounding them.
20(2) Interpretation of the laws in a manner consistent with the rts and freedoms of other states under IL.
21(1) Application of provincial law Apply to the same extent as federal laws in s.20 in any area of the sea forming part of
the EEZ, that is not within any province and is prescribed by regulation.
21(2) Limitation Subject to 26(1)(d), 21(1) does not apply in respect of any law of a province that imposes a tax or
royalty, or relates to mineral or other non-living natural resources.
23(1) Certificate - Minister of Foreign Affairs

26(1) The Governor in Council, may, on the rec. of the Minister of Justice, make regulations
(a) prescribing a work as marine installation or structure
(b) making any law of a province applicable even though the law by its own terms is applicable only in respect of a
particular area within the province
(k) making federl or provincial laws applicable in specific circumstances as are specified in the regulations in the
EEZ, the CS or any area beyond the CS.

Cdn Oceans Act

Shelf Includes the slope and the rise but not the deep Ocean Floor.
To a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines of the territorial sea
This is for mineral exploitation

Re Newfoundland Continental Shelf

Jurisdiction SCC [1984]
Issues Does Canada or NFLD have the right to explore and exploit the minerals and other natural resources of the seabed
and subsoil of the continental shelf and the right to make laws in relation to the exploration and exploitation of
Holding Canada has legislative jurisdiction as NFLD did not have rights by CIL at time of confederation.
Ratio Notes that this is not an issue of sovereignty but rather sovereign rights to explore and exploit
These rights are not considered proprietary.
For NFLD to be successful, must be shown that, prior to it joining Canada, NFLD had acquired rights to the
continental shelf ipso facto or by operation of law (without a claim being made ab initio) Was it CIL?
Canvassing of the different claims made prior to 1949 and work of the International law Commission on the



subject which said that, although many claims had been made, still limited and recognition was not high.
Conclude that international law had not develd sufficiently by 1949 to confer rights on NFLD
No retroactivity with respect to laws of the sea not conferred on NFLD retroactively
NOTE Court went on to say that, even if the above was wrong, upon joining the union, NFLD would have transferred rights
to the entity possessing external sovereignty namely Canada.

Deep Seabed
Possibility of exploiting certain minerals on the deep sea floor is slowly evolving.
Third conference on the Law of the Sea instituted a Moratorium resolution until an international regime could be
Resources declared to be the common heritage of mankind.
Moratorium stops all exploitation

Seabed Declaration
Similar as Moratorium

Questions Oct 25th

1. The continental shelf and EEZ, like the Deep Seabed, should be the common heritage of mankind.
Concept of common heritage was not around when EEZ and Contin Shelf. Was only res nullius or sovereignty.
Lets the trustee (UN) implement management programmes.
Regulation should go to Jamaica or some body somewhere. Ensure that minimum standards are met.

Authority in Jamaica does not have any authority for Environmental control
Does not help the devel of developing countries.
Wealth sharing is not a good idea.

Part 7 - Nationality
A. Individuals
There must be genuine link b/n the state granting the nationality and the individual.
From Re Lynch continuing state of things is required and not a physical fact. Membership of an independent political
Not static but rather constantly dynamic.
It is the fundamental basis for jurisdiction over persons beyond national territory.
Rights and obligations come from nationality Formal espousal of claims of its nationals through diplomatic channels,
imposition of military service, some may refuse to extradite nationals,

What determines nationality

Domestic law regulates the loss and acquisition of nationality
Fundamental aspect of states sovereignty
Serious consequences Eg. Latvia situation at the end of the USSR. There was a deliberate migration of Russian to
dilute Latvian population to the point where 40% of pop was Russian. What to do after 1991? Revoke nationality?
Involves peace and security
Included in Universal Declaration of HR In Covenant on Civil and Political rights confers nationality on children.



S.A. Williams and A.L.C. de Mestral Intro to International Law

National includes person who are not citizens but who has the right to protection of the state and owes allegiance to it.
Art 25 of ICCPR
Can happen by birth in the state (jus soli) or by birth to parents (blood) who are nationals of the state (jus Sanguinis) or
through Naturalization (either directly or derivative by children) where there is minimum period of residence.

Requirements in Canada found in the Canada Citizenship Act. Note that marriage is not actually a ground for acquiring
citizenship it is based on residence which can be made easier by marriage.
Note also, exception is diplomats cannot claim nationality by jus soli.

Notion of Union Citizenship

Under the treaty of Maastricht there is a notion of European Union Citizenship. What do we think? IS this a good idea.

Nottebohm Case Liechtenstein v. Guatemala

Jurisdiction ICJ [1955]
Facts Born a german citizen. Moved to Guatemala and lived there for about 34 years. Application made to
Liechtenstein to become citizens granted. Guat questions legitimacy of how came about. Guatemala
confiscates his property for business issues. Liechtenstein espouses his claim
Issues Determination of whether Liechtenstein can espouse his claim Standing issue
Holding Dominant nationality is not that of Liechtenstein nationality there was granted without regard to the concept
of nationality adopted in international relations. Gaut under no obligation to recognise Leichtenstein nationality.
Ratio - There are many examples of acts performed by states in the exercise of domestic jurisdiction which do not
nexessarily or automatically have international effect
Test for Dominant and effective nationality (not merely the verbal preference of the person seeking nationality):
1. Basis of social fact of attachment (family, place of residence).
2. Genuine connection of existence interests and sentiments
3. Reciprocal rights and duties
Closer factual ties to Guatemala but this is not at issue. Has closer ties to Germany than to Liechtenstein.
- Actual connections to Liechtenstein are extremely tenuous no settled abode, no prolonged residence, no
intention of settling there, no interest in economic activities there,
Perhaps it is a question of remedies if he were without any other state, perhaps the court would have to allow him
nationality of Liechtenstein otherwise he would be stateless.

Flegenheimer Claim Italian United States Conciliation Commission

Jurisdiction RIAA [1958]
Facts Dude lost US nationality in 1894 to become German. Lost German by law in 1940 US espoused his claim for
property damage before the commission. Commission dismissed his claim but considered nationality
Issues Even if retained US nationality, does it lack the genuine connection required by Nottebohm?
Holding No test is not as strict as argued to be.
Ratio There does not in fact exist any criterion of proven effectiveness for disclosing the effectiveness of a bond with
a political collectivity.
Note that they rely on the fact that he only has one nationality to leave him without it would make him stateless and they seem
to take this into consideration. They even make mention of the fact that international law on this subject is meant to deal with
issues where there are two nationalities vested in one person not a case like this one.



1930 Hague Convention on Conflict of Nationality Laws
- Person with two nationalities may be regarded as a national of both states
- Third state required to recognize only the nationality of a person of where he habitually and principally resides or is most closely
connected (art 5)

1. Canada may not espouse a claim on behalf of a dual national against the state of another nationality. (Think Zahra Kazemi and
the right of Canada to claim reparations on her behalf even though she is a dual national)

Zahra Kamzemi Case. Iran to France living. Mature adult comes to Canada and acquires citizenship. Goes back as photo
journalist and is Can Canada bring a claim against Iran?
Hague Convention of 1930 Art 3 considered nationality of both states.
Art 4 - no diplomatic protection for national against a state whose nationality such person also possesses
See case A/18 (below) interpret Art 4 of the Hague Convention very cautiously as it is more than 50 years old.
In that case, jurisdiction was held despite Hague Convention.
Should question of effective remedy make a difference?
Think Nottebolhm. How would reasoning differ if he had had nationality of Guatemala? Would have been an issue of
standing most likely and would not have been allowed standing. Reasoning would have been different as dominant
nationality in that case was Guatemalan not that of Liechtenstein.
Diplomatic protection is obsolete in the present time b/c there are so many other methods of addressing the issue.
Are there circumstances where Canada should be allowed? For instance if Iran treats you as a Canadian citizen.
Distinction b/n diplomatic espousal and individual claims (eg. A/18 below) should this make a difference? Exercise
of agreement b/n two states for this tribunal should there be a difference if the state goes to the international forum
rather than the individual going to a tribunal based on this agreement?
Giving international standing to individuals would this diminish the importance of Art 4?

Canevaro Case Italy v. Peru

Jurisdiction Perm Court of Arbitration the Hague
Facts Claim of Italy for money from Canevaro brothers. One brother was Peruvian by birth but Italian under art 4
of Italian CC his dad was Italian.
Issues What is his nationality for the purpose of this case?
Holding Brother could not succeed as he was Peruvian other brothers who were Italian were successful.
Ratio Has acted as a Peruvian citizen (ran for senate, etc) and Peru has the right to deny his status as an Italian

Iran US case A/18

Jurisdiction Iran US claims Tribunal [1984]
Facts Many claims brought on behalf of dual US Iranian citizens.
Issues Doses Tribuanl have jurisdiction to hear cases?
Holding If the dominant and effective nationality of the claimant during the relevant period was that of the US then a
claim can be brought against Iran.
Ratio - Article 4 of the Hague Convention (above) probably cannot be used in cases where a dual national, by
himself, brings a claim against one of the states of his nationality.
- Also, in this case, probably could not use article 4 as this tribunal is working on public international law and
cases where nationality is at issue deals with private individs (sort of obiter for us)



Duty owed to state while at home or abroad.


Stoeck v. Public Trustee

Jurisdiction [1921]
Facts PL wants to be declared not to have been nor be a German national within meaning of treaty of peace of 1919.
If he is, certain property effects on his stuff will take place (poetic, eh?). Was Prussian by birth but left and
never became German citizen. Move to UK and was interned and sent to Holland. Went to Germany and has
resided there.
Issues Is his property property belonging to a German National?
Holding No not a German National
Ratio Not a German national but has not other nationality stateless. Is this possible?

Williams and de Mestral Problems of the Stateless Individ

Art 15 of Universal Decl of HR - Everyone has the right to a nationality.
Perrogative of states to adopt own national laws even if makes people stateless
Serious lacuna which threatens the application of the principles of international law.
Two UN conventions on stateless people

B. Corporations
Variety of contacts with different countries registered, head office, place of business
Different company laws in different countries to recog nationality.

Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Co. Case Belgium v. Spain

Jurisdiction ICJ [1970]
Facts Company incorpd in Canada, operated in Spain through subsidiaries, high percentage of shareholders in
Belgium. Bankruptcy in Spain and Belgium shareholders (through Belgium) suing Spain for the company.
Issues Jus standi (standing)
Ratio Corporation in this case is a Canadian National. Test performed.
Siege Social Test seat or management or centre of control sounds like genuine link.
Rejects Nottebolhm test is too difficult. Would have to weigh shareholders and seat of corp against
each other.
So many countries nationals are shareholders will open floodgates if we allow Belgium to do this.
We will find a solution by saying the siege social is in Canada.
Can you use the same test for subsidiaries?

Questions Oct 27th

2. In determining the nationality of a corp. for the purpose of diplomatic espousal of claims a genuine link test should be applied.
(and not just the passport ie center of gravity, where do they vote, etc. Linked question: why should there be a difference b/n a
person and a corporation. Note that genuine link as opposed to formalistic link in the Barcelona Traction case).



Electronica Sicula SpA (ElSI Case) US v. Italy

Jurisdiction ICJ [1989]
Facts Italian Co the wholly owed subsidiary of 2 US companies. Assets of co were requisitionedQ whether that
was a violation of Italys intl obligations to the U.S. under a treaty giving their companies the rt to control
and manage corporations in the other country.
Issues Can the US represent the companies who are basically the shareholders of ELSI, the Italian subsidiary?
Holding No, only for its nationals as shareholders but not as the company itself.
Ratio Treaty of friendship, navigation and commerce under which the claim is being espoused.
Dealing with subsidiary: rights of the subsidiary were not breached by what Italy did skips issue of
Basically that there was nothing stopping the treaty from allowing the US to espouse its nationals interest as
shareholders in the Italian company.

This Q was addressed in Barcelona Case. Sure the US companies could control and manage Italian
corporations but that gives them no additional rights then other shareholders under Italian law.
Should it not just have dismissed the case on standing issue? Why did it avoid it? Ok, so maybe they did grant standing
then is this inconsistent with Barcelona.

Compare ICSID Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes b/n State and Nationals of Other States. Right to bring a
claim only if the country with whom I claim a nationality link has ratified this convention.

It seems that the center of control is really where the corporation is registered.

However ICSID (page 495 casebook) creates situations in which the right to bring a claim is settled between the host state and the
foreign investing company where the nationality may be that of the foreign investment company AS LONG AS there is a real
link. (I tried to discuss this with him after class, he felt that it would take more than a few minutes to explain as it was very
complicated. I can only conclude that our complete understanding is simply not necessary for the exam).

Part 8 State Jurisdiction over Persons

Issue here is co-existence with other states. Extra-territorial effect on nationals might infringe on sovereignty rights of other
states. Therefore, there must be limits to a states jurisdiction over persons from a legislative and enforcement perspective.
Note the difference b/n prescriptive and enforcement jurisdiction can prescribe law but that does not mean it can be
Also note that there must be jurisdiction not only over the person involved but also the subject matter (ie the objects,
acts and events that might be complained of)

A Subject-Matter Jurisdiction
1. Scope of Jurisdiction
In principle, a state may legislate over the subject matter of anything within its territory (as long as it is not in violation of
international law)
Jurisdiction of national courts cannot be conferred by the sovereign when he has no jurisdiction according to principles
of international law.
In Civil matters, no conventional or CIL rules governing other than must apply rules of private international law where




Possible that Cdn courts could have jurisdiction over the offence but not the person as he would not be located in Canada.
Conversely, possible that the unlawful act was committed outside Canada and therefore wouldnt have jurisdiction over the act.

Jurisdiction over the crime (reach of legislative power of the state) vs. jurisdiction over the person (reach of the processes of the

Note that judicial jurisdiction is subservient to legislative jurisdiction. If subject to some foreign law, courts will not have

Traditions: Anglo-Amer tradition always adhered to territorial principle of jurisdiction (b/c were historically surrounded by water
and was hard to escape) whereas Western European followed the Nationality Principle.

The Steamship Lotus France v. Turkey

Jurisdiction PCIJ [1927]
Facts Post a collision on the high seas, Turkish authorities arrested M. Demons, officer of the watch, tried and
convicted Demons for deaths of eight Turkish sailors and passengers.
Issues Did Turkey act in conflict of International law?
Holding No. Territorial effect.
Ratio - Rules of IL flow from the consent of states, therefore restrictions on states can never be presumed.
- France has to show that such a violation of IL exists, rather than compelling Turkey to establish a ground
for its national jurisdiction
- France raised three arguments to this effect, all of which faili.e. Turkey did not act in conflict with
principles of IL because France failed to establish that any such principles exist
- territoriality is the first, and most solid basis of jurisdiction
- There is a valid provision in the Turkish Crim code asserts extra-territorial application of Turkish law
- But, the basis of jurisdiction is actually the impact of the criminal behaviour on Turkish territory (i.e. the
impact of the capts behaviour on the ship which is Turkish territory)
- I.e. if the death takes place on Turkish territory, the country has TERRITORIAL jurisdiction (the ship is
Turkish, so the impact of the wrongful act was felt on Turkish territory

- jurisdiction is territorial, but it doesnt follow that a state cannot exercise that jurisdiction with respect to events that occurred
- Ex. If you shoot a gun across the border, and kill someone on the other side, both states have jurisdiction over the crime, on a
territorial basis
- Practical limitation coming out of this case is that not state will generally attempt to exercise jurisdiction over matters in
which it has no substantial interest or concern.

2. Basis of Criminal Jurisdiction

6 Bases upon which claims to prescriptive or enforcement jurisdiction may be founded no hierarchical order but some are
universally accepted while others are not.

1. Territorial Principle
- The state in whose territory a crime is committed has jurisdiction over the offence
- Includes land mass, internal waters and their beds, territorial sea and its subsoil, airspace above all of the former.
- Can be extended to 200 nautical mile EEZ
- Territoriality can be partially an extra-territorial basis for jurisdiction
- I.e. wrongful act has effect on the territory, even if it did not occur there
- Five possible different applications of this:
o Subjective or initiatory Principle: act deemed to have been committed in the place where it commenced.
o Objective or Terminatory Principle: state were act is consummated or the last constituent element of the
offence occurs has jurisdiction
o Injured Forum Theory: state that felt detrimental effects takes jurisdiction



o Diplocks Theory in Treacy Any Element theory: any element of the offence occurs w/in states borders
o Reasonable and Legit Interest: Where state has reasonable or legitimate interest in doing so compared with
other states involved.
In Libman SCC took approach where significant potion of the activities took place in Canada. Real
and Substantial Link Test

2. Nationality principle
Based on nationality of the author of the crime used extensively in civil law countries.
- This is the model of French, Turkish, continental law
- The problem arises when the act is not prohibited in the country where it is carried out
o These crimes are still prosecutable, unless there is some rule of international public order that would prohibit
- There has been a reemergence of this principle, even in states that dont normally accept this approach ex. Child
Prostitution (sex-tourism)
- the nationality principle is not contrary to international law, so Canada is free to change the criminal code to make more
crimes illegal by Can citizens
- But, as of now, if you commit a murder on a row-boat on the high seas, you cannot be charged under Canadian criminal
- Corollary to the reluctance to extradite citizens or nationals.
- The principle is not restrictive and not permissive.

3. Passive personality principle

A state may claim jurisdiction over crimes committed abroad even by aliens, against its nationals.
- This principle is not as well accepted in international law
- This is essentially the state controlling the behaviors of the nationals of other states this is a problem!
- So, the provision in the Turkish Crim code in the Lotus case may actually be a problem
- There has been a resurgence of this approach Spain requested extradition of Pinochet for crimes against Spanish
citizens in Chile
- Terrorist acts has generated extensions of criminal jurisdiction on the basis of nationality of the victims: the US has
jurisdiction over terrorist acts committed against US citizens abroad (traditionally US only stuck the territorial principle)

4. Principle of Protection:
- Behaviour abroad by foreigners threatens the security of the state or its fundamental interests
- Broad principle.
- E.G. Spanish Trawlers on the high seas.
- Ex. Counterfeiting abroad if you print US dollars in Yemen with no intent to circulate them in the US, you still are
offending US interests
- Ex. Plots to organize illegal immigration to another country
- There have been challenges to this idea
o Ex. Singaporean law has libel laws that apply extra-territorially the NY times published an article about the
president of Singapore very controversial attempt to regulate free speech of foreigners in another country
- However, terrorism is being seen as a new ground for asserting this time of jurisdiction (i.e. planning a terrorist attack

5. Universal Jurisdiction:
- Erga omnes obligations Based on the crime
- Some crimes the whole world has an interest in stopping:
o Slavery, piracy, crimes against humanity, genocide, etc.
- This used to be the most significant area of extra-territorial jurisdiction
- A # of treaties grant extra-territorial jurisdiction (Convention against torture)
- The recent shift is towards international criminal tribunals
- Recent Rwandese case prosecuting for war crimes in Canada.

6. By Agreement



- E.g. 1985 Visiting Forces Act Agreement b/n US and Canada which allows US to exercise jurisdiction over military
personnel who are on bases on Canadian Territory.

Six Bases of Criminal Jurisdiction:

Territorial Principle Where the crime occurred is the State that has J. (has been extended in some cases
for functional reasons to the EEZ and the CS). This is Canadas basic position.
(What do we mean by occurrence??? Not easy to always say where the crime
occurred! In Canada we assume J if the offence were committed in whole or in part
in Canada, or if the offender committed it elsewhere knowing it would cause direct
and substantial harmful effects in Canada.) There is also Lord Diplocks Any
Element Principle and lastly the Reasonable and Legimitate Interests Test which
was used in the Libman Case.
Nationality Principle Basis of J the nationality of the offender. Used extensively in CVL countries.
(used by Canada for cases of treason, war crimes, crimes against humanity and
terrorist offences).
Passive Personality AKA the System of Protection. Where J is claimed based on the nationality of the
Principle victim regardless of the offenders nationality or the place of the crime. (is this
what Spain has done against US soldiers for death of Spanish reporter in Irak?) It
is largely condemned. (used by Canada when victim is an intl protected persons
representing Canada and victim to war crime, humanity crimes or hostage-taking).
Protective Principle J is based on the prejudice a State may suffer to its security, territorial integrity and
political independence by the offence. Not favoured by Canada.
Universal Principle For serious crimes of intl relevance which other states are unwilling to prosecute
and where the offender is on the territory of the forum state.
By Agreement J of one state within the territory of another state may be granted by agreement.

Questions Nov 1st

1. Territoriality is the most important basis for State jurisdiction
Overrated because of globalization and the fact that crimes are much more international
Trade has expanded such that activities are at close quarters - cannot have a strict rule but countries must be flexible.

Libman v. R.
Jurisdiction SCC [1985] per La Forest
Facts Libman operated a boiler room in Toronto; would call Americans to invest in a mining operation in Costa Rica.
The $ would be shipped to Costa Rica, it would be deposited in off-shore accounts. Charged with fraud.
Issues Jurisdiction to prosecute in Canada?
Holding Yes
Ratio - As a basic principle, Canadian crim law does not try to apply extra territorially Unlike Turkish law
which binds the actions of all its citizens, whether at home or abroad, Anglo-American states in general
attempt to refrain from extra-territorial jurisdiction
- Libman argued that b/c the execution involved victims in the US sending $ to Costa Rica, the essential
crime (fraud) actually happened in the US
- La Forest J 2 elements territorial connection; or effect of crime is connected to Canadian territory
- Court found planning the fraud was enough of a territorial connection to prosecute him in Canada
- There must be a real & substantial link between the offense and the country



- This is the same jurisdiction that the US uses for anti-trust law (usually to protect their own companies)
- Trusts may occur abroad, but the effect is felt in the US so this is enough
- Perhaps jurisdiction not given to the US b/c he would continue to forum shopping by putting forward the same arguments
therefore practical considerations.

Use of the Universal Principle:

Eichmann Case [1961] Israel
Issue Israel tried Eichmann, a foreigner, for crimes committed b/f Israel existed as a State in other States
against citizens of those states.
Ratio Used the universal principle in that war criminals were enemies of mankind. As secondary principles
they used the protective and the passive personality principles claiming the need to protect Jews (who
make up Israels population) as the linking point between the crime and the State.

Demjanjuk v. Petrovsky [1985]

Issue Extradition by the US to Israel of Demjanjuk for crimes against humanity committed in Poland during
Ratio Used the same approach as Eichmann, and applied the universal principle.

B Jurisdiction over the Person

Normally requires custody of human or legal persons

Exercising Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction: With State Consent

- Accomplished by extradition treaties
o These are bilateral matters states can put whatever they want in them (limited by HR law & jus cogens norms)
o Extradition proceedings under the law who has the person.
o Note that extradition is different in concept to transfer to international criminal tribunals (est under Chapter
7 of the UNC) which is different than an extradition to another state
- 2 essential elements:
o Double criminality it has to be an offense in the state requesting extradition & the state where they are
o Speciality a person is extradited on the basis of an allegation regarding a certain crime (cant request
extradition on the basis of assault and then prosecute them for political offenses)
- Outside of the framework of an extradition treaty, there is no legitimate way to extradite
o Exception: Aut dedere, aut judicaire
either you give, or you judge Extradite or prosecute rule states have to extradite, or prosecute
the person themselves for major international crimes (eg. torture, hijacking, etc.)
ex. Geneva Conventions, 1949 and Montreal Convention (aircraft security)
but if no one is willing to prosecute the person, they will remain free.
In these cases, Convention Against Torture (or other conventions dealing with similar subjects) acts as
replacement for extradition treaty.

Note the use of different bases of jurisdiction over the offence and concepts of aut dedere and
International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, U.N. Doc 1998
Purpose: This convention was adopted to remedy a gap in the piecemeal conventions. There was nothing to deal with
terrorist bombings that were not associated with any other terrorist convention crimes.
Art. 4 Each State is to adopt criminal offences punishable by appropriate penalties in their domestic law.
Different punishments for each State. Why? Any why hasnt Canada implemented the treaty yet despite
this article requiring it?
Art. 6 The basis of jurisdiction, both mandatory (committed in the territory on a flag-ship, or by a national) and
optional (committed against a national, against a State or govt facility, by a stateless person who has
residence etc.).
Art. 8 Mandatory requirement to extradite or prosecute without undue delay.



Art. 11 States that none of the offences in art. 2 are to be regarded as political offences or inspired by political
motives for the purpose of extradition or mutual legal assistance.howeverart.12.
Art.12 This eliminates any obligation to extradite or afford mutual legal assistance where the person will be
prosecuted or punished on account of race, religion, nationality, ethic origin, or political opinion.

- States are under an obligation to adopt criminal laws to stop these activities.
- Art 8 calls for, if state does not extradite, shall be obliged to submit the case for prosecution.

Exercising Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction: Without State Consent

- 2 ways this can happen:
o forcible abduction
direct if done by state agents
indirect if non-state agents do it
o induce criminal to come onto your territory
usually you get a plane to stop on your territory where you have a warrant
o both have been used by USA
- 2 US cases shows different opinions
- Alvarez overturns Toscanino since it is the US Supreme court
o 1st approach: we dont care how they got here, but once they are here they may be judged
male captus, bene detentus
this predates the rise of human rights standards

Abduction is always unlawful as it negates conceptions of due process. At least with respect to your arrest.

Consequences of Abduction:
- What are the implications based on different charges ie Fraud versus Crimes Against Humanity?

Eichmann Case (1961)

Facts: Eichmann, a Nazi, fled to Argentina & was captured (kidnapped) by un-official Israeli agents. Brought to
Israel & tried for crimes against humanity
- Basis of jurisdiction erga omnes universal jurisdiction over the crime significant
- However, it is dubious that these were crimes at the time of criminal law
- It created crimes after the fact (against non-retroactivity of crim law) this is a troubling aspect of the
Nuremberg trials
- Second basis nationality of victims but during the war Israel didnt exist so they didnt really have Israeli
- The court found it was there was a nexus between the Israeli state and the Jewish people which justified the
jurisdiction on the basis of the protective principle (and that it could be applied to a people)
- Much of the norms we have today were developed after WWII; specifically to enable the intl community to
prosecute people like Eichmann
- It would have made a lot more sense to prosecute him in Germany or Poland on territoriality principles
- it is a significant challenge to have a fully justified explanation of Israels position in international law

United State v. Toscanino [US CA 2nd Cir. 1974]

Facts: US brought T to US via the use of agents of Uruguayan cops whom it paid and instructed to act illegally, and then via
similar acts of Brazilian cops (tortured, threats, sleep deprivation, etc) where US Attorney knew it was happening, and a DoJ
agent was present. US Attorney never attempted legal extradition.
Issue: Can the US legally prosecute someone brought to the country illegally?
Held: No.



- Court hold that the requirement of due process obliges a criminal court to divest itself of jurisdiction over an accused whose
presence has been illegally obtained.
- lower court held that manner of bringing T to court was immaterial
- In Ker v Illinois, SC rejected Kers argument that his abduction in Peru violated the 14th amendment due process guarantee
- In Frisbie v. Collins, the same rule was adopted with respect to an abduction from Illinois to Michigan.
- But, SC has since then extended the concept of due process to include pre-trial conduct of law enforcement entities (wrt
- Thus, if the charges of kidnapping are proved, the D is entitled to some relief
- past US cases held that violation of treaty to bring someone to justice affects the right to try someone in a domestic court, and
the US had an extradition treaty with Uruguay.
- civil rights provisions go beyond the conduct of trial they extend to pre-trial conduct
- relates to findings that illegally obtained evidence is inadmissible
- found that it had to be consistent with due process guarantees
- Abduction in a foreign state is also a breach of that states sovereignty

United States v. Alvarez Machain (US SC, 1992]

Facts: US kidnapped A-M in Mexico, and indicted him for the murder of a DEA agent in Mexico. Machain was a doctor accused
of keeping a DEA agent alive while others tortured him. He alleged he had been brought to the USA in violation of due process
Issue: Can the US legally prosecute someone brought to the country illegally?
Held: Yes.
- lower courts upheld motion to dismiss the indictment and repatriate A-M.
- court holds that abduction for an nation with an extradition treaty does not provide a defense, and the US courts are
competent to try the case
- this treaty does not exclude other means of acquiring defendants beside extradition treaty was not violated
- Because the abduction didnt violate the treaty, the Ker-Frisbie rule appliesregardless of violation of IL
- principle of male captus, bene detentus is valid
- Distinguished from Ker v. Illinois b/c they were bounty hunters.
- UD violated territorial integrity of Mexico, and thereby undermined the purposes of the treaty.
- treaty was designed to cover the entire subject of extradition
- if the treaty did not prohibit kidnapping, it would be mere verbiage
- there is no justification for disregarding the rule of law
- Canadian cases fall in line with the Majority judgment here (R v. Walton, Re Hartnett and the Queen, Re Hudson and the
Queen). Does the Charter affect this now?
- Highly criticized decision
o Why have an extradition treaty if you can just get around it
o The treaty creates rights & obligations for states, not the individuals
- The decision is completely at odds with the practice of other states
- EU Court of Human Rights
o Famous territorist
o alleges he was kidnapped, brought case before the court
o still on docket
- Canada
o Jaffe was kidnapped from, by bounty hunters, Florida had no problem with it
o After years of protest, they returned Jaffe to Canada
o Canada then petitioned for bounty hunters to be extradited & tried them here



Other Possible Remedies For the Individual

- Take into consideration when sentencing. Reduce sentence for accused.
- Could the official who kidnapped the individ be tried.
- Possible civil remedy trespass on the person, battery?? Consider amount of money a police officer would have.

Basic idea is Proportionality

Remedy must be proportionate to the crime of which he is accused.

2. The punishment of it international crimes is so compelling that illegal rendition should never be a bar to prosecution.

- Can abduction ever be lawful? No it negates due process

A review of this material suggests that the subject of illegally obtained J over a person should be seen as a last option. Due
process is negated by abduction and therefore there is a strong argument against it. At the end of the day what matters is the
question of proportionality
1st What should be the legal consequences attached to abduction?
Related to the degree of violations in due process?
Related to the type of crime?
Related to the strength of the claim of J over the individual?

i.e. Eichmann.does it matter if Argentina was refusing to extradite him, frustrating any attempts to legally obtain J over him?
Does it matter that the crimes were against humanity? Does it matter that they were committed against persons whom Israel was
claiming J over under the protective and passive personality principles?

2nd What are the remedies for a violation? (Distinction b/t rts of the individual and rts of the offended state!)
Release of the offender?
Criminal charges brought against state for kidnapping?
Civil charges brought against the state for trespass of the person?
Official apology to the offended state for having violated their territorial sovereignty?

Does the Cdn Charter have any impact on the rule mala captus bene detentus?
In 1973 Canada applied the rule with a small dose of concern for due process and civil rights of the accused. To date there has
been no case on this point.

Part 9 International Criminal Law

November 8th at 5:30 Coomaraswamy Lecture Sri Lanka

Relationship b/n IHL and International Criminal Law (ICL) Intersection of IHL when violations of IHL give rise to individual
responsibility. With rise of HR law, concept of state being in violation is not only option. With Crimes against Humanity,
Genocide, can be against the individ.

International law reflects the convergence of the penal aspects of international law and the international aspects of national
criminal law.

IHL Laws of war regulated the use of force.

o jus in bello - Regulates conduct at war means and methods of warfare.
Does not matter if it is a just war or not.
Distinguish b/n civilians and combatants (distinction principle)
Distinguish b/n civil things and military objects.
Note the lines b/n the two are often blurred



Principle of proportionality means employed to achieve military object must be proportional to the
incidental civilian casualties or damage caused to civilian objects.
o jus ad bellum Regulates the right to wage war

W/out the ICC, ICL was reliant on ad hoc tribunals and prosecution in domestic courts. Relied on the indirect enforcement by
domestic courts of acts proscribed by international criminal law and good faith of bilateral treaties and multilateral conventions

Does it make sense to regulate warfare?

Wishful thinking by aristocrats? Does war not just represent the failing of humanity and regulation is useless?
St. Petersburg convention (dumb-dumb bullets (expanding)) and first Geneva convention were the principles behind
them useless?

1. The Geneva Conventions embody wishful thinking about the capacity of law to regulate the lawlessness of violence
No makes sense.
Realities important training of soldiers incorporates norms of Geneva Conventions. ICRC, ICTR, ICTY all apply these
Buthave civilian deaths gone down? No progress of technology. Growth in population might be proportional.
Also, Geneva Conventions have mitigated these deaths in some way. Also, look to history horrors of war might not
have been so horrible when the horrors of life were also there. Also, history has shown similar horrors but perhaps under
different names.
History principle of chivalry in history honourable to be a warrior. Killed for a living.

Yes theyre nuts.

Provide only a reference point are not broad enough. Cant address issues of toady. They are antiquated.
Can the norms operate in practice? Does body of law on, for e.g., terrorism really change anything?
Does it make sense to apply notions of domestic law to these situations of war where combatants are possibly
indoctrinated and brainwashed are the conventions really going to do anything.
Nuclear Weapons advisory opinion
Issue: proportionality and distinction nuclear weapons kill civilians indiscriminately
The most indiscriminate weapon.
The most disproportionate impact.
Advisory opinion written by Judge Shi Permanent 5 members of SC have nuclear weapons so what do you do?
Under IHL would make sense to say that they are illegal. Or do you look for CIL and see that states
Apology to power aspect of International Law
Apology to international ideals
CHumanitarianL applies to the issue. Look to Principle of Distinction. Ultimately decide that, as a general rule, Nucs
are bad. ButMay be exceptional circumstances where the survival of the state is at stake, then they can be used.

Legal systems are based on habitual lawfulness. Agression is prohibited b/c not every country goes to war. Must be looked at in a
different context. Most of these conflicts are not spontaneous eruptions of tribal conflict but rather deliberately incited. Must look
to the context and who creates the context and see whether the criminal system fits.

Also, look to the possibilities in Rwanda 30,000 people in jail with 40 magistrates. Is criminal law actually possible or is a
TRC a better option?

International Criminal Law

Nuremburg as the foundation of modern IC order. Previously Treaty of Sevres post WWI in Turkey. Ultimately replaced by
treaty of Lausanne. Under LofN treaty was prepared but never entered into force.

Called the IMT International Military Tribunal



London Agreement in 1945 and Moscow declaration in 1943 where intention to prosecute. Churchill and Stalin both thought
people should just be executed. Truman and Justice Jackson pushed and got Nuremburg.
Truth telling process
Making incredible events credible (Justice Jackson)
Di-Nazification of post war Germany.

Legal basis for adopting the Nuremburg charter Law of the occupied powers was basis for adoption of the charter.

Criminal Law 3 crimes the court had jurisdiction over under Art 6 of the Nuremburg Charter
1. Crimes Against Humanity
Radical innovation Under CIL at the time the way in which a govt treated its own citizens was not a
violation of IL. Massive jurisdictional gap.
Limitation had to have a nexus with war Art 6(c) of the Nuremburg Charter committed in
connection with War Crimes or Crimes against peace (done in order to restrict scope of CAH so that
Soviets and others couldnt be haunted by it)
2. War Crimes
See above Geneva Convention and Principle of Distinction
3. Crimes Against Peace
Jus ad Bellum when it use of armed force lawful
Until WWI no one would question the right to wage war
Kellog-Briand pact - 1928 waging aggressive war was a violation of IL

Note that under contemporary international law, not just under internal and external armed conflict (though Nuremburg dealt only
with external armed conflict) but also outside situations of armed conflict.

Nuremburg War Crimes Trials

Jurisdiction [1947]
Ratio The making of the Nuremburg charter was the exercise of the countries to which the German Reich
unconditionally surrendered and their right to legislate over occupied Germany, which has been recognized by the
civilized world.
Note that the tribunal says this is not just victors justice but adherence to international law.
State immunity cannot be considered a defence international crimes are committed by men not entities
and they must be held to account.
Renounces wars of aggression based on the Kellog Briand pact of 1928 and condemns Germany for
invading Poland, Austria, etc

- Victors justice what about the atrocities committed by the allies?

Post Nuremburg UN instructed (in 1946) to draft statute for ICC did not get drafted and brought in until 1998 after ICTY in 93
and ICTR in 94.

Domestic Prosecutions
Based on Universal Principle of jurisdiction domestic prosecution can go after individs whose victims are not of domestic
nationality and the crime did not take place domestically.

Canadian Criminal Code

Code has been amended in 1987 to incorporate subject matter jurisdiction of ICC
S. 7(3.71) jurisdiction over international crimes based on principle of universality.
In 1995 there was a convention on war crimes in Canada (Deschnes Report)



R. v. Imre Finta
Jurisdiction SCC [1994] per Cory J.
Facts Finta was part of a Hungarian paramilitary group. In 1944 was involved in deportations of Jews, robbed people,
sent them to camps, etc.
Issues How to interpret s. 7(3.71) what is basis for jurisdiction? What distinguished crimes against humanity from a
comparable crime under the CC
Holding In order to have jurisdiction over the matter under s. 7(3.71) the act committed has to be defined as a war crime or
crime against humanity (otherwise it must have been committed on Canadian Soil per the territoriality principle
and s.6 of the CC). Does this act constitute a war crime or crime against humanity.
Ratio Crimes against humanity involve murder, enslavement, rape, unlawfulimprisonment what transforms them into
crimes against humanity?
Must be committed against a civilian population
ICC statute art 7 when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any
civilian population
Perp does not have to know that his actions were inhumane for them to constitute a crime against
Cory says we cannot exercise jurisdiction over murder, kidnapping, etc. which has no connection to
Canada. It must be under ICL. So, beyond the murder there must be foresight and calculated
malelvolence cruelty and barbarism is required.
Accused in this case, cannot be assumed to really know that they were part of a plot to exterminate an
entire race of people. (very high standard)
La Forest [Dissent]
Cruel and barbaric not needed. More subjective analysis. Look to the
objective context for the crime against humanity and then look to the m/r and a/r for murder. (very low
The accused must have intended the factual quality of the offence but normal
m/r would be aqequate
Is Cruelty and Barbarism needed? Deportation is included in list of crimes against humanity. Why do we really care if they
were cruel and barbaric.
Murder itself does not have to be widespread perp could commit single murder but is aware (has knowledge) that it is a part
of a bigger plot. Additional mens rea of knowledge of the context
Problem of domestic courts dealing with ICL they do not understand what they are really dealing with. Additional mens
rea is required but not cruelty and barbarism.

Crime of Genocide

Hague Law Means and methods of warfare. Means: Involve the type of weapons. Methods: Type of tactics (carpet bombing)
Conventions of 1899, and 1907
Geneva Law Sponsored by the ICRC in 1949 and built on Geneva Convention of 1864 and Hague Contentions of 1899 and
Those who are in the hands of an adversary POWs. Persons who are hors de combat.
Also include civilians who are in the hands of combat protected persons.
No formal declaration of war is needed. Look objectively for state of war
Only need partial occupation of a country.
No resistence needed.
Four Geneva conventions dealing with
o Wounded soldiers
o Sick and shipwrecked sailors
o POWs



o Civilians in occupied territories.

Original 1949 conventions only dealt with international armed conflict but Art 3 has since been adopted which outlines
minimum standards of human treatment in situations of internal conflict


In 1977 Protocol I and Protocol II merged the two laws Hague and Geneva
Protocol II deals with internal conflict is in force but lacks widespread support of Geneva Conventions and
Protocol I
o Applies to internal armed conflicts b/n govt forces and other armed groups.
Protocol I applied laws to liberation struggles.
o People fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation.

Other Sources
Treaties against torture, genocide, apartheid, narcotics smuggling and terrorist activites.

Genocide Convention:
Adopted in 1948
Defn Art 2 killing, serious bodily harm, Requires the intent to destroy a group as such. Victim is the group
and not the individuals. Racial, ethnic, religious and national (political groups were excluded).
Special intent high standard of criminal intent.
Destruction may be in whole or in part
Relatively weak means of enforcement except that they look ahead to international tribunals to enforce them
Imposes obligation on states parties to prevent or punish genocide
Rwanda question whether applied Tutsis had same culture, religion, etc. Based on Belgium conception that
ruling class was different race. Were a social group but that was replaced by a conception of race.

Convention Against Torture:

Mental or physical and severe in pain and suffering
Inflicted by persons acting in their official capacity limitation
States must take action to prevent in their territory
Provides for Universal Jurisdiction

A Code of International Crimes

After debates and draft codes that have been discussed and left in the dust for many years, a Draft Code of Crimes Against the
Peace and Security of Mankind was given to the GA in 1996 has never been adopted or voted on.
ICC statute is something entirely separate.
Art 1(2) recognizes the criminal responsibility of individuals for crimes against peace and security of mankind even where
domestic law does not.
Art 2 provides for individual responsibility for crimes covered by the code.

The Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion, 1996: To what Extent are Nuclear Weapons Illegal under IHL?
The ICJ, having found no conventional or customary rule on the illegality of the use of nuclear weapons, turned to general
principles of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflict and of the law of neutrality. They find that despite the
fact that nuclear weapons could not have been in the minds of the creators of the conventions that IHL clearly extends to
nuclear weapons.

They canvassed the above conventions to ascertain that since the beginning of IHL there has been a prohibition on certain
types of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering and pain to combatants or had an indiscriminate effect on combatants
and civilians.

They also found that ratification was not necessary to bind a State to IHL given its reflection of the most universally



recognized humanitarian principles. That the rules represent the normal conduct of states that is required.

The CIL principle of neutrality (that protects the rights of neutral states from warring ones) is applicable to all intl armed
conflicts and therefore to the use of nuclear weapons.

HOWEVER, despite the ease in which the law extends to these weapons, the conclusions to be drawn from this application are
difficult and controversial (here we see what looks like the ICJs apology for power as it blocks humanitarian ideals):

As concerns the defence of civilians and combatants:

Some argue that their use should be prohibited, others that the use is subject to the same scrutiny as other weapons
and the cost/benefit must be weighed.
As concerns the principle of neutrality:
Some argue that the effects of nuclear weapons are un-containable and therefore violate this principle.
There was also the argument for their legality of art. 51 of the Charter of self-defence.

Despite what appears to be a strong reluctant in the face of seemingly strong contradictions b/t the fundamental principles of
IHL and nuclear weapons in general, the Court is led to observe that it cannot reach a definitive conclusion as to the legality or
illegality of the use of nuclear weapons by a State in an extreme circumstance of self-defence, in which its very survival would
be at stake.

Questions Nov 3rd

1. The Geneva Conventions embody wishful thinking about the capacity of law to regulate the lawlessness of violence
2. The Finta case is a travesty of justice and inconsistent with the Nuremburg precedent.

B The Ad Hoc Tribunals as Precedents

Atrocities in Rwanda and Yugo called for immediate action on an ad hoc basis tribunals set up.

Former Yugoslavia
Under UNC arts 39, 41 and 42 it set up tribunals and other sanctions
Based on Resolution 827 of the SC under Chapter VII of the UNC, Tribunal was set up to deal with
o Art 2: Grave breaches of Geneva Conventions
o Art 3: (hague law)Violations of laws or customs of war
o Art 4: Genocide
o Art 5: Crimes Against Humanity
Chapter VII allows for the SC to taken enforcement measures (whereas the GA cannot it can only make
o Typical enforcement measures Authorization of force, arms embargo, blockade, etc.
o SC was seen as the pivot of the collective security system
Judges elected by the GA from list submitted by the SC from nominations from members and non-members with
permanent observer missions at the UN.
Prosecutors staff appointed by the SC on recommendation from the prosecutor
Imprisonment is limitation of punishment but property can be ordered returned to rightful owners.

What are the objectives of these tribunals?

Retribution? On the ground this appears to be the most valid objective.

Deterrence? Can really question whether of not these deter future actions. There is the argument of General Prevention which
claims that the goal of the tribunals isnt so much to deter (b/c of the irrationality that can create the crime itself) but focuses more
on the subliminal messages the tribunals send about crime corruption, child abuse, etc. is all wrong!



Incapacitation? This makes sense based on the context in which these mass atrocities are usually instigated by cold, calculating
persons who are better incapacitated.

Why use the SC to establish a War Crimes Tribunal

It was quicker to do this.
International community refusal to intervene militarily so they set up tribunal.
Only after WWII did we stay the hand of vengeance and put people on trialbutvictors justice allies not put on
ICTY puts everyone from all sides on trial..but not going to intervene. Punishment only after the fact. Accepting
crimes on the ground and then punishing.

Is it really good enough that we just impose victors justice on the criminals after the fact rather than intervening? Well no but it
might be better than nothing.
Examine deterrence in both the domestic context and the context of interntiaon
General deterrence through and socio-pedagogical element of the criminal justice system (teach society). Subliminal
inhibitions against crime.
Incapacitation appreciate the context of massive prosecution. Understand the genocides as criminal conspiracies.
Nothing inevitable about genocide.

Significance of ICTY
Imposed criminal jurisdiction on states without their consent. It was revolutionary concept. Problem with having a treaty is that
the former yugo would not consent to a treaty when its own head of state would probably be prosecuted.

Reason that it was successful was b/c there was understanding that you could not let perps walk around freee and still have peace
and stability HR, touchy feely combined with real politique.

Extract #1, Relevance How valid is this source of power in Chapter VII of the Charter to establish the ad hoc tribunals?
Demonstrates that the ICTFY was property established and had subject-matter J.

The Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic

Jurisdiction ICTFY [1995]
Issues Was the tribunal properly established and have subject matter jurisdiction?
Holding Yes
Ratio Based on decisions in the Lockerbie case, Namibia Advisory Opinion and another case, there seems to be no
basis for the tribunal to review the actions of the Sec Council.
Reference to economic etc in Chapter VII is merely demonstrative and not exhaustive.
Not for this trial chamber to judge the reasonableness of the acts of SC, it is without doubt that with respect
to the former Yugo the SC did not act arbitrarily
Conscious decision not to have judicial review of the SC.
Not a justiciable issue but one of policy and of a political nature.
Art 41 of the UNC is clearly suited to this action and this situation is clearly suited to adjudication. This is
not an eg of the UNSC doing anything it wants.
To argument that this tribunal could not be impartial as it was set up by a political body but this happens
Extract #2, Relevance The applicability of the grave breaches (Art. 2 of ICTY Statute) provision of the G.C.s 1949; limited
to the context of intl armed conflict.

Can it be impartial even though a fundamentally poltical organ. Reference to independent judges with appropriate
structures and non-interference.



What about fact that tribunal was fundamentally selected for Yugo. Why did you not choose another country for the
tribunal. Is Selectivity a problem. Yes and no. It is a problem in law generally. But that does not mean that this organ
cannot dispense justice.
Is the ICTY established by law? Provision? ICCPR art 14 everyone shall have a fare and public hearing by
competent tribunal established by law. Answer does not have to be a legislature but can be SC.

Statute of the ICTY

Drafted by the office of legal affairs at the UN. Adopted by UN res 808
Subject matter jurisdiction matter of some controversy. SG was going to apply only customary law b/c it is applicable
to all states and has an element of universality (even though Yugo had ratified every HR convention under the sun).
Subject matter
o Grave breaches of the Geneva conventions of 1949 where there are core provision (wilful killing) . Art 147 of
the Convention requires states to exercise jurisdiction over perpetrators of grave breaches of the core
provisions. NB: there is a requirement that the conflict be an international conflict.
Problem is this an international armed conflict? This type of conflict with the disintegration of a
Solution: No incorporation of the requirement of international armed conflict
Office of legal affairs (conservative) did not include Common Art 3 in CIL in the statute which would
have solved the problem. They said was not opinio jurisbut they are dumb. Appeals chamber
would later include it under art 3 of the statute which says include but not limited to.
The ICTY did require international armed conflict Nexus b/n JNA and the Bosnian Army made it
an international conflict.
Move away from formalist to ensure that persons are protected by law despite strict substantive

The Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic

Jurisdiction ICTFY [1995]
Issues Applicability of the grave breaches provisions of the Geneva Conventions, 1949
Ratio Interpreting article 2 of the Tribunals statute which deals with grave breaches of Geneva conventions as
dealing only with international armed conflict is correct Provisions in this article do not include those
persons or property coming within the purview of common Art 3 of the four conventions (which deals with
internal armed conflict)
Statement by permanent member of the SC that art 2 is not limited to armed conflicts is nothing but an opinion
and, with time and other opinions, could signify a change in opinio juris leading to a change in CIL.
If conflict is deemed internal, perpetrators might be able to challenge accusations of war crimes and grave breaches.
They would not, however, be able to challenge prosecution for genocide or crimes against humanity.

Notion of Command Responsibility

How do you attribute responsibility?
What about a case where there is no direct involvement but you were there.
Elaborate comparative law exercise to import from other jurisdictions.
Look to Art 28 of the ICC statute person in position of command has:
o Command and control (de jure or de facto) over subordinates - Subordinates have committed or are about to
commit crimes
o Knew or had reasons to know that persons under command or control were about to commit or had committed
o Failure to act to prevent or to punish.

The Prosecutor v. Delalic, Mucic, Delic & Landzo The Celebici Case
Jurisdiction ICTFY 1998



Facts Celebici was a prison camp where the four accused were stationed. Delalic was the commander. All four were
charged under art 7(1) of the Statute (for murder, torture, rape and other horrible things) and Mucic and Delalic
were also charged b/c of his responsibility as commander, causing great suffering, plunder of private property
Holding All guilty
Ratio This must be regarded as an international conflict as external forces were involved in internal conflicts (most
especially the forces of the JNA) Therefore, Geneva conventions apply and statute of Tribunal is applicable.

Despicable acts performed by these men in positions of power are disturbing

After the genocide was all finished, at the request of the Rwandan non-permanent member of the SC, ad hoc tribunal was set up.
Akhavan would never have been set up without ICTY there was European and more likely to happen.
B/c it was an internal conflict, crimes that could be prosecuted were limited to:
o Genocide,
o Crimes against Humanity
o Violations of Art 3 common to the Geneva Conventions (SC just put common art 3 into the statute dispite office
of legal affairs.
o Note: no grave breaches b/c not international armed conflict.
No armed conflict but can pursue whenever committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian
Note Rwanda actually voted against resolution 955 as it disagreed with a few things including Rwandese control and
lack of death penalty.

For Akavan the only reason the ICTR existed is because of the precedent of the ICTY which only existed because the crimes were
being committed against Europeans.

The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu

Jurisdiction ICTR [1998]
Facts Elected bourgmestre of Taba commune in 1993 traditionally had extensive powers in Rwanda. Indicted on 15
counts. In his position, he tried to stop the killings until April 18. 1994 but then was present at them and ordered
some of them.
Issues Is Akayesu guilty of genocide, inciting genocide and violations of art 3 common to conventions?
Holding Yes on crimes against humanity, genocide and inciting genocide but not on art 3.
Ratio Special intent (second mens rea) had be proven. Equation of all tutsis with infiltrators satisfied that
requirement. Intent was inferred from the circumstances every man, woman and child was killed without
Killing had specific objective to eliminate the Tutsi not b/c they were members of the RPF but b/c they were
Fact that genocide occurred while the RPF and RAF were in conflict cannot be mitigating circumstance.
Note that for this to be genocide (a convention which Rwanda accepted by legislative decree in 1975) the
crime must not be committed against an individual(s) b/c his is an individual but b/c he is a member of a
All rapes were committed against Tutsi women with intent to kill afterwards
Accused repeatedly made statements calling for the commission of genocide.
Prosecution failed to prove BRD that he was a member of the armed forces and that he was duly mandated to
support and carry out the war effort.



Context that he made this decision to change his mind and start killing? Should this make a difference? Should duress
play a factor?
Jurisprudence on crime of rape and sexual violence. Nuremburg deos not contain a crime of rape neither did Geneva
conventions. ICTY made reference in relation to Crimes against humanity. [see art 7 of ICC statute for newer update
which is vast improvement)
o Crime of rape can constitute serious harm and can fall within definition of genocide
o Some womens NGOs approved and others did not. Problem is that then rape is only bad when constitutes
genocide not in and of itself.

C. The International Criminal Court

Rome Conference prior to adopting statute of the ICC in 1996 and 1998 had divides over
Which crimes
Automatic jurisdiction for the ICC?
Would certain states have to be party to the statute if so, which ones.
Would the prosecutor be able to initiate prosecution?
Role of the SC?

With momentum of the ICTY and ICTR ICC. International Law Commission re-initiated process in 1994. Adopted by Rome

Subject matter jurisdiction

Core crimes of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity (broadly accepted)
Do we include the crimes of aggression? US didnt like. Compromised solution was to include it but not to define it.
Terrorism was controversial. Not included
Narco Trafficing. Initiated this process when Trinidad and Tobago said that they had problems prosecuting b/c druggies
had more money Not included
Opt-in provisions? Not included. No reservations are possible.

Basis for jurisdiction

Germany said universal jurisdiction. US didnt like.
Compromise was that territorial state or state of nationality gives jurisdiction. US didnt like. Wanted it to be both
territorial state AND state of the national.
US has solved problem by Status of Forces agreements.
Referral of the Security Council was another basis for jurisdiction.

Means for triggering jurisdiction

State referral art 14 of the ICC statute. [Problem is that only political interest will bring about this]
Security Council referral (art 13b). They can refer under Chapter VII. Only basis in cases like Sudan where state is the
actor and has not ratified statute.
Prosecutor acting proprio motu initiative of the prosecutor. Matter of controversy. Practically constrained as, without
peace keepers or state help, how are you going to conduct investigation.

Art 17 of the ICC statute There is no primacy of the ICC. Notion is one of Complemenarity with national courts. Only when
national courts are unwilling or unable
Unable judicial system collapsed. Many majestrates were tutsi and had been killed, etc.
Problem: Would it not better to invest in capacity building and build up the judicial system
Unwilling: Milosovic was head of state and aint willing.

Problem: You have to have two trial one is looking at the judicial system of the state on trial and another the crime.
This is problematic.




Complementary to national criminal jurisidictions (art 1)
Seat at the Hague
Court has international legal personality (art 4)
Crimes limited to most serious crimes of concern to international community as a whole (art 5)
Jurisdiction only with respect to crimes committed after entry into force (and after entry into force in each state unless
specific declaration made) (art 11)
Art. 6 Genocide. Identical to Statute for the Ad Hoc Tribunals and the Genocide Convention.
Art. 7 Crimes against humanity. This has been further developed over the Ad Hoc Tribunals, extending beyond a
state of conflict and adding a number of additional meanings such as forcible transfer of population, severe
deprivation of physical liberty, a number of gender crimes such as sexual slavery and prostitution, enforced
disappearance and the crime of apartheid.
Art. 5 Crime of aggression, one of the areas of the courts J has not yet been defined.
Art. 1 and 17 Element of complementarity by the ICC to national courts. The ICC will only take J where states are
unwilling (art. 17.2 = question of due process being denied) or unable (art. 17.3 = national judicial system has
collapsed) to do so.

This can be contrasted to art. 9 of the ICTFY which gives primacy to the ICTFY over national courts. This
approach was refused in Rome.

Part 10 Protection of Human Rights

A) Individual Rights
- Emergence of principle of self determination has moved us away from principle of effectivity HR making inroads
- Use of force Genisis of that norm lies
- Universal jurisdiction revolves around international crimes which are the counter-part of HR law
- Charter of rights and freedoms and ICCPR

HR Law is highly intrusive

- Regulates areas of govts which have traditionally been within the domestic jurisdiction of states

- Skeptical of universality of HR lying in historical antecedents
- Westfalian nation state system focus on state sovereignty. Notion of HR was entirely secondary to the notion of the sovereign
being able to do as he pleased.
- No reference to HR in League of Nations covenants (sole exception of mandate system)
Interwar period some treaties to protect minority rights
- ultimately not successful
Prior to WWII, positivism was ascendant. Sovereignty was tops. Excesses of the WWII which shocked the international
community to moving to natural law concepts moved to Grotian concepts of international law.
Crimes against humanity emerged to deal with problem that perpetrators and nationals were of the same nationality
could not fall under the laws of war.

When UN charter drafted, no automatic assumption that HR should be part.

o Result of lobbying that purposes and principles of UNC included HR in art 1 promoting and encouraging
respect for HR
o Considerable divergence of views as to whether HR should be content of international law and what the content
of those rights should be

1) Intro



The concept of state sovereignty was largely incompatible with the adoption of HR standards
Holocaust and WWII acted as a catalyst for the rise of a movement seeking to integrate HR standards.
UNC entrenches HR as one of the purposes of the UN.
In 1948 3rd committee of the UN produced a draft of the Universal Decalaration on HR (UDHR)
o Initially, Canada voted against draft with six Soviet Bloc states changed its mind later on and voted for it.
Canada had felt that it would have to allow Marxists and Jehovahs witness into govt. Oh-no.
o At time of adoption there were 56 member states. (Now there are 185 member states)
Third world at the time was under colonialism.
o Abstentions (of which there were 8) came for different reasons
Accusations that UDHR was founded on western principles and did not deal adequately with collective
rights and duties.
SA was worried that UDHR could become a binding norm of international law after being elevated..
Saudi Arabia concerned with inclusion of the right to change ones religion or belief (contradiction of
the Koran)

Would the outcome be the same today? Perhaps there would be more of a balance b/n social and economic rights. Might look
more like the African Charter.

Note that UDHR was not binding.but eventually become core of CIL.
Sources: Is it more appropriate to speak of UDHR in terms of CIL or in terms of principles?
o Value of arguing CIL: Custom reflects consensus. Obviates the need to enter the debate of culture
o Principles: Natural law position. Inalienable rights. Butthis smacks of cultural imperialism. Not really
universal values

Articles of the UNC promote HR and allow for UN bodies to make decisions based on the promotion of HR including
decisions that are based in the Econo and Social Council, Declaration regarding non-self-governing territories and the
international trusteeship system.

Ideological differences delayed the commissions writing the UDHR. Eventually had to have three instruments b/c of the
debate b/n Soviet Bloc and west.:
o ICCPR 1966 Negative Rights
Prohibition against torture
Not resource driven. Cannot argue that b/c of inadequate resources, you can torture.
Apolitical or, at least more so.
Cost free (at least characterized as such) But not really

o International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 1966 Positive Rights
Employment, Social security, Food, Education
Resource driven progressive rights
Art 2(1): Agrees to take steps to the maximum of its available resources
Political in nature e.g. Distribution of wealth
Not justiciable

o Optional Protocol to the ICCPR allows a person who feels rights under ICCPR to claim from a state who
ratified Optional Protocol
Remedies in the form of recommendations given.

ICESCR and ICCPR are complemented by

o Genocide Convention



o 1966 International convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination (CERD) largely in
response to apartheid in SA
o 1979 Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) significant
reservations have been entered.
o 1984 Convention Against Torture
o 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

How are these treaties implemented? Through the Optional Protocol of the ICCPR

Requirements of states parties:

Periodic Reporting

Toonen v. Australia
Jurisdiction UNHRC Communication [1992]
Facts Gay activist in Aus. Petitioned HR Committee seeking a declaration that the two provisions of the Tasmanian
Crim Code prohibiting unnatural sexual intercourse and indecent practice b/n male persons contravened
articles 2(1), 17 and 26 of the ICCPR

Claimed that ICCPR, Art 2, 17 and 26 were said to be violated.

Art 17 Privacy
Art 26 Discrimination

Claim that police were empowered to investigate and detain based on stuff that happens in private. Although not
being enforced
Tasmania argued, with respect to privacy rights, moral issues are subjective and dependant on the
particular values of a society.
Aus argued that law should be repealed as all other states had done so.
Art 26 argument

Issues Was Toonen the victim of an unlawful or arbitrary interference with privacy? Was he discriminated against?
Holding Yes and Yes
Ratio - Undisputed that sexual relations fall under the concept of privacy, and the provision interfere with it, even
though they have not been enforced for over a decade still could be enforced.
- It is arbitrary because unreasonable and disproportionate for the ends sought b the stateprevention of HIV
there is no factual or reasonable link between the two
- moral issues are not, as Tas claims, strictly of domestic concern
- sex in Art 2(1) and 26 includes sexual orientation, which means that it has been violated. Sexual
orientation imported into art 26.
Note that there was no international element to this complaint. Although non-intervention in domestic matters is
reaffirmed in UNC art 2(7), HR law has carved a very signif exception to that rule placing concerns like the ones in this
case within the confines of international concern.
ICJ in Case Concerning Reservations to the Convention of Genocide put forward the idea that states do not have an
interest of their own in entering HR treaties, but rather a common interest
IACHR: states signing HR treaties deemed to submit themselves to a legal order within which they assume obligations,
not to states, but to all individuals
Most Intl HR law is directed at states, and can apply to other actors only indirectly. Many, including feminists, argue
that this places many egregious violates out of bounds and reinforces the harmful public/private distinction. Hard to
expand the regimes because theyre all framed within the context of state responsibility
What is relevance of laws of other states in Aus having repealed law ? If other states still had the law, would that change
Is importing sexual orientation by way of sex in 2(1) necessary?



o Could instead have argued CIL. Based on state practice and opinio juris. State practice must be consistent.
Look at Affrican Union or Islamic Congress would find it not to be CIL.
o Could have done it through general principles discrimination against minorities
o Therefore court injected sexual orientation so that it would be part of the treaty law. Mere interpretation by the

What if the respondent was Iran or the Sudan?

Iranian position would be that, even if express provision conflicted with devine values would be irrelevant. Devine law
should stand.
Could argue that interpretation of Art 26 in Toonen is not only interpretation and should include cultural philosophy.
Could, alternatively, argue that, if you have signed onto the ICCPR which is a secular, individual rights based treaty, you
must accept that treaty despite culture.
What about.is there only one interpretation of Islamic Law. Argue on their plane.
Orshould we just impose what is right in the Western sense. Note that clash of civilization idea is a bit of a myth
there is some internal debate.

- refers to effects on third parties
- whose conduct are you regulating original approach is protection from abuse of power of the state (based on Nazi
- however, HR violations can come from individuals (esp. for women)
- generally speaking, HR protection creates obligations for states only, not individuals
- rise of terrorism, problems in the private sphere

Velasquez Rodriguez Case

Jurisdiction IACHR [1988]
Facts Claim against Honduras following disappearance of a number of students after abduction by 7 armed men dressed
in civilian clothing. No proof of state actors. Honduras did not investigate, pursue.
Issues Responsibility of Honduras?
Holding Honduras responsible not only to respect but also ensure rights found in art 1 of American convention of HR.
Ratio State is obliged to organize the govt and its structures to ensure that they are capable of juridically
ensuring the free and full enjoyment of HR.
Obligation to prevent, investigate and punish perps, restore right violated if possible and to compensate
What about the basis of HR in moral beliefs? Does this change the nature of the rights or does it lend them less credibility by
showing them to be western based? Integral in this are conceptions of human dignity. Different contexts shed different lights on
the rights. Also, related to cultural pluralism.
Scope of State responsibility is at issue. To what extent should the state be held responsible for conduct of non-state
o Toonen there is reference to harassment by non-state actors as result of legislation
o Distinction of public/private to deal with state actors. Private issues often are not responsibility of the state.
Think domestic violence cases many argue that this should be issue of state responsibility.
Under Geneva convention (IHL) state must also protect civilians from private actors.
Distinction b/n unwilling or unable to investigate, etc.

B. Human Rights Standards

Very fluid system and therefore difficult to grasp key features. Difficulty with cultural difference and collective rights.

1. Classifying Rights
i) The Generational Approach Generations of Rights
- Creation of HR very ad hoc/patchwork approach



- Organizing principles: 1 theory: 3 generations of rights

Author: Karel Vasak
o Libert Civil and Political Rights
Essentially freedom from
Art 2 to 21 of the UDHR right to life, freedom from torture, etc.
Inspired by natural law and laissez-faire individual rights.
Formal equality
o galit Social & economic rights
Right to
gives the individuals claim against the state to something right to education, social security, adequate
housing, equality
Art 22 to 27 of the UDHR
Were promoted by East bloc countries and developing countries.
Equality in fact
o Fraternit collective rights
Play on interdependence of all people
Self-determination of nations, cultural protection, etc.
Sharing in global power and wealth
Solidarity rights. Common international commitment
Right to development, environment, peace
Not collective rights as outlined below

This classification allows us to conceptualize these rights better but still subject to criticism
Seems to establish a hierarchy among these rights
A very Eurocentric/western approach to HR
Suggests, that you have to achieve them in order & critiqued for this reason
No consensus as to the hierarchy but this is problem b/c conflicts of rights are a constant occurrence. It would be possible to
consider certain rights jus cogens but the controversy still exists as to which rights.
There is an interdependence amongst the rights? What about arguments that, for instance, Uganda is not ready for
multi-party democracy and strong man at the helm is needed. Tis a balance.

ii) Treaty Human Rights

The ICCPR and the ICESCR are binding translations of the UDHR which is but a statement of principles. Thus, there are several
Right to self determination included in ICCPR which was not in UDHR
Rights of minorities
Many Econo, social and cultural rights
ICCPR provides for the creation of an 18 member HR Committee that can hear petitions from individuals or states
alleging a breach of the Covenant
o 18 member committee of states parties to the treaty
o Every party to the ICCPR must present periodic reports on their progress in implementing the rights recognized
o Committee may from time to time adopt general comments on content or meaning of rights entrenched in the
covenant in question

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment The nature
of States Parties Obligations
Jurisdiction UN Doc [1994]



Art 2 of the ICESCR is seen as having dynamic relationship with all other provisions in the convenant.
Two obligations are imposed despite constraints due to the limits of available resources:
Undertaking to guarantee that the relevant rights will be exercised without discrimination
As per art 2(1) of ICESCR, to take steps - what does this mean
Steps towards goal must be taken in a reasonably short time deliberate, concrete and targeted clearly
towards meeting obligation
Means should be all appropriate means, including legislation this is not exhaustive of obligation
Judicial remedies could be appropriate
Must take steps towards progressive realization flexibility but expeditiously

Note that the implementation provisions in the ICESCR are much weaker that the ICCPR. Committee like the HR
committee was created but there is not right to petition to that committee. Only deals with reports submitted by states

C) Customary Human Rights

Opposition to ratify HR covenants comes from many states for ideological reasons and concern over national sovereignty. In
cases where state is not a party, CIL is at issue

US restatement on Foreign Relations Law of the US states that certain rules are customary (eg. Genocide, slavery, etc.)
Seen by authors as a conservative minimum of rights accepted as CIL
Criticised by many as not including right to be free from discrimination based on sex.
HR Committee has much more expansive list that is not restricted to those rights listed in the US bill of rights.

Debate as to whether UDHR has attained status as CIL.

D) Universality of Human Rights and Cultural Diversity

Cultural relativism has replaced arguments based on state sovereignty as greatest challenged to HR law. This debate is pushed to
the political realm at times. Posit that HR is a Western construct

Voice of Vietnam Radio

HR as not only a long-term national policy but also as a strategy devised by individs who assume the role as world
HR should not be separated from historical, geographical and cultural conditions and the devel of different countries and
A plant, however precious it is, should be grown in suitable soil otherwise its fruit will be poisonous.

Two dialogues are suggested 1) b/n various cultures and 2) internally to states. Both cause problems as 1) UDHR is already
adopted and HR already seen as Western imposition and 2) b/c internal dialogues are not allowed in certain states and do not bring
all parties to the table.

Statement of the World Conference on HR states that, irrespective of cultural and religious status of a country, states are obliged
to promote and protect all HR.

E) Compliance and Enforcement

HR suffers from many compliance problems. Come types of rights systematically unprotected around the world (Social, Econo
and Cultural). Creation of UNHCR in 1993 sought to provide some needed coherence.

Treaty mechanisms:



Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Petitions to a treaty body for the ICCPR the competence of the Commission to hear
petitions is optional, a state may ratify the Convenant but reject this competence (as of 1999 of the 144 parties to the
ICCPR, 94 had accepted the Optional Protocol).
Periodic reports many treaties require reports. They are useful in that they incite dialogue.
Enquiries initiated by the treaty body itself there are a powerful tool for ensuring compliance with fundamental rights.
Advisory opinions though they create no obligations they can carry significant persuasive power.
Geographic treaties like the European Committee on HR (ECHR) or the Inter-American HRC (IAHRC).

Non-treaty mechanisms:
Most structured and influential are the institutions created by the UN Commission on HRs (a subsidiary body of the
Economic and Social Council) by way of Res 1503 in 1971. ECOSOC Economic Committee to deal with mass
violations of HRs. Individuals can submit complaints then the committee has the discretion whether to make it public or
Another means is domestic courts assuming jurisdiction:

Example: Resolution 1503 of 1971 Resolution of the ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council). Gives HCR ability to look
into consistent patterns of gross violations of HR. Individuals can appeal and will not receive a remedy. If consistent, issue will
be made public.
Nothing systematic about res 1503 horsetrading. Whether issue gets on agenda of commission is very political.
This may not be the same in cases of thematic mandates (such as torture) but may remain political in cases of country
Thematic mandates come with a special rapporteur

What is more effective?

- Human Rights Commission these people are state representatives
o There is no idea of independence & influence other states & block resolutions
- Courts of Human Rights - European
o Usually fairly independent
o Works best with states who have well functioning court systems and does not work well in cases like Africa
(specifically Sudan)
- Inter-American Court
o The judges are not the most independent there are serious problems with the organization

Filartiga v. Pena-Irala
Jurisdiction US court [1980]
Facts Fil is a Paraguayan National 17 year old son kidnapped and tortured by D who was Inspector Gen of
police in Asuncion. Both PL and D became residents of US and Fil filed suit
Issues Suit in Alien Tort Claims Act.
Holding For Filgartiga.
Ratio Torture is violation of the law of nations. Prohibition is clear and unambiguous.

Jurisdiction is granted b/c the US courts exercise personal jurisdiction over the parties wherever the tort
Relevance use of the U.S. Alien Tort Statute to win a claim for a HR violation.

1. Far from being universal, human rights reflect Western values imposed on the rest of the world. (Toomen v. Australia)



Part 10 B Collective Rights and Self-Determination

Basis of laissez faire civil and political rights is individual rights. This idea is against the rights of the state.

Collective rights
Arose during the decolonization movement. Antecedent to which was the League of Nations mandate system which was
largely of the result of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. End of WWII, UNC expressed principle of self-
determination of peoples.

What do we mean by Peoples

Under the UN charter non-self governing territories (Western Sahara Case tells us that this is what is important) and
the notion of geographic separateness. Oversees principle. Must have both the territory and be separate. This is an
external aspect of self-determination. Rights to be external to colonial power.

Problematic b/c of possibility conflict with individual rights. This is of particular problem in first world countries Criticisms:
Biased in selection and definition of whom an what they choose protect
there is no real dispute that the right actually exists it is well accepted in international law
part of UN Charter, ICCPR, ICSPR
Also a customary norm Western Sahara confirms this; reinforced in East Timor case; opinion on the Wall makes
reference to this too
What does the right imply?

Res 1514 Declaration of grant to colonial peoples. Check it.

Indigenous Peoples
Internal right to self-determination is at issue. According to the court, if you have all the rights afforded in a democratic state
then there is no right to external right to self-determination. If, however, rights are denied violently, then there could be a
case for this.
o Mikmaq case
Excluded from s. 25/35 conference on flushing out the scope of aboriginal rights
The assembly of first nations had been invited to the conference but not the individual nations
There was debate regarding whether the Micmaq should be considered a people under international
However, the mechanism of bringing a claim forward only recognized individual rights, not collective
Micmaq had rights under ICCPR to determine their political status, as well as social, cultural, etc.
The right to self-determination came out of colonialism referred to right of colonized people to make
these choices (i.e. external self-determination)
But what is a colonial context?
Canada claims right to self-determination cannot be invoked to threaten territorial integrity or
national unity of a state
Most resolutions of UN reflect this idea
The most interesting discussion of this is the secession reference

Note that Art 1 of the ICCPR has no defn of peoples and self-determination. Also, ICESCR art 1 does not have the
definitions either.

Mikmaq Case
Jurisdiction UN HRC Communication No.[1990 and 1992]
Facts - Group of Mikmaq petition UNHRC after refusal of Can govt to allow them individual seat at constitutional
convention re: scope of s.25/35 rights allege violation of right to self-determination
- Canada argues:



right to self-determination cannot be invoked to threaten territorial integrity or national unity of

a state
Not a people in the sense of art 1 small, scattered population. Intermingling with other
people. Not geographically compact.
Self-determination is not justiciable (too vague of a norm) Optional Protocal only allows for
individuals to claim
Halifax treaty was not an international treaty and therefore Mikmaq are not subjects of
international law.
- Mikmaq argue: concentration in reserves, recognized as a unique population
Invoke Art 1 of the ICCPR.

Round 2 Mikmaq drop art 1 and go with art 25. 25(a) take part in conduct of public affairs through freely
chose representatives. This is internal self-determination.
Committee finds that constitutional conference is part of conduct of policital affairs. SO.the case is
found to be admissible.
Issues Collective Rights assertion
Holding Halted on procedural grounds UNHRC only has mandate over individ rights not collective rights under the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (art 1) (ICCPR)
Ratio Claim brought under art 1. Collective right, individs this argument not admissible.
Art 25 internal self-determ. b/c they were denied right to participate in constitutional conference.
Native representatives were enough according to the court.
Under conduct of public affairs entitlements, what the Canadian govt was sufficient. Mikmaq are only
entitled to electing leaders etc. Not to go to conference.
Under the Optional Protocol, this was the only decision possible. Collective rights cannot be asserted (but this seems
odd as 14,000 people could claim at the same time and create a type of class action)
What is the problem with collective rights?
Who is the beneficiary who is the group?
Who is to speak for the group?

Is integration not a better thing rather than the emphasis on collective rights which seems to reinforce marginalization?
Look to Art 27 of the ICCPR minority rights. There basic assumption is that there are communal rights. Self-
determination requires a certain specificity in order to have self-determination
Brings us to Draft Cov on Indigenous Peoples.
Maybe something b/n minority and non-self governing territory. More than minority b/c of relationship with the land.

Perhaps apply the Western Sahara case to indigenous peoples in Canada (with exception of territory issue) and use treaties with
the Brits and the French. ButWS case could be wishful retrospective thinking.

To what extent should the status of a peoples be an issue for outside intervention. Will this really help the peoples or hinder their

o Secession reference
SCC says: these ideas can be reconciled sd is not necessarily about external self-determination
Relies on friendly relations treaty
New element internal self determination
I.e the ability to freely determine political & economic & social destiny within the confines of the
existing state
Links internal & external sd if youre not getting it inside, you can then get it outside
For QC the test is not met
o For Canada, this has implications for aboriginal peoples
- The right to self-determination was originally a principle to sustain the boundaries of existing states (i.e. to make the
acquisition of territory by force illegal) to legitimize state sovereignty



- Now though it is recognized that peoples fit nicely within the territorial boundaries of the state
- So now the concept of sd threatens to delegitimize the concept of almost all states
- Problem infinite breakdown of individuals into sub-communities (Charles Taylor)

Questions Nov 15th

1. Instead of advancing their human rights, the focus on collective rights keeps indigenous peoples backward and isolated
from the benefits of society.

Part 11 State Responsibility

PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT according to Akh - likened to tort in some way

Primary (determine substantive obligations) and Secondary (define how primary rule are to be exercised) rules
o State responsibility is secondary rule
State responsibility determines how we assign responsibility to states for violations of international obligations

Differences b/n state responsibility and obligations in domestic law

Non-jurisdictional enforcement is the main difference. ICJ is small amount of cases and so, for the most part the
disputes are resolved based on peculiar international agreements.
No distinction b/n Civil and Criminal Responsibility There has be call for hierarchy of norms by ILC (similar to
debate over jus cogens) and states call for states being held for international crimes. Dropped.
o State Officially and no prosecution by state: Official will be held internationally criminally liable and the
state will be held liable for failing to prosecute.
E.g. ICJ Case of Application of Genocide Convention Case states could (not toally clearly but..) be
sued for violating genocide convention
Contract v. Tort Draft articles dont draw distinction b/n obligations arising in K and Tort

- Arts on State Responsibility adopted in 2001 after 50 yrs of working on it

- Adopted by int. law commission (ILC), then the General Assembly took note of them (not part of a treaty this would
open them up to negotiations & politicize them)
o Taking note is not a positive or negative resolution
o The GA says they are postponed to a later date
- They are still significant they have no formal validity, but has huge informal appeal & influence
- Responsibility is expressed as a set of general principles rather than strict rules

1. Immunity Generally
Recognized state is enetitled to immunity from the jurisdictions of the courts of other states

Immunities allowed to
Governmental agencies
State property nationally operating or held in sovereigns name

Is there justification for immunity and how far should that immunity extend?

Remember Foreign Legations Case State was immune (one way or another) from taxes or otherwise exercise jurisdiction over a
foreign legation. Based on principle of Sovereign Equaltiy.
States are equally sovereign which means that one state should not exercise jurisdiction over another on its territory.

Congo v. Venne SCC 1971 Expo Congo architect designs pavilion. Congo does not pay for it. SCC says Canada cannot
exercise jurisdiction over another state. Pl, in effect, cannot recover and has no legal recourse.



Commercial role of the state here and, still absolute immunity employed

The Schooner Exchange v. MFaddon

Jurisdiction US [1812] per Marshall CJ
Facts Two Americans claimed ship belonged to them when it arrived in Philidelphia alledged it had been seized by
French and improperly taken from them. US attorney stated it was a public ship of France
Issues Immunity of property
Holding The ship has immunity
Ratio Immunity is a relaxation in practice, in cases under certain peculiar circumstances, of that absolute and
complete jurisdiction within their respective territories which sovereignty confers
Affront to dignity of a sovereign to give jurisdiction to another sovereign immunities must be
extended to him refers specifically to the French sovereign as a person.
domestic jurisdiction is necessarily exclusive and absolute
all exceptions thereto must be traced to consentand all sovereigns have consented to
respecting the sovereignty of other states (implied consent)

Sovereign understood to waive right to absolute jurisdiction with respect to (a) the person of a
foreign sovereign (b) foreign ministers (c) passage of foreign troops
rule does not appear applicable to ships entering friendly harbours, BUT, there must be a
distinction between public and private ships, because whereas the latter clearly lack
immunity, the former act under immediate and direct control of the sovereign
All states would consent to not having their public ships subject to foreign jurisdiction; of
they can be assured the same. (This is stated as a principle of public law)
the ship should be returned
Comments: The customary rules of immunity that apply to the sovereign extend to his agents
- compares the ship to the king of France himself - under what conditions would he come on US territories?
- Contrasts sovereign with ordinary individuals We as individuals subject ourselves entirely to a foreign state.

2. Scope of Immunity
Cases in Britain and Canada (Dessaulles v. Repub of Poland) call support of theory of absolute immunity. This is the opposite of
Restrictive Immunity which was created b/c of the increasing involvement of governments in foreign courtries for business
purposes why should they be immune in such cases?
Restrictive immunity theory universally practiced now as part of CIL. Problems exist with difference b/n
o Sovereign act (jus imperii) conduct as a sovereign
o Commercial Act (jure gestionis) commercial participant.
Mostly, state immunity is a question of CIL. But.Western Euro states, for orders sake, have adopted Conventions on
State Immunity in 1972. Based on the restrictive theory.
Canada was only Western country that submitted to the absolute theory for a long time but then, 1985, State Immunity

Recognition and Immunity For the the foreign minister to determine whether state is recognized and therefore whether they
would enjoy immunity.

Test b/n Public or Commercial Acts: Note that precise distinction may be impossible.
Test 1: Purpose of the transaction public act? Public object?
Test 2: Nature of the action commercial deal is commercial no matter who transacts

What is covered?
1. Govt and govt organs (eg. if Canada had trade office in another country, this would still be covered)
2. Leader of govt, foreign minister, agents, diplomatic staff.
o Should immunity be extended to former head of states who go for medical treatement in UK or wherever



o Act of State If you committed certain acts or were aware of acts in capacity with state, you are immune.
However, does not apply to certain category of acts (genocide or etc.)
o What about private citizens who are attached to official delegations of states? Look at basis under which enter
the country (diplomatic passport or not). If criminal act, immunity has no effect in Canada can bring a tort
claim but not a criminal claim.
3. Public Corps independently created but operating in effect as an organ of govt
4. State owned property

Canada Act seems to be more restrictive in that it allows for criminal liability claim but not tort. What is a state to do?
Ask other state to waive immunity.
o If they do not waive immunity, govt can declare them persona non grata (get out!!) Termination of the basis
for their stay on your territory. If they re-enter, you have option to prosecute.
Convince the other state to try the diplomat.

State appearing in court to challenge does not accept jurisdiction.


As refugee, can you sue your old country? No, sovereign immunity applies.
o Call for exceptions like in the US law (below)
US Act is progressive contains exceptions claims brought against the sovereign
o Torture etc. (but dont forget Status of Forces of Agreements)
o Expropriation
Particular problem with sovereign versus agent of police in tort claim (Panairala case) sovereign has the case and it can go
into the billions.

Trendex Trading Corp. Ltd. v. Cental Bank of Nigeria [1977 UK CA]

Facts: TT sold cement to Nigerian to use for military barracks. The Bank of Nigeria issued a letter or credit for the
price. The govt later, after being inundated with shipments of cement, ordered the bank not to honour the letter of
Issue: Is the Central bank an agent of the state and therefore immune?
Held: No.
Reasoning: Denning:
- Bank claims sovereign immunity. TT claims its a normal commercial transaction
- The notion of universal consent to sovereign immunity is a fiction, there is no consensus on the issue:
- Traditional Notion of Absolute Immunity, but difference arise with respect to how far states will move away from
that in favor of a doctrine of Restrictive Immunity, which requires a distinction between jure imperi and jure
- UK law should uphold the restrictive doctrine
- Here, the fact that it was for a military base is immaterial, the government was purchasing just like any other
private buyer would, and is therefore not subject to immunity (nature over purpose)
- Even if bound by absolute immunity, there is an issue as to whether a body is an alter ego or organ, which is a
very elastic test. The central bank of Nigeria is recognized to be very much a public institution that largely plays
are economic regulatory role, but Denning doesnt think it should be considered a department of Nigeria.
- Prefers to rest his decision of the ground of no immunity in respect of commercial transactions
- very little international law on state immunities every state can decide whatever they want
- The driving principle is reciprocity
- Ex. US there are exceptions in foreign state immunity act for terrorist acts



B. State Responsibility
Initially develd as responsibility of states for personal or property damage of aliens now principle develd to provide for
broadly that every internationally wrongful act of a state entails responsibility.

Based on the Dichotomy b/n Primary and Secondary Rules

Primary: Substantive rules
Secondary: Conditions under which a primary rule will be considered to have been breached and consequences
o Defences
o Circumstances precluding wrongfulness
o Types of reparations an injured state may demand

Urge to make analogies to municipal law but certain distinctions have no echo in international law
E.g. diffs b/n civil and criminal, or responsibility in K or tort.
Essentially non-jurisdictional and states rarely turn to tribunals.

General Principles of State Responsibility

How does it attach?
Elements required:
o 1: Conduct that consists of act or omission (internationally wrongful act)
o 2: Must be able to attribute conduct to the state under international law.

International crimes has been all but abandoned by the special rapporteur of the ILC in the Draft Articles.. Now
have a series of obligations.
Obligatoins erga omnes have some sort of pre-eminence in the international system. Attempt to define what some
of those obligations are.

Basis for responsibility

Two possibilities (not clear in jurisprudence which is the proper basis)
o Grounded in risk
Objective Responsibility
Most popular theory
Strict Liability no need for fault.
o Grounded in Fault
Subjective Responsibility
Negligence or fault needed.
Appears as if objective standard applies but there is a great deal of confusion.

Draft Articles on State Responsibility

- #s different in 2001 version
- compare Art 1457CCQ & Draft articles
o nothing about fault in the draft arts
what would it mean if there was a fault concept?
Due diligence duty with respect to the rights of other states
The state itself does not have to be faulty
If agent can be imputed to the state there is a fault element

Art 1: Every wrongful act entails responsibility of that state

Art 2: every state subject to being held to have committed a wrong (protection against states claiming immunity)
Art 3: wrong requires (1) conduct attributable to a state and (2) breach of an international obligation



Art 4: must be wrongful in virtue of international law

Art 19: every breach is an internationally wrongful act, it is an international crime if it breaches an obligation
fundamental for the protection of the international community, e.g. (a) threats to peace or to (b) self-determination of
peoples (c) slavery, genocide, apartied (d) human environment
-everything else is an international delict
Problem with this is: against whom do you enforce the violation of an international crime. Hard to punish a state
without punishing its citizens
Note that this intros a distinction b/n crime and delict.
Art 51: international crimes entail consequences of Art 52 and Art 53
Art 52: unlimited restitution
Art 53: every other state has obligation not to cooperate with that crime, and to cooperate with its suppression
International crime =/= crime under international law, because the former can apply only to state action
Barcelona Traction case [1970 ICJ] established principle of obligations erga omnes (analogous to those the
breach of which = intl crime)

Corfu Channel Case: UK v. Albania [ICJ 1949]

Facts: 2 UK ships hit mines in Albanias territorial waters. Couldnt prove if Albania laid them or that it colluded with
Yugoslavia to do so. The UK insisted Corfu channel is an international straight open to any ship sailing peacefully.
Albania insisted it was part of its territorial waters there was no open sea between the channel & the island and
the waters were closed to international traffic.
Issue: Are they responsible just because it was in their waters?
Holding: Yes
o The mere fact it is on Albania territory is not enough to trigger state responsibility
o Cant conclude that just because it happened in their territory they know, or ought to have known
o But UK can establish that via mere factual inference, and they do satisfy the court in this regard
o However, there were a # of Albania watch positions on the coast the mines could not have been laid without the
knowledge of the govt
o Obligatory for Albania therefore to notify and warn of the existence of the minesevery state has an obligation
not to allow [knowingly (not in French original)] its territory to be used for illegal acts (knowingly not present in
original French)
o The laying of the mines is not attributed to Albania the basis of its responsibility is its failure to react
o No distinction in IL on the basis of the source of the obligationtreaty, custom or other
Dissent: have to prove culpable negligencetheory of risk is incorrect here
o Big Issue: state act/omission vs. non-state act with state omission
o DASR opt for the objective standardno need to prove fault of state official
State must not let its territory be used for acts contrary to the rights of other states. No indication of which standard it is
applying.sounds more subjective.

o There is no apparent reference to fault in the draft articles, but when you start digging there seems to be a fault element
- translation error: knowingly is in the translation but not the original text
- this restricts earlier statement of ICJ on wrongful act
o thus states dont have an obligation to know about everything everywhere on their territory, but there is some sort of due
diligence duty to prevent wrongful acts from occurring on their territory (this is linked to sovereignty anyway)the eng version
is passive only have to do something if you know
o the French version is active a state has to inform itself about wrongful acts on the territory (pg 609 in case book)



The Jessie, Thomas F. Baynard, and Pescawha

Jurisdiction American and British Claims arbit [1926]
Facts Three UK ships borded by US agent and seizing of arms and ammunition. Agents were acting outside the
competence of the US. Agents acting in good faith within their mandate
Issues Liability for wrongful interference with a cruiser on the high seas pursuing a lawful avocation (seal
hunting in this case)
Holding US liable
Ratio Unlawful interference. Bona fide belief of officer that he had the right does not obsolve liability.
- When agents are not under instruction to act illegally but still act within their mandate, there is usually no requirement of
fault or negligence on the part of the agent.
- When illegal acts carried out by non-state actors and their actions are not imputable to the state, fault or negligence required.

Cosmos 954 Claim Canada v. USSR

Jurisdiction [1979]
Facts USSR satellite wit nuc reactor falls into Canada. High cost of clean-up claimed
Issues USSR responsibility for chunk of cost.
Holding USSR settle out of tribunal for less than amount claimed and did not accept liability
CANADA - failure to give prior notification of imminent re-entry
statement of - Operations undertaken by Canada to mitigate damages would not have needed to be taken were it not
claim for damage caused
- Basis for claim is intrusion on air space and deposit of hazardous materials as violation of Canadas
Canada was claiming under the standard of absolute liability. Basis is inherent risk associated with launching satellite
with nuclear components on board. Note that claim not dealt with as settlement.

Exception: Hazardous materials

- absolute liability for items falling from space
- i.e. if the space station or a satellite falls to the ground the country is absolutely liable
- in the case Russia paid damages to Canada but did not acknowledge responsibility
- state practice on this matter is very tenuous
- After Chernobyl, there was a lot of extra-territorial damage but no claim made to USSR
- Same with injury to Japanese fisherman after nuclear testing there were payments made without acceptance of

Problems arise wrt delineation of the state and of its power and responsibility for acts of non-state actors (private persons,
insurgent movements and international orgs)

Art. 5 to 10 - The ILCs Draft Articles on State Responsibility extend attribution to the acts of organs or persons or groups who
are acting on behalf of the state or exercising govt authority.

Consider this in light of the Jaffe Case - incident between US and Canada in the 80s when bail bondsmen kidnapped the accused
from Toronto and took him to Florida for his trial. The kidnapping was imputable on the US even though the bondsmen were
acting on their own accord. Here art. 8 is applied versus art. 11.

Bases of attribution:
Act by a state organ Does not matter what level that entity is playing in the state apparatus



o Municipal Court decision that upholds legislation that violates the rights of an alien can aliens state claim
responsibility even though it was a court decision.
Art 6 of Draft Articles irrelevance of position of the organ in the state - Includes courts, executive,
admin, legislative..
o Contracting out
e.g Sydney Jaffe Case bounty hunters in Florida captured Canadian is the bounty enough to
trigger international responsibility
yes the state cannot privatize its actions to avoid international responsibility
There also has to be a connection to an international standard.
Art 8 of Draft Articles, Acting in fact on behalf of the state.

T.H. Youmans Claims: US v. Mexico [General Claims Commission, 1926]

Facts: 3 US businessmen working in Mexico dispute w/Mexican labourers over 15 cents. They were attacked by a mob, and
the local authorities called in the army, who instead joined the mob and killed all 3.
Issue: Is Mex. liable for failing to exercise due diligence to protect the aliens?
Holding: Yes
Reasoning: Not enough of a defense to argue that an agent was acting outside his competence, that would negate liability in
virtually every case. The governor behaved reasonably sent troops, but the troops (state agents) acted unreasonably - Mexico is
found liable for the injury.
Ratio: State may not invoke abuse of authority by its agents to block a claim Strict Liabiliy Standard
Precedent for awards flowing from soldiers acting
ILC: state must recognize that it acts whenever persons whom it allows to act in its name in a given area of activity do so
actions must be taken under the cover of their official character to be imputable to the state
- theory of responsibility is vicarious liability: like responsibility rules for the acts of another (master/servant
- In extra K you can exculpate yourself from responsibility for children, but not for employees in your control
- Justified by idea that you make $ from employees you should be responsible for their actions while you are
- Both people are state actors there is no reason to give greater weight to one over the other (internal issues are
irrelevant in international law)
- Look at connection to the duties is there a link of agency not everything an employee does is an act of a state
there must be some connection to an official activity
- There are a series of cases on this issue in Iranian tribunals border guards asking for $ for bribes
- We look for an environment where they are acting an official capacity even though they are acting against

State Responsibility for Private Individuals

- States not responsible for acts done by private individuals
- However, there are ways the state can be held accountable

- Ex. Hostages Case US Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran Case

o Iranian takeover of US embassy during revolution
o Was done by private citizens (engineering students)
o Iran failed to protect a foreign embassy this is an intl obligation
o Iran also liable for endorsing the acts of private individuals would not allow hostages to go free under Shah is
This is retroactive attribution to the state for acts of private individuals
(although there is debate against this the Ayatollah had encouraged people to fight Americans
however they can)



the ICJ did not find this sufficient; there is a control requirement not directly responsible
o Indirect responsibility for failing to protect liability after the fact.

- Ex. 2: Nicaragua Case

o Nicaragua claimed the US was supporting the Contras
o Should the violations of IHL of the Contras be attributed to the United States?
o Court says the state would have to have effective control (standard) of the individuals causing the violations
o Note: US is still responsible for the wrongful acts they committed directly funding the contras, interfering
with sovereignty of another state

Art. 11 - The ILCs Draft Articles on State Responsibility do not extend responsibility for the acts of persons or
groups of persons who are not acting on behalf of the State (without prejudice to the circumstances under art.5 to 10)
unless there are extenuating circumstances. The standard is effective control (see Nicaragua Case).

What are the borders between art. 8(when the conduct of persons is attributed) and art 11 (where the persons acts are
not)what are the outer limits of the state?...ANSWER Art. 8 applies where the State exercises effective control of
the general operations of the group or persons:
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua, Nicaragua v. U.S. (1986) ICJ
Facts Nicaragua claimed that the U.S. tried to destabilize the country by using its control of the
insurgent group known as the contras.
Issue Were the contras acts to be classed as private (art. 11) or for the govt (art. 8)?
Holding Private. U.S. is not responsible.
Ratio Degree of control is very important. Here, despite the U.S.s extensive participation in financing,
training and supplying them, there is no proof that the U.S. controlled and directed the acts of the
Compare this to the Tehran Case here the govt is help responsible because it allowed the harm by failing to secure
the release of the Americans a failure of their primary obligation (liability after the fact case!).

Acts of Insurgents
Can be liable for acts of insurgents if fails to protect and if insurgency becomes new govt

- Ex: Liberia
Think example of Liberia. Taylor was leader of insurgency and, as such, had committed atrocities. Then, won in supposed
democratic elections in 1997 and his movement becomes legit govt and his actions from that point on are actions of the state.
Could other state bring action for conduct pre-becoming legit
Art. 14 - The ILCs Draft Articles on State Responsibility do not extend responsibility for the acts of insurgents within
their territory (without prejudice to the circumstances under art.5 to 10).
Art 15 of Draft Article yes if insurgency becomes govt then you are responsible.

- Ex. 3 Tamil Tigers Sri Lanka bombs factory owned by AAPL (private company) after reports of TTs
o There is a lack of control of the Sri Lankan govt over the TT
o If there was military purposes to the factory, would be ok.
o Failure in obligation of due diligence which, here, is obligation to do all possible measures that could be
reaonsably expected to prevent the eventual occurrence of killings and prop damage.
o The govt isnt responsible for EVERYTHING on their territory International orgs, for example, might not be
the responsibility of the state but rather of the org
Note outcome probably would have been different in front of perhaps war crimes tribunal.this is a private actor

- Exception: when insurgents become the govt (they win the revolution or create their own state) they will be responsible for
the past acts



- It is a retroactive attribution of actions to an actor that is not recognized in intl law

- Difficult to reconcile with idea of continuity of govts

- South Africa
o New govt both responsible for acts occurring under Apartheid
o New govt is also responsible for illegal acts done by the ANC

Defining Injured State

Injured if obligation out of bilateral treaty, act that arises out of judgment of international trib, judgement of international organ,
treaty provision of a third state , multilateral treate, CIL,

Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness

- Model law has changed a little bit on this matter
- These actually dont make the act less wrongful; it just means the state will not be responsible

ILC Draft Articles on State Responsibility:

Art. 29 Consent by one state to the other (excludes obligations arising out of peremptory norms of IL such as use of force).
Consent may be withdrawn! (like in dispute between Congo and Rwanda/Uganda where after Congo set up new govt discovered
much of their territory had been taken over by the other 2 countries who claimed that Congo had given their consent. So, consent
may be withdrawn!)
Art. 30 If wrongful act is b/c the other State committed an intlly wrongful act first. (this is countermeasures or reprisals versus
retortion which is excessive. The underlying principle is self-help in light of an intl system that is not very good at
Art. 31 Force majeure and fortuitous events (excluded if they contributed to its occurrence).
Art. 32 Distress. (excluded if they contributed to its occurrence).
Art. 33 State of necessity.
Art. 34 Self-defence (remember art. 51 UN Charter).

1. Consent of the State

- however, you cannot agree to violate jus cogens norms (like committing genocide)
- Claim of USSR in Afghanistan, and US in Vietnam we were invited.

Ex: Rwanda
Rwanda fighting insurgency in neighbouring Zaire helped overthrow Mubutu. Uganada assisted. Insurgency became new govt
and Rwanda and Uganda remained in occupation of Rwanda and Uganada. Asked to leave and they dont. Does consent apply?
Consent is not a permanent state of affaires
Art 29 of Draft Articles - Consent does not apply to a Peremptory norm of international law

2. Self-Defense
- specific reference to the use of force Art 51 of UNC Discussed later.

3. Counter-Measures
- Traditional term was reprisal
o Eg. Free trade agreement breached by one party other party response in kind by also breaching. This is reprisal or
a counter-meaure which is legit.
Note different than retortion (where there is no obligation to continue action eg. development aid,
diplomatic ties)
- acts which are normally illegal but are justified as a reaction against the illegal act done by a diff state
- its an act to prevent a state from continuing to act badly
- This is a measure of Self-help which is allowed to some extent.



4. Force Majeure
- Unforeseen event creating impossibility of performing the obligation
- Related to sinking of Rainbow Warrior
o The ship would interfere with French nuclear tests in the south pacific
o The French paid agents to blow up the ship
o A Dutch journalist was on board and was killed
o The French agents were arrested by the Kiwis and were convicted for manslaughter
o France protested said agents were acting on orders
o NZ & FR eventually settled payment of $1 million to Greenpeace allowed FR agents to serve term on a military
base in the South Pacific
o The female agent got preggers and was flown back to France for the birth and was not returned
o NZ complained
o FR claimed the pregnancy was Force Majeure NZ disagreed

5. Distress
- no other reasonable way to save lives or the lives of others
- people are in physical danger
- ex. Military ship adrift in territorial waters fish illegally to feed themselves

6. State of Necessity
- Interests of the state are threatened (not individuals)
- The act must be the only way to safeguard an essential interest against a grace and imminent peril Art 33 of Draft Arts
- ICJ in the Slovakia Dam case
- Essential interest of the state must not impair an essential interest of the state at which the action is taken
- Ex : Gabcikovo Case - Hungary/Slovakia case
o Treaty obs to build Danube dams that one stopped building b/c of enviro concerns (threat of water supply to
o State of necessity is ground for precluding wrongfulness must have grave and imminent peril
o Here concerns were real but not perils
o ICJ not satisfied this was the only way to protect the Danube river
- Ex.2 - An oil tanker about to run adrift can a state destroy it to protect itself from the imminent threat of the oilspill?
There must be a balancing
o Exploratory well being drilled and threat to be blown up out of state of necessity does not meet

C. Enforcement of Claims

What do we do if legal redress is unavailable or uneffective?

Espousal and Nationality of Claims

- States may espouse claims of their nationals in the diplomatic context
- Requirement of exhaustion of local remedies unless express agreement to waive remedies
o EG- Ambehelos Case Greece v. UK
Claimant argued K with UK govt and was not respected litigation before courts of UK. He failed to
bring a witness at trial. Greece espoused claim in his favour.
UK says internal remedies were not exhasusted b/c person did not file appeal
Court agrees with UK includes procedure of domestic courts and diligent and optimal use of remedies
available he screwed up and didnt call a witness.
o Similar in EHRC requires exhaustion of remedies
o Exception: unless can show remedy unavailable or ineffective.
- Whole idea of interenational dispute settlement is to give the claimant opportunity to bypass exhaustion of local remedies
where he might be at a disadvantage




o EG. North American Dredging Case

Involves a calvos clause 0 calcos was argentinian who wanted to protect state sovereignty
Co undertook to be recogd as Mexican subject
North American Dredging Company(NADC) Claim (1926)
Facts Agreement b/t govt of Mexico and NADC included a Calvo Clause giving the employees of the co the
status of Mexicans in all matter concerning the execution of the work under the K and the Ks fulfillment. It
stated they were deprived of any rights as aliens. The U.S. acted on behalf of the co for a claim for damages
for breach of K by the govt of Mexico.
Holding Claim for Kal breach must be presented to Mexican court pursuant to the agreement.
Ratio In the K the rights he waived were to act as if the only remedies available to him for the fulfilment,
construction and enforcement were international ones which can only be decided by his waiver by the
Mexican courts.

Though the clause was meant to bind the claimant to Mexicos laws it did not and could not deprive the
claimant of his citizenship and all that implies. He could still ask the U.S. to bring a claim on his behalf for
things beyond the reach of the clause.

This situation illustrates how legitimate the concerns of certain nations are respecting the abuse of the right
of protection by the nationals of certain states. The NADC has acted as if the Calvo Clause didnt even
exist, only using it to get the K in the first place.
Is there a Industrialized countries argue (with the support of writers and tribunals) that Calvo clauses cannot be given
practical full effect b/c the right to present an intl claim belongs to the state and not to the individual or corporation.
application of Developed countries argue the opposite, that Calvo clauses can effectively prevent a state from espousing a
this clause? claim of one of its nationals.

Canadian Practice
Is it different from standard in Barcelona Traction Case where court held Belgium had no standing b/c siege social was in
- Canadian practice deviates Canada would protect the shareholders. SUBSTANTIAL LINK IS ONLY REQUIREMENT
- Normally espousal of the claim will be initiated after all domestic remedies have been exhausted.
- Claims by companies are treated according to Barcelona Traction Case with the further requirement in Canada that there be a
substantial Cdn interest so as to justify Cdn diplomatic intervention (where the business is carried on, active trading interests
in Canada, and the extent to which the company is beneficially owned in Canada).
- Losses caused to a company in which Cdns are shareholders may result in the Cdn govt intervening on their behalf.

The Procedure in Canada:

Normally Canada will attempt to negotiate with the other state in order to reach a settlement.

- Cessation of wrongful conduct
- Reparation
o EG. Chorzow Factory Case
Reparation includes principle of RII (Restitutio in integrum)
Could be return of property, removal of impeding measures
- Compensation where restitution is not possible.
o Various elements
Usually out of pocket expenses
Lost Income future income only if not unduly speculative this is why new enterprise will usually not
be awarded income.
Perhaps compound interest.

Counter Measures revisited



o Involve Self-Help
Is availability of dispute mechanisms categorically preclude resort to use of counter-measures? Usually can get
provisional relief from a tribunal very quickly.
Think about it.
General Practices:
Unlike civil responsibility, remedies under IL can take the form of restitution as well as sanctions (especially when the state
violated the rights of other states rather than those of individuals).

Art. 41 to 46 ILC Draft Articles on State Responsibility require the offending state to cease the wrongful conduct, provide for
reparation (limited in that it cannot result in the impoverishment of the population of the offending state), restitution in kind,
compensation (cant be speculative loss of income, so better to justify based on past profits than a new business plan, interest is
compound), satisfaction (i.e. apology, punishment of govt officials responsible, etc.) and assurance for non-repetition.

Chorzow Factory (Indemnity) Case (1928) PCIJ

Facts Claim for reparation by Germany against Poland for having taken possession of factories belonging to 2
German companies.
Holding Poland owed reparation to Germany for damages suffered by the 2 companies.
Ratio Restitution in kind may be demanded over other forms of reparation if it is materially possible.

The rules of law governing the reparation are the rules of IL in force b/t the 2 States concerned, and not
the law governing relations b/t the State who has committed a wrongful act and the individual affected.
However the damage suffered by the individual is never identical to that suffered by the State and can
only provide a convenient scale for the calculation of reparation due to the State.

This was not expropriation but seizure. Here it is correct for Poland to restore the undertaking and if that
is not possible to pay its value at the time of the indemnification. To this, in virtue of the general
principles of IL, must be added that of compensating loss sustained as the result of the seizure.

Why are countermeasures needed? States are reluctant to subject their sovereignty to the jurisdiction of judicial or arbitral
bodies and therefore infrequently use adjudication to resolve a dispute resulting from the internationally illegal act of another
State. Countermeasures make a normally unlawful act licit by its character as a response to the other States wrongful act.

Art. 47 to 50 ILC, Draft Articles on State Responsibility

Art. 47 taking a countermeasure means the injured State does not comply with one of more of its obligations towards the State
that has committed an intlly wrongful act in order to induce it to comply with its obligations under art. 41 to 46 (remedies).
Art. 48 They must first negotiate
Art. 49 - the countermeasure must be proportional
Art. 50 Prohibited are threats or use of force, economic or political coercion, derogations of basic HRs, conduct that contravenes
a peremptory norm of general IL.

IF there are available dispute settlements is it right that States may elect whether or not to submit themselves to it? Like
UNCLOS which provides the right to request provisional measures from the ITLOS. Should this be CIL, this right to choose?

Part 12 International Dispute Resolution

Substantive means of enforcing a claim.


Predecessor was the PCIJ it was not part of the charter of the LofN. Had its own. When UN was established, the statute of the
PCIJ was modified slightly and become that of the ICJ.
Stat of ICJ is separate from the UNC assumption that all states members of the UN also subscribe to the stat of the ICJ



Notion of the compulsory arbitration were central to internationalization. The Hague treaties were responsible for the creation of
the permanent court of arbitration.

Problem: where tensions among states are the highest, judicial mechanisms are the least effective. When there is lack of
confidence states are less and less willing to submit

Notion of jurisdiction has develd in a peacemeal way. Law of the Sea, Investment disputes, ICJ, and others. Not one body.
For the most part, it is highly fragmented. This allows for practical arrangements among states who would be otherwise reticent
to surrender sovereignty on all issues. Not an all or nothing thing.

ICJ is one of six principle organs of the UN (under Ch. VII) and the principle judicial organ (art. 92)
Court consists of 15 members elected by GA and SC.
President is elected for 3 years by the court from among its membership

See Art 9 of the Stat of the ICJ

Elected regardless of nationality but nationality plays a role by informal understanding
Principle legal systems must be represented.
o Informal rule regarding the distribution
o Permanent five members each have one judge
o 5 for Western Euro and NA
o 2 Eastern Euro
o 3 Africa and Mid East
o 3 Asia
o 2 Latin America
If case being heard from Country is of a partys nationality, judge ad hoc will be appointed. This could be seen as
controversial. Shows how states not always willing to relinquish all their power.

Difference between the ICJ as an adjudicatory body and arbitration

Arbitration more flexible, situation where parties resort to some sort of private justice.

Parties before the court

Standing either States or UN agencies.
o UN Advisory Opinion (non-binding)
o States have standing in contentious disputes (binding) legal obligation to accept decision.but if they dont..
In reality, not so binding necessarily (Cameroon v. Nigeria case where Nigeria ignored decision)

Line b/n binding and non-binding decisions might not be all that clear just force of decision.

Not automatic only a party if

o 1. member of the UN
o 2. By accepting the statute and accepting jurisdiction of the court and conditions laid down by the GA (eg
o 3. Any other state provided accepts conditions laid down by the SC that they will accept judgement.

Limited based on voluntary acceptance by the parties. This can happen by
o Special agreement
o Compulsory clause in a treaty - Art 36(1) comprommissory clause
E.g. Application of the Genocide Covention Case art 9 of the convention specificall provides for
disputes being settled by the ICJ
E.g. Lockerbie case under the Montreal Convention 1976 -
o Declaration under art 36(2) Optional clause (declared in advance)



Different from UNCLOS art 287- if states dont stip that they do not recog the judicial bodies (ICJ or
Tribunal on the law of the sea, they are presumed to have accepted unless they make a specific
declaration seeking exception on specified number of ground.
ICC stat debated this as to whether there was opt-in or opt-out.
Art 36(2) assumes you have not accepted unless you have opted-in specifically.
When a state opts in, it is a general jurisdiction of the court opt in. You recognise in advance.
Butyou can stipulate exceptions to general jurisdiction.
E.g. India does not allow for any cases to go to the court dealing with use of force.
E.g. Canada accepts except with respect to matters that that fall within our
jurisdiction.which obviates point of court. Canada can decide what is within its jurisdiction
Canada p. 353 para (d) keeps control over fisheries. (Spanish fishing trawlers case)

Relevance Court considers the nature of States declarations of acceptance of compulsory J of the Court.

Fisheries Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction ICJ [1999]
Facts Canada arrested Spain fishing vessel for fishing 245 nautical miles off the Canadian coast (in the NAFO
Regulatory Area) which was a violation under the Costal Fisheries Protection Act.

Canada refused the Courts J based on the reservation concerning disputes arising out of or concerning
conservation and management measures taken by Canada with respect to vessels fishing in the NAFO
Regulatory Area.

Spain disagreed. HOW!!! By characterizing the dispute as falling outside of Canadas reservation. Just
need to put the problem in a different light to try to circumvent another countrys reservation.
Holding Dispute falls under the reservation of Canada and therefore outside of the Courts J.
Ratio Declarations under art. 36(2) are facultative, unilateral engagements. States may add conditions as they wish.
The interpretation of those reservations is to determine whether or not mutual consent has been given to the J of
the Court. Interpretation by the Court is not a grammatically literal one but rather one in harmony with the
natural and reasonable way of reading the text.

The give a strict intent to the reservation of the party. HOWEVER the reservation has to make sense! The U.S.
reservation was struck down because it gave the US the ability unilaterally to withdraw when it felt like it.
Strategy of the Spanish was to try and characterize in ways other than those that fall under the fisheries for Canadas
acceptance of jurisdiction
o Freedom of transit on the high seas or use of force
Practice of the court is to give strict effect to the intent of the party submitting to the court under 36(2).
So, issue cannot be under the court.
Where states in their reservations have not specified the right to withdraw after a certain period of time the court has
applied the reasonable standard.

Withdrawal from the Court

- Some states make stipulations as to withdrawl. If stipulated with __ months notice this will be held
- Other states stip that can withdraw with immediate effect but..cannot do so once proceedings have been started against you.
- Otherwise, a reasonableness standard is applied.
o E.g. Australia and East Timor - right before East Timor independence, Australia entered reservation to its
declaration under Art 36(2) that no case as to continental shelf.so it did it in time.

Status of the court



Jurisdiction is not assured and since cases of Nicaragua and US wherein the US withdrew its consent to the court, this
seems to be accepted.

Individuals or individuals? Should the ICJ expanded?

Perhaps we could apply exhaust all other remedies principle and then let them have standing.
Supreme Courts should be able to request advisory opinions according to Judge Shi

Defence to exercise of Jurisdiction of the Court Necessary Third Party Rule

Goes to the East Timor Case where Portugal was the administering power of the non-self-governing territory under the UNC.
Port said that Australia entering into a treaty with Indo (which had taken over East Timor) had accepted unlawful act Indos
annexation. ICJ says that Indonesia is a Necessary Third Party and has not accepted jurisdiction of the court so .no go.
Basically gave effect to East Timors take-over.

Advisory Opinions
Empowered to give advisory opinions on legal issues arising within the scope of the activities of the GA, SC and other organs and
specialized agencies of the UN
Art 96 of UNC empowers request but must be authorized to ask for advisory opinion by the GA
o Must be a legal question (not poltical) this becomes a framing issue.
o Must be w/in scope of activities (eg. of a WHO question that was not answered by ICJ b/c did not fit
this..but answered GAs request on this issue.)

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons Case

GA asked for advisory opinion
Purpose of advisory opinion is not to settle disputes b/n states (at least not directly) but to offer legal advise to the organs
and institutions of the UN
ICJ can issue advisory opinion on this question although it might have effects on disarmament negotiations.
In giving this opinion, the court is not legislating but stating the current status of the law.
Relevance Based on the discretion accorded to the Court under art. 65(1) for advisory opinions, the
Court refused to decline to exercise J.
Before requesting Advisory Opinion
Context GA was not agnostic on this issue. Resolutions passed condemning construction as being contrary to
International Law (legal condemnation)
Also determination made by John Lugard expert also said vioaleted IHL.

Relevance discretionary power under art. 65(1).

Construction of the Wall Advisory Opinion

Jurisdiction ICJ Ad Op
Facts 2002 Israel began building barrier in parts of the occupied territory along the Green Line (Ceasefire line from
1967) which was an internationally recognized division b/n Israel proper. Wall in certain cases deviates from the
Green Line.
Issues Does Israel have the legal right to construct this wall? What are the legal consequences of the construction of the
Holding What is the relevance of a lack of consent of a State concerned? Question cannot be regarded only as a bilateral



matter b/t Israel and Palestine but is directly of concern to the UN. The possible effect of opinion on a political,
negotiated situation to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict must be considered. Question representing only 1 aspect of
the conflict and the usefulness of the opinion. The opinion is to be given to the G.A. and not to a specific State or
Ratio Art 49 is argued not to apply as there was no pre-existing state (Palestine was never a state) this is said not to
matter as it is a non-self-gov territory
- Green Line is a fait accompli where wall deviates from the green line then it is a violation as it represents a
annexation of territory contrary to Hague Conventions
o Central legal issue: National Security and protection against terrorism versus fundamental right to self-determination
in terms of non-self-governing territory. What is the territorial extent of this territory.
Goes back to the law of occupation under the 1907 Hague Convention under IHL. What is the scope of
authority of an occupying power in occupying

o Didnt the GA already say the above decision? So why bring the court into this debate
The Advisory Opinion of the ICJ in the Construction of a Wall Case more closely resembles propaganda than international law.
o Based on principles, this was important. IL is based on principles that were not enforceable other than exerting pressure
and escalating things.
o Tension generated by the court taking the issue helped highlight the issue.

Was there any effect?

o Supreme Court of Israel might have been influenced in their decision to deem certain portions of the wall to be violations
in a sense they pre-empted the court (the decision came out earlier).

What would be the effect if we were dealing with a dictatorship?

o It is a question of authority. Legitimaxy matters and states are concerned about their reputation and will act in accordance.

Why are states denied right to ask for advisory opinion?

Is this a cloaked manner for UN agencies (who do not have standing before the court in other situations) to litigate?
Should states who have not consented but are implicated in the advisory opinion be able to object to the issuing of such an
opinion? (response of the court in Interpretation of Peace Treaties Case was that advisory opinions have no binding force and
therefore cannot be stopped.
Allows the ICJ to step out of dispute resolution function and look to future development of international law marked
reluctance to step too far, though.

Judicial Review?
Does the ICJ have jurisdiction to review the decisions of the UN agencies and Security Council.
o In CL systems at some point we believe courts should have the power to strike down legislation.
o US classic case of Marbury v. Madison 1803. Lame duck president began to populate the courts with his
cronies. First case where US case asserted powers of judicial review by saying it had inherent power to do so.
o Article by Swebble suggests that something as important as Judicial Review must have been considered and left out of
statute of the ICJ. Cannot be implied.
o Lockerbie based on Montreal Convention has extradite or prosecute clause and the GA wants extradition.
o Court side-steps issue and does not deal with issue as to whether court can review GA actions or decisions.
o ICTY Tadic Case Jurisdiction motion Appeals Chamber under the doctrine of la competence de la competence had
the power to pronounce of issue
o ButCassesse (Italian judge) comes from a tradition that does not see judicial review in the same view

Aerial Incident at Lockerbie Case (Libya v. UK) (1998) ICJ

Relevance its implications for a power of judicial review (nothing said directly by the Court).
Facts Pan Am aircraft exploded over Scotland in 1988, 259 people died as well as 11 Scots on the ground as a



result of bombs planted by 2 Libyan nationals (supposed members of the Libyan intelligence service). UK
and US requested the surrender by Libya of the 2 culprits. The S.C. urged by resolution to comply in the
fight against intl terrorism. In response Libya brought a claim b/f the ICJ against the US and the UK under
the 1971 Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation to
which all 3 were parties. In the absence of any extradiction treaty between Libya and the US/UK, Libya
argued this treaty applied under which it is entitled to take measures to exercise its criminal J and to
prosecute the accused. In response the S.C. adopted a resolution in which sanctions were imposed on Libya.
The ICJ next rejected Libyas request for provisional measures followed by another S.C. resolution in which
Libya was sanctioned for its failure to assist in the intl fight against terrorism with even further sanctions.
Finally the ICJ delivered its judgement on the question of J, finding that it did have J under the Montreal
Convention. The majority sidestepped the question of judicial review by focusing on the date upon which
Libya brought its original application at which time there were yet no binding S.C. resolutions. Prseident
Schwebel in a strong dissent addressed the question of judicial review.
Issue of He finds that the Courts decision to join the preliminary objections to the merits has frustrated the S.C.s
judicial review efforts to maintain intl peace and security and has challenged the S.C.s integrity and authority. The
regrettable result is that the court may have opened itself up to offering a way for recalcitrant States to
parry and frustrate decisions of the S.C. by way of appeal to the Court.

To read in a power of judicial review on the part of the ICJ would subvert the integrity of the Charter in
which the S.C. is at the very heart of the Charter manifested by the plenitude of its powers.

Part 13 Use of Force

Issue at hand is sovereignty and equality of states.
Implication is non-intervention in the domestic affairs of other states and in particular the prohibition of the use of force.
Grotius de jure belli ac paus law of war and piece.

Historically Assumption was that sovereignty could pursue interests as it saw fit. War as continuation of politics by other
LofN contained some provisions but did not contain any any provisions to determine when this had happened.
Failure of league to regulate use of armed force resulted in collapse of organization.
Capacity of ability of UN to regulate use of force is central to existence of the UN.
Also, 1919 Versailles call for Willhelms prosecution under art 227

A. Prohibition of the use of Force

L of Nation creted to promote intl cooperation, peace and security through disarmament, peaceful resolution of disputes,
guarantee of sovereignty and independence of states and sanctions. But eah member state decided whether breach had taken place
and to take sanctions.
This worked for small problems. But it was totally inadequate when major powers were involved.

The Pact of Paris (Kellogg-Briand Pact) or German Treaty for the Renunciation of War, 1928
Meant to restrict war and use of force to reasonable levels. Signed by 15 states.
Still in force, but considered superseded by art.2(4) of UN Charter (resfrain from threat or use of force against territorial
integrity or political independence of any state)
Notes: there were no enforcement mechanisms.

UN Charter Art 2
(3) Intl disputes to be settled in a manner that intl peace and security, and justice, are not endangered
(4) Must resfrain from threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of any state or any other
manner inconsistent with Purposes of UN.
Note: this codifies rule of customary intl law binding on all states. Does not prohibit econ or pol pressure. But can be
complemented by 1970 declaration below. Broad or narrow interpretation?



(7) UN not authorized to intervene in matters that are essentially w/in jurn of any state. No state required to submit such internal
matters to settlement under UN.
BUT this doesnt prejudice application of Ch. VII enforcement measures.
What about econo coercion Pressure by other states through embargos or other such means
o Art 18 Charter of Org of American States.
o Butart 2(4) in UNC does not cover economic coercion. This is a signif debate b/c of fragility of developing

Declaration on Prcpls of Intl Law Concerning Friendly Relations 1970 Just GA resolution authoritative though
Outlines basic principles of intl law, emphasizing good neighbourliness, good faith and the strict obligations arising from
sovereignty and equality of states including non intervention and coercion.
These principles constitute basic principles of intl law and require strict observance.
Principle 1: States to refrain from threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of any State
- war of aggression = crime against the peace for which there is responsibility under intl law.
- States have duty to refrain from propaganda for wars of aggression
- duty to refrain from acts of reprisal involving the use of force
- refrain from organizing irregular forces/groups for incursion, acts of terrorism or civil strif in another State
- no territory can be militarily occupied as result of use of force.
Principle 2: duty not to intervene in matters within domestic jurn of any State
- violation of intl law includes threats against personality of State, its political, economic or cultural elements
- every state has inalienable right to choose its political, econ., social and cultural systems w/out interference
Principle 3: duty to co-operate w/ one another in accordance w/ Charter
Principle 4: equal rights and self-determination of ppls
- no external interference and every State must respect this right in accordance w/ Charter
- if forcible action occurs, peoplpes are entitled to seek and receive support to react and resist
- limit to this is if it dismembers or impairs territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and ind. States conducting
themselves in compliance w/ principle of equal rights and self-determination.
Principle 5: sovereign equality of states
Principle 6: States shall fulfill in good faith their assumed obligations
Notes: Adopted by concensus. Status Reflection of CIL or guide to interpreting the Charter?

Nicaragua Judgement - Says, even though states practice is not totally settled, Prhibition on use of force is CIL degree of
focus on opinio juris versus

DEFINITION: Agression Use of armed force against the sovereignty of another nation.

Charter of the OAS, 1948 ammended in 1967

Art 18: goes further than UN in prohibiting intervention, directly or indirectly in the internal or external affairs of another state.
Not only armed forces but also any other form of interference or attempted threat aginat the personality of State, its political,
economic and cultural elements.
Art 19: cant use coercive measures of economic or political character to force will or take advantage of other State
Art 20: absolute inviolability of State territory. Non recognition of territory or advantages obtained w/ force or coercion.
Art 21: No recourse to use of force except in cases of self-defense in accordance w/ treaties
Non-intervention principle never explicitly mentioned, but implicit in Charter. Legal concept of non-intervention springs from
concepts of respect for the personality and political independence of the state (elements of sovereign equality) and principle of
judicial equality.
Non-intervention as corollary of principle of respect for territorial integrity and political independence of states.

Kosovo Case:
90% Albania majority flashpoint to change ethnic demography
NATO thought what was happening in other parts of the former Yugo, think that they have to employ military to make
sure it does not spread.
Problem: There was no threat from another NATO member so self defence could not be used nor could Chapter VII be
used b/c would have been vetoed by Russia and perhaps China. Went ahead and bombed.



Is this aggression?: Under the definition, yes.

In 1999 FRY instituted proceedings against NATO states of bombing Yugoslav territory in violation of UN obligations. ICJ
decision, Case Concerning Legality of Use of Force, rejected FRY request for provisional measures to stop the bombings. ICJ
accepted Canadas position that Court lacked prima facie jurn since FRY had only deposited its declaration of acceptance of
jurn under Optional Clause in art 36(2) of ICJ statute in Apr99 and the bombings had started in March. Second, Canada agued
that Genocide Convention did not provide prima facie jurn for measures sought and court agreed since threat of use of force
cannot constitute an act of genocide and there was no intent on part of NATO powers towards any group. Rest of decision not in
ICJ draws distinction btwn issue of acceptance of jurn of Court and compatibility of particular acts w/ intl law. Even if there is
acceptance, states remain responsible for attributable acts in violation of intl law and parties should take care not to aggravate or
extend the dispute.
Think about intent here: did NATO powers bomb in effort to attack territorial integrity of FRY? Or was it serving the goals of
the UN to further the causes of peace, security, self-determination and protection of HR?
Does art 2(7) probiti intervention where genocidal ethnic cleansing is taking place? Genocide and CAH are violations of erga
omnes obligations and subject to universal jurisdiction.
OSCE, Charter of Paris 1990: sets affirmative cooperation for Europe for advancement of peace and security.
Military Activities in and against Nicaragua, 1986: ICJ upheld principle of non intervention as part of CIL, even if its not
written in UN Charter. Court of opinion that Charter was not to embody written confirmation of every essential principle of intl
law in force.
Keep in mind that only when govt agents exercise unduly influence to control or subvert another state does it contraven intl law.
If its done by private indiv or enterprises its not usually regarded as intervention unless there is govt complicity.

Definition of Aggression, UN GA Res 3314 1974

Preamble: Sec Council shall determine existence of any threat to peace, breach of peace or act of aggression.
Aggression is the most serious and dangerous form of illegal use of force. Defining it ought to have effect of deterring potential
aggressor and simplify determining when its there, suppress it and protect its victims.
Art 1: Aggression is the use of armed force by a State against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of
another State or in any manner inconsistent w/ Charter.
Art 2: first use of armed force = prima facie evidence of act of aggression
Art 3: lists whaat qualifies as act of aggression: invasion, military occupation, annexation by use of force; bombardment;
blockage of ports; attach on land, sea or air or fleets of another State; use of armed forces stationed in the State against it;
allowing other State into yours to attack a 3rd state; sending armed group to attack a State.
Art 4: Acts in art 3 are not exhaustive and Sec Council may deem something else as aggression.
Art 5: No consideration of whatever nature may serve as a justification for aggression. War of aggression = crime against intl
peace and gives rise to intl responsibility.
Art 7: definition not to prejudice right to self-determination, freedom and independence of ppls
Comments by Canadian Delegation, 1974
Art 1: Canada satisfied w/ basic definition, even if it does not refer to cases of indirect aggression
Art 2: Aggressive intent is another criteria to consider. It is the mens rea of criminal law. Use of armed forces raises a rebuttable
presumption that an act of aggression has been committed. It must be complimented by intent.
Art 3: must be read w/ art 2. List is to be an aid. Sec Council can still decide upon course other than determination of act of
aggression w/ view of encouraging parties to seek peaceful settlement of their differences.
3(d) on blockage of ports is not to be construed as prejudicing or diminishing authority of coastal state to exercise its rights in
maritime zones w/in limits of its natl jurn.
3(f) + (g) on indirect aggression: determining factor should be degree of force used and degree of responsibility which can be
attributed to state rather than means or modalities by which force is used.
Art 7: Refernce to struggles of self-determination must mean struggle by peaceful means and not one which condones use of force
contrary to provisions of Charter. Art not to be interpreted as endorsing assault on territorial integrity of any state or condoning
dismemberment of any state by violent means.
Canadian called for aggressive intent.

Definition received approval by concensus, without final vote.



This is used by Sec Council when it decides, under art 39, whether direct or indirect use of armed force is an illegal use of force
in contravention with the Charter.
Military Activities In and Against Nicaragua, 1986 ICJ rules that actions of armed attackes encompass not only those actions
by regular armed groups across intl borders, but also the sending of armed bands whose conduct is so grave as to amount to an
actual armed attack conducted by regular forces. This armed attack acts includes those of rebels in the form of the provision of
weapons or logistical or other support.

Explains why, under the ICC statute, no crimes of aggression.

Under Nuremburg, there was crimes against peace - basically aggression
In Rome Stat US thought aggression was only issue for Security Council and is too political.
o So, crimes of aggression, in the subject matter jurisdiction but is not defined. There is a note that, with time,
body will be convened

Armed Bandits
Art 3(g) proxy wars are no different. This is still force
Nicaragua case providing weapons is still use of force.

B. Justifications for the Use of Force

The exceptional cases for legitimate intervention:

(1) Collective intervention by enforcement action under authority of SecCouncil Chapter VII
(2) Also Aka points to GA UPS 1950 that state where there is a 2/3s majority of the SC that support armed force then the
GA should be able to act on it (b.c for a long time actions were stymied by the cold war)
(3) Where state seeks to protect the rights and personal safety of its nationals who are in state it proposes to intervene
(ie 76 Israeli intervention in airport in Uganda. Hyjacked plane Entebbe Raid see below)
Boxer Rebellion
Grenada PM had been ousted Foreign nationals were going to be unsafe and so US and other Carribean nations
Panama troops stationed in Panama Used excuse of protection of its nationals. General Noriega took power (with
the help of the CIA
(4) Individual or collective self-defence, to repel danger of armed attack.
(5) State acting in affairs of protectorate state which its obligated to assist (ie under treaty)
(6) Where state intervened has committed gross breach of intl law against the intervening state, humanitarian intervention.
Argued that humanitarian considerations outweigh reasons against intervention. Where there is no personal and selfish
motive by intervener, this is ok. But this can easily be used as excuse to meddle in other states affairs.
(7) When govt has invited the intervention in a genuine and real manner.

To use armed force there must exist:

(i) necessity of intervention of account of imminent danger - - no other recourse open for protection
(ii) proportionality in action taken
* Problem is theres subjective decision by intervening state and its open to abuse.

1. The Right to Self Defence

UN Charter, Art 51
If armed attack occurs against UN Member, then nothing impairs right to indiv or collective self-defence. Such measures are to be
reported immediately to SC and do not affect authority or responsibility of SC to take action it deems necessary to maintain or
restore intl peace and security.
More limited than right granted by CIL.
Is right to self-defence restricted to cases of armed attack?
What about customary rule of pre-emptive self-defence? Does it survive the Charter?



What about pre-emptive self defence. What is the standard.
UNC does not specifically allow for it.

The Caroline, UK vs US - 1837

US knew rebels were raiding Canadian riverside and British ships during 1837 Canadian rebellion.
The ship Caroline involved in supplying men and materials. It was seized by British on US waters, lit it and sent it over Niagara
Falls. 2 US citizens killed.
Action discussed in US-UK diplomatic correspondence when Brits sought release of McLeod, charged w/ murder and arson.
Mr Webster: US does not believe that conditions that UK must show existed. These are:
(1) necessity of self-defence, instant, over-whelming, leaving no choice of means and no moment of deliberation. (2) that Canada
did nothing unreasonable or excessive in entering US.
(3) admonition to those on the Caroline was impracticable or would have been no remedy
(4) that there was necessity to attack the Caroline, present and inevitable, and to not separate guilty from innocent
Lord Ashburton: agree on principle of intl law applicable to this case particularly the inviolable character of the territory of
independent nations.
Theres acceptance of (pre-emptive) self-defence justification, even if it didnt exist here.
UK argues there was necessity of self-preservation and danger of future threats. US rejected this plea.
To be legitimate, self-defence must be necessary and proportionate to harm encountered.
British position was it was pre-emptive.

Nuremberg War Crimes Trials Final judgment of the IMT on 22 major war criminals
Crimes had no exact geographical location. Dfs indicted w/ crimes against peace, war crimes and CAH. Also charged with
participating in formulation or execution of common plan or conspiring to commit all these crimes.
IMT held that to initiate war of aggression is supreme intl crime, and there was indiv responsibility for this under art 6 of IMT
Hitler considered invasion of Nw and Dk in Mar 40 memo and as early as Oct 39. It was carried out on Apr 9.
Df contends Germany was compelled to attack Nr to forestall Allied invasion, ^^ it was preventive action.
Preventive action in foreign territory is justified only in case of an instant and overwhelming necessity for self-defense, leaving
no choice of means and no moment of deliberation.
Plans to attack were not made for purpose of forestalling Allied landing but prevent future Allied occupation. But it was not at
all imminent.
Df argued it was for Germany, under Kellogg-Briand Pact, to decide whether preventive action was a necessity and such
decision was conclusive. But if intl law is ever to be enforced, then whether self-defence act was aggressive or defensive must be
subject to investigation and adjudication.
Acts against Dk and Nr deemed aggressive war.
Nurmeburg did not allow pre-emptive self defence but on the facts. Therefore Nuremburg did not preclude.

Military Activities In and Against Nicarague Case Nicarague vs US [1986]

In merits phase, Nicarague claimed that US acted in violation of art 2(4) of UN Charter and CIL obligatino to refrain from threat
or use of force; that actions = intervention in internal affairs of Nic.
At jurn phase, US had claimed that by providing, upon request, proportionate and appropriate assistance to 3 rd states not before
the Court it was acting in reliance on inherent right to collective self-defence in art 51 of Charter.
Art 51 covers both collective and individual self-defence, showing rights existence under CIL.
Wording of principles of prohibition of force apply to the right of self-defence.
States in GA regard exception to prohibition of force constituted by right of indiv or collective self-defence as matter of CIL.

Israeli Attack on Iraqi Nuclear Research Centre 1981

- Israeli military bombed nuclear station near Baghdad. Iraq says it was act of aggression. Israel says its act of self-preservation.
Security Council Debate



Hammadi (Iraq):
- civilian casualties and much material damage when Israel attacked.
Blum (Israel):
- Pilots mission was to destroy nuclear reactor.
- This was elementary act of self-preservation, both morally and legally. It was an exercise of right to self-defence under art 51
and general intl law.
- Threat of nuclear obliteration was being developed against Isreal by Iraq. Israel tried diplomatic route.
- Actions taken were clean and effective. Middle East is a safer place bc of it, as is intl community.
IAEA passed resolution condemning Israel for premeditated, unjustified attack on Iraqi nuclear research and recommended
suspension of technical assistance to Israel. It reminded states of UN resolution to end transfer of nuclear materials and
technology to Israel.

Security Council Resolution 487 (1981)

Iraq is party to Non-Proliferation Treaty and has applied safeguards satisfactorily.
Israel not party to Treaty. Its premeditated attacks created danger to intl peace + security given regional tensions.
Given art.2(4) of Charter, the attacks are strongly condemned.
Call on Israel to refrain from such acts or threats in future and to place its nuclear facilities under IAEA regime
Attacks constitute serious threat to IAEA regime.
Recognition of inalienable sovereign right of Iraq to establish programmes of nuclear devt for peaceful purposes consistent w/
internationally accepted objectives of preventing proliferation.
Iraq entitled to appropriate redress for destruction it has suffered by Israel.
International condemnation of the attack unlawful use of force.
Israel says that Iraq had declared war on Israel in 1948 and therefore this was a state of war. First Strike capabilities are
central to this.
Mr Blum argued that strikes were proportionaly since they were on Sunday and the loss of life was minimal.
Sec Council voted unanimously against Israel. US was of view that Israelis had not exhausted peacful means. But Israel was not
party to IAEA so it could not resort to its peaceful measures or intelligence.
Canadas view on legality of first- strike: while use of armed force confined to situations of necessity, modern weapons that
some states and not others have, and exercise of veto power have altered reality on how right to self-defence can be resorted to.
- In practical terms, no help would be expected by some States from UN while use of rapid and all-destructive weapons leaves
no room for waiting of an attack, if self-defence is to serve its original purpose.
- It would be permissible under art 51 to engage in anticipatory self-defence if: (1) an armed aggression is imminent according
to clear evidence based on facts, and (2) if allowed to happen the aggression might put in jeopardy the existence of the victim-
State (as opposed to just inflicting some damage).
Judge Schwebel of US was of view that wording and intent of art.51 do not eliminate the right of self-defence under CIL or
confine its overall scope to the expression of art.51.
ICJ, in Advisory Opinion on Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons Case, 1996, held that dual condition of necessity
and proportionality applies equally to art.51 and to CIL, whatever means of force employed
Collective self-defence: must state show that attack on victim state was also attack on itself? And are there proximity reqts? In
Nicaragua Case, the ICJ put two prerequisites: (1) victim state must make a formal and public statement that it has been attacked,
and (2) assisting states must receive a formal and public request for and from victim. This makes the right to collective self-
defence as that of the assisting state, not the victim.
Retortion: form of self-help open to a state in reply to an injury done to it by another state. Legal but unfriendly act, such as
cutting diplomatic relations or economic aid.
Reprisals or countermeasures: these are illegal acts, done in retaliation and not in self-defence. Curtailed by art.2(4) and 51.
Some argue countermeasures short of force are legitimate.

What is the prohibition of the use of force good for?

2. Self-Defence of Nationals
Is state justified in taking self-help measures to protect its nationals if theyre in imminent danger?
In 19th C nationals were seen as extension of the state and their protection was crucial and lawful. Today?



The Entebbe Raid

1976: Air France plane from Israel to France hijacked by terrorists of the Popular Liberation Front of Palestine.
Stops in Libya then Uganda. Demands are to liberate about 153 terrorists in 5 countries.
147 passengers freed. None Israeli. Remaining 104 were in Entebbe until rescued by Israeli military commando.
3 hostages, 1 soldier, 7 hijackers and many Ugandan soldiers were killed. No one sure if Uganda collaborated w/ hijackers or
tried to protect hostages. Sec Council debated without reaching conclusion.
Israel (Mr Herzog):
- Uganda violated intl law in failing to protect foreign nationals in its territory and also 1970 Hague Convention.
- Uses scholarly arguments that right of intervention has been claimed by all states and only its limits are disputed
- If UN is not in position to move in time and theres need for instant action, then cant deny legitimacy of action in defence of
- Make arg. that hijackers are pirates, and ^^ hostis humani generis (enemies of human race).
- this was exercise of Israels right to self-denfence.
- No consideration other than humanitarian one motivated Israel and operation was not directed at Uganda.
- Means used were minimum necessary to fulfil the purpose of rescuing nationals from band of terrorists who were being aided
and abetted by Ugandan authorities.
- Draws parallel with right of indiv to use appropriate means to defend himself if someones trying to kill him.

Cameroon (Mr Oyono)

Isreal took initiative to attack Uganda. This was hostile action and makes Israel the aggressor under intl law.
Asks SC to condemn barbaric act since it violates art 2(4) and 51 of Charter. Asks for punishment of violation
There was no attempt to solve dispute by peaceful means. UN cant allow this anarchy or for might to make right.
There can be no justification for violation of state sovereignty.

US (Mr Scranton)
This act was necessarily a temporary breach of territorial integrity of Uganda. Normally, thats impermissible.
But you can use limited force for protection of ones own nationals when state theyre in is unwilling or unable to protect them.
This self-defence right is limited to necessary and appropriate use of force.
Here such requirements were met specially bc theres evidence Uganda was helping the terrorists.
Ugandas failures poses qn of their failure to live up to its intl legal obligations under Hague Convention.
That Israel couldve secured release of hostages by mtg demands does not alter these conclusions. It would be self-defeating and
dangerous policy to release the prisoners and accept demands of terrorists.
This situation was unique given Ugandas behaviour, so it should not set strict precedent.

Justification of self-defence also used in US interventions in Grenada (83) and Panama (89).
- In Grenada it was precipitated by murder of PM Bishop. US invaded w/ Commonwealth troops to rescue 1000 US citizens in
absence of functioning govt. W/in 2 months military w/drew leaving the internal security of Grenada in hands of participating
Caribbean forces.
- In Panama, principal objective was to get Noriega, charged w/ narcotrafficking and remove his unconstitutional regime. Bush
said Noriega had declared state of war / US and had threatened lives of Americans in Pma. Much loss of property and life begs
qn if it met tests for self-defence in Caroline Case.
In Iraq 93, US bombed Iraqi HQ in retaliation to plot to kill Bush. Killed 6 civilians but said acts were proportionate and linked
directly to plot against Bush. Is this anticipatory self-defence or reprisal?

3. Humanitarian Intervention
1860-61 Ottoman troops blocked from slaughtering Greek Christians by French. Humanitarian intervention.

2005 Outcome Document Refers to the Responsibility to Protect!!!

If there is a serious violation of HR or humanitarian crisis there is a responsibility to intervene on the international
Aside from necessity and proportionality, must still go through the Ch VII of SC.



19th C: right of humanitarian intervention existed where state that had abused its sovereign powers by inflicting excessively
inhumane treatment on persons within its borders. It made itself liable to intervention by any state prepared to do so.
UN Charter is evidence of distrust for such unilateral action. Art 2(7) prohibits intervention in domestic affairs
Gral right to intervene forcibly for humanitarian reasons is acutely controversial. It is open to abuse and susceptible to
aspersions being cast on its altruistic and genuine nature. Can be used as excuse to meddle.
Now seen only as legitimate if authorized by SC under its Ch.VII powers.
1991 SC authorized assistance to Kurds in Iraq (Res.688). Most of members saw situation of Kurds as threat to intl peace and
security. Lesson is indicative of potential future role and expanded mandate that an org may have in situations where there are
serious qs of HR violations, need for humunitarian assistance and lack of democracy.
Iraq-Kuwait crisis redefined peacekeeping role of UN. Set precedent for situations where theres serious humanitarian concern.
UN Sec Gral Perez de Cuellar:
- Sovereignty does not include right of mass slaughter or launching campaigns of decimation or forced exodus of civilian
populations in the name of controlling civil strife or insurrection.
- Whats involved is not right of intervention but collective obligation of States to bring relief and redress in HR emergencies.
- Any intl action for protecting HR must be based on decision taken in accordance w/ UN Charter. Must not be a unilateral act.

Should we allow use of armed force outside use of Ch VII based on Humanitarian Intervention.
Intervention of Tanzania in Uganda Amine
Vietnam in Cambodia to stop K.R.
Kasovo NATO
India in Bangledesh.

Think Darfur no poltical will but, if there were, there are serious interests of China so would be vetoes by a permanent member.
Attempts must no seriously undermine the UN. This would be near impossible to do.

Intention, as suggested by the Canadian plan with mens rea, is important
Basis, according to UK and US for aggression First WMD, then regime change
Does legitimacy really matter? Reputation and coalition reasons, yes.
Res 1441 says that Iraq broke resolution 678 (1990) which is ceasefire resolution that, if breached, allowed for any
necessary means to.

Security Council Resolution 688 (1991)

Iraq repressing Kurds and forcing mass migration across intl borders. Threat to intl peace and security.
UN disturbed, but mindful of every states sovereignty, decides:
- condemnation of repression of Iraqis, mainly Kurds.
- demands Iraq ends this repression
- insists Iraq allow access of intl humanitarian orgs to those in need
- requests SecGen to pursue humanitarian efforts and report back on situation. Use all available resources.
Resolution was too slow in coming. 400 to 1000 Kurds dying daily. Consideration for regional realpolitik.
Is intervention to restore democracy part of humanitarian intervention?
See Haiti case, where Aristide was overthrown but UN passed resolution to restore him. Adequate action to restore democracy?
Foreign intervention allowed in struggle against colonial domination. But not giving aid to rebel or terrorist mvts
1999 FRY bombing by NATO. Was this humanitarian intervention? Did intervention interfere w/ Albanian Kosovars right to
self-determination? UN did not act possibly bc of potential veto by China and Russia.

When invited to participate in domestic or external affairs of nation its not intervention or aggression.
But requesting govt must be in control of country and must be lawful govt.
Invitation must be genuine and voluntary, without pressure.
Its made by person with authority to make it.



Requests are legitimate response to acts of aggression by 3rd state (art 2(4))
Eg Kuwaiti govt in exile requested help of UN and intl community. Argument can be made that it was invitation
Qn is wheter state may respond to invitation to assist another state in quelling a revolution or serious unrest. This is legitimate
as long as requesting state is not suppressing a self-determination movt.

4. Collective Measures Pursuant to the UN Charter

UN Charter
Art 2(7): unless applying Ch VII powers, nothing authorizes UN to intervene in matters of domestic jurn or requires members to
submit such matters to settlement
Art 24: primary responsibility of SC is maintenance of intl peace and security.
Art 25: members agree to accept and carry out decisions of SC in accordance with the Charter.
Chapter VII
Art 39: SC determines existence of any threat to peace, breach of peace or act of aggression and makes recommendations to
maintain or restore intl peace and security.
Art 40: SC can pass provisional measures, w/out prejudice to rights, claims or position of parties concerned.
Art 41: SC can decide non armed force measures to give effect to decisions. Includes complete or partial interruption of econ
relations, means of communication and severance of diplomatic relations.
Art 42: If measures in art 41 are inadequate, SC can send in forces necessary to restore intl peace and security. Includes
demonstrations, blockade and operations by air, sea or land.
Art 43: All nations make available to SC armed forces, rights of way, facilities, assistance by agreement(s).
Art 44: If member giving forces is not on SC, its invited to SC to participate in decisions concerning their use.
Art 45: For urgent military measures, members shall hold available air force contingents.
Art 46: Military Staff Committee (MSC) to help SC on use of armed force.
Art 47: MSC established by Chiefs of Staff of perm members and any other member whose participations needed
Art 48: Actions required to carry out decisions of SC for intl peace and security to be taken by all Members or some as SC
Art 49: Members to join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out measures decided by SC.
Art 50: if SC takes preventive or enforcement measures against a state, any other state economically affected has right to consult
SC with regard to solution of the problem.
Art 51: Nothing here takes away from right to indiv or collective self-defence.
For SC to exercise Ch.VII powers it must first determine existence of threat or breach of the peace.
Done 3 times before Kuwait:
1) 1950 after invasion of S.Korea by N.Korea. Force was used under command of US. Note that USSR not there.
2) 1982 after Argentina invaded Falklands. UN resolution on breach of peace demanding immediate stop of hostilities, followed
by w/drawal of forces.
3) 1980-88 during Iran-Iraq Gulf War SC determined there was breach of peace.

Uniting for Peace Resolution, GA Res 1951

Done by GA in response to impasse created during Cold War by constant vetoes.
Failure of SC to discharge duties does not relieve Member states of obligations or UN of its responsibility to maintain intl peace
and security.
Resolution that if SC bc of lack of unanimity of perm members fails to exercise duty of maintaining intl peace and security
where it appears to be breached then GA shall consider matter immediately w/ view to make appropriate recommendations to
Members for collective action, including use of force when necessary.

- Used number of times (ie for Suez 56, Congo 60, Afghanistan 80, Namibia 81)
- In Certain Expenses of the UN Case 1962, ICJ gave advisory opinion that SCs responsibility under art 24 is primary and not
exclusive, advised that by art 14+18 the GA may take decisions (subject to art.12) recommending measures in respect of intl
peace and security which would constitute expenses of the Org.

Legal Opinion of Lord Goldsmith on the Iraq War 7 March 2003



Note considers issues in detail as regards the legal reasoning

There are 3 legal bases for use of force:
(1) Self-defence
i) There must be actual or imminent threat of an armed attack
ii) Use of force must be necessary
iii) Must be proportionate
Widely accepted that imminent armed attack will justify use of force if other conditions are met
What is imminent depends on the circumstances
US Doctrine: right to use force to pre-empt danger. If this means > right to respond proportionately to imminent attack,
then its not one that exists or is recognised in intl law.
(2) To avert overwhelming humanitarian catastrophe ie Kosovo
Controversial doctine. Not appropriate basis for action in present circumstances.
(3) Authorisation by SC under Ch.VII key qn here is whether Res.1414 provides this authorisation

Possible Consequences of acting without Resolution

GA could request ICJ advisory opinion. So could Iraq or 3rd state (both unlikely). It could lead to application of interim
measures to stop campaign.
ICC could have jurn to examine whether any military campaign has been conducted in accordance w/ IHL
Domestic courts likely to decline jurn, unless charge is of aggression. Aggression is a crime under CIL, which automatically
forms part of domestic law, so can argue intl aggression is crime recognised by cml which can be prosecuted by UK courts.

Lawfulness of military action depends on legal basis AND proportionality. So use of force must:
1) have as its objective enforcement of terms of cease-fire in res.687
2) be limited to whats necessary to achieve that objective
3) be proportionate response to that objective
This is not to say action may not be taken to remove Saddam from power if it can be demonstrated that such action is necessary
and proportionate measure to secure Iraqs disarmament. But regime change cannot be objective of military action.

1. The responsibility to protect civilians against human rights violations should not be an excuse for unilateral use of force in
violation of the UN Charter?

Could it be that we have not achieved a state of maturity. Is this an example of the fact that fragmentation has taken over and this
may be an example of a case where UNC does not have answers. Is it moving toward being an exhaustive system and how can it
learn from this to create a better system (sniff, sniff). UNC is not meant to be an all encompassing tool (said in Nicaragua case)
and there is a necessity to evolve.