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Computer Engineering
(English for Special Purposes)

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Computer Engineering (English for Special Purposes):
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Computer Engineering
() (English for Special Purposes)

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. .. 7,2 200
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. . , . . , .
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. , . , 44

. , . , 1
() - Diploma in Engineering
ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
Inc.) - ..................................................................................... - 7 -

(Engineering Accreditation Commission) -
PART I............................................................................................ - 12 -
(Technology Accreditation Commission) -
TEXT 1 ....................................................................................................
RAC (Related Accreditation Commission) - What is Engineering? ................................................................. - 12 -

Mission Statement - TEXT 2 ....................................................................................................
Constituencies - , , Modern Engineering Trends ....................................................... - 14 -
, , ..) TEXT 3 ....................................................................................................
Educational Objectives - Fields of Engineering.................................................................. - 15 -
( ,
) TEXT 4 ....................................................................................................
Program Outcomes - Automation.................................................................................. - 28 -
( , Automation in Industry................................................................ - 29 -
TEXT 5 ....................................................................................................
Types of Automation................................................................... - 31 -
..., Dr. of Eng. Sc., Prof.
..., Cand. of Eng. Sc., Asc. Prof. TEXT 6 ....................................................................................................
..., Cand. of Eng. Sc., Ass. Prof. Robots in Manufacturing............................................................. - 33 -
..., ... Cand. of Eng. Sc., Senior
Research Assistant
TEXT 7 ....................................................................................................
.-.. Dr. of Phys.-Math. Sc.
Computers .................................................................................. - 35 -
... Dr. of Phil. Sc.
... Dr. of Ps. Sc.
TEXT 8 ....................................................................................................
... Cand. of . Sc.
What is a Computer?.................................................................. - 36 -
FT - Full time
TEXT 9 ....................................................................................................
PT - Part time
Hardware .................................................................................... - 39 -
FT - Full Time Equivalent
CV - Curriculum Vitae
TEXT 10 ..................................................................................................
Types of Software....................................................................... - 44 -

TEXT 11 ..................................................................................................
Operating Systems ..................................................................... - 47 -
PART II........................................................................................... - 49 - - Day Time Students

TEXT 1 ....................................................................................................
- University's Administration
What is the Internet? .................................................................. - 50 -
- College
- College's Administration, Dean's Office
TEXT 2 .................................................................................................... - Department
What Is It?................................................................................... - 53 -
, - Principal Education Units,
Program offering Department
TEXT 3 .................................................................................................... - Supporting Academic Department
Services and Resources of the Internet ..................................... - 54 - (,
..) -Institutional support units
TEXT 4 .................................................................................................... - Department
Newsgroups................................................................................ - 55 - - Office of Admissions
- Regional Branch
TEXT 5 .................................................................................................... - Regional Office
File Sharing and Topic Searching .............................................. - 55 - -laboratories

TEXT 6 ....................................................................................................
The World Wide Web ................................................................. - 56 - - Recruiting of Students
- Enrollment, Admission
TEXT 7 .................................................................................................... - Elective
Surfing the Net............................................................................ - 57 - - Core Courses
- Required Courses
TEXT 8 .................................................................................................... - Dismissal
What Is "Chat"? .......................................................................... - 57 - () - Curriculum (Curricula)
o () - Syllabus (Syllabi)
TEXT 9 .................................................................................................... - University promotion
Security Is Your Privacy Protected? ...................................... - 58 - , -
- Student's records
PART III.......................................................................................... - 59 - - Major, Option, Subprogram
, - recitation
TEXT 1 .................................................................................................... - interview
Science ....................................................................................... - 59 - (), () -
Program of Study, Program, Field of Study
TEXT 2 .................................................................................................... () - Area of Interests, Field of Interest
Science and Technology ............................................................ - 60 -

TEXT 3 ....................................................................................................
Miniature Radios and computers................................................ - 61 - - Degree
Pocket Radios ......................................................................... - 61 - - Candidate of Engineering Science
Pocket-size TV Camera .......................................................... - 62 - - Doctor of Engineering Science
Molecular Computer................................................................ - 62 - - Bachelor
Miniature Computer is size of Bread Loaf............................... - 62 - - Master
Foreign Languages. TEXT 4 ....................................................................................................
8. () - The Department of What is a Microprocessor? ......................................................... - 63 -
Physical Education. Part I........................................................................................ - 63 -
9. () - The Departmnt of
Aircraft Engineering. TEXT 5 ....................................................................................................
10. () - The Department of What is a Microprocessor? ......................................................... - 65 -
Chemistry and Ecology. Part II....................................................................................... - 65 -
11. () - The Department of
Mechanics. TEXT 6 ....................................................................................................
12. () - The Department Classification of Microprocessors............................................... - 67 -
of Sociology and Political Science.
TEXT 7 ....................................................................................................
Uses and Applications of Microprocessors ................................ - 69 -
- - Linguistics;
- - - Aircraft Engineering; TEXT 8 ....................................................................................................
- - Applied The Types of Memory................................................................. - 70 -
Mathematics and Information Science;
- - Environmental TEXT 9 ....................................................................................................
Engineering. The Storage Medium .................................................................. - 72 -

TEXT 10 ..................................................................................................
Disk Buffers ................................................................................ - 74 -
TEXT 11 ..................................................................................................
Static Memory Devices: Organization and Characteristics ........ - 74 -
- Students
, PART IV. SUPPLEMENTARY READING SECTION .................... - 75 -
- Undergraduate Student
- Freshman TEXT 1 ....................................................................................................
Sophomore A will to Learn ............................................................................. - 76 -
- Junior
, - Senior TEXT 2 ....................................................................................................
- Graduate Student Argument .................................................................................... - 78 -
- Postgraduate Student, Doctoral Student
- Postdoctoral Student
TEXT 3 ....................................................................................................
(, ),
Preparation for a Discussion ...................................................... - 79 -
- Student Teaching Assistant
- Total Enrollment.
TEXT 4 ....................................................................................................
() - Graduate (s), Alumnus (Alumni)
Round-table Discussion.............................................................. - 80 -
() - Alumna (Alumnae)
, ,
TEXT 5 ....................................................................................................
) - Transfer Students
How to Read in English .............................................................. - 81 -
() - Evening (Correspondent) Students
PART V. PHRASES FOR SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION ........ - 82 - ()- The Department of Security in Data Processing
Thinking about your Presentation............................................... - 82 - 2. (
I. Introductory Paper Speech Patterns.................................... - 83 - ) - Department of Psychology and Safety of Existence.
II. List of Phrases to Write an Introduction.............................. - 83 - 3.
III. Speech Patterns for the Body of the Paper ....................... - 84 - ( ) - The Department of Electronic Means of Protection
IV. Closing Paper Speech Patterns ........................................ - 85 - Security and Services -.
V. Formulas for Scientific Communication.............................. - 85 -

- - Psychology;
PART VI. SUPPLEMENTARY TERMINOLOGY SECTION.......... - 87 - - - Telecommunication;
- - Information
Science and Computer Engineering.

- - Psychology;
- -
Informational Security;
- - Complex
Protection of Information Objects;
- Information Security of Telecommunication Systems;
- - Secured Telecommunication
- - Applied
Information Science in Psychology.

- ()
(College of Natural Science and Humanities)

1. ( ) - The Department of
History and Philosophy.
2. () - The Department of Higher
3. () - The Department of Physics.
() - The Department of Engineering Drawing.
5. () - The
Department of Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.
6. ()- The
Department of Linguistics.
7. () The Department of
106 7
- Design and Manufacturing in Radio Engineering;
- Design and Manufacturing in
Computer Engineering.
, () .
(College of Economics, Management and Law)
- ,
1. , () - The
Department of Management, Economics and Marketing. .
2. () - The Department of 50
: 25 V VI .
Applied Information Science.
( ) -The Department of State and Municipal Administration. (1 ).
4. () -
Department of Law Theory and Law Information Science.

, ,
- M - Management; , ,
- - Economics. .

- - Economics and
, ,
Business Administration;

- - State
and Municipal Administration;

- - Management;

- - Commerce;

- - Marketing;
, ,
- - - Socio - Cultural
, ,
Services and Tourism;
, ,
- - Applied Information

Science in Economics;

- Documentation and Documentary Support of

() -
, What is Engineering
(College of Informational Security)
, :
What is Engineering, Modern
Engineering Trends, Fields of Engineering ,
8 105
Electronics 2.
Computers. (M ). - The Department of
, .
: (A MT) - The Department of Hidroacoustics and
, , . Medical ngineering.
4. () - The
, , . Department of Electronic Devices.
. 5. () - The
Department of Electronic Apparatuses Design.

. - - Electronics and
: Microelectronics;
What is Engineering, Automation - -
Computers. Design and Technology in Electronic Engineering;
V . - - Electronic Equipment Engineering;
What is Internet?. - , - Metrology,
VI . Standardisation and Certification;
- - Shipbuilding and Ocean

Fields of Engineering, - - City Cadastre;
Computers, Internet - - Standardization and
, - - Laser Engineering and
, . Technologies;
- - Hydroacoustics and
, , Hydrophysics;
, - -
. Non-Destructive Testing and Diagnostics;
. - - Applied Acoustics;
Supplementary Reading Section - -
Biomedical Electronics;
: How to Read in English, Preparation for a Group - - -
Discussion, Argument, Formulas for Scientific Communication Biomedical Engineering;
. - - -
. Measurements and Instrumentation;
Phrases for Scientific Communication -
Supplementary Terminology Section Microelectronics and Integrated Circuits;
: - - Electronic Devices
, and Apparatuses;
, -
104 9
Automobile's and Tractor's electrical equipment. .

() ,
(College of Automation and Computer Science) ,

1. () - The : ,
Department of Automatic Control Systems. ,
2. () - The Department of , .
Computer Engineering.
. , ,
() - The Department of Computer Aided Design.
( ) - The Department of Software Engineering. ( ),
5. () - (
The Department of System Analysis and Telecommunications. )
(, , ).
- - Automation and Control; ,
- - Information
Science and Computer Engineering.

- - Information Science; . -
- -
- , , - .
Computers, Computer Systems and Networks;
(Automated System of Control and Data Processing);
- -
Computer Aided Design; :
- (7-8 )
- Software Engineering. ;
(5-6 )
() (3-4 ) .

(College of Electronics and Electronic Equipment Engineering) ,

1. , ,
( ) - The Department
of Automated Research Systems. .
10 103
II. Translation of names of specialities, faculties, departments,
terms and abbreviations connected with academic studies

1. ( ). ()
8 : (Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering TSURE)
, ,
, ()
. (College of Radio Engineering)
, 1. () -
, The Department of Antennas and Radio Transmitters.
. 2. () - The
7 : Department of Microprocessor Systems.
, . () - The
, Department of Fundamentals of Radio Engineering.
, . 4.
() - The Department of Radio Receivers and Television.
, 5.
. () - The Department of Radio Engineering and
, . Telecommunication Systems.
2. ( .) 6. (A) - The Department
6 : of Automobile Electronics.
- - Telecommunications;
, . - - Electronics and
, , , Microelectronics;
- - Radio Engineering.
. , ,
. - Radio Physics and Electronics;
5 : , - Industrial Electronics ;
, - Radio Engineering;
. , -
. Telecommunication, Broadcasting and Television;
, Vehicular
, Communications;
, . - Audio and Video Engineering;
, , - Radio Systems Engineering;
. -
102 11
Learner 3. ( ).
This word is sometimes used in collective sense. More often, 4 : ,
however, it is qualified, as in the following examples: , , ,
. Michael is quick learner. .
b. This is good method for slow learners. .
. The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English (title of ,
dictionary by . S. Hornby). .
d. Young Teachers and Reluctant Learners. ,
Student , .
In traditional British English this word denotes young person .
studying at university or college ( university/college student). There 3 :
is, however, growing tendency, of American origin, to call anyone
attending an educational institution (including schools) student. ,
e.g. At the age of 15-16 students take their first public examination. . ,
There has been Union of School Students in England for some
years. In England this use of student is still mainly confined to .
secondary school pupils, but is gradually extending to the primary ,
stage, too, following American usage. .
Note too that even in traditional British English student is wider ,
term than the Russian in another respect, since it includes , ,
those who already have a degree or diploma and are pursuing some .
further course of study, either full-time or part-time. For example, -
those people who give up their job and go back to university or college , -
to improve their qualifications become students again for the duration , ,
of their course. Adults attending evening classes, even recreational , -
ones, are also students while they are at their classes. Those doing
full-time research are students too, although not simply students, but - .
postgraduate students.
The term mature student is used in some institutions of person -
who starts full-time course at university or college after some years , ,
in job, in contrast to the majority, who start immediately after leaving
Thus the word student may be applied to anyone who is studying, - .
regardless of age, qualifications and level of study.
12 101
- 's getting on (doing very well) at school/college/university.
PART I To read is sometimes used in the sense of "to study" with
TEXT 1 reference to universities, mainly of the humanities. - She is reading
English. (=She's studying English at university.)
Pre-reading task - He reads history at Cambridge.
1. What is engineering? Use a monolingual dictionary to define This use of read can be explained by the fact that formerly students
this term. Discuss your answers in group. spent most of their time reading books recommended by their tutor
rather than attending lectures and classes.
2. Can you draw a difference between mathematical and natural The following verbs are widely used in conversation and in formal
sciences? writing instead of learn or study:
3. Look up the following words in a dictionary and explain their e.g. . He's doing English this year.
meanings and usage peculiarities: trade, craft, profession, b. They d two foreign languages in the third form.
job, occupation, work and career. . I did French for five years at school, but I can't speak
4. Read the text What is engineering? and take part in the d. M son's doing engineering.
discussion on the topic "Engineering". Use Supplementary
Reading Section texts: Preparation for a Discussion(p.78)
and Formulas for Scientific Communication(p.84) to Study the following definition of the words profession,
express your opinion. occupation and job.
5. Discuss the following problems in group: Try to give information about you future profession, future
plans and career.
a) What are the main branches of engineering?
Discuss the following problem in group:
b) What does the field of your speciality deal with? . Choosing career is sometimes very difficult.
c) Prove that a modern engineer has to require a basic b. Teaching is demanding career.
knowledge of lots of engineering fields. . Should all careers be open to women?
d. It is often difficult for women to combine career and
What is Engineering? family.
Engineering is a term applied1 to the profession in which
knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained2 by Career differs from profession, occupation and job in that it often
study, experience3, and practice, is applied to the efficient4 use of the means more than simply sphere of activity or way of earning one's
materials and forces of nature. The term engineer properly denotes a living. It implies advancement, gradual promotion to more difficult
person who has received professional training in pure and applied and/or responsible work, and is therefore used only of those
science, but is often loosely5 used to describe the operator of an occupations where this is possible. Note that it does not generally
engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or have the derogatory connotation sometimes present in the Russian
stationary engineer. In modern terminology these latter6 occupations word .
are known as crafts or trades. Between the professional engineer and Career is also used in the sense of professional/creative activity
the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those individuals or life.
known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific e.g. Mendeleev began his career as a chemist.
and engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are
engineering aides7, technicians, inspectors, draftsmen8, and the like. Could you explain the difference between a learner and a
Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale9 student?
construction work was usually placed in the hands of military What is to be a mature student?
engineers. Military engineering involved10 such work as the
100 13
knowledge, especially from books, to pursue some branch of preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and
knowledge". Unlike to learn, it applies only to knowledge, not skill, or construction of roads and bridges; and the building efforts and docks;
ability to d something. Thus one can learn to read, to type, to cook, see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term
to play the piano, etc. but not study. (Study is used with to only in the civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was
sense of "in order to", as in He's studying to be programmer.) performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes. With the increasing-
With the names of subjects, for example, history/English/ physics, use of machinery in the 19th century, mechanical engineering was
etc. either learn or study are possible: recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later mining
In the second form many pupils study two foreign languages. engineering was similarly recognized.
He studied history of Microsoft. The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened
In practice, however, the two verbs are not interchangeable. Study the field of engineering and introduced a large number of engineering
is restricted mainly to formal style. In non-formal style learn is specialties, and the rapidly changing demands of the socioeconomic
preferred, at least with reference to elementary or practical knowledge, environment in the 20th century have widened the scope11 even
such as one acquires at school or at evening classes, for example. For further.
instance we say:
learns/is learning English/history/physics at school.
If we meet foreign visitor who speaks Russian we ask: 1. to apply
- Where did you learn Russian? 2. to gain ,
Study in such cases, besides being too formal for the situation, 3. experience
would imply an advanced, theoretical course, for example, degree 4. efficient ,
course at university. 5. loosely ,
Study (English/history/physics, etc.) is more widely used with 6. latter ,
reference to advanced, theoretical knowledge, such as one acquires 7. aid
at university or college. 8. draftsmen
He's studying English at university. 9. large-scale
Even here, however, study sounds rather formal, and tends to be 10. to involve
replaced in conversation and informal writing by the more colloquial 11. scope
d. Learn here would imply more practical, elementary course.
With the names of authors and their works, periods f history,
subjects of investigation, etc. study, but never learn is used. TEXT 2
When there is no object, learn refers to the process of acquiring Pre-reading task
Some students learn more quickly than others. 1. What recent trends of engineering professions are
He doesn't want to learn. considered to be the most widespread?
Study with no object generally means "to be student". He's 2. What is the influence of computerization process on the
studying at Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering. contemporary level of high-tech development?
He published several articles while he was still studying.
Note that we d not say: He studies at school/in the first form, but: 3. Characterize modern engineering trends of our century.
He's at school or He goes to school. 4. Read the text Modern Engineering Trends. Discuss the
He's in the first form . following problems in group:
Neither learn nor study is appropriate here, nor in the translation of
such Russian sentences as: ? / a) What are the principles modern engineering is
. characterized by?
Here we say, for example: b) What do you know about The National Academy of
- How's he getting on at school/college/university? Engineering?
14 99
Modern Engineering Trends higher education or in the education faculty/department of university,
includes: lectures on educational history, theory, psychology; classes
Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields and seminars on teaching methods; teaching practice.
not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern
engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known
as systems engineering principles. The systems approach is a Read the text and try to explain what is to be a graduate
methodology of decision-making in design, operation, or construction student.
that adopts1 the formal process included in what is known as the
scientific method; an interdisciplinary, or team, approach2, using A Graduate Student
specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines, but from In England graduate is not student but simply person who
legal3, social, aesthetic, and behavioral4 fields as well; a formal has graduated, that is, taken first degree, either at university or other
sequence5 of procedure employing the principles of operations institution providing higher education courses. It implies contrast with
research. non-graduate, that is, person with qualification other than
Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also degree.
with people, to determine6, for example, how machines can be e.g. ). These jobs are open to graduates.
operated most efficiently by the workers. A small change in the b). Graduates earn more than non-graduates.
location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to Graduate can also be used in the sense of "".
other machines or equipment, or a change in the muscular movements e.g. ). Many British prime ministers have been graduates of
of the operator, often results in greatly increased production. This type Oxford (or Oxford graduates).
of engineering work is called time-study engineering. b). University graduates often have difficulty in finding jobs
Among various recent trends in the engineering profession, nowadays.
licensing and computerization are the most widespread7. Today, In American English, however, graduate is used differently. When
many engineers, like doctors and lawyers, are licensed, by the state. attributive it generally corresponds to British English postgraduate, as
The trend8 in modern engineering offices is overwhelmingly toward in graduate student and graduate work.
computerization. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex It denotes a person who has received degree or diploma from
problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the any educational institution, including high school and the expressions
enormous9 volume of data modern engineers must work with. high school graduate and college/university graduate occur
The National Academy of Engineering, founded in 1964 as a frequently. It follows from this that graduate cannot be used alone to
private organization, sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting denote person with higher educational qualification, as in British
national needs, encourages10 new research, and is concerned with English.
the relationship of engineering to society.
Vocabulary: Compare the given difference of the verbs to learn and to
1. to adopt
What is the peculiar in their meaning and usage?
2. approach
3. legal
4. behavioral To learn, to study and alternatives
5. sequence
6. to determine
To learn means "to get knowledge of (some subject) or skill in
7. widespread
(some activity), either by reading, having lessons, or by experience";
8. trend ,
Learn may have either an imperfective meaning (as in exam- or
9. enormous
perfective meaning. It may mean to learn by heart", as in:
10. to encourage -
I want you to learn the scientific terms (by heart) for next lesson.
To study means "to give time and attention to gaining
98 15
weekly, and as rule one of the group reads paper, which is then 1. Give English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:
discussed by the others. There is also tendency now to use seminar
1. ,
in wider sense, to denote any meeting for study and/or discussion of
some question, not necessarily academic.
The preposition on is used with seminar.
e.g. a seminar on fields of engeneering
The following verbs are used with seminar in the same way as with
lecture and class:
to arrange to attend
to hold to go to
to give to miss 2. Give English definition for the following:
to have
To take seminar is used in the sense of "" and to 1. engineering
take part in, in the sense of "". 2. engineer
3. subprofessional (paraprofessional)
4. military engineering
Express your opinion on what is to be a Bachelor?
5. modern engineering
What other scientific degrees do you know?
6. the systems approach
Is there any difference between American and Russian 7. time-study engineering
Degrees: High School Graduate, Bachelor of Science, Master 8. The National Academy of Engineering
of Science, Ph. Doctor?
Study the following information and compare it with the
Russian system of training. TEXT 3
Student Training Pre-reading task
Students in England are trained in one of the following ways: 1. You are going to read a set of texts about the main branches
(1) at a university, where they first take a degree in some subject(s) of engineering. What branches of engineering do you know?
and then a Postgraduate Diploma/Certificate in Education in the
faculty/department of education; 2. Divide into groups and take part in a round-table discussion
(2) at a college of education, where they take either a degree course of principal branches of engineering.
leading to the Bachelor of Education, or a shorter, less academic 3. Do you as an up-to-date engineer have a basic knowledge of
course leading to the Student Certificate. Both courses combine the other engineering fields?
study of the subject(s) to be taught with student training;
(3) at a college of higher education, where they take the Diploma in Fields of Engineering
Higher Education, and then a student training course leading either
to the Bachelor of Education or the Student Certificate. The main branches of engineering are Aeronautical and
Students with a degree are called graduate students (or simply Aerospace Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering,
graduates) and those with a Teacher's Certificate - certificated Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Electric Power and Machinery,
teachers or non-graduate teachers (or non-graduates). Electronics, Communications and Control, Computers, Geological and
The university institutes of education are establishments attached Mining Engineering, Industrial or Management Engineering,
to university which supervise and coordinate the training of teachers Mechanical Engineering, Military Engineering, Naval or Marine
in their areas, approve syllabuses for the Teacher's Certificate Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Safety Engineering, Sanitary
examinations and conduct these examinations. They also provide Engineering, Modern Engineering Trends, the engineer who works in
service training and carry out research. any of these fields usually requires a basic knowledge of the other
Teacher training, whether at college of education, college of engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex
16 97
and interrelated1. Thus a chemical engineer designing a plant for the e.g. ). Read the book carefully and make some notes (on ...)
electrolytic refining2 of metal ores3 must deal with the design of b). Did you take notes at the lecture?
structures, machinery, and electrical devices, as well as with purely4 To make note of smth. means "to write down some fact or other
chemical problems. piece of information", for example, someone's telephone number.
Besides the principal branches discussed below, engineering e.g. c). - I'll just make note of your telephone number.
includes many more specialties than can be described here, such as If someone has taken notes at lecture, for example, and wants to
acoustical engineering, architectural engineering automotive rewrite them more clearly and neatly for future reference, the
engineering, ceramic engineering, transportation engineering, and expression to copy up is used, not rewrite.
textile engineering. e.g. d). - I'll up the notes at home.
(up) is also used when someone misses lecture and wants to
have some notes.
1. interrelated e.g. ). - I missed Professor Brown's lecture but I copied up the
2. refining notes.
3. ore f). - Can I your notes on Professor Brown's lecture?
4. purely , Simply lecture cannot be used in the sense of lecture notes.
Notes is followed by the preposition on.
e.g. g). Will you lend your notes on applied mathematics?
1) Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering The subject can also be specified by such expressions as:
1. What does aeronautical and aerospace engineering deal grammar/literature/philosophy notes

2. What supplementary information can you add to characterize There is nothing equivalent to this in most English universities and
this field of engineering? colleges. Arts students (i.e. students of the humanities) write essays
Aeronautics deals with the whole field of design, manufacture, regularly throughout each year, and in some newer institutions they
maintenance1, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian2 and also do projects, but none of these seem to occupy the specific place
military purposes3. It involves the knowledge of structural design, of in their course of studies. Essay, or project, can
propulsion4 engines, navigation, communication, and other related be used to translate . An essay may range in length from -4
areas. pages to about 20, and may involve lot of reading. and/or collecting
Aerospace engineering is closely allied5 to aeronautics, but is of material.
concerned6 with the flight of vehicles in space, beyond7 the earth's is difficult to translate in such way as to make good
atmosphere, and includes the study and development of rocket combination with essay and project. The only possibilities seem to be
engines, artificial satellites, and spacecraft for the exploration of outer yearly or first/scond/third/fourth-year. This gives the following
space. possible translations:
yearly essay/project
Vocabulary: or first/second/third/fourth-year essay/project
1. maintenance , e.g. ). First-year essays must be given in by April 30th.
2. civilian b). (Teacher to students) - You should be starting work on
3. purpose your (yearly) projects soon.
4. propulsion ). (One student to another) - Have you finished your
5. to ally essay/project yet?
6. to be concerned
7. beyond Seminar
This is still smaller and, more informal group. The number of
students usually ranges from five to ten. Seminars are often held
96 17
- I'd like to say few words about ... 2) Chemical Engineering
tell you (something) about ..
- The subject of m talk is . . . 1. Are you fond of chemistry? Have you got this discipline in
- My subject is ... your time-table?
Paper 2. Try to describe chemical field of engineering nowadays.
This is more serious, more academic, than talk. It is defined as:
What is the main ecological trouble in its development? What
" written or printed essay, dissertation, or article on some particular
should people do to safe the environment? Is it really
topic; now esp. communication read to learned society". The
distinctive characteristics of paper are that it is: 1. academic; 2. possible to stop the catastrophe?
written out in full, usually for the purpose of being read aloud at This branch of engineering is concerned with the design,
seminar, conference, or meeting of learned society. It may or may construction and management1 of factories in which the essential2
not be published afterwards. Sometimes paper is used of something processes consist of chemical reactions. Because of the diversity3 of
which is published in journal without being read first, in the sense f the materials dealt with4, the practice, for more than 50 years, has
learned article. Paper as defined above corresponds in most cases been to analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of
to () or, less often, . The verb read fundamental unit operations or unit processes such as the grinding5
or give is used with paper. or pulverizing6 of solids7. It is the task of the chemical engineer to
e.g. He read/gave paper at the seminar/conference. select and specify the design that will best meet the particular
requirements of production and the most appropriate8 equipment for
Report the new applications.
In traditional British English this word is connected with practical or
administrative matters, not academic work. It is defined as formal Vocabulary:
statement of the results of an investigation, or of any matter on which 1. management
definite information is required, made by some person instructed or 2. essential ,
required to d so". For example, the secretary of society makes an 3. diversity
annual report on the activities of the society and the treasurer gives 4. to deal with
report on how the society's money has been spent. Committees make, 5. to grind
and often publish reports on their findings (Official reports are often 6. to pulverize ,
called by the name of the chairman of the committee, for example, the 7. solid
Robbins Report on higher education, 1963 (chairman Lord Robbins) 8. appropriate ,
and the James Report on teacher training, 1972 (chairman Lord
James)). In this sense report corresponds to . 3) Civil Engineering
Recently the word report has acquired new use. It now also
denotes an account (written or oral) of the results of study or 1. Try to prove that civil engineering is the broadcast of the
investigation carried out by one or-more pupils/ students as part of engineering fields.
their work in some subject. This use is mainly American, but is coming
2. In what way is civil engineering connected with environment
into British English, especially in connection with project work. The
verb to make is used with report in such situations.
e.g. One of the students made report on electronics engeneering Civil engineering is perhaps the broadest of the engineering
development. fields, for it deals with the creation, improvement, and protection of the
communal environment, providing1 facilities for living, industry and
Making Notes transportation, including large buildings, roads, bridges, canals,
One may say to make notes or to take notes, but the two verbs railroad lines, airports, water-supply systems, dams, irrigation,
are not interchangeable. When reading book or article, for example, harbors2, docks, aqueducts3, tunnels, and other engineered
one makes notes, when listening to someone speak one takes notes. constructions. The civil engineer must have a thorough knowledge4
18 95
of all types of surveying5, of the properties and mechanics of or - You must plan your essay.
construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils, and of We also speak of well/badly-planned essay.
hydraulics and fluid6 mechanics. Among the important subdivisions of
the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, The following expressions with composition/essay are widely
transportation engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic used:
engineering, hydraulic engineering, and coastal7 and ocean an English/French/German composition/essay
engineering. This is more common than composition/essay in
English/French/German in such sentences as:
- We've got to write an English composition for homework.
1. to provide composition/essay subject/topic
2. harbor , e.g. ). Here is list of essay subjects/topics for the 3rd year.
3. aqueduct , b). - We've got an essay for homework.
4. thorough knowledge - What on? - the usual form in conversation
5. survey , - What's the subject?
6. fluid - On what subject? - more formal
7. coastal Theme is not used in the sense of (composition/essay) subject or
to write composition/essay on (some subject) or about
4) Electrical and Electronics Engineering (smth/smb)
1. Get acquainted with the following text. e.g. - For homework I want you to write composition n/about
computer security.
2. What additional information can you give to describe this On is more specific than about here.
field of engineering?
3. What subject in the field of electrical and electronics Giving Talk/Paper
engineering does your speciality deal with?
What is the difference between the verbs to talk and to
Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most speak?
diverse1 field of engineering. It is concerned with the development What does a noun talk denote?
and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that
use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in Talk (n & v), Speak
the field in the late 1980s are electric power and machinery, electronic To give talk means "to speak informally on some subject in
circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid- everyday, non-academic language". Students may be asked to give
state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, talks in language classes, in order to practice expressing themselves
consumer2 electronics, and fiber optics3. Despite4 its diversity, at length in the foreign language and sometimes also to introduce
electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric discussion of the subject by the whole group. For example, teacher
power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and may say to one of his students:
computers. - Next week I'd like you to give (short) talk about/on types of
Vocabulary: Automation.
Talk may also be used as verb.
1. diverse , e.g. Next week I'd like you to talk (for few minutes) about/n . . .
2. consumer However, the verb speak is on the whole more common in this
3. fiber optics situation, because it expresses more clearly that one person will speak
4. despite and the others listen.
The talk can begin as follows:
94 19
foreign languages as long as they are capable of writing only on 5) Electric Power and Machinery
simple narrative or descriptive subjects. Compositions may be written
by anyone in the early stages of learning foreign language. 1. What are the distinctive features1 of this field of engineering?
Some examples of composition subjects are: 2. Try to draw a difference between AC and DC motors.
). My Hobby;
b). Taking Part in a Scientific Conference; The field of electric power is concerned with the design and
c). M Favourite Television Programme. operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing
These are examples of free composition (" electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several
"). However, in the early stages of language important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the
learning, many teachers prefer guided composition (" ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages2 in both the direct
"). The teacher gives the class plan, either one current3 (DC) and alternating current4 (AC) modes, reducing5
he has made himself or one taken from book, and the class write power losses6 proportionately. Another is the real-time control of
their compositions according to this plan, or outline. Another type of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to
composition is the picture composition, where the pupils/students analyze the data fed back from the power system to a central station
write story told in series of pictures. and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in
Composition is also used uncountably to mean the art or technique operation.
of putting ideas together, either orally or in writing. A significant7 advance8 in the engineering of electric
e.g. (From publisher's catalogue) This book can be used in machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable
teaching both oral and written composition. AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting9 the frequency of
the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run
An essay is usually longer (up to about 20 pages). It expresses more efficiently this way.
ideas, as opposed to simply telling story or describing something, or, Vocabulary:
if it is narrative or descriptive, it should have some literary merit.
Essays are written by older schoolchildren and students in their own 1. distinctive features
language, and, in foreign language, by those who have sufficiently 2. voltage
mastered the language to be able to express their ideas in it, or write 3. direct current
literary prose. 4. alternating current
Some examples of essay subjects are: 5. to reduce
). Classification of Microprocessors". 6. loss
b). The Influence of Television on Society. 7. significant
). What is the Purpose of Learning Foreign Languages? 8. advance ,
d). Computers in Medicine. 9. adjusting -
As essays are written not only in language work, one may speak of
scientific essay, a history essay, and so on. University students
6) Electronics
regularly write essays on various aspects of their subject, and 1. What does electronics engineering deal with?
examination questions are often in the form of essays.
An essay should be planned, that is, the writer should make plan 2. What are the modern trends in electronics research?
before starting to write. An essay plan usually consists of list of Electronic engineering deals with the research, design,
points which one intends to make, in logical order or in order of integration, and application of circuits1 and devices used in the
importance, with reference to illustrations and quotations if necessary. transmission and processing of information. Information is now
An introduction and conclusion should also be mentioned. The point generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale2
of making plan is that it should be made before, not after writing the unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the
essay. Teachers often say to their pupils/students: explosive3 rate of growth in this field will continue unabated4.
- You must make plan of your essay before you start writing. Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks,
20 93
such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and e.g. ). - You are to read lesson 8 at home, and next lesson I shall
demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. ask you to (re) tell the story in your own words.
Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for Write in one's own words can be used to denote written
synchronization and timing, as in television, and for correcting errors in reproduction of a story.
digital information, as in telecommunications.
Prior to5 the 1960s, circuits consisted of separate electronic
, - precis
devicesresistors, capacitors6, inductors, and vacuum tubes
assembled7 on a chassis8 and connected by wires to form a bulky Precis ['preisi], of French origin, denotes particular type of
package9. Since then, there has been a revolutionary trend toward summary written by schoolchildren or students as an exercise in
integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some picking out the important points in a passage and expressing them
other semiconductive material. The complex task of manufacturing clearly and concisely. precis is usually expected to be between,
these chips uses the most advanced technology; including computers, sixth and tenth of the original in length, depending on how much is
electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, expressed in the passage. It is usually done in the native language,
and ultra clean environments. Much of the research in electronics is but some teachers of English as foreign language use it too.
directed toward creating even smaller chips, faster switching of Precis is used with the verb to make or to write, as follows:
components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits. to make/write precis of passage/text/article.
It is also used as verb.
e.g. Precis the following passage.
1. circuit , With reference to complete works (stories, novels, plays, etc.)
2. scale , precis is not appropriate. the general words summary,
3. explosive , summarize, or the more specific word synopsis [si'nopsis] are used.
4. unabated e.g. ). - I'd like you to finish reading the story/novel and make
5. prior to , summary/synopsis of the plot.
6. capacitor b). Summarize the events which led up to the quarrel.
7. to assemble , Note that plan cannot be used in such sentences as (). This word
8. chassis , is appropriate only when the novel, story, etc. is: (1) not yet written, (2)
9. bulky package made by the author.
Thus the author of novel, story or play may make plan of the
work he intends to write, or student may make a plan for an essay,
7) Communications and Control but one cannot make plan of work already written by someone
1. What do you know about control systems? else. If Russian teachers need word to denote something less than
synopsis of the plot, for example what is called in Russian n
2. In what spheres are control systems used? , the word outline can be used.
3. Can you characterize digital systems advantages in the e.g. You are to make an outline of the text/passage at home.
sphere of modern technologies application? However, this type of work is not customary in England and the
suggested translation will therefore only give very general idea of
Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of what is meant.
electrical communications, from fundamental questions such as "What
is information?" to the highly practical, such as design of telephone - composition and essay
systems. In designing communication systems, engineers rely heavily Composition and essay are both translated into Russian as
on various branches of advanced mathematics, such as Fourier but there is distinction between them.
analysis, linear systems theory, linear algebra, complex variables, composition is fairly short (usually 1-3 pages) and simple,
differential equations1, and probability2 theory. Control systems are usually narrative or descriptive. Compositions are written by
used extensively in aircraft and ships, in military fire-control systems, schoolchildren in their own language up to the age of about 14, and in
92 21
to translate smth. at sight or straight off - in power transmission and distribution3, in automated manufacturing,
and in robotics.
Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary
to translate literally/word for word - nepe changes in the field of communications and control. Digital systems
are replacing analog ones at the same time that fiber optics is
superseding4 copper cables5. Digital systems offer far greater
a literal /word-for-word translation , immunity6 to electrical noise. Fiber optics is likewise7 immune to
interference8; they also have tremendous carrying capacity, and are
extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture.
to translate freely - o ;
free translation - pe;
1. equation
an exact/accurate translation - ; 2. probability
3. distribution
rough translation ,
4. superseding ,
(approximate, capable of being improved on). 5. copper cable
6. immunity ,
Render in one of its senses is synonym of translate. It can be
7. likewise
defined as: "to reproduce or express in another language, to
8. interference , ,
translate". However, it rarely occurs in that sense now, except in such
sentences as: 8) Computers
This idea is difficult to render in English/Russian.
Note that render does not imply freer translation than translate 1. What are the advantages in this sphere of engineering
and that it is confined mainly to formal style. development?
() - reproduction 2. What does the abbreviation VLSI mean?
Reproduction as used in language teaching generally means 3. Can you describe current trends in computer engineering?
reproducing a story in the foreign language without translating. For Virtually unknown just a few decades ago, computer
example, the class listens to story in French and then writes that engineering is now among the most rapidly growing fields. The
story from memory in French, although not necessarily in exactly the electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture
same words and not necessarily including all the details. It is thus of memory systems, of central processing units, and of peripheral
test of comprehension, memory, and of the ability to express oneself in devices. Foremost1 among the avenues now being pursued2 is the
foreign language, not of the ability to translate. reproduction may design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer
be written or oral. architectures. The field of computer science is closely related to
The verbs d and write are used with reproduction. computer engineering; however, the task of making computers more
e.g. ). Today you're going to do/write reproduction. "intelligent", through creation of sophisticated programs or
It should be mentioned, however, that reproduction is not very development of higher level machine languages or other means, is
common type of work in England. Reproduce can also be used in generally regarded3 as being in the realm4 of computer science.
such sentences as: One current trend in computer engineering is
b). - Now I'm going to read you story (in French). Listen to it microminiaturization. Using VLSI, engineers continue to work to
carefully and then reproduce it (orally/ in writing). squeeze greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller
In your own words could be added. and smaller chips. Another trend is toward increasing the speed of
Retell (in one's own words) can be used for oral reproduction of a computer operations through use of parallel processors,
story. superconducting materials, and the like.
22 91
Vocabulary: e.g. ). Dr Evans is examining for Leeds (=Leeds University) this
1. foremost
(2) to conduct an oral examination.
2. pursue
e.g. b). (One teacher to another) - Can you come and see m
3. to regard
4. realm -
- No, I'm afraid I can't. I'm examining.
9) Geological and Mining Engineering Note that I've got an exam is also possible in conversation, but it is
ambiguous, since it may also mean that one is taking an exam. In
1. What activities does this branch of engineering include? most cases, however, the context makes it clear.
2. What special and professional knowledge does a mining An examiner is person who sets and marks written
engineer have to require? examination, or conducts an oral.
An examining board is group, or committee, of examiners.
This branch of engineering includes activities related to the Commission and committee are not used here.
discovery and exploration of mineral deposits and the financing, An (examination) candidate is person being examined. It is formal
construction, development, operation, recovery1, processing, style.
purification2, and marketing of crude3 minerals and mineral products. e.g. Candidates must be in the examination room by 10 a.m.
The mining engineer is trained in historical geology, mineralogy, Examinee means the same as candidate but is rarely used.
paleontology, and geophysics, and employs such tools as the
seismograph and the magnetometer for the location of ore or
petroleum deposits beneath4 the surface of the earth. The surveying - translation
and drawing of geological maps and sections is an important part of The following expressions are used in connection with translation:
the work of the engineering geologist, who is also responsible for to do/write translation;
determining whether the geological structure of a given location is to translate from Russian into English/English into Russian, etc.;
suitable for the building of such large structures as dams. Russian- English/ English- Russian translation, etc.
Vocabulary: prose (translation) - translation from the native language into
1. recovery foreign language, that is, for Russian students, from Russian into
2. purification English.
3. crude unseen (translation) or simply translation - translation from
4. beneath , foreign language into the native language, that is, for Russian
students, from English into Russian.
10) Industrial or Management Engineering These last two terms are widely used in the senior forms of schools
and in higher education. They originated in connection with the study
What does a modern engineer of this field deal with?
of Latin and Greek. Prose was used because passage of English
This field deals with the efficient use of machinery, labor, and prose was given for translation into Latin/Greek, unseen because
raw materials in industrial production. It is particularly important from passage of Latin/Greek, prose or verse, which the students had not
the viewpoint of costs and economics of production and safety of seen before, was given for translation into English. There is no reason
human operators. why Russian teachers should adopt these terms, since the terms
Russian-English/English-Russian translation are clearer (although
11) Mechanical Engineering much longer), but they may come across prose/unseen in an English
1. Read the following texts dealing with the problems of Military situation.
Engineering, Naval or Marine Engineering and Nuclear unprepared translation sometimes used in the sense of any
Engineering. translation not prepared beforehand (as in an mintion), and
sometimes in the same sense as unseen, as defined above.
2. Do these fields of engineering have any trends in common?
90 23
the answer paper - for the sheet on which the answers are written. Engineers in this field design, test, build, and operate
machinery of all types; they also work on a variety of manufactured
- examination question goods and certain kinds of structures. The field is divided into
question in an examination is anything which the candidate has machinery, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics, and pneumatics; and
to do, whether it is in the form of question or not. Thus the following heat as applied to engines, work and energy, heating, ventilating, and
may be called questions: air conditioning. The mechanical engineer, therefore, must be trained
). translate the following passage into English - translation in mechanics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics and must be fully
question grounded in such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. Some
b). describe the events which led up to the French Revolution - an mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such
essay question as pumps or steam turbines. A mechanical engineer designs not only
the machines that make products but the products themselves, and
must design for both economy and efficiency. A typical example of the
complexity of modern mechanical engineering is the design of an
a) to hold an examination - to arrange for it to take place (formal automobile, which entails1 not only the design of the engine that
style) drives the car but also all its attendant2 accessories such as the
e.g. ). The university holds an entrance examination in May. steering3 and braking systems, the lighting system, the gearing4 by
b). The fifth-form examination will be held in room 15. which the engine's power is delivered to the wheels, the controls, and
the body, including such details as the door latches5 and the type of
b) to conduct an examination seat upholstery6.
This may mean: Vocabulary:
(1) very much the same as to hold an examination
1. to entail ,
e.g. ). Institutes of education approve syllabuses and conduct
2. attendant
3. steering
(2) to make the necessary administrative and practical arrangements,
4. gearing
for example, provide suitable room, give out question papers, and
5. latch
see that examination regulations are observed.
6. seat upholstery
e.g. b). The examination must be conducted in accordance with the
regulations. 12) Military Engineering
(3) to examine (in the case of oral examinations)
e.g. ). The examination will be conducted in French. To conduct is 1. Try to prove that military engineering is an increasingly
also formal style. specialized science.
2. What other branches of engineering is military engineering
c) to set an examination (paper) connected with?
This means to choose the questions and put them together, with
appropriate instructions. It applies almost exclusively to written This branch is concerned with the application of the
examinations. engineering sciences to military purposes. It is generally divided into
e.g. ). School examinations are set by the staff of the school permanent land defense and field engineering. In war, army engineer
concerned. battalions have been used to construct ports, harbors, depots1, and
b). (One teacher to another) - We must set the third year exam airfields. Military engineers also construct some public works, national
paper this week. monuments, and dams.
Military engineering has become an increasingly specialized
d) to examine, examiner, etc. science, resulting in separate engineering subdisciplines such as
To examine may mean: ordnance2, which applies mechanical engineering to the development
(1) in written examination, to set and mark the papers. of guns and chemical engineering to the development of propellants,
24 89
and electrical engineering to all problems of telegraph, telephone, e.g. d). He is famous for his research in computer graphics.
radio, and other communication. It occurs less often, mainly with words such as problem, cause,
relation, origin.
1. depot - examination
2. ordnance An examination, like test, is designed to test someone's
knowledge or ability, but is usually conducted more formally and the
results are more important. The contraction exam is widely used by
13) Naval or Marine Engineering teachers and learners, the full form being confined to formal style.
1. What engineers are called naval architects? In England most examinations are written, in all types of
educational establishments. The examination paper is set
2. What specialized branch of knowledge must the marine beforehand (meaning that the examiners choose and put together
engineer take into consideration? series of questions to be answered), and either duplicated
Engineers who have the overall responsibility for designing ("") or printed. At the examination each pupil/student is
and supervising1 construction of ships are called naval architects. given , and they sit and answer the questions in writing for
The ships they design range in size from ocean-going supertankers as fixed period of time. Sometimes they have to answer ll the questions,
much as 1300 feet long to small tugboats2 that operate in rivers and sometimes only certain number, according to the instructions printed
bays. Regardless of size, ships must be designed and 'built so that on the paper. When the time is up, they give in their papers and leave
they are safe, stable, strong, and fast enough to perform the type of the room. The papers are marked later and the results announced. In
work intended3 for them. To accomplish this, a naval architect must the case of internal examinations it may be a few days later, but with
be familiar with the variety of techniques of modern shipbuilding, and public and degree examinations it is usually about two months.
must have a thorough grounding4 in applied sciences and mechanics In modern languages there is usually an oral examination too,
that bear directly on how ships move through water. often called simply an oral in non-formal style, but there are no oral
examinations in other subjects. In such subjects as chemistry, physics,
Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical
biology, cookery, woodwork there are practical examinations, often
engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems, both
called simply practicals in non-formal situations.
mechanical and electrical, needed to propel a ship. In helping the The following expressions are used in connection with
naval architect design ships, the marine engineer must choose a examinations. Remember that most of them refer mainly to written
propulsion unit, such as a diesel engine or geared steam turbine, that examinations, as described above.
provides enough power to move the ship at the speed required, the
engineer must take into consideration5 how much the engine and - examination paper
fuel bunkers will weigh and how much space they will occupy, as well This term is used in three different senses:
as the projected costs of fuel and maintenance. (1) f the content of the examination, the questions;
e.g. ). (One student to another) - What did you think of the paper?
- It was terrible.
Vocabulary: (2) of the sheet on which the questions are printed or typed;
1. to supervise , , e.g. b). (Candidate to invigilator) - Excuse me I haven't got paper.
(3) of the sheet on which the answers are written;
2. tugboat
e.g. ). (Invigilator to candidates) - Please give in your papers now.
3. indented
The meaning is usually clear from the context, but if necessary the
4. to ground following more explicit expressions can be used:
5. to take into consideration the questions - for the content
the question paper - for the sheet on which the questions are
88 25
examination papers. 14) Nuclear Engineering
One possibility is to use the expression oral (examination) or viva,
as in the case of theses but this has various disadvantages. Firstly, an 1. What other branches of engineering is nuclear engineering
rl examination (r viva) is not conducted like . Secondly, connected with?
it is not lr how to specify the idea of first degree. 2. What devices and methods do nuclear engineers develop?
Graduation/final oral (examination) r viva is possibl, but this does
not suggest the discussion of dissertation . Moreover, it This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and
would be better to keep the expression graduation/final oral construction of nuclear reactors and devices, and the in which nuclear
(examination) as translation of the oral part of the fission1 may find practical applications, such as the production of
. commercial power from the energy generated by nuclear reactions
There seems to be no good alternative to the literal translation and the use of nuclear reactors for propulsion and of nuclear radiation
defense of n's dissertation or graduation paper/project. Remember, to induce2 chemical and biological changes. In addition to designing
however, that this will not be lr to English l without an nuclear reactors to yield3 specified amounts of power, nuclear
explanation. It is better to translate this like passing or presenting the engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand4 the
Diploma project. high temperatures and concentrated bombardment of nuclear particles
- research that accompany nuclear fission and fusion5. Nuclear engineers also
The most detailed definition of this word is given by Webster: develop methods to shield people from the harmful radiation produced
"studious inquiry or examination, esp. investigation or experimentation by nuclear reactions and to ensure6 safe storage and disposal7 of
aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted fissionable materials.
theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of Vocabulary:
such new or revised, theories or laws."
In higher educational establishments research is often contrasted 1. fission
with teaching: 2. to induce -
e.g. ). The job combines teaching and research. 3. to yield
b). He spent so much time on teaching that there was not 4. to withstand
much left for research. 5. fusion
Research can be translated as (- 6. to ensure -
, ) or , 7. disposal ,
depending on the context.
The word research is usually uncountable, as in the examples 15) Safety Engineering
given above. particular investigation is not called a research but
piece of research (or an investigation/study). Sometimes, however, 1. Do you know what safety engineering deals with?
research is used countably in the plural. 2. Is the branch of safety engineering connected with other
e.g. ). His researches produced some interesting results. fields of engineering?
Research may also be used as verb:
e.g. b). He is researching into the origin of language, problem of air This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of
pollution. accidents. In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty
More often, however, the expressions to do research or to be adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. Safety
engaged in research are used in this sense. engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in
The prepositions on, in and into are used with the noun research, hazardous1 occupations. They also assist in designing machinery,
as follows. factories, ships, and roads, suggesting alterations and improvements
On is used with more or less specific subject. to reduce the amount of accidents. In the design of machinery, for
e.g. ). I'm doing research on security protection development. example, the safety engineer seeks to cover all moving parts or keep
In is used with the field of investigation. them from accidental contact with the operator, to put cutoff switches
26 87
within reach of the operator, and to eliminate2 dangerous projecting Part VI. Supplementary Terminology Section
parts. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such
hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections, known to result in This section consists of two parts.
traffic accidents. Many large industrial and construction firms, and The first part contains definition and explanation of terms you
insurance3 companies engaged in4 the field of workers will need to undertake a research process. The appropriate translation
compensation, today maintain safety engineering departments. and explanation of the terms like examination, research, reproduction,
Vocabulary: prcis, composition, essay, translation, making notes, etc. are worth
studying at the second educational level for Bachelor students.
1. hazardous The second part is aimed at acquaintance with translation of
2. eliminate names of specialities, faculties, departments, terms and abbreviations
3. insurance connected with academic studies. The given stock of vocabulary is
4. to be engaged in essential for radio-engineering students.

16) Sanitary Engineering

I. Definition and Explanation of Terms
1. Prove that the field of sanitary engineering deals with the
environment protection. (First) degree is usually the most appropriate translation, since
2. If you are given the right to develop the program of sewage is awarded after five - years specialized study at an institution
and other wastes recycling what ideas will your project of higher education. The use of Diplm implies shorter course,
contain? from one of lower academic standard.
First should be included only when it is necessary to distinguish
This is a branch of civil engineering, but because of its great this degree (=) from higher degree (= ).
importance for a healthy environment, especially in dense urban e.g. - I've only got first degree.
population areas1, it has acquired the importance of a specialized is difficult to translate into English, because
field. It chiefly deals with problems involving water supply, treatment, there is nothing of this kind in most higher educational establishments
and distribution; disposal of community wastes and reclamation2 of in England. In order to graduate, students only have to pass the
useful components of such wastes; control of pollution of surface necessary examinations. In some institutions, however, mainly newer
waterways, groundwater's, and soils; milk and food sanitation3; ones, students also have to write dissertation, that is, sort of
housing and institutional sanitation; rural4 sanitation; insect and extended essay based on some independent study or investigation,
vermin5 control; control of atmospheric pollution; industrial hygiene, and this practice seems to be spreading. Dissertation could therefore
including control of light, noise, vibration, and toxic materials in work be used as translation of , bearing in mind that it
areas; and other fields concerned with the control of environmental exists only in some English institutions. In American English
factors affecting health. The methods used for supplying communities dissertation is work submitted for highe degree (BrE thesis). This
with pure water and for the disposal of sewage and other wastes are fact and the possible confusion with the Russian make
described separately. dissertation far from ideal translation of .
Vocabulary: The only other solution seems to be some descriptive expression
with graduation, for mple, graduation essay/paper/dissertation.
1. dense urban population areas can be translated as graduation project.
Remember, however, that this is not set expression and that project
2. reclamation has wider use in modern English.
3. sanitation /
4. rural Even in those institutions where students write dissertation there
5. vermin , is no occasion corresponding to the Russian . The dissertation
is simply marked by the examiner(s) together with the student's
86 27
Expressing It seems unlikely that... 1. Are the following statements true or false?
uncertainly I have doubts about...
1) Engineering is a term applied to the profession in which
I am not at all sure about...
knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by
I am not yet certain...
study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of
I am doubtful whether...
the materials and forces of nature.
I have been rather puzzled by...
2) Paraprofessionals apply medical skills to biological problems.
I doubt it.
3) Military engineering involve such work as providing facilities for
Making contribution In connection with ... I would like to add
living, irrigation and roads building.
Let me add that...
4) The National Academy of Engineering was founded in 1959.
In addition I would like to mention...
5) Civil engineering is connected with the environment protection.
I would add that...
6) Electronic engineering deals with the design of civil facilities and
Calling attention I want to point out that...
research of soils structure.
I would like to note...
I would like to stress the importance of... 2. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate words:
It is worth pointing out that... civil engineering, aeronautics, diverse, circuits, chips, copper
I would like to draw your attention to... cable.
I would like to call attention to...
1) is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields, for it deals
with the creation, improvement, and protection of the communal
Making assessment The paper/report raises an important
question ...
2) deals with the whole field of design, manufacture,
This method is particularly important
maintenance, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian and
military purposes.
The paper/report demonstrates how
3) Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most
important it is to...
field of engineering.
These results/data are of particular
4) Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating
even smaller , faster switching of components, and three-
Provoking arguments Would you agree with...?
dimensional integrated circuits.
There seems to be some contradiction
5) Digital systems are replacing analog ones at the same time that
between your points of view. Does that
fiber optics is superseding .
mean you think...?
Asking for Could you be more specific about...?
details/classification I am not clear about... Pre-reading task
Could you give us/me some more facts 1. What were the first robots originally designed for?
to back that up, please?
2. What industries use automation technologies?
Introducing Well, I'd like to say that... 3. What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?
opinions/attitudes What I think is...
4. Read the text Automation and discuss the following
Delaying an answer Well, let me see... questions in group:
Well, now... a) How is the term automation defined in the text?
That's a good question...
Oh, let me think for a moment... b) What is the most familiar example of automation given
in the text?
28 85
c) What was the first step in the development of automaton? Now I come to ...
On the contrary ...
d) What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated
On the one hand ..., on the other hand ...
system of production?
Primarily ...
e) What is feedback principle? This is indeed the case when ...
This in turn implies ...
f) What is FMS? This is particularly true for ...
Automation IV. Closing Paper Speech Patterns
Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain Since I am running out of time ...
tasks, previously2 done by people, by machines only. The As my time is running out...
sequences3 of operations are controlled automatically. The most Before I close I would like to emphasize the importance of ...
familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant4 Finally I want to say a few words about ...
for automobiles or other complex products. I end this paper with a description of ...
The term automation is also used to describe I leave it to you to judge ...
nonmanufacturing5 systems in which automatic devices6 can In closing I want to mention very briefly
operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic In conclusion, let me say ...
pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems In conclusion, may I repeat... .
are used to perform various operations much faster and better than Summing up, I would like to ...
could be done by people. The last part of my talk will be devoted to ...
Automated manufacturing had several steps in its To all this must be added that...
development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the
development of automation. The simplification of work made it V. Formulas for Scientific Communication.
possible to design and build machines that resembled7 the motions of Practice the following phrases in scientific problem discussion.
the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had
better production efficiency8. Establishing Im glad youve asked me that question.
Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple Contacts
tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely
used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy work Agreeing Yes, indeed.
pieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine. I think you are entirely right.
In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an It appears to me to be true.
integrated system of production. This method of production was I agree that...
adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit That's just what I think.
automation. Disagreeing I am arguing against...
The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control I would object just a little...
mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The I object to...
feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early I wish I could agree with you but...
example is the flyball governor9, invented in 1788 by James Watt to
control the speed of the steam engine10. The common household Expressing surprise It is rather surprising...
thermostat11 is another example of a feedback device. It is unbelievable...
Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, I am puzzled by...
slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These I wonder about...
operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production I find it hard to believe that...
84 29
this matter is discussed in Section 5. Finally in Section 6 Computers have greatly facilitated12 the use of feedback in
we discuss ... manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of
o) Several techniques have been used to investigate numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are
controlled by punched13 paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically
3. Make a brief review of related literature:
controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several
a) There is a wide body of literature which suggests that ... different machining operations.
b) ... effects have received much attention. More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and
c) There were the limited number of studies conducted on ... computers have made possible the development of computer-aided14
d) The listings of the program may be found in ... design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM)
e) Examples are given in ... technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and
f) Extensive field studies were undertaken by the scientists at... indicates its dimensions15 with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other
input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer
4. Justify the need for your investigation: automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to
a) Thus heat transfer regime has received little attention ... machine the part.
b) It is therefore important to establish the ... Another development using automation are the flexible
c) Studies on the ... process have been and still are of the manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to
interest because of the ... monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.
d) In spite of significant recent advancement in the Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the
fundamental understanding of... several important aspects economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in
of the ... still remain controversial. systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a
e) ... investigations have been proved very valuable in ... but standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type
they do not give a complete picture of ... since they letters and so on.
eliminate ...
f) Most of the above investigations concentrated on the Automation in Industry
general effects of... and did not look carefully at the ... Many industries are highly automated or use automation
g) There is still lack of knowledge of ... Much further technology in some part of their operation. In communications and
research is needed to understand ... especially in the telephone industry dialing and transmission are all
h) There is still no complete knowledge of ... done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic
i) There are still many gaps in our knowledge of the signaling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a
problems of ... particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be
j) We still know very little about the origin of ... monitored.
III. Speech Patterns for the Body of the Paper Not all industries require the same degree of automation.
Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to
According to this theory... automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized,
After this, I need/it remains only to say that ... especially in the processing and packaging of foods.
Again, I want to emphasize that... The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is
It should be emphasized that ... widely used in car and other consumer product industries.
It should be pointed out that... Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of
Let me give you my explanation of ... automation that answers its particular production needs.
Let me now turn to ...
Let us consider what happens if ... Vocabulary:
Let us have a closer look at ... 1. automation
Let us imagine that ... 2. previously
Let us suppose that ... 3. sequence
30 83
4. assembly plant Read and practice some useful paper speech patterns.
5. nonmanufacturing
I. Introductory Paper Speech Patterns
6. device ,
7. resemble Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen.
8. efficiency I am greatly honored to be invited to this conference.
9. flyball governor In this paper I would like to talk about the concept of ...
10. steam engine The object of this paper is to show ...
11. household thermostat To begin with, let us imagine that ...
12. facilitate As many of you know ...
13. punched First of all I would like to ...
14. aid I am sure I don't have to remind you that ...
15. dimension , I am very pleased to have this opportunity to ...
In my paper I want to highlight ...
Give English equivalents for the following Russian word In the introduction to my paper I would like to ...
combinations: I tell this story because ...
1. I want to begin my presentation with ...
2. Let me begin with ...
3. The first thing I want to talk about is ...
4. , The subject that I will discuss is ...
II. List of Phrases to Write an Introduction.
7. 1. Formulate the problem and identify the methods of research.
8. 2. Give the historical background of the investigation:
9. a) During the past decade there has been increasing
10. research into ...
b) In some theoretical studies ...
c) ... were able to provide a fully generalized, compact
TEXT 5 simultaneous solution to ... .
Pre-reading task d) In particular, they employed ... for ...
e) ... is an important and common problem.
1. What is the most important application of automation? f) It has become a canonical problem in the study of ...
2. What are the types of automation used in manufacturing? providing a valuable test for simulation methods or
theoretical models.
3. Read the text Types of Automation and discuss the g) In the previous paper ... we used a specific model for ...
following questions in group: h) The paper examines a method for ...
a) What is fixed automation? i) Earlier descriptions of the ... assumed that ...
j) However, detailed experimental studies of ... indicate that
b) What are the limitations of hard automation? ...
c) What is the best example of programmable automation? k) The most treatments available are restricted to the
l) Accordingly, we suggest that ...
d) What are the limitations of programmable automation? m) To date a number of different interpolation techniques have
e) What are the advantages of flexible automation? been used in ...
n) In Section 2 paper continues with a discussion of ...
Section 3 overviews ... Section 4 then proposes ... and
82 31
aloud if possible, concentrating all your attention on its sound and Types of Automation
spelling while you are looking for a key word in the vocabulary or
dictionary, (d) when you find it, put a dot () before the word in its Manufacturing is one of the most important application areas
column, (e) turn back to your page, find the last underlined word, and for automation technology. There are several types of automation in
go on reading. Never write the translation into your language on the manufacturing. The examples of automated systems used in
page. Doing so puts the emphasis on the native language equivalent and manufacturing are described below.
not on the English word, which is the word that you must learn. When 1. Fixed automation, sometimes called hard automation
you finish your assignment, reread it and see how many of the phrases refers to automated machines in which the equipment1 configuration
containing underlined words you still understand. Look up the words you allows fixed sequence2 of processing operations. These machines are
havent yet learned and put another dot in front of them in the vocabulary programmed by their design to make only certain processing
list; look through the vocabulary once a week and make a special effort operations. They are not easily changed over from one product style to
to learn the words with several dots. These are your hard words. Lear another. This form of automation needs high initial3 investments4 and
them now, or you will be spending hours looking them up month after high production rates5. That is why it is suitable for products that are
month, year after year. And go back over your reading material to check made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining
your understanding of the sentences that have underlined words and transfer lines found in the automobile industry, automatic assembly
phrases. machines6 and certain chemical processes.
If you want to learn English well, the skills that you acquire will 2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for
be helpful in foreign language learning whenever and wherever you producing products in large quantities7, ranging from several dozen to
learn it. You may then have to work with inadequate materials or with several thousand units at a time. For each new product the production
no materials at all and with a person who has had little or no training equipment must be re-programmed and changed over. This
as a teacher. But if, in learning English, you have also learned how to reprogramming and changeover take a period of non-productive8
stuffy languages in general, you will be able to apply this skill to study time. Production rates in programmable automation are generally
other languages at any time or place. lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to
facilitate9 product changeover10 rather than for product
specialization. A numerical-control machine-tool is a good example of
Part V. Phrases for Scientific Communication programmable automation. The program is coded in computer
This section contains recommendations on writing and presentation a memory for each different product style and the machine-tool is
research paper and a scientific report. controlled by the computer program.
3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation.
Programmable automation requires time to re-program and change
Thinking about your Presentation over the production equipment for each series of new product. This is
lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the
Answer the questions: number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment
1. What is the topic of the paper you are going to presents? can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the
2. Why are you interested in this particular topic? Do you equipment in flexible automation is done at a computer terminal
always prepare for presentations? without using the production equipment itself. Flexible automation
3. What recommendations for making oral presentations do allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after
you find most helpful? another.
4. Which ones do you always follow?
5. State your purpose be specific. Vocabulary:
6. Identify the central idea of your presentation. 1. equipment
7. List the main points of your presentation. 2. sequence
8. Think of supporting material for each main point. 3. initial ,
9. Decide what kinds of visual aids you will use. 4. investment ,
32 81
5. rate , 3. University students of the 21st century, qualities and
6. assembly machines qualifications.
7. quantity 4. An ideal university student; an ideal university teacher.
8. non-productive 5. Computer is the modern wonder of the world.
9. to facilitate
Answer the following questions:
10. changeover ,
1. What is your research problem?
2. What is of special interest in the problem of your research?
1. Give English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:
3. What is the subject of your research?
1. 4. Why has the interest in this problem increased
2. considerably in recent years?
3. 5. Do you follow/stick to any theory/hypothesis/concept?
4. What is it?
5. 6. What concept is your research based on?
6. 7. How does your research differ from other studies on the
7. same problem?
8. Has your research problem attracted much attention in
2. Give English definition for the following: recent years? Has it been widely studied?
9. What aspects of the problem have been considered over
1. automation technology the last few years?
2. fixed automation 10. Who was the first to recognize/point out the problem?
3. assembly machines
11. What aspects of the problem did researchers concentrate
4. non-productive time on at that time?
5. programmable automation
6. computer terminal TEXT 5
7. numerical-control machine-tool
Pre-reading task
TEXT 6 1. Read the text How to Read in English.
Pre-reading task 2. Write down things that were new to you and that you never
used to do before when reading in English.
1. What is the most common application of robots in
automobile manufacturing? 3. In future try to follow this competent advice.
2. What operations could be done by robots in car How to Read in English
manufacturing industry?
When you begin to read silently and you come to words and
3. Read the text Robots in Manufacturing and discuss the phrases that are new to you, use the following techniques: 1) Read the
following questions in group: passage through for general sense first, without stopping to puzzle
a) How are robots used in manufacturing? over unfamiliar words or constructions; then go back for a second,
more careful reading. When you come to an unknown word read on at
b) What is material handling? least to the next punctuation mark before you look it up. Try to get the
c) What does a robot need to be equipped with to do loading meaning from the sentence without having to look for it in the dictionary.
and unloading operations? 2) When you decide that you must look up a word, (a) underline the
word with your pencil, (b) take a good look at the phrase that contains
d) What does robot manipulate in robotic processing it, and pronounce the phrase aloud, (c) repeat the phrase over and over,
80 33
2. Listen intelligently. When you agree with another speaker, listen e) What are the main reasons to use robots in production?
to increase your information on the subject. When you disagree,
f) How can robots inspect the quality of production?
listen to accept a different viewpoint if it is supported by sufficient
evidence. g) What operations could be done by robots in hazardous or
3. Speak so that everyone can hear. uncomfortable for the human workers conditions?
4. Recognize and acknowledge the truth of what others say.
5. Always be polite. Sarcasm is out of place. Self-control is a mark Robots in Manufacturing
of maturity (). Disagree reasonably - and with factual Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations. The
evidence. applications of robots can be divided into three categories:
1. material handling1
A member of the audience should: 2. processing operations
1. Know the subject thoroughly. 3. assembly and inspection.
2. Listen attentively. Ask yourself: what evidence is offered in Material-handling is the transfer2 of material and loading and
support of each important argument? Take notes as you listen. unloading of machines. Material-transfer applications require the robot
3. Join in when the chairman invites the audience to participate. A to move materials or work parts from one to another. Many of these
discussion in which there is general participation is more tasks are relatively simple: robots pick up3 parts from one conveyor
stimulating and interesting than one in which only a few take and place them on another. Other transfer operations are more
part. complex, such as placing parts in an arrangement4 that can be
4. Focus on the main issues. calculated by the robot. Machine loading and unloading operations
5. Speak audibly and distinctly (so that all may hear). utilize5 a robot to load and unload parts. This requires the robot to be
equipped with a gripper6 that can grasp7 parts. Usually the gripper
must be designed specifically for the particular part geometry.
TEXT 4 In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool
to perform a process on the work part. Examples of such applications
Pre-reading task
include spot welding8, continuous9 arc welding10 and spray
1. What is the way to organize a round table discussion? painting11. Spot welding of automobile bodies is one of the most
common applications of industrial robots. The robot positions a spot
2. Formulas for Scientific Communication (p.85) will help you to
welder against the automobile panels and frames12 to join them. Arc
organize a discussion. Study them and use in the process of
welding is a continuous process in which robot moves the welding rod
group discussion, composing reports and writing abstracts
along the welding seam. Spray painting is the manipulation of a spray-
on the given problem.
painting gun13 over the surface of the object to be coated. Other
3. Study the following information and take part in a round- operations in this category include grinding14 and polishing15 in
table discussion. which a rotating spindle16 serves as the robot's tool.
The third application area of industrial robots is assembly and
Round-table Discussion inspection. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase
The round table is a form of group discussion in which the because of the high cost of manual17 labor18. But the design of the
participants exchange views around the table (not necessarily round!) product is an important aspect of robotic assembly. Assembly methods
that are satisfactory for humans are not always suitable for robots.
under the leadership of a chairman. The number of participants
Screws and nuts are widely used for fastening in manual assembly,
usually does not exceed a dozen. but the same operations are extremely difficult for a one-armed robot.
Problems for discussion: Inspection is another area of factory operations in which the
utilization of robots is growing. In a typical inspection job, the robot
1. The role of science in modern society. positions a sensor with respect to the work part and determines
2. New trends in university education. whether the part answers the quality specifications. In nearly all
34 79
industrial robotic applications, the robot provides a substitute for questions. Can you think of any other possibility?
human labor. There are certain characteristics of industrial jobs g) Look back at what kind of evidence does Leacock use to
performed by humans that can be done by robots: convince the reader. Is there enough evidence to convince
1. the operation is repetitive, involving the same basic work motions the audience? What assertions does he make that are not
every cycle, based on any evidence?
2. the operation is hazardous19 or uncomfortable for the human
h) Does it matter which pieces of evidence are presented first
worker (for example: spray painting, spot welding, arc welding,
and certain machine loading and unloading tasks), and presented last? Give your reasons.
3. the work piece or tool are too heavy and difficult to handle,
4. the operation allows the robot to be used on two or three shifts20. TEXT 3
Vocabulary: Pre-reading task
1. handling 1. Is it necessary to prepare for a group discussion by thinking,
2. transfer , talking and reading about the problem under consideration?
3. pick up ,
2. Read the text Preparation for a Discussion and give your
4. arrangement
opinion on the subject.
5. to utilize ,
6. gripper
7. to grasp Preparation for a Discussion
8. spot welding Many discussions fail because the participants haven't done
9. continuous
enough preparation. Everyone must think, talk and read about the
10. arc welding
topic before the discussion takes place. When the topic is announced:
11. spray painting
1. Think about it. What is your opinion? On what evidence is it
12. frame
13. spray-painting gun
2. Talk to others about it. Discuss it with your friends and parents.
14. grinding
If you know someone who is an authority on the subject, discuss it
15. polishing
with him. Be ready to change your previous opinion in the light of
16. spindle
new evidence.
17. manual
3. Consult reference books, recent publications and magazine
18. labor
articles. Inform yourself as thoroughly as you can about the topic.
19. hazardous
Keep an open mind while you are learning.
20. shift
Duties of participants in a group discussion
The chairman should:
Pre-reading task
1. Know the subject thoroughly.
1. What do you know about computer science and technology 2. Make a brief introductory statement.
on the contemporary level? 3. Introduce the speakers to the audience.
2. Who has a computer in your group? Ask them what do they 4. Ask questions to stimulate discussion.
use it for? 5. See that everyone has a chance to speak.
3. What are the most important applications of computer? (Are 6. Summarize the discussion.
computer games just a waste of time or it is a nice hobby 7. Thank the audience and the speakers.
and a lot of fun?)
4. Read the text Computers, do the task below and organize a A speaker in a group discussion should:
round - table discussion on the problem. 1. Know the subject thoroughly.
78 35
the Russian equivalent. Computers
4. Read the text Argument and discuss this problem in group. 50 years ago, people hadnt even heard of computers, and
today we cannot imagine life without them.
Argument Computer technology is the fastest-growing industry in the
An argument is not a quarrel. Originally to argue meant to world. The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton.
make clear, and thus to show, to prove, to give evidence. An argument Today, its job can be done by a chip the size of a pin head. And the
is a presentation of reasons for or reasons against something; it revolution is still going on.
means that the person who states an argument has tried to Very soon well have computers that well wear on wrists or
understand the matter in question and that he is using his powers of even in our glasses and earnings. Such wearable computers are being
reasoning to show how the evidence supports his position. developed now.
In an argument one person may win, if he wins, he wins Japans biggest mobiles-phone company has just released its
because his evidence is greater in quantity or superior in importance cleverest product - a mobile phone that allows you to stuff the Internet
to the evidence of the other persons or because he reasons better, as well as make calls. People are already using the phone to check
shows more clearly the logical conclusions that must be drawn from the news headlines, follow the stock market and download the latest
the material. Even the opponent may be completely convinced by the jokes. Soon they will be able to buy cinema tickets and manage their
winning argument - particularly if he had not thought very much or very bank accounts.
deeply about the subject before. To win an argument properly, then, The next generation of computers will be able to talk and even
one should have both knowledge that gives evidence and good think for themselves. They will contain electronic neural networks. Of
powers of reasoning. course, theyll be still a lot simpler that human brains, but it will be a
One must remember that mere assertion has no value in great step forward. Such computers will help it diagnose illnesses, find
argument. There is any number of assertions which people make, and materials, understand and control the worlds money markets, identify
their statements may represent very strong belief, yet such criminals and control space travel.
statements, without evidence, will not convince another person that Computer revolution is changing our life and our language,
they are true. People disagree on a great many questions, but often too. We are constantly making up new words or giving new meanings
they disagree because they have not thought enough about these to old ones. Most of computer terms are born in Silicon Valley, the
questions, because they have not gathered evidence or have not worlds top computer-science center.
analyzed the evidence (From A Writing Apprenticeship by Norman
Brittin). Chose an answer a or b.
Discuss the following questions in group: 1. A mouse is
a) Do you agree with the first statement? Is it positive and a) a small furry animal with a long tail
emphatic? b) a small box used to operate a computer
b) What did "to argue" originally mean? What is an argument? 2. To surf is
What does it mean? a) to ride on a board of the waves of the sea
b) to move around the Internet
c) How many people may win an argument? What are the
3. A bug is
ways to win an argument? What does the victory depend a) a small insect
on: on the strength of the evidence or the personality of the b) an error in a computer program.
speaker? 4. A flame is
d) Are opponents easy to convince? Why? Why not? a) a red or yellow burning gas seen when something is on fire
e) Has mere assertion any value in an argument? Will it b) an unfriendly or rude e-mail
convince another person without evidence? Why not? 5. To boot is
f) Give 3 possible reasons why people may disagree on some a) to kick
36 77
b) to start a computer problem about which he had kept thinking day and night. And another
6. A geek is thing is you should know a lot to be able to formulate and keep in
a) someone who bites the heads off alive chickens as part of a focus great humane ([hjumen] , ) aims. (By
show Academician R.V. Petrov)
b) a person who knows everything about computers
Discuss the following questions in group:
a) Do you always try to carry out what you've planned, to
finish what you've started?
Pre-reading task b) Do you leave many things unfinished? What are they? Do
1. Is computer intelligent? you always keep your promises?
c) Do you try to find excuses for not doing things?
2. Why so many people are still computer illiterate? d) Are you absent-minded? Do you forget things? Is it because
3. Read the text What is a Computer? and discuss the you are concentrating on something important or you
following questions in group: simply don't pay attention to such things?
e) Do you agree with Academician Petrov about the
a) What does the term computer describe?
importance of will power? What other things are necessary
b) What are five components of computer system? if you want to succeed in some field of human activity?
c) What is connectivity? f) In what ways did school influence you? Was it a formative
influence in your life? Which of the teachers influenced you
d) What is software? Whats the difference between most? What subject did he/she teach?
hardware and software?
g) Was there a friend who influenced you or did you
e) Why people are the most important component of a influence him/her?
computer system? h) Looking back to your school experience, can you say what
f) In what way terms data and information differ? factors in school life influenced you most: teachers,
friends, extracurricular activities, etc.? Give enough
g) How does computer convert data into information? evidence to prove your point.
What is a Computer? i) Are you easily influenced by people with greater life
experience than yours?
The term computer is used to describe a device1 made up of j) What books influenced you most in your school years?
a combination of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and
k) What evidence is there which suggests that school plays a
part mechanical) components. Computer has no intelligence2 by itself
and is referred to as3 hardware4. A computer system is a great part as a formative influence today?
combination of five elements:
Hardware TEXT 2
Software Pre-reading task
1. What is an argument?
Data/information 2. Can we state that an argument is an important element of
When one computer system is set up to communicate with any scientific discussion?
another computer system, connectivity becomes the sixth system
3. Do you know the proverb: Its funny how the strongest
element. In other words, the manner6 in which the various7 individual
words show up in the weakest arguments? Try to find out
76 37
systems are connected8 for example, by phone lines, microwave9
2. Share your own opinion on the following problems: transmission10, or satellite is an element of the total computer
a) What is learning power? Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell
b) What qualities are necessary in order to become the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions11,
educated? What modern conditions exist which make it the hardware doesnt know what to do. People, however, are the most
possible for a person to become educated and cultured? important component of the computer system: they create12 the
Can you think of other factors? What is the role of a computer software instructions and respond13 to the procedures that
teacher in this process? Why is the greatest teaching those instructions present.
sometimes only of partial value? Do you agree that a The basic job of the computer is the processing of information.
student cannot be lifted beyond the limits of his ability? Computers accept information in the form of instruction called a
c) Why is one's pre-university level of knowledge important? program and characters14 called data15 to perform mathematical and
Were you a student of the preparatory department of the logical operations, and then give the results. The data is raw16 material
while information is organized, processed, refined17 and useful for
university? Did you take preparatory courses in
decision18 making. Computer is used to convert19 data into
English/Russian history of science?
information. Computer is also used to store information in the digital
d) Do you agree that learning power is the primary need form.
among universities?
e) What is more important for good education - learning Vocabulary:
power or good teaching? Why? What do you thing about 1. device
will to learn? Is it great enough? 2. intelligence
3. to refer to as -
A will to Learn 4. hardware
a) No human activity, be it work or study, can be performed 5. procedures ,
without will power. You may do everything possible to carry out what 6. manner ,
7. various
you've planned, to finish what you've started, to complete what you've
8. to connect
aimed at. It seems so easy, yet how many things are left unfinished -
9. microwave
books that we haven't read to the end, academic subjects that we 10. transmission
haven't studied thoroughly, promises that we haven't kept, things that 11. instruction
have been left undone, not thought over, goals that haven't been 12. to create
reached. There are a lot of people who tend to justify ( 13. to respond
) this by thinking: "This is insignificant, it isn't worth the 14. characters
trouble, so why worry?" Some say: "Ill set myself a goal and I'll reach it 15. data
by all means. But if you do not accustom yourself to carrying out the 16. raw ,
small things and bear your aim in mind from the moment of its 17. to refine
conception () to its complete realization, you'll never 18. decision
achieve any great goal. 19. to convert ,
There are a lot of legends about absent-minded scientists, how
they forget to put on their coats and some such things. But is it a 1. Are the following statements true or false?
matter of absent mindedness or just deep concentration on other 1) Computer is made of electronic components so it is referred to as
things? It was not the apple that had fallen on Newton's head that electronic device.
gave rise to the law of gravity but his great concentration on the 2) Computer has no intelligence until software is loaded.
38 75
3) There are five elements of computer system: hardware, software, memories and dynamic memories. Static memories are those that
people, diskettes and data. retain the information, without the need to refresh that information at
4) The manner in which computers are connected is the frequent time intervals. Static memories are simpler than dynamic
connectivity. memories in their operating characteristics. As long as DC power is
5) Without software instructions hardware doesnt know what to do. applied to the device, a static memory will retain all of the information
6) The software is the most important component because it is stored in it. No other input signals are required. However, when the
made by people. power is turned off, this information is lost. These memories are called
7) The user inputs data into computer to get information as an volatile1 memories. Other memories that retain their information after
output. the power is turned off are called non-volatile. Static memories in spite
8) Computer is used to help people in decision making process. of their higher cost per bit of storage are favoured for small memory
systems because they call for a minimum of external support circuitry.
2. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate words: At a further premium in cost the power consumption of static memories
program, information, processing of information, software, can be reduced to such a negligible value that small batteries will
connectivity, computer, people. power them for days or weeks. Such memories exploit the
"complementary" MOS (CMOS) technology: they are found in some
1) doesnt come to life until it is connected to other parts of a pocket calculators that hold their data or their program even when the
system. power switch is in the "off position.
2) is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the
hardware how to perform a task. Vocabulary:
3) create the computer software instructions and respond to the
Volatile memories - the temporal information in the store can be
procedures that those instructions present
destroyed when the computer is switched off.
4) Information in the form of instruction is called a
5) The manner in which the various individual systems are Part IV. Supplementary Reading Section
connected is
6) is organized, processed and useful for decision making TEXT 1
7) The basic job of the computer is the Pre-reading task

TEXT 9 1. Read the text A Will to Learn and discuss the following
questions in group:
Pre-reading task
a) What made you choose University rather than another
1. Without what parts computer is unable to work? higher educational institution? Give your reasons.
b) What is to be a Bachelor student?
2. What is the most expensive part of the hardware?
c) What subjects are included in the first-year curriculum at
3. What other hardware devices do you know? What are they your faculty? What subject is the most interesting; the
for? Do you know how to use them? least interesting; the one you think the most important;
the one you find the most difficult?
4. Read the text Hardware and discuss the following
d) Was it easy for you to get accustomed to the University
questions in group:
system of lectures and seminars after the school system
a) What is the Webster's dictionary definition of hardware? of classes and home tasks? Which are more useful in
your opinion lectures or seminars? Do you have to
b) What groups of hardware could be defined?
work much after your lectures and seminars are over? Do
c) What is input hardware? What are the examples of input you often work at the University library? What are the
hardware? advantages and disadvantages of working at the library,
at home, at a hostel?
d) What is a mouse designed for? What is a light pen?
74 39
Disk Buffers e) What is processing hardware? What are the basic types
of memory used in a PC?
Microcomputer systems that process large and complicated
files often spend considerable time reading from, and writing, mass- f) Can a PC-user change the ROM? Who records the
storage devices. This operation creates long processing pauses that information in ROM?
annoy end users. By simply enlarging the PC-DOS/MS-DOS disk- g) What is storage hardware? What is CD-ROM used for?
buffer setting from its normal default value of 2, you can dramatically Can a user record his or her data on a CD? What kind of
reduce disk I/O delays. storage hardware can contain more information: CD-
A disk buffer is a block of main memory in which the DOS ROM, RAM or ROM?
holds data that is being read from or written to a disk. Each time DOS
is requested to read or write a record, it first looks to see whether the h) What is modem used for? Can PC-user communicate with
sector containing that record is already in a buffer. By increasing the other people without a modem?
size of the disk buffer, the more likely it is that sought-after data will be
in main memory. If it is, then DOS simply transfers the record to the
application without the need to read the data from the disk which, of What is hardware? Webster's dictionary gives us the following
course, saves time. definition of the hardware the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and
The logical solution would seem to be to move all the data electrical devices composing a computer system.
used, by an application into the disk-buffer area. Unfortunately, Computer hardware can be divided into four categories:
microcomputer systems are not blessed with huge blocks of main 1) input hardware
memory and a compromise must be made between the amount of 2) processing hardware1
memory used for disk buffering and the main memory required for 3) storage hardware
other system operations. 4) output hardware
Many factors interact to cause disk delays (including facets of
the specific hardware configuration and operating system), they Input hardware
cannot be derived theoretically. Instead, they must be measured The purpose of the input hardware2 is to collect data and
empirically using the actual system configuration, operating system convert3 it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most
and "typical" disk transactions made in actual applications. common input device is a keyboard4. It looks very much like a
Measuring something as complicated as the timing of Disk I/O typewriter. The mouse5 is a hand held device connected6 to the
in a microcomputer system requires a system model. computer by small cable. As the mouse is rolled7 across the mouse
pad, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches8
TEXT 11 the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the mouse
once or twice to signal a menu selection or a command to the
Pre-reading task
1. What is the term memory is usually reserved for? The light pen uses a light sensitive9 photoelectric cell to
signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware
2. What types of a microcomputer memory can you name? is optic-electronic scanner10 that is used to input graphics as well as
3. Read the text and draw a classification scheme of different typeset characters. Microphone and video camera can be also used to
memory types. input data into the computer. Electronic cameras are becoming very
popular among the consumers for their relatively low price and
4. State the most important characteristics for memories. convenience.
Static Memory Devices: Organization and Processing hardware
The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve11, interpret
One can divide memories into two major types: static and direct12 the execution13 of software instructions provided to the
40 73
computer. The most common components of processing hardware are A 'more expensive alternative to the floppy disk is the
the Central Processing Unit and main memory. Winchester disk4, in which the magnetic coating is applied to a rigid
The Central Processing Unit (CPU31) is the brain of the aluminum platter5. For example, a personal computer Winchester
computer. It reads and interprets14 software instructions and disk unit can have such a capacity that it can transfer data faster than
coordinates the processing activities that must take place. The design a floppy disk. On the other hand, the Winchester disk is permanently
of the CPU affects15 the processing power and the speed of the sealed in the drive unit, where as a floppy disk can be removed from
computer, as well as the amount16 of main memory it can use the drive and replaced by a fresh disk.
effectively. With a well-designed CPU in your computer, you can A simpler, less expensive secondary memory medium is the
perform highly sophisticated17 tasks in a very short time. audio magnetic-tape cassette. One cassette can store about as much
Memory is the system of component of the computer in which information as a relatively low-capacity floppy disk. The access time to
information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM a particular address, or storage location, much longer for tape than it is
and ROM. for a disk because the speed of the tape is much lower than that of a
RAM18 (random access memory) is the volatile19 computer disk and because the information is arrayed in a single linear
memory, used for creating loading, and running programs and for sequence. An important feature, of all the magnetic secondary-storage
manipulating and temporarily20 storing data; mediums is that information is maintained even when the computer
ROM21` (read only memory) is nonvolatile, nonmodifiable turned off.
computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the
The more memory you have in your computer, the more 1. Magnetic tape - a tape with a magnetic surface on which data
operations you n perform. can be stored by selective magnetization of portions of the
Storage hardware
2. Magnetic disk - a flat circular plate with a magnetic surface on
The purpose of storage hardware22 is to store computer which data can be stored by selective magnetization of portions
instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve of the flat surface. The information is recorded on a series of
when needed for processing. Storage hardware serves the same basic concentric tracks.
functions as do office filing systems except that it stores data as 3. Magnetic drum - a circular cylinder with a magnetic surface on
electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are which data can be stored by selective magnetization of portions
Hard disk23, floppy disk and CD-ROM24. of the curved surface.
Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for 4. Winchester disk
storing programs and relatively large amounts of data. 5. A rigid aluminum platter
Floppy disk (diskette) thin, usually flexible plastic disk ().
coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and
programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25" and 3.5". 5.25"
is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large TEXT 10
size, flexibility and small capacity25. 3.5" disks are formatted 1.4
megabytes and are widely used. Pre-reading task
CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc Read the text Disk Buffers and discuss the following problems
on which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD- in group:
ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-
ROM drives can provide26 nowadays. a) In what way can a change in disk buffer size affect
disk I/O times?
Output hardware
b) What factors can interact to cause disk delays?
The purpose of output hardware27 is to provide the user with
the means to view information produced by the computer system.
72 41
Vocabulary: Information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy
output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or
1. Monitor - a program which observes, supervises, controls or
numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a
verifies the operation of a computer system.
2. Debug - to isolate and remove malfunctions from a computer or
Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing
mistakes from a program.
computer data, television programs, etc.
Printer28 is a computer output device that produces a paper
TEXT 9 copy of data or graphics.
Pre-reading task Modem29 is an example of communication hardware an
electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or
1. What is the capacity of floppy disks and Winchester disks? from computer via telephone or other communication lines.
2. What are the advantages of floppy disks and Winchester Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what
disks? the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several
floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap30.
3. Read the text The Storage Medium and discuss the
following questions in group: Vocabulary:
a) What are the common secondary-storage mediums? 1. processing hardware
2. input hardware
b) Which storage medium does she/he use for program 3. to convert
storage? 4. keyboard
5. mouse ,
c) Which storage medium would she/he use if she/he had a
personal computer and why? 6. to connect
7. to roll ,
d) Compare the capacity of the storage medium you are 8. to reach
using with the capacity of the described mediums. 9. sensitive
10. scanner
11. to retrieve
The Storage Medium 12. to direct
The term "memory" is usually reserved for describing the 13. to execute
internal storage of a computer. In its strictest sense it refers to the 14. to interpret
storage locations that can be immediately addressed by the program 15. to affect
counter. They are often referred to as the primary storage while 16. amount
magnetic tape1, magnetic disk2 or diskette, magnetic drum3 are 17. sophisticated
referred to as the secondary storage. 18. RAM ( )
One of the standard mediums for the secondary storage is the 19. volatile , , ,
floppy disk: a flexible disk of plastic, coated on one side or both sides 20. temporarily
with a magnetic material. Information is stored in concentric tracks of 21. ROM ( )
minute magnetized regions; changes in the direction of magnetization 22. storage hardware
represent binary O's and 1's. The information is written onto the disk 23. hard disk ,
and retrieved from it by a recording head that is moved radically 24. CD-ROM - (CD)
across the spinning disk to a particular track. The track in turn is 25. capacity
divided into a number of sectors, and as a rule information is written or 26. to provide
read one sector at a time.
42 71
27. output hardware system serves the purpose of holding either information, that the
computer will need, or information, that the computer has already
28. printer generated, which will be utilized in the future. In other words, the
29. modem memory of a microcomputer is used for storing the program and the
30. lap data. There are two basic types of memory, namely read/write memory
31. CPU, microprocessor whose contents can be altered by writing new information into it and
read-only memory (ROM) whose contents are fixed. Read/write
1. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your memory is usually exclusively referred to as random-access memory
answers. (RAM) for historical reasons, although strictly speaking most modern
read-only memories can also be accessed in a random order and
1) Computer is an electronic device therefore hardware is a therefore qualify for such a description. Random means that any one
system of electronic devices. of the different memory locations can be written into or read from with
2) The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and equal ease and that it takes the same amount of time to address any
convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. one of the different memory locations within the same device.
3) Scanner is used to input graphics only.
The semiconductor RAM memory is of the volatile type. That
4) The purpose of processing hardware is to retrieve, interpret is, when power is removed, all information previously written in
and direct the execution of software instructions provided to memory is lost.
the computer.
A problem develops because memory needs to have both
5) CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on non-volatility and read/write capability. At the time of this writing, there
paper. is not one RAM chip that has both of these desirable functions. The
6) User is unable to change the contents of ROM.
memory chips are either of the RAM family and have the read/write
7) 5.25" floppy disks are used more often because they are capability but are volatile or of the ROM family and have only the read
flexible and have more capacity than 3.5" disks. capability but are non-volatile. So the read/write feature of the RAM
8) Printer is a processing hardware because its purpose is to
makes it a very versatile memory device. However, its volatility
show the information produced by the system. presents a special problem.
9) Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the Recently, technology has advanced to the stage where
transmission of data from one computer to another via
nonvolatile RAM's can be made. These do not lose their information
telephone or other communication lines. when the power in them is interrupted.
10) The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer The next generation of semiconductor RAM memories has
instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and
advanced to higher density (more memory cells/chip) and higher
retrieve them when needed for processing. operating frequencies.
The essential difference as far as the user is concerned is hat
2. Match the following words with the given definition: processor, ROM retains the information in it even without power, even if a
keyboard, mouse, floppy-disk, hard-disk, modem, monitor, ROM, program error or other fault causes the system to try and overwrite the
RAM. contents of the ROM. It is therefore used mainly for storing fixed
a) nonvolatile, nonmodifiable computer memory, used to hold programs and constants.
programmed instructions to the system; As the term ROM implies, this type of memory can only be
b) the part of a television or computer on which a picture is read from and not written into by the user.
formed or information is displayed; Since the ROM has the feature of nonvolatility, it lends it self
c) rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer to applications such as dedicated subroutines including mathematical
programs and relatively large amounts of data; packages, monitor1 programs, debug2 programs and any program
d) an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of that has a fixed structure where there is no need to make changes to
data to or from computer via telephone or other the program that resides in the ROM.
communication lines;
70 43
their way into the market place are: e) a set of keys, usually arranged in tiers, for operating a
Video TV games; typewriter, typesetting machine, computer terminal, or the like;
Intelligent computer terminals; f) volatile computer memory, used for creating, loading, and
Process controllers; running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing
Telephone switching controls; data; main memory;
g) central processing unit: the key component of a computer
Programmable household appliances;
system, containing the circuitry necessary to interpret and
Computerized automotive electronic systems.
execute program instructions;
Computers are being used as part of the educational process, h) a palm-sized device equipped with one or more buttons, used
and guidance. Controlled computers have made possible space to point at and select items on a computer display screen and
exploration and automated factories. for controlling the cursor by means of analogous movement on
Microprocessors can also be expanded to serve specialized a nearby surface;
control functions in the area of industrial tools and machinery. i) a thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic
Because they are programmable logic systems, they can be adapted material, for storing computer data and program.
to serve a variety of job functions each of which previously required
individually designed circuits. The low cost of production makes them
extremely attractive.
It is perhaps this hardware1/software2 trade that makes the Pre-reading task
impact of the microprocessor so great. Entirely different circuit
functions can now be accomplished with the same hardware by means 1. What do you think is more expensive hardware or
of a different set of program instructions. The microprocessor is software?
recognized as the device which finally unites two previously separate 2. Has anyone in your group ever purchased software? Why do
areas: that of the hardware designer and the programmer. you think piracy (audio, video, computer software) still
1. Hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical 3. Read the text Types of Software and discuss the following
devices or components of a computer. questions in group:
2. Software - programs which control the operation of computer a) What is software?
hardware and the associated documentation, etc., needed to do
so. b) In what two basic groups could software (programs) be
TEXT 8 c) What is system software for?
Pre-reading task d) What is an operating system a system software or
application software?
1. Describe the recent level of technology development.
e) What is a driver?
2. What types of memory do you know?
f) What is application software?
3. Read the text The Types of Memory and make a list of
different types of a microcomputer memory. g) What is application software used for?
The Types of Memory h) What is the tendency in application software market in
recent years?
In all types of computer systems, from a small dedicated
microprocessor system to the largest full size computer, memory plays i) What is the application of communication software?
a very essential part. The memory section of the microcomputer
44 69
Types of Software 1. Give the full names of the following abbreviations:
A computer to complete1 a job requires2 more than just the
actual equipment3 or hardware we see and touch. It requires 2. Give the Russian equivalents to the following:
Software programs for directing4 the operation of a computer or
capability, dimension, hardware, software, module,
electronic data.
Software is the final computer system component. These breadboard system, small computer system, full-development
computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct5 system, multiprocessor system, family, master-control chip,
processing. The computer is merely a general-purpose6 machine priority, compatibility, storage capacity.
which requires specific7 software to perform a given task. Computers
can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. 3. Complete the following sentences:
Software determines the order in which these operations are
1. Chips are used to construct... .
2. Modules are used ... .
Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system
software and applications software. 3. Small computer systems are used ... .
System software controls8 standard internal9 computer 4. Multiprocessor systems can include....
activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system 5. At the first level of the hierarchy are....
programs that aid10 in the operation of a computer regardless11 of the 6. At the first level of the hierarchy are more specialized
application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, chips:..
one of the systems programs is booted12 or loaded into the computers
memory. This software contains information about memory TEXT 7
capacity13, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used and Pre-reading task
more. Once the system software is loaded, the applications software
can be brought in. 1. Read the text Uses and Applications of Microprocessors
System programs are designed for the specific pieces of and discuss the main idea of it in group.
hardware. These programs are called drivers and coordinate 2. Draw a diagram of microprocessors applications.
peripheral14 hardware and computer activities. User needs to install15
a specific driver in order to activate a peripheral device. For example, 3. Make a list of the microprocessors applications you have
if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in read about or you have seen by yourself.
advance about the driver program which, though, commonly goes 4. Find additional information of microsystems application.
along with your device. By installing the driver you teach your
mainboard16 to understand the newly attached17 part. Uses and Applications of Microprocessors
Applications software satisfies your specific need. The
developers18 of application software rely mostly on marketing The uses and applications of microcomputers appear, at
research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users present, to fall somewhere between discrete logic, on the one hand,
(buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has and minicomputers, on the other. The microprocessor fills the large
increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to gap between discrete circuits and the relatively sophisticated
include as much as possible in one program to make software minicomputer. The microprocessor also fills the cost gap between
interface look more attractive to the user. These class of programs is discrete circuits.
the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view. Because of its relatively low cost and flexibility, the
Data communication within and between computers systems microsystem has an abundance of applications at home and small
is handled19 by system software. Communications software business environment. It fills the needs of small manufacturers who
transfers20 data from one computer system to another. These cannot afford, or do not need, large computer systems.
programs usually provide21 users with data security22 and error Some of the present applications which have already found
68 45
hierarchically according to their capability and function. Along these checking23 along with physically transferring data between the two
two dimensions there is a well-defined upward progression in both computer's memories. During the past five years the developing24
hardware1 and software. In hardware the levels are chips, modules2, electronic network communication has stimulated more and more
"breadboard" systems, small computer systems, full-development companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-
systems and multiprocessor systems. This hierarchy is not absolute Browsers25 for Internet.
because the evolving technology creates ever more powerful chips,
some of which can bridge two or three hierarchic levels. Chips are
used to construct a module, modules to construct a small computer 1. to complete ,
system (SCS) and small computers to construct a full-development 2. to require
system (FDS). Multiprocessor systems can incorporate modules, 3. equipment
SCS's or FDS's, depending on the application and complexity. 4. to direct ,
At the first level of the hierarchy are the microprocessor chips, 5. to conduct
representing the large-scale integration of tens of thousands of 6. general-purpose
individual electronic devices: transistors, diodes, resistors and 7. specific ,
capacitors. At this level there are also more specialized chips: random- 8. control
access memories (RAM's), read-only memories (ROM's)3, 9. internal
programmable read-only memories (PROM's), input-output (I/O) 10. aid
interfaces and others. The cutting edge of the technology works most 11. regardless ,
directly at the chip level, providing, for example, RAM's of ever-higher 12. to boot
storage capacity4. 13. memory capacity
Generally the various kinds of chips are grouped into families 14. peripheral
that are compatible with particular microprocessors. The families will 15. to install , ,
include a series of RAM, ROM and PROM chips to create a memory 16. mainboard
system, a series of interface chips capable of handling both parallel 17. to attach
and serial input-output functions and miscellaneous chips to enhance 18. developer
system capabilities, such as high-speed arithmetic operations. Master- 19. to handle ,
control chips are needed to establish priorities5 and to keep signals 20. to transfer ,
flowing smoothly through the complex maze of interconnections. The 21. to provide with -
compatibility of chips and chip families made by different 22. security
manufacturers varies widely. 23. to check
24. to develop ,
25. Web-browser (,
1. Hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical
devices or components of a computer. Internet)
2. Module - an assembled printed circuit performing a distinct
function, or a self-contained program section. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your answers.
3. Read-only memory (ROM) - a device or medium used to store
Information and which may be read, but not written into, by the 1) Computer programs only instruct hardware how to handle data
central processor.
4. Capacity of a memory store - the number of bits or words or 2) System software controls internal computer activities.
bytes that can be stored. 3) System software is very dependable on the type of application
software being used.
5. Priority the sequence in which various entries and tasks are
processed or peripheral devices are serviced. 4) The information about memory capacity, the model of the
processor and disk drives are unavailable for system software.
46 67
5) The driver is a special device usually used by car drivers for To send an address to a memory or a device in order that a
Floppy-disk driving. particular location in memory or the device may be identified.
6) It is very reasonable to ask for a driver when you buy a new 7. Fetch - the action of reading data or instructions from memory.
piece of hardware.
7) Software developers tend to make their products very small 1. Give the Russian equivalents to the following:
and with poor interface to save computer resources.
silicon chip, microprocessor chip, modular chips, multi-chip
8) Communication software is in great demand now because of
arrangement, arithmetic and logic unit, central processing unit, a
the new advances in communication technologies.
cathode-ray-tube display, a two-dimensional plotter, address
9) Application software is merely a general-purpose instrument.
buffer, a bit-sliced organization, strings of binary digits, interface,
10)Web-browsers is the class of software for electronic
program memory, random-access memory
communication through the network.
2. Give the abbreviations of the following:
TEXT 11 large-scale integrated circuits, random-access memory, input-
output, central processing unit, arithmetic and logic unit
Pre-reading task
3. Give the English equivalents to the following:
1. Why do you think Bill Gates, President of Microsoft , , , ,
Company is one of the richest people on the Earth? / , ,
2. Judging from your experience tell if UNIX is used , ,
nowadays? What about OS/2? .
3. Ask the students in your group who have experience
working with Windows (2000 or XP) about the advantages
and disadvantages of these operational systems. Pre-reading task
4. Read the text Operating Systems and discuss the 1. Read the text Classification of Microprocessors.
following questions in group:
2. Study the definition of terms given below the text.
a) What problems faced programmers in the 1940's and
3. Discuss the following questions in group:
a) How are modern microprocessors classified?
b) Why were the first programs complex and time-
consuming? b) What are the levels in hardware classification?
c) What are the basic functions of operating system? c) What are the characteristic features of the second level of
the microprocessors' classification?
d) What does the abbreviation DOS mean?
d) What are the advantages of the small computer system
e) What company developed the first version of DOS
operating system? For what purpose was it done? Was
the new operational system successful? e) What is the FDS intended for?
f) What is the difference between the PC-DOS and MS-DOS? Classification of Microprocessors
g) What does the abbreviation NT stand for? Is NT DOS- The flood of microprocessors and microcomputers reaching
compatible? What are the basic requirements for NT? the market, combined with the rapid rate of innovation, guarantees that
h) Who is the developer of OS/2? any attempt to catalogue them will be instantly obsolete. A more fruitful
introduction to the "micro" marketplace is to classify systems
66 47
of strings of binary digits (O's and 1's), to store the data for later i) What makes UNIX so different from the other operational
processing, to perform arithmetic and logic operations on the data in systems?
accordance with previously stored instructions and to deliver the
j) What are the special features of Windows 95, Windows
results to the user through an output mechanism such as an electric
98, Windows 2000, Windows XP?
typewriter, a cathode-ray-tube2 display or a two-dimensional plotter.
A typical microprocessor would consist of the following units: a decode Operating Systems
and control unit3 (to interpret instructions from the stored program),
the arithmetic and logic unit5, or ALL) (to perform arithmetic and When computers were first introduced in the 1940's and 50's,
logic operations), registers (to serve as an easily accessible memory every program written had to provide instructions that told the
for data frequently manipulated), an accumulator5 (a special register computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store
closely associated with the ALL)), address6 buffers (to supply the information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks
control memory with the address from which to fetch7 the next not necessarily related to the program. The additional program
instruction) and input-output buffers (to read instructions or data into instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex1,
the microprocessor or to send them out). and time-consuming2. Programmers soon realized3 it would be
Present microprocessors vary in their detailed architecture smarter4 to develop one program that could control the computer's
depending on their manufacture and in some cases on the particular hardware, which others programs could have used when they needed
semiconductor technology adopted. One of the major distinctions is it. With that, the first operating system was born.
whether all the elements of the microprocessor are divided among Today, operating systems control and manage the use of
several identical modular chips that can be linked in parallel, the total hardware devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk
number of chips depending on the length of the "word" the user wants management by letting you store information in files. The operating
to process: four bits (binary digits), eight bits, 16 bits or more. Such a system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor.
multichip arrangement is known as a bit-sliced organization. A feature Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands
of bit-sliced chips made by the bipolar technology is that they are that help you to use the computer.
"microprogrammable": they allow the user to create specific sets of DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS
instructions, a definite advantage for many applications. is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a
company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for Microsoft
Vocabulary: DOS. When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed
1. Random-access memory - strictly a computer memory, DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the
structured, so that the time required to access any data item users perspective, PC-DOS and MS-DOS are the same, each
stored in the memory is the same as for any other item. Now providing the same capabilities and commands.
more often used to describe a semiconductor memory that can be The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past
used for reading and writing data. decade5, DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS
2. Cathode-ray-tube - a device used to generate pictures as found developers release a new version6, they increase the version number.
in a television or visual display. Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system
3. Control unit - the part of the computer which directs the developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced7 version of the popular
sequence of operations, interprets the instructions, and provides Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programs. NT requires a 386 processor or
the requisite signals to execute those instructions. greater and 8 Mb of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to
4. Arithmetic and logic unit - a device which executes arithmetic use a 486 processor with about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows,
and/or logic operations according to the instructions in a program. which runs on top of DOS8, Windows NT is an operating system itself.
5. Accumulator - a register in which numbers are totaled, However, NT is DOS compatible9. The advantage of using NT over
manipulated, or temporarily stored for transfers to and from Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC's memory
memory or external devices. management capabilities.
6. Address - a unique label, name, or number that identifies a OS/2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS/2
memory location or a device register for access by a computer. is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets
48 65
you run programs with a click of a mouse10. Also like NT, OS/2 10. Large-scale integration (LSI)- ,
performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-
based PCs are shipped11 with OS/2 preinstalled.
UNIX is a multi-user operating system that allows12 multiple TEXT 5
users to access14 the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on larger
Pre-reading task
mini computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals
and not PC's. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously15 run the 1. Read the second part of the text What is a Microprocessor?
programs they desired16. Unlike NT and OS/2, UNIX is not DOS 2. Study the definition of terms given below the text.
compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.
Windows 2000 & XP are the most popular user-oriented 3. Discuss the following questions in group:
operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking a) Find in the text the definition of a microprocessor. What
capabilities. kind of new information has been added to its content?
Vocabulary: b) What is the history of the invention of this logic device?
1. complex c) What is the function of the microprocessor?
2. to consume
3. to realize , d) What does a typical microprocessor consist of?
4. smart e) What is the feature of bit-sliced chips made by the bipolar
5. decade , technology?
6. version
7. to enhance , f) How are modern microprocessors differentiated?
8. on top of DOS ,
What is a Microprocessor?
9. compatible
10. with a click of a mouse Part II
11. are shipped
A microprocessor is the central arithmetic and logic unit of a
12. to allow
computer, together with its associated circuitry, scaled down so that it
13. multiple users
fits on a single silicon chip (sometimes several chips) holding tens of
14. access
thousands of transistors, resistors and similar circuit elements. It is a
15. simultaneously
member of the family of large-scale integrated circuits that reflect the
16. to desire
present state of evolution of a miniaturization process that began with
the development of the transistor in the late 1940's. A typical
1. Match the following words with the given definition: UNIX,
microprocessor chip measures half a centimeter on a side. By adding
DOS, NT, OS/2, Windows 95. anywhere from 10 to 80 chips to provide timing, program memory,
random-access memory1, interfaces for input and output signals and
1) Like NT, ... is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user other ancillary functions, one can assemble a complete computer
interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. system on a board whose area does not exceed the size of this page.
2) is the most commonly used PC operating system Such an assembly is a microcomputer, in which the microprocessor
3) is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to serves as the master component. The number of applications for
access the system microprocessors is proliferating daily in industry, in banking, in power
4) is an operating system developed by Microsoft, the enhanced generation and distribution, in telecommunications and in scores of
version of the popular Microsoft Windows Programs. consumer products, ranging from automobiles to electronic games.
5) The usage of ... is so simple that even little kids learn how to As in the central processing unit, or CPU, of a larger
use it very quickly. computer, the task of the microprocessor is to receive data in the form
64 49
requirements of a computer: 2. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your
It can input and output data4, usually in digital form. This data answers.
can be exchanged between the microcomputer5 and several
1) When computers were first introduced in 40's and 50's
common input/output devices such as teletype, CRT displays,
programmers had to write programs to instruct CD-ROMs, laser
paper tape reader, floppy disk6 memories, magnetic tapes7,
printers and scanners.
cassette8 tapes and laboratory instruments.
2) The operational system controls and manages the use of the
It contains an ALU (arithmetic logic unit) which performs
hardware and the memory.
arithmetic and/or logical operations such as add, subtract,
3) There are no commands available in operating systems, they
compare, rotate left or right, AND, OR, NEGATE,
are only in word processors.
4) Microsoft developed MS-DOS to compete with IBM's PC-DOS.
It contains memory9 which is directly addressable and may
5) NT requires computers with 486 CPU and 16 M random access
contain both data and instructional words. memory.
It is programmable. That is, the data and programmed 6) OS/2 is DOS compatible because it was developed by
instructions may be arranged in any desired order, in contrast Microsoft.
to a pocket calculator, which is usually fixed in its capabilities 7) Traditionally, UNIX was run by many users simultaneously.
and requires a precise keyboard sequence that cannot be 8) Windows 95 and Windows 98 are DOS compatible and have
altered. very friendly and convenient interface.
1. Microprocessor - a realization of the central processing part of a PART II
computer on one or more LSI10 circuits. Characteristics of a
microprocessor include small size and low cost.
2. Central processing unit (CPU)- ,
3. Chip - a small piece of silicon on which an integrated circuit is
Pre-reading task
fabricated. More commonly used to describe a complete
encapsulated device. 1. Are you a part of computer revolution?
4. Data - a collection of numeric, alphabetic or special characters
denoting facts and information. 2. You are going to read a set of texts about the World Wide
5. Microcomputer - a class of computers having all the major Web. Discuss in group why you really need the Internet.
central processor functions contained on a single printed circuit What factors influence your decision?
board or single integrated circuit. A microcomputer contains a 3. Read the text What is the Internet? and discuss the
microprocessor plus additional circuitry needed to complete the following questions:
system such as memory, input and output ports, and a clock
generator. a) Do you use Internet?
6. Floppy disk - a low cost magnetic disk constructed of coated b) Why so many activities such as e-mail and business
plastic. transactions are possible through the Internet?
7. Magnetic tape - a tape with a magnetic surface on which data
can be stored by selective magnetization of portions of the c) What is World Wide Web?
surface. d) What is Web browser?
8. Cassette - a container holding magnetic tape for insertion into
tape transport equipment. e) What does a user need to have an access to the WWW?
9. Memory - a general term which refers to any storage media for f) What are hyperlinks?
data. Basic memory functional types include read/write and read-
only. g) What resources are available on the WWW?
50 63
h) What are the basic recreational applications of WWW? The baby computer, is called Maddam, a name derived from
Macro-Module and Digital Differential Analyzer Machine.
What is the Internet? The scientists indicate that the Maddam is a special purpose
What is this computer phenomenon called the Internet, or the computer to be used only for military requirements as they develop.
Net? Do you personally have need of it? Before you decide to get "on" The working model was built to show that existing electronic
the Internet, you may want to know something about it. components can be used in shrinking a commercial computer from a
Millions of people around the world use the Internet to search room size to size of a desk, and that military electronic equipment can
for and retrieve1 information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety2 of be compressed to a convenient size for aircraft, spacecraft, and
areas including the arts, business, government, humanities3, news, missiles.
politics and recreation4. People communicate through electronic mail The computer has 5,500 components housed in a space
(e-mail), discussion groups, chat channels and other means of measuring three inches by six inches by 11 inches, and a component
informational exchange. They share5 information and make density of 69,000 components per cubic foot. It weighs 12 pound and
commercial and business transactions6. All this activity is possible can perform 33,000 mathematical calculations per second.
because tens of thousands of networks7 are connected to the Internet TEXT 4
and exchange information in the same basic ways.
Using the Internet, David, a teacher in the United States, Pre-reading task
acquired course materials. A Canadian father accessed8 it to stay in 1. Read the first part of the text What is a Microprocessor?
contact with his daughter in Russia. A housewife used it to examine
scientific research on the early beginnings of the universe. A farmer 2. Study the definition of terms given below the text.
turned to it to find information about new planting methods that make
3. Discuss the following questions in group:
use of satellites. Corporations are drawn to it because of its power to
advertise their products and services to millions of potential a) What is a microprocessor? Try to give your own definition
customers. People around the globe read the latest national and of this term.
international news by means of its vast reporting and information
b) What is a microcomputer based on?
The World Wide Web9 (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But
it's not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is
connected or linked10 together like a web. You access this information What is a Microprocessor?
through one interface or tool called a Web browser11. The number of
Part I
resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing
extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the A microprocessor is a programmable logic device. That is,
WWW, and more than half the information that is transferred across the function of logical operation that the device accomplishes may be
the Internet is accessed through the WWW. By using a computer altered by applying instructional "words" at its input.
terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the The above definition, although correct, is somewhat broad.
Internet, and by using a program (software) to browse12 or retrieve Technically, the term microprocessor has come to mean the central
information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people processing unit (CPU)2 of a small computer system. By itself, the
connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the local microprocessor cannot function; but when it is combined with a
providers13 have access to a variety of information. Each browser relatively small number of support circuits, it has most of the
provides14 a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from characteristics included in the classic definition of a computer. The
site15 to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, microprocessor has traded the greater speed and word length of a
icon or region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks16 or links. computer for compact size and low cost.
Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or A microcomputer is a fully operational system based upon a
an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to microprocessor chip3 which in itself contains a large percentage of the
know where it is, the browser follows the link. computer capability. The system possesses all of the minimum
62 51
In 1956-58 the transistor found one of the most spectacular All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use
applications. It helped Russian and American specialists to launch the Internet for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations
first satellites and to open the space age. Only a few of the biggest broadcast live17 on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put
satellites have been able to carry vacuum-tube equipment. Most into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the
satellites have appended on transistors not only for reporting back to WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens, cities throughout the
the earth but for operating the instruments with which the satellites world, learn foreign languages and meet new friends. And, of course,
explored the mysterious regions around the earth. you can play computer games through WWW, competing18 with
But the most striking aspect of the transistor is not the host of partners from other countries and continents.
devices it made possible. More important was its effect on a new Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you
branch of science and technology which may be called solids-state what a lot of use and fun it is.
Pocket-size TV Camera
1. to retrieve
The ultra-miniature TV camera was made possible by a new 2. variety ,
design approach, which combines transistors, specially developed 3. humanities
transistor circuitry and a new half-inch vidicon camera tube. 4. recreation
The pocket-size TV camera (JTV-1) weighs less than, pound 5. to share
and measures only 1 7/8 ths by 2 3/8 ths by 4 1/2 inches. It can be 6. business transactions
operated in the palm of the hand, used with an attachable pistol-grip 7. network
handle, bolted to wall or floor, or mounted on a tripod. 8. access
It is the first TV camera of its type to incorporate a 9. World Wide Web
photoelectric control, which enables the camera to accommodate 10. to link
changes in the order of 100 to 1 in scene lighting. Made rugged for 11. browser ( )
military airborne, mobile, and field requirements the pocket-size 12. to browse ,
camera has high resistance to shock and vibration. 13. provider (,
Simple in design and operation, the camera can be operated WWW )
by non-technical personnel. 14. to provide (-)
15. site ,
Molecular Computer
16. hyperlink
A small computer with molecular blocks as its "brain" is being 17. broadcast live
developed. 18. to compete
The new device, called a Mol-E-Com, will weigh 14 pounds
1. Are the following statements true or false? Prove your
and occupy less than one-third of a cubic foot. A solid semiconductor
crystal with its internal structure rearranged as a functional electronic
1) There are still not so many users of the Internet.
block replaces the tubes, transistors, and resistors in conventional
2) There is information on all sorts of topics on the Internet,
miniaturized circuitry.
including education and weather forecasts.
Mol-E-Com is expected to have the same capabilities as a
3) People can communicate through e-mail and chat programs
transistorized computer ten times its size and weight, making it useful
for rockets
4) Internet is tens of thousands of networks which exchange the
Miniature Computer is size of Bread Loaf information in the same basic way.
5) You can access information available on the World Wide Web
A compact electronic computer about the size of a loaf of
through the Web browser.
bread, yet capable of working as fast as a room size computer, has
been demonstrated successfully.
52 61
6) You need a computer (hardware) and a special program instruments for its investigation and research.
(software) to be a WWW user. Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries
7) You move from site to site by clicking on a portion of text only. to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their
8) Every time the user wants to move somewhere on the web lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented
he/she needs to step by step enter links and addresses. tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives easier.
9) Films and pictures are not available on the Internet. Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in
10) Radio and TV-broadcasting is a future of Internet. They're not a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or
available yet. the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development
of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass
2. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate words:
production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society.
web browser, providers, link, WWW.
Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology.
1) You access the information through one interface or tool
According to one estimate, 90 % of all the scientists who ever lived,
called a ...
were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity
2) People connected to the WWW through the local ... have
has brought new ideas, processes, and inventions in ever-growing
access to a variety of information.
3) The user doesn't need to know where the site is, the... follows
The scientific revolution that started in the 16th century was
the ...
the first time that science and technology began to work together.
4) In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the ...
Thus, Galileo who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and
5) Each ... provides a graphical interface.
physics also built an improved telescope and patented a system of
6) Local ... charge money for their services to access...
lifting water. However, it was not until the 19th century that technology
truly was based on science and inventors began to build on the work
of scientists. For example, Thomas Edison built on the early
TEXT 2 experiments of Faraday and Henry in his invention of the first practical
Pre-reading task system of electrical lighting. Edison carried on his investigations until
he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb in a research
1. Some people think that the Internet is very harmful, laboratory. This was the first true modern technological research.
especially for young people, because it carries a lot of In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history
information about sex, drugs, violence and terrorism. Do you of all humankind.
think that some kind of censorship is necessary on the
2. World famous authors and publishers say that the Internet Pre-reading task
violates their copyright because Web-programmers put all
1. You are going to read four texts about pocket radios and
kinds of books, pictures, music, films and programs free on miniature computers. Divide into groups and discuss the
the Internet and this reduces their sales and profits. main idea of the texts.
3. Has anyone in your group experience working on the 2. What other types of miniature computers and radios do you
Internet? Ask them 1) about the difficulties they had; 2) know?
useful information retrieved; 3) fun they got? Why so few 3. Do you know what the word wireless means?
people have experience working on the Internet?
Miniature Radios and computers
4. Read the text What Is It? and discuss the following
questions in group: Pocket Radios
a) To what spheres of humans activities does the Internet The transistor's compactness and low power requirements
provide access to? also brought a new day in a host of simpler devices. Radio receivers
b) What services and resources does the Internet offer? hardly larger than a package of cigarettes were on a reality.
60 53
possibilities for the benefit of men. What Is It?
Science is also important to everyone who is affected by
modern technology. Many of the things that make our lives easier and Imagine a room filled with many spiders, each spinning its own
better are the results of advances in technology and, if the present web. The webs are so interconnected that the spiders can travel freely
patterns continue, technology will affect us even more in the future within this maze. You now have a simplified view of the Internet a
than it does now. In some cases, such as technology for taking salt out global collection of many different types of computers and computer
of ocean water, technology may be essential for our lives on the Earth. networks that are linked together. Just as a telephone enables you to
The study of science also provides people with an talk to someone on the other side of the earth who also has a phone,
understanding of natural world. Scientists are learning to predict the Internet enables a person to sit at his computer and exchange
earthquakes, are continuing to study many other natural events such information with other computers and computer users any place in the
as storms. Scientists are also studying various aspects of human world.
biology and the origin and developments of the human race. The study Some refer to the Internet as the information superhighway.
of the natural world may help to improve life for many people, all over Just as a road allows travel through different areas of a country, so the
the world. Internet allows information to flow through many different
A basic knowledge of science is essential for everyone. It interconnected computer networks. As messages travel, each network
helps people to find their way in the changing world. that is reached contains information that assists in connecting to the
adjacent network. The final destination may be in a different city or
TEXT 2 country.
Pre-reading task Each network can "speak" with its neighbor network by means
of a common set of rules created by the Internet designers. How many
1. What role have scientific and technological developments networks are connected worldwide? Some estimates say over 30,000.
played in human's life? According to recent surveys, these networks connect over 10,000,000
2. What proves that science and technology are closely related computers and some 30,000,000 users throughout the world. It is
today? estimated that the number of connected computers is doubling each
3. Read the text Science and Technology and discuss the year.
following questions in group: What can people locate on the Internet? It offers a rapidly
a) What does the term technology refer to? growing collection of information, with topics ranging from medicine to
b) What does the term industrial technology mean? science and technology. It features exhaustive material on the arts as
well as research material for students and coverage of recreation,
c) How is scientific activity in the 1970s estimated?
entertainment, sports, shopping, and employment opportunities. The
d) What facts prove that the scientific revolution in the 16th Internet provides access to almanacs, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and
century was the time that science and technology began maps.
to work together? There are, however, some disturbing aspects to consider. Can
everything on the Internet be regarded as wholesome? What services
Science and Technology
and resources does the Internet offer? What precautions are in order?
In recent years, scientific and technological developments The following articles will discuss these questions.
have drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of
us as individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole.
Today, science and technology are closely related. Many Pre-reading task
modem technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend
on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. 1. Can you name common resource which is provided by
Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the Internet?
development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In 2. Do you have your own e-mail address?
turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate 3. Do you think that e-mail is better than ordinary post service
54 59
Services and Resources of the Internet scramble their letter's sensitive contents before mailing it. At the other
end, the receiving party may need similar software for unscrambling
A common resource provided by the Internet is a worldwide the message.
system for sending and receiving electronic mail, known as e-mail. In Recently, much discussion has focused on the exchange of
fact, e-mail represents a large portion of all Internet traffic and is for credit-card and other sensitive information for commercial use on the
many the only Internet resource they use. How does it work? To Internet. Although substantial innovations are expected to strengthen
answer that question, let's review the ordinary mail system first. security, the noted American computer security analyst Dorothy
Imagine that you live in Canada and wish to send a letter to Denning states: "Completely secure systems are not possible, but the
your daughter living in Moscow. After properly addressing the risk can be reduced considerably, probably to a level commensurate
envelope, you mail it, starting the letter's journey. At a postal facility, with the value of the information stored on the systems and the threat
the letter is routed to the next location, perhaps a regional or national posed by both hackers and insiders. Absolute security is not realizable
distribution center, and then to a local post office near your daughter. in any computer system, whether connected to the Internet or not.
A similar process occurs with e-mail. After your letter is
composed on your computer, you must specify an e-mail address that
identifies your daughter. Once you send this electronic letter, it travels
from your computer, often through a device called a modem, which Part III
connects your computer to the Internet via the telephone network. Off
it goes, bound for various computers that act like local and national TEXT 1
postal routing facilities. They have enough information to get the letter Pre-reading task
to a destination computer, where your daughter can retrieve it. Unlike 1. What can you say about modern science development?
the regular mail, e-mail often reaches its destination, even on other 2. Why is science so important in the modern world?
continents, in minutes or less unless some part of the network is 3. Read the text Science and discuss the following questions
heavily congested or temporarily out of order. When your daughter in group:
inspects her electronic mailbox, she will discover your e-mail. The a) How does science help to keep peace in the world?
speed of e-mail and the ease with which it can be sent even to multiple b) How can science solve the energy program?
recipients all over the world make it a popular form of communication.
c) What proves that the study of science is important to
Choose the correct answer a, b or c. understand natural world?
1. What do you use a modem for? Science
a) to print a document
b) to play music Science is important to most people living in the modern world
c) to send messages along a telephone line for a number of reasons. In particular, science is important to world
peace and understanding, to the understanding of technology, and to
2. What do you see when you want to look for sites on the our understanding of the world.
World Wide Web? Science is important to world peace in many ways. On one
a) a browser hand, scientists have helped to develop many of the modern tools of
b) a CD-ROM war. On the other hand, they have also helped to keep the peace
c) a printer through research which has improved life for people. Scientists have
3. What can you use the Internet for? helped us to understand the problem of supplying the world with
a) to delete a file from your computer enough energy; they have begun to develop a number of solutions to
b) to help you find information and communicate with people the energy problem - for example, using energy from the sun and from
c) to make your computer work faster the atom. Scientists have also analyzed the world's resources. We can
begin learning to share the resources with the knowledge provided to
us by science. Science studies the Universe and how to use its
58 55
talking at the same general time, except that all are typing, short TEXT 4
messages instead. Chat rooms are usually active 24 hours a day.
Pre-reading task
Match the words or phrases (1-6) to the definitions (a-f).
1. What kind of service is called Usenet?
1. chat room
2. e-commerce 2. What does Usenet offer?
3. joystick
4. cyberspace
5. desktop Another popular service is called Usenet. Usenet offers
6. multitasking access to newsgroups for group discussions on specific topics. Some
newsgroups focus on buying or selling various consumer items. There
a) the ability of a computer to run several programmes at once; are thousands of newsgroups, and once a user has gained access to
Usenet, there is no cost to subscribe to them.
b) the screen you see after youve switched your computer;
Let's imagine that someone has joined a newsgroup involved
c) an area on the Internet where people can communicate with in stamp collecting. As new messages about this hobby are sent by
each other in real time; others subscribing to this group, the messages become available to
d) the business of buying and selling goods and services in the this newcomer. This person reviews not only what someone has sent
Internet; to the newsgroup but also what others have written in response. If, for
e) a sick which helps to move in computer games; example, someone requests information about a particular stamp
f) the imaginary place where electronic messages, information series, shortly afterward there may be many responses from around
pictures, etc. exist when they are sent from one computer to the world, offering information that would be immediately available to
another. all who subscribe to this newsgroup.
A variation of this idea is the Bulletin Board System (BBS).
TEXT 9 BBS is similar to Usenet, except that all files are located on a single
Pre-reading task computer, usually maintained by one person or group. The content of
news-groups reflects the varied interests, viewpoints, and moral
1. Is security protection important for keeping your privacy? values of those who use them, so discretion is needed.
2. Read the text Security Is Your Privacy Protected? and
discuss the following questions in group:
a) Do you think your information is protected when you use TEXT 5
the Internet? Is it safe to share confident information
through the Internet? Share your opinion with your group- Pre-reading task
mates. 1. What is one of the original Internet goals?
b) Choose any topics you like on the given problem 2. What help is available when one does not know where a
Internet and discuss it in group. subject may be located within the Internet?
3. Write a composition giving your own opinion on the topic
The World Wide Web. File Sharing and Topic Searching
Security Is Your Privacy Protected? One of the original Internet goals was global information
sharing. The teacher mentioned in the previous article located another
Another key concern is confidentiality. For example, your e- educator on the Internet who was willing to share already developed
mail message should be seen only by your intended recipient. While course materials. Within minutes the files were transferred, despite a
the letter is in transit, however, a clever and possibly unscrupulous 2,000-mile distance.
person or group could intercept or monitor your correspondence. To Just as we locate a phone number by using a telephone
protect messages, some people use e-mail software products to directory, a user may find locations of interest on the Internet by first
56 57
gaining access to what are known as search sites. The user supplies a Surfing the Net
word or a phrase; the site then replies with a list of Internet locations
where information can be found. Generally, the search is free and By using a Web browser, a person can easily and quickly view
takes only a few seconds! information and colorful graphics that may be stored on computers in
The farmer mentioned earlier had heard of a new technique many different countries. Using a Web browser can be similar in some
called precision farming, which uses computers and satellite maps. By ways to actual travel, only easier. One can visit the Web exhibits of the
entering that phrase at a search site, he found the names of farmers Dead Sea Scrolls or the Holocaust Memorial Museum. This ability to
who were using it as well as detailed information about the method. move nimbly back and forth from one Internet Web site to another is
commonly called surfing the Net.
Businesses and other organizations have become interested
in the Web as a means to advertise their products or services as well
as to offer other kinds of information. They create a Web page, a sort
Pre-reading task of electronic storefront window. Once an organization's Web page
address is known, potential customers can use a browser to go
1. Describe the advantages of the World Wide Web.
"shopping," or information browsing. As in any marketplace, however,
2. Read the text The World Wide Web and discuss the main not all products, services, or information provided on the Internet are
idea of the text: wholesome.
Researchers are trying to make the Internet secure enough for
The World Wide Web confidential and safeguarded transactions. We will talk more about
The part of the Internet called World Wide Web (or Web) security later.
allows authors to use an old-fashioned idea - that of footnotes - in a
new way. When an author of a magazine article or a book inserts a
footnote symbol, we scan the bottom of the page and are possibly TEXT 8
directed to another page or book. Authors of Internet computer
Pre-reading task
documents can do essentially the same thing using a technique that
will underline or highlight a word, a phrase, or an image in their 1. Do you have a nickname?
document. 2. Do you think it is possible to find your second half through
The highlighted word or image is a clue to the reader that an the Internet dating offices?
associated Internet resource, often another document, exists. This 3. Do you visit chats? How much time do you spend there?
Internet document can be fetched and displayed immediately for the
reader. The document may even be on a different computer and What Is "Chat"?
located in another country. David Peal, the author of Access the Another common service of the Internet is the Internet Relay
Internet, notes that this technique "links you to actual documents, not Chat, or Chat. Chat allows a group of people, using aliases, to send
just references to them." messages to one another immediately. While used by a variety of age
The Web also supports the storage and retrieval, or playing, of groups, it is especially popular among young people. Once connected,
photographs, graphics, animations, videos, and sounds. Everyone can the user is brought into contact with a large number of other users
obtain and play a short color movie of the current theories regarding from all around the world.
the universe and hear the narration through computer's audio system. So-called chat rooms, or chat channels, are created that
TEXT 7 feature a particular theme, such as science fiction, movies, sports, or
romance. All the messages typed within a chat room appear almost
Pre-reading task simultaneously on the computer screens of all participants for that
1. Have you got the Internet connection at home? chat room.
A chat room is much like a party of people mingling and
2. How often do you surf the net?