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Optocoupler

Designers Guide
About This Designers Guide

Agilent Technologies Each application circuit is Data sheets for products


optocouplers can be used in an accompanied by: recommended in this guide
array of isolation applications 1. A brief description. can be found on the Agilent
ranging from power supply and 2. Highlights of circuit Technologies web site at
motor control circuits to data performance. www.agilent.com/semiconductors,
communication and digital logic or they may be ordered from your
3. Circuit benefits.
interface circuits. local Agilent representative.
4. A list of alternative Agilent
parts indicating comparably
To help you choose and design How to Order
with Agilent Technologies performing products available
To order any component in this
isolation components, this in varying package styles for
guide or additional applications
Designers Guide contains maximum design flexibility.
information, call your authorized
popular application circuits and Agilent distributor nearest you.
recommended Agilent How to Use This Guide
optocouplers. Several indexes are included to
Although product information
help locate applications and
and illustrations in this guide
This handbook begins with a products.
were current at the time it was
selection guide followed by The table of contents lists all approved for printing, Agilent
sections discussing critical the applications by their Technologies, in a continuing
optocoupler design parameters general description. effort to offer excellent products
such as Insulation and Withstand Selection Guides in the form of at a fair value, reserves the right
Voltage, Regulatory Agency tables contain basic product to change specifications, designs,
Safety Standards, Common-Mode specifications which allow you and models without notice.
Transient Rejection, Product Life to quickly select the products
and light emitting diode (LED) most suitable for your
aging. The rest of the guide applications.
consists of application circuits.
Table of Contents

Optocoupler Selection Guide ............................................................................................... 1


15 MBd Logic Gate Optocoupler ................................................................................................... 2
1 MBd Transistor Output Optocoupler ........................................................................................ 2
100 KBd Darlington Transistor Output Optocoupler ................................................................. 2
20 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler ...................................................................................... 3
10 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler ...................................................................................... 3
8 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler ........................................................................................ 4
5 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler ........................................................................................ 4
1 MBd Digital Transistor Output Optocoupler ............................................................................ 5
100 KBd Darlington Transistor Output Optocoupler ................................................................. 5
Integrated Gate Drive Optocoupler .............................................................................................. 6
Miniature Analog Isolation Amplifiers ......................................................................................... 6
Optocouplers with Integrated Functions ..................................................................................... 7

Hermetic and Hi-Rel Optocouplers ...................................................................................... 9


For Military, Space, Life Critical and High Reliability Applications ........................................ 9
Screening per MIL-PRF-38534 ..................................................................................................... 10
Quality Conformance Inspection ................................................................................................ 10

Design Considerations ........................................................................................................ 13


Insulation and Regulation of Optically Coupled Isolation Devices ....................................... 13
Common-Mode Transient Rejection ........................................................................................... 17
LED Degradation Over Time ....................................................................................................... 22
Guidelines for Printed Circuit Board Assembly and Layout ................................................... 25

Digital Optoisolators: An Overview ................................................................................ 26

Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications ................................................... 28


TTL Interface with Series LED Drive ........................................................................... 28
Level Shifting/TTL Interface with Shunt LED Drive .................................................. 29
Low Power 8 MBd CMOS Interface .............................................................................. 30
25 MBd CMOS Interface ................................................................................................ 31
Low Power 100 kBd CMOS Interface ............................................................................ 32
Isolated 3 V Logic Interface/Battery Operated Applications ....................................... 33

Data Communication Applications ................................................................................. 34


Isolated RS-232C/E Interface ........................................................................................ 35
Isolated 3.3 V RS-232 Interface ..................................................................................... 35
Isolated RS-485 Bus Interface ....................................................................................... 36
Isolated Device Net/CAN Communication Interface ................................................... 37
Isolated 4 - 20 mA Analog Current Loop Transmitter/Receiver ................................. 38
Isolated 20 mA Current Loop Interface ........................................................................ 39
Multidrop Line Receiver ................................................................................................. 40
Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 1 ........................................................... 41
Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 2 ........................................................... 42
Isolated Tri-State Line Driver ....................................................................................... 43
Isolated Unbalanced Line Receiver ............................................................................... 44
PROFIBUS/RS-422 1.5 MB/s ......................................................................................... 45
Isolated PROFIBUS/RS-485 12 MB/s Communication Application ........................... 46

Telecommunications Applications .................................................................................. 47


Telephone Ring Detection .............................................................................................. 47
ISDN Interface ................................................................................................................ 48

Analog Applications ............................................................................................................ 49


High Speed Isolation Amplifier ..................................................................................... 50
Precision Isolation Amplifier for Unipolar Signals ...................................................... 51
Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 1 ................................................ 52
Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 2 ................................................ 53
AC-Coupled Isolation Amplifier .................................................................................... 54
Isolated Video Interface ................................................................................................. 55

Motor Control Applications .............................................................................................. 56


Inverter Design Using Gate Drive and Current Sense Optocouplers ......................... 56
Isolated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET ...................................................................... 61
Dual Channel Isolated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET ............................................. 62
Isolated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET with Desaturation Protection .................... 63
Isolated Interface for Intelligent Power Module Gate Drive ....................................... 64
Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing with Analog Output ................................. 65
Isolated A/D Converter for Phase Current Sensing ..................................................... 66
Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing
with Analog Output/Over Current Detection .......................................................... 67
Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using an Isolation Amplifier ......................... 68
Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using a Linear Optocoupler .......................... 69
Low Cost Isolation Amplifier for Motor Speed and Position Measurement ............... 70

Industrial Applications ...................................................................................................... 71


AC/DC Voltage Threshold Sensing ................................................................................ 71
Optical Isolation in Flat-Panel Displays ....................................................................... 72

Power Supply Applications ............................................................................................... 73


Optical Isolation in a Switching Power Supply - Circuit No. 1 ................................... 73
Optical Isolation in a Switching Power Supply - Circuit No. 2 ................................... 74
Optical Isolation in a DC/DC Converter ....................................................................... 75

Application Notes ................................................................................................................ 76


Optocoupler Selection Guide

Agilent Technologies offers a Phototransistor optocouplers Lowest power dissipation


broad range of isolation Worldwide Safety Approvals, optocouplers available, with
products which provide including the highest input currents as low as 40
performance features and Maximum Working A
benefits that are unmatched in Insulation Voltage (VIORM) at Highest speed optocouplers,
the industry. Some of the 1000 V (per VDE) with data rates as high as
leading product performance Common-Mode Transient 25 MBd and propagation
technologies that Agilent offers Noise Immunity as high as 15 delays as low as 40 ns
include: kV/s (Minimum) Wide operating temperature
A wide variety of surface ranges for industrial and
Dielectric Withstand Voltage
mount and multi-channel military environments
Rating as high as 5000 Vac/1
min (per UL) packages, including the A full line of hermetically-
highest density optocouplers sealed optocouplers for high
First 3.3V optocoupler in the
in the world. reliability applications.
world
Available as commercial
grade or Certified and
Qualified to MIL-PRF-38534
Class H or K. DSCC
Standard Microcircuit
Drawings (SMDs) are
available on all hermetic
products.
3.3V Digital Optocoupler Family (15 MBd Logic Gate Optocoupler)
Device Part No. Package I Prop Delay CMR-V/s @ (Vcm) VDE 0884 Insulation
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO5 mA PWD 1000 10000 15000 Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP ns (max) (50 V) (1 kV) (1 kV) 560 V 630 V 2500 V 5000 V
Single HCPL-060L 5 25 A
NC 1 8 VCC HCPL-260L 5 25 A B
ANODE VE
2 7
CATHODE 6 VO
3
NC 4 5 GND
SHIELD

Dual HCPL-063L 5 25
ANODE 1 VCC HCPL-263L 5 25 B
CATHODE 1 12 8 VO1

CATHODE 2 76 VO2

ANODE 2 34 GND
SHIELD
5

NOTES: A. VDE 0884 approved part with option 060 (pending). B. Option 020 on request.

3.3V Digital Optocoupler Family (1 MBd Transistor Output Optocoupler)


Device Part No. Package I Prop Delay CTR CMR-V/ms @ (Vcm) VDE 0884 Insulation
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO5 mA tPHL tPLH Min % Max % 1000 10000 15000 Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP ms (max) (10 V) (1.5 kV) (1.5 kV) 560 V 630 V 1414 V 2500 V 5000 V

Single HCPL-050L 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 A


NC 1 VCC HCPL-250L 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 A B
8
ANODE 7 VE
2
CATHODE 6 VO
3
NC 4 GND
5

Dual HCPL-053L 16 1.0 1.0 19 50


ANODE 1 VCC HCPL-253L 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 B
CATHODE 1 12 8 VO1

CATHODE 2 7 VO2

ANODE 2 3 6 GND
4 5

NOTES: A. VDE 0884 approved part with option 060 (pending). B. Option 020 on request.

3.3V Digital Optocoupler Family (100 KBd Darlington Transistor Output Optocoupler)
Device Part No. Package I CTR VDE 0884 Insulation
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO5 40mA 0.5 mA 1.6 mA Min % Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP 560 V 630 V 2500 V 5000 V
Single HCPL-070L 400 A
NC 8 VCC HCPL-270L 400 A B
1
ANODE VE
2 7
CATHODE 3 6 VO

NC 5 GND
4

Dual HCPL-073L 400


ANODE 1 VCC HCPL-273L 400 B
CATHODE 1 1 8 VO1

CATHODE 2 2 7 VO2

ANODE 2 34 6 GND
5

NOTES: A. VDE 0884 approved part with option 060 (pending). B. Option 020 on request.
Please refer to data sheet for detailed electrical/switching specifications.
2
20 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler
Device Part No. Package I Prop Delay CMR-V/s @ (Vcm) VDE 0884 Insulation Note
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO5 mA tPHL/tPLH 1000 2000 5000 10000 10000 15000 Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP ns (max) (50 V) (200 V) (50 V) (200 V) (1 kV) (1 kV) 630 V 1414 V 2500 V 5000 V
Single HCPL-2400 HCPL-2400 4 60 2
V CC
NC Anode 8
1
Anode E
2 7 V
Cathode VD
3 6
NC
GND
4 5

Dual HCPL-2430
HCPL-2430 4 60
Anode1 VCC
Cathode1 1 8
V01
Cathode2 2 7
V02
Anode2 3 6
GND
4 5

NOTES: 2. 630 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060.

10 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler


Device Part No. Package I Prop Delay CMR-V/ms @ (Vcm) VDE 0884 Insulation Note
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO5 mA tPHL/tPLH 1000 5000 10000 10000 15000 Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP ns (max) (50 V) (50 V) (200 V) (1 kV) (1 kV) 630 V 1414 V 2500 V 5000 V
Single 6N137 5 100 B
HCPL-0600 5 100
HCNW137 5 100
HCPL-M600 5 100
HCPL-2601 5 100 B
HCPL-0601 5 100
HCNW2601 5 100
1 8 VCC

Anode 2 7 VE
HCPL-M601 5 100
Cathode 3 6 VOUT
HCPL-2611 5 100 B 2
4 5 GND
HCPL-0611 5 100
HCPL-M611 5 100
HCNW2611 5 100
HCPL-261A 2 100 B 2
HCPL-061A 2 100
HCPL-261N 2 100 B 2
HCPL-061N 2 100
Dual HCPL-2630 5 100 B
HCPL-0630 5 100
HCPL-2631 5 100 B
Anode1 1 8 VCC
HCPL-0631 5 100
Cathode1 2 7 V01
HCPL-4661 5 100 B
Cathode2 3 6 V02
HCPL-0661 5 100
Anode2 4 5
HCPL-263A 5 100 B
HCPL-063A 5 100
HCPL-263N 2 100 B
HCPL-063N 2 100
Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS NOTES: 2. 630 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060. B. Option 020

3
8 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler
Device Part No. Package I CMR-V/ms @ (Vcm) VDE 0884 Insulation Note
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO5 mA 100 1000 2500 10000 Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP (50 V) (50 V) (1400 V) (1 kV) 630 V 1414 V 2500 V 5000 V
Single HCPL-2300 0.5 2
8 VCC
HCPL-0300 0.5
1
Anode 7 RL
2
Cathode 3 6 VD

5 GND
4

NOTES: 2. 630 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060.

5 MBd Digital Logic Gate Optocoupler


Device Part No. Package I CMR-V/s @ (Vcm) VDE 0884 Insulation Note
300 mil SO8 400 mil mA 1000 2500 10000 Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP (50 V) (1400 V) (1 kV) 630 V 1414 V 2500 V 5000 V
Single HCPL-2200 1.6 2
HCPL-2219 1.6 2
HCPL-2201 1.6 2, 4
1 8 VCC HCPL-2202 1.6 2, 4, 5
Anode 2 7 VOUT HCPL-0201 1.6 4
Cathode 3 6 VE HCNW2201 1.6 4
GND
4 5
HCPL-2211 1.6 2, 4
HCPL-2212 1.6 2, 4, 5
HCPL-0211 1.6 4
HCNW2211 1.6 4
Dual HCPL-2231 1.8
ANODE 1 1 8 VCC
HCPL-2232 1.8 6
CATHODE 1 2 7 VO1

CATHODE 2 3 6 VO2

ANODE 2 4 5 GND

Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS NOTES: 2. 630 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060. 4. PIN 7 not connected. 5. PINS 6 and 7 reversed. 6. CMR=5000

4
1 MBd Digital Transistor Output Optocoupler
Device Part No. Package I Prop Delay CTR CMR-V/s @ (Vcm) VDE 0884 Insulation Note
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO 5 mA tPHL tPLH Min % Max % 1000 10000 15000 Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP s (max) (10 V) (1.5 kV) (1.5 kV) 630 V 890 V 1414 V 2500 V 5000 V
Single 6N135 16 2.0 2.0 7 50 B
HCPL-0500 16 2.0 2.0 7 50
HCNW135 16 2.0 2.0 7 150
6N136 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 B
HCPL-0501 16 1.0 1.0 19 50
HCNW136 16 1.0 1.0 19 150
HCPL-4502 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 B 1
HCPL-M452 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 3
HCPL-0452 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 1
HCNW4502 16 1.0 1.0 19 150 1
1 8 V CC HCPL-4503 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 B 1,2
Anode 2 7 V
B HCPL-0453 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 1
Cathode 3 6 VO
HCNW4503 16 1.0 1.0 19 150 1
4 5 GND
HCPL-M453 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 3
HCPL-M454 12 1.0 1.4 26 65 3
HCPL-M456 10 0.4 0.55 44 >90
HCPL-4504 12 1.0 1.14 26 65 B 1,2
HCPL-0454 12 1.0 1.14 26 65 1
HCPL-J454 12 0.5 0.7 21 65
HCNW4504 12 0.5 0.7 25 65 1
HCPL-4506 10 0.4 0.55 44 >90 B 3
HCPL-0466 10 0.4 0.55 44 >90
HCPL-J456 10 0.4 0.55 44 >90 A
HCNW4506 10 0.4 0.5 44 >90
Dual HCPL-2530 16 2.0 2.0 7 50 B
HCPL-0530 16 2.0 2.0 7 50
Anode1 1 8 VCC
Cathode1 2 7 V01
HCPL-2531 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 B
Cathode2 3 6 V02
HCPL-0531 16 1.0 1.0 19 50
Anode2 4 5 GND HCPL-4534 16 1.0 1.0 19 50 B
HCPL-0534 16 1.0 1.0 19 50
Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS NOTES: 1. PIN 7 not connected. 2. 630 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060. 3. No built-in pull resistor. A. 3750 Vrms / 1 min B. Option 020

100 KBd Darlington Transistor Output Optocoupler


Device Part No. Package I CTR VDE 0884 Insulation Note
300 mil SO8 400 mil SO5 40mA 0.5 mA 1.6 mA Min. Peak Voltage UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP % 630 V 1414 V 2500 V 5000 V

Single 6N138 300


HCPL-0700 300
HCNW138 300
HCPL-M700 300
1 8 VCC
Anode 2 7 VB
6N139 400 B
Cathode 3 6 VO
HCPL-0701 400
4 5 GND
HCNW139 400
HCPL-M701 400
HCPL-4701 800 B 2
HCPL-070A 800 1
Dual HCPL-2730 300 B
Anode1 1
HCPL-0730 300
8 VCC
Cathode1 2 7 V01
HCPL-2731 400 1
Cathode2 3 6 V02
HCPL-0731 400 1
Anode2 4 5 GND
HCPL-4731 800 1
HCPL-073A 800 1
Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS NOTES: 1. PIN 7 not connected. 2. 630 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060. B. Option 020

5
Motor Drive Application +HV

Gate Drive
HCPL-31XX
HCPL-450X

Current Sense
3 phase HCPL-78XX Motor
line input

Voltage Sense
HCPL-78XX

-HV
Current Sense
HCPL-78XX

Serial
HCPL-
Communication XXXX Controller

Integrated Gate Drive Optocoupler


Device Part No. Package I (on) Iout Prop Delay PWD Vcc VDE 0884 CMR-V/s @ (Vcm) Note
300 mil 400 mil SO8 SO16 mA A tPHL s (max) 0.3 s 0.8 s V Peak Voltage 800010000 15000
DIP DIP min 0.5 0.7 1 2 5 max max max 630 V 890 V 1414 V (1500) (600) (1000) (1500) (1500)
HCPL-3000 8 0.6 18
HCPL-3100 12 0.1 24
HCPL-3101 8 0.1 24
1 8 VCC
HCPL-T250 7 1.5 30
Anode 2 7 VO
HCPL-3120 7 2 30 2
Cathode 3 6 VO

4 5 VEE
HCPL-J312 7 2 30
HCNW3120 7 2 30
HCPL-3150 7 0.5 30 2
HCPL-J314 10 0.4 30
HCPL-0314 8 0.4 30
HCPL-3140 8 0.4 30
HCPL-T251 8 0.4 30
HCPL-314J 10 0.4 30
Dual 0.4 A Gate Drive Optocoupler with two separated channels
VIN+ VE
VIN- VLED2+ HCPL-315J 16 0.5 30
VCC1 VDESAT
GND1 VCC2 Dual 0.5 A Gate Drive Optocoupler with two separated channels
RESET COLL
FAULT VOUT HCPL-316J 1A 2 30
VLED1+ VEE
VLED1- VEE 2.0 A Gate Drive Optocoupler with integrated over-current Protection and Fault Feedback
CMOS compatible
Under Voltage Lock-Out Protection (UVLO) with Hysteresis
Regulatory Approvals: UL, CSA, VDE = 890 Vpeak
Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS NOTES: 2. 630 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060.

Miniature Analog Isolation Amplifiers


Device Part No. Package Gain Toler. Non-Linearity Prop Delay VDE 0884 CMR-V/s @ (Vcm) Note
300 mil SO16 3% 5% % (max) ms max Peak Voltage 10000
DIP 0.20 0.40 4.1 9.9 20 630 V 890 V 1414 V (1000)
HCPL-7800 8
VDD1 1
IDD1 IDD2
8 VDD2 HCPL-7840 7
VIN+ 2 + + 7 VOUT+ HCPL-7860 Isolated 12 bit A/D Converter with Isolated Modulator
VIN- 3

6 VOUT- HCPL-786J Isolated 12 bit A/D Converter with Isolated Modulator with better creepage and clearance
GND1 4 5 GND2
Shield

HCPL-788J
VIN+ 1 16 GND2
VIN- 2 15 VDD2 Smart Current Sensor with integrated fast short circuit detection (3s)
CH 3 14 FAULT
CL 4 13 ABSVAL Analog Output direct compatible with A/D converters
VDD1 VOUT
1 V/ C offset change vs temperature
5 12
VLED+ 6 11 VREF
VDD1 7 10 VDD2
GND1 8 9 GND2
16 kHz bandwidth
2500 Vac UL approval, VDE = 890 Vpeak

Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS NOTES: 7. 890 V peak VDE 0884 with option 060. 8. HCPL-7800A with 1% Gain Tolerance.

6
Optocouplers with Integrated Functions
High Speed Digital CMOS Logic Gate
Device Part No. Package Data Rate PWD Prop Delay
300 mil S08 Mb/s 30 ns 8 ns 6 ns ns
DIP (max) (max) (max) (max)
HCPL-7710 12.5 40
HCPL-7720 25 40
VDD1 1 8 VDD2
HCPL-7721 25 40
V1 2 7 NC
HCPL-0710 12.5 40
3
IO
6 V0
HCPL-0720 25 40
GND1 4 Shield
5 GND2
HCPL-0721 25 40
HCPL-0708 15 40
10 kV/s CMR @ Vcm = 1000 V
Viorm = 630 V VDE, 3750 Vac UL Approval

Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS

High Linearity Analog


Device Part No. Package Transfer Gain DC Non-Linearity CTR
400 mil max % max % min % max %
DIP
HCNR200 +/-15 0.25 0.25 0.75
1 8
HCNR201 +/-5 0.05 0.36 0.72
LED Cathode
2 7
LED Anode
3
K1
6
-65 ppm/C gain temperature coefficient
PD Cathode
4 5
VO 1.5 MHz bandwidth
PD Anode GND 1 kV VDE (option 050), 5000 Vac UL Approval

Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS

Wideband Analog/Video
Device Part No. Package Bandwidth DC Non-Linearity CTR IMRR VDE 0884
300 mil 400 mil typ max % typ % typ Viorm
DIP DIP MHz dB 1414 Vp
HCPL-4562 17 0.25 45 122
1 8 VCC HCNW4562 9 0.15 52 119
Anode 2 7 VB

Cathode 3 6 VO UL Approval 5000 V rms for 1 min for HCPL-4562 option 020
4 5 GND 0.3%/ C gain temperature coefficient

AC/DC to Logic Interface


Device Part No. Package Input Threshold Current Hysteresis Prop Delay
300 mil mA mA mA ms
DIP (min) (max) (typ) (max)
HCPL-3700 1.96 3.11 1.2 40
HCPL-3760 0.87 1.56 0.6 40
DCin+ 1 8 VCC
ACin 2 7 CMOS compatible output
ACin 3 6 VO 600 V/s CMR @ Vcm = 150 V
DCin- 4 5 GND
2500 Vac UL Approval

Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS

Line Receiver
Device Part No. Package Output Collector Current Prop Delay CMR-V/s @ (Vcm)
300 mil mA ns 1000 3500
DIP (max) (max) (150) (300)
HCPL-2602 50 100
1 8 VCC
HCPL-2612 50 100
+IN 2 7 VE
40 ns max propagation delay skew (part to part)
-IN 3 6 VOut Line termination circuitry included
4 5 GND 2500 Vac UL approval

7
Optocouplers with Integrated Functions, continued
20 mA Current Loop Transmitter/Receiver
Device Part No. Package Data Rate kBd @ (meters) Prop Delay CMR-V/s @ (Vcm)
300 mil 20 20 ms 1000 1000
DIP 400 1400 (max) (150) (50)
HCPL-4100 HCPL-4200 HCPL-4100 1.6
HCPL-4200 1.6
1 8 VCC I+ 1 8 VCC
2 7 I- 2 7 VO
CMOS compatible data input for HCPL-4100
I+ 3 6 VI 3 6 VE CMOS compatible data input for HCPL-4200
I- 4 5 GND 4 5 GND 2500 Vac UL approval

Shaded TextRECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGNS

General Purpose Phototransistor Optocoupler


Device Part No. Package CTR V(BR)CEO Insulation Note
300 mil 400 mil SO4 Min % Max % Min V UL = 1 min.
DIP DIP <3750 V 3750 V 5000 V
Single Channel HCPL-817 A 50 600 35 1
4 pin HCPL-817-00L A 50 100 35 1
HCPL-817-00A A 80 160 35 1
Anode 1 4 Collector HCPL-817-00B A 130 260 35 1
Cathode 2 3 Emitter HCPL-817-00C A 200 400 35 1
HCPL-817-00D A 300 600 35 1
HCPL-181 50 600 35 1
HCPL-181-00A 80 160 35 1
HCPL-181-00B 130 260 35 1
HCPL-181-00C 200 400 35 1
HCPL-181-00D 300 600 35 1
Single Channel 4N25 A 20 70 1
6 pin 4N35 A 100 70 1
CNY17-1 A 40 80 70 1
Anode 1 6 Base

Cathode 2 5 Collector
CNY17-2 A 63 125 70 1
3 4 Emitter
CNY17-3 A 100 200 70 1
CNY17-4 A 160 320 70 1
NOTES: 1. VDE 0884 with option 060. A. Wide-lead spacing (10.16 mm) with option W00

Packages
Widebody
Package SMD SMD
4 3 6 5 4 Package Package

1 2 1 2 3

300 mil 400 mil


4-pin DIP 6-pin DIP SO-4 SO-5 SO 8 SO 16
8-pin DIP 8-pin DIP

Option Nomenclatures
060 = VDE0884 Option 00C = Rank Mark C (for HCPL-181 and HCPL-817 only)
W00 = 0.4 Lead Spacing Option 00D = Rank Mark D (for HCPL-181 and HCPL-817 only)
300 = Lead Bend SMD Option 00L = Rank Mark L (for HCPL-817 only)
500 = Tape and Reel Packaging Option 020 = UL 5000 Vrms/1 minute Option
00A = Rank Mark A (for HCPL-181 and HCPL-817 only) VDE option (060)
00B = Rank Mark B (for HCPL-181 and HCPL-817 only)

8
Hermetic and Hi-Rel Optocouplers

For Military, Space, Life Critical and


High Reliability Applications
Choose from Agilent Agilent Technologies is listed as a MOSFET or Analog Isolation
Technologiess broad line of high qualified supplier for Classes H, Amplifier device, we can provide
performance hermetic E, and K product on the Qualified up-screening to most of the
optocouplers to meet your Manufactures List, QML-38534. ClassCK requirements of
military, space, life critical, and MIL-PRF-38534.
high reliability applications. All product families are repre-
There are four ceramic package sented by commercial grade units Agilent Technologies is both
styles to choose from: 8 and and by high reliability tested DSCC certified and qualified to
16Cpin Dual-In-line Packages, units. To give maximum opportu- manufacture Class H (military
20Cterminal Leadless Ceramic nity to utilize recognized DSCC approved) and Class K (space
Chip Carriers, and 16 pin Flat parts, all 28 hermetic products approved) hermetic optocouplers
Pack packages. Available in most are available on DSCC Standard per the requirements of MIL-PRF-
package styles are seven basic Microcircuit Drawings (SMDs). 38534 Option 1 QCI (in-line
families of optocouplers: Analog Dual part marking of the Agilent inspection) or Option 2 (end-of-
Isolation Amplifier, Power part number and the DSCC line inspection). All catalog Class
Transistor Interface, High Speed Drawing is standard on all high H devices are processed per
Logic Gate Optocouplers, High reliability products. Each high re- Option 1 QCI. Class K devices are
Speed Transistor Optocouplers, liability device is tested and guar- processed per Option 2 QCI.
High Gain Optocouplers, AC/DC anteed over the full military Custom devices are available
to Logic Interface, and the Power temperature range of -55C to processed to either option.
MOSFET. +125C.

Agilent Technologies hermetic Agilent offers a standard line of


optocouplers are classified by the Class K devices to be procured
Department of Defense as hybrid that require no source control
microcircuits and are manufac- drawing to be generated. Note
tured in Singapore on a MIL-PRF- that while Agilent does not cur-
38534 certified and qualified line. rently supply a certified Class K
Screening per MIL-PRF-38534

Procedure Method Conditions Class H Class K


Nondestruct Bond Pull 2023 N/A 100%
Internal Visual 2017 100% 100%
Temperature Cycle 1010 Cond. C, -65C to +150C, 10 cycles 100% 100%
Constant Acceleration 2001 Cond. A, 3 Kgs, Y1 and Y2 100% 100%
Visual Inspection Internal requirements 100% 100%
PIND 2020 Cond. A N/A 100%
Serialization N/A 100%
Pre-Burn-In Elec. Test Group A, subgroup 1 (except II-O) (DC @ +25C) 100% 100%
Burn-In 1015 Cond. B, +125C, 160 hours 100%
Cond. B, +125C, 320 hours 100%
Interim Elec. Test Group A, subgroup 1 (except II-O) (DC @ +25C) N/A 100%
Post Burn-In Elec. Test Group A, subgroup 1 (DC @ +25C), 10% PDA 100%
Group A, subgroup 1 (DC @ +25C), 2% PDA 100%
Final Elec. Test Group A, subgroup 2 (DC @ +125C) 100% 100%
Group A, subgroup 3 (DC @ 55C) 100% 100%
Group A, subgroup 9 (AC @ +25C) 100% 100%
Fine Leak 1014 Cond. A 100% 100%
Gross Leak 1014 Cond. C 100% 100%
Radiographics 2012 N/A 100%
External Visual 2009 100% 100%

Quality Conformance Inspection


Group A Testing
Group A testing is satisfied per the in-line verification testing requirements of MIL-PRF-38534 for
Class H devices.
Group A testing is performed per in-line sample testing requirements of MIL-PRF-38534 for Class K devices.
Group B Testing
Group B testing is satisfied by performing in-line inspection sample monitoring as required by
MIL-PRF-38534 for Class H devices.
Group B testing per MIL-PRF-38534 is performed on each lot for Class K devices.
Group C Testing
Group C testing is performed only on the first inspection lot and as required to evaluate or qualify changes
per the requirements of MIL-PRF-38534.
Group D Testing
Group D testing is not performed. Note that Group D requirements are satisfied by package evaluation at
incoming inspection as allowed by MIL-PRF-38534.

Please be advised that Class H and class K devices have very similar Screening and Quality Conformance
Inspection requirements as shown above. Class K devices, however, have substantially more stringent
element evaluation and assembly criteria. The quality and reliability of a Class K device is achieved through
the build process. Additional testing of a lesser grade product does not assure a comparative product.

10
Hermetically Sealed High Speed Logic Gate Optocouplers
Single Part No. Class H DSCC Class K DSCC Package No. Typical Common Input Withstand
Channel SMD SMD 8 pin 16 pin 16 pin 20 pad of Data Mode @ Current Test
Schematic Class H* Class K* DIP DIP FP LCCC Channels Rate VCM = 50V Voltage
NC 1 8 VCC HCPL-5200 HCPL-5201 5962-8876801 HCPL-520K 5962-8876802K 1 5 MBd 1000V/s 28 mA 1500 Vdc
ANODE 2 7 VO HCPL-5230 HCPL-5231 5962-8876901 HCPL-523K 5962-8876904K 2 5 MBd 1000V/s 28 mA 1500 Vdc
CATHODE 3 6 VE HCPL-6230 HCPL-6231 5962-8876902 HCPL-623K 5962-8876905K 2 5 MBd 1000V/s 28 mA 1500 Vdc
NC 4 5 GND
HCPL-6250 HCPL-6251 5962-8876903 HCPL-625K 5962-8876906K 4 5 MBd 1000V/s 28 mA 1500 Vdc
NC 1 8 VCC HCPL-5400 HCPL-5401 5962-8957001 HCPL-540K 5962-8957002K 1 20 MBd 500V/s 610 mA 1500 Vdc
ANODE 2 7 VE HCPL-5430 HCPL-5431 5962-8957101 HCPL-543K 5962-8957103K 2 20 MBd 500V/s 610 mA 1500 Vdc
CATHODE 3 6 VO HCPL-6430 HCPL-6431 5962-8957102 HCPL-643K 5962-8957104K 2 20 MBd 500V/s 610 mA 1500 Vdc
NC 4 5 GND

6N134 6N134/883B 8102801 HCPL-268K 5962-9800101K 2 10 MBd 1000V/s 10 mA 1500 Vdc


NC 1 8 VCC HCPL-5600 HCPL-5601 5962-9085501H HCPL-560K 5962-9085501K 1 10 MBd 1000V/s 10 mA 1500 Vdc
ANODE 2 7 VE HCPL-5630 HCPL-5631 8102802 HCPL-563K 5962-9800102K 2 10 MBd 1000V/s 10 mA 1500 Vdc
CATHODE 3 6 VO HCPL-5650 HCPL-5651 8102805 2 10 MBd 1000V/s 10 mA 2500 Vdc
NC 4 5 GND
HCPL-6630 HCPL-6631 8102803 HCPL-663K 5962-9800103K 2 10 MBd 1000V/s 10 mA 1500 Vdc
HCPL-6650 HCPL-6651 8102804 HCPL-655K 5962-9800104K 4 10 MBd 1000V/s 10 mA 1500 Vdc
1 16 HCPL-1930 HCPL-1931 5962-8957201 HCPL-193K 5962-8957202K 2 10 MBd 1000V/s 10 mA 1500 Vdc
+Iin 2 15 VCC

3 14 VE1

base 1 4 13 VO1

5 12 VE2

+Iin 6 11 VO2

7 10 GND

base 2 8 9

Hermetically Sealed High Speed Transistor Optocouplers


Single Part No. Class H DSCC Class K DSCC Package No. Typical Current Input Withstand
Channel SMD SMD 8 pin 16 pin 16 pin 20 pad of Data Transfer Current Test
Schematic Class H* Class K* DIP DIP FP LCCC Channels Rate Ratio Voltage

NC 1
4N55 4N55/883B 5962-8767901 HCPL-257K 5962-8767905K 2 700 KBd 9% min 16 mA 1500 Vdc
8 VCC

ANODE 2 7 VB
HCPL-5500 HCPL-5501 5962-9085401H HCPL-550K 5962-9085401K 1 700 KBd 9% min 16 mA 1500 Vdc
CATHODE 3 6 VO
HCPL-5530 HCPL-5531 5962-8767902 HCPL-553K 5962-8767906K 2 700 KBd 9% min 16 mA 1500 Vdc
NC 4 5 GND HCPL-6530 HCPL-6531 5962-8767903 HCPL-653K 5962-8767907K 2 700 KBd 9% min 16 mA 1500 Vdc
HCPL-6550 HCPL-6551 5962-8767904 HCPL-655K 5962-8767908K 4 700 KBd 9% min 16 mA 1500 Vdc

Hermetically Sealed High Gain Optocouplers


Single Part No. Class H DSCC Class K DSCC Package No. Typical Current Input Withstand
Channel SMD SMD 8 pin 16 pin 16 pin 20 pad of Data Transfer Current Test
Schematic Class H* Class K* DIP DIP FP LCCC Channels Rate Ratio Voltage
6N140A 6N140A/883B 8303401 HCPL-177K 5962-9800201K 4 100 KBd 300% min 0.55 mA 1500 Vdc
NC 1 8 VCC

ANODE 2 7 NC
HCPL-5700 HCPL-5701 5962-8981001 HCPL-570K 5962-8981002K 1 100 KBd 300% min 0.55 mA 1500 Vdc
CATHODE 3 6 VO
HCPL-5730 HCPL-5731 5962-8978501 HCPL-573K 5962-8978503K 2 100 KBd 300% min 0.55 mA 1500 Vdc
NC 4 5 GND HCPL-6730 HCPL-6731 5962-8978502 HCPL-673K 5962-8978504K 2 100 KBd 300% min 0.55 mA 1500 Vdc
HCPL-6750 HCPL-6751 8302401 HCPL-675K 5962-9800201K 4 100 KBd 300% min 0.55 mA 1500 Vdc
* DSCC SMD Number does not include extensions for lead form and finish.

11
Hermetically Sealed AC/DC to Logic Interface Optocoupler
Single Part No. Class H DSCC Class K DSCC Package No. Typical Input Output Withstand
Channel SMD SMD 8 pin of Data Threshold Current Test
Schematic Class H* Class K* DIP Channels Rate Current Voltage
DC+ Vcc HCPL-5760 HCPL-5761 5962-8947701 HCPL-576K 5962-8947702K 1 100 KHz 2.5 mA TH+ 2.6 mA 1500 Vdc
2 D1 D2 8 1.3 mA TH
1 AC VO
4 AC D3 D4 6

DC- 5
3 GND

Hermetically Sealed Power MOSFET


Single Part No. Class H DSCC Class K DSCC Package No. Output Output Maximum Maximum Input/
Channel SMD SMD 8 pin of Withstand On- Load Off-State Output
Schematic Class H* Class K* DIP Channels Voltage Resistance Current Leakage Insulation

NC 1 8 Vo+
HSSR-7110 HSSR-7111 5962-9314001H 1 90 V 1.0 Ohm 0.8 A ac 250 mA 1500 Vdc

ANODE 2 7
1.6 A dc
CATHODE 3 6

NC 4 5 Vo-

Hermetically Sealed Analog Isolation Amplifier


Single Part No. Class H DSCC Class K DSCC Package No. Gain Non- Prop CMR Bandwidth Offset
Channel SMD SMD 8 pin of Tolerance Linearity Delay V/s Khz mV
Schematic Class H* Class K* DIP Channels (max %) (max %) s (max) (min) (typ) (typ)
HCPL-7850 HCPL-7851 5962-9755701H 1 5 0.1 11 5000 100 0.6
VDD1 1 8 VDD2

VIN+ 2 + 7 VOUT+
+
VIN- 3 6 VOUT-

GND 1 4 5 GND 2

Hermetically Sealed Intelligent Power Module and Gate Drive Interface


Single Part No. Class H DSCC Class K DSCC Package No. Typical Current Input Common Withstand
Channel SMD SMD 8 pin of Data Transfer Current Mode @ Test
Schematic Class H* Class K* DIP Channels Rate Ratio VCM=1000V Voltage
HCPL-5300 HCPL-5301 5962-9685201H HCPL-530K 5962-9685201K 1 2 MBd 30% min 1020 mA 10kV/s 1500 Vdc
NC 1 8 Vcc

ANODE 2 7 RL

CATHODE 3 6 V
O
NC 4 5 GND

* DSCC SMD Number does not include extensions for lead form and finish.

Hermetic Package Styles

Flat Pack Leadless Ceramic 8 Pin DIP 16 Pin DIP


Chip Carrier
Options:
100 Butt Cut Leads (cut to just below setting plane)
200 Solder Dipped Leads
300 Gull Wing Lead Form (gold plated leads only)
12
Design Considerations

Insulation and Regulation of Optically Coupled


Isolation Devices
The primary purpose of opto- some common causes, defines the input-output voltage stress, or
coupler devices is to provide both ability of the optocoupler to working voltage, and the middle
electrical insulation and signal prevent the distortion of data region to transient voltage stress.
isolation. The popularity of through the suppression and Operation above these regions
Agilent Technologies' product filtration of common-mode has shown to cause wear-out
offering can be accredited to cost- transients. A further discussion of either in functionality or insulat-
effective innovations in these signal isolation can be found in ing capability and is not recom-
areas. Yet there exists a surprising the section entitled Common- mended. Endurance Voltage is
level of misunderstanding Mode Transient Rejection. based on the inherent properties
regarding these two terms from of Agilent optocouplers that
both vendor and user alike. The The effects of repeated long-term utilize unique packaging
discrepancies that exist within high-voltage stress between input technologies and does not apply
the worldwide regulatory and output of an optocoupler has to products manufactured by
community add to the frustration continued to be an area of other vendors. In addition, as
level for many designers. This uncertainty. Much of the technical these tests do not take into
discussion attempts to help the emphasis has been on the ability consideration particular
designer capitalize on Agilent of optocouplers to withstand one- equipment use conditions, Agilent
Technologies knowledge. time short-term high-voltage recommends the designer consult
transients (e.g., U.L. 1 minute the appropriate regulatory agency
Insulation Defined dielectric voltage withstand guidelines to determine
The electrical insulating capability rating). Agilent Technologies has applicable working voltage. For an
of an optocoupler, sometimes conducted extensive operating in-depth discussion on Endurance
referred to as withstand voltage, life tests to determine the effects Voltage, consult Agilent
is determined by its ability to of continuous high-voltage stress, Application Note AN1074.
protect surrounding circuitry, as both transient as well as steady-
well as itself, against physical state, on the degradation of Regulatory Environment
damage resulting from different insulating performance. On Because electrical insulation is a
voltage potentials. This potentially completion, the test data was function of safety, optocoupler
damaging phenomena can be analyzed to determine safe performance, both at component
system induced (e.g., motor rail operating areas for steady-state and system levels, is often subject
voltage) or externally coupled input-output high-voltage stress. to regulatory requirements and
(e.g., lightning pulse). The The boundary conditions, as approvals that vary according to
insulating material between input shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, have country as well as industry. Most
and output as well as the packag- been defined by Agilent as agencies are a mixture of govern-
ing technology are the primary Endurance Voltage. The lower mental and private organizations
determinants of withstand region refers to the safe operating with industry representation.
voltage capability. In contrast, area for the application of Some common regulatory
signal isolation, although sharing continuous steady-state ac and dc agencies are listed in Table 9.
INSULATION AND REGULATION

Category 1 Optocouplers Category 2 Optocouplers:

4N45/6 HCPL-2400/11/30
6N135/6/7/8/9 HCPL-2502/30/31
HCPL-0201/11 HCPL-2601/02/11/12/
HCPL-0452/3 30/31
HCPL-0500/1 HCPL-2730/1 HCPL-314J/315J HCPL-7800/A
HCPL-0600/01/11 HCPL-3700/60 HCPL-316J HCPL-7840
HCPL-0700/1 HCPL-4100/4200 HCPL-7601/11 HCPL-788J
HCPL-2200/01/02/11/ HCPL-4502/03/34/62 HCPL-7710 HSSR-8060/8400
12/19/31/32 HCPL-4661 HCPL-7720/1
HCPL-2300
5,000 5,000
WEAR-OUT REGION WEAR-OUT REGION
4,500 4,500

INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE, Vac


INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE, Vac

4,000 4,000
SAFE SAFE
OPERATING OPERATING
3,500 3,500 REGION FOR
REGION FOR
TRANSIENT TRANSIENT
3,000 INPUT-OUTPUT 3,000 INPUT-OUTPUT
VOLTAGE VOLTAGE
2,500 2,500

2,000 2,000

1,500 ENDURANCE VOLTAGE 800 Vac 1,500 ENDURANCE VOLTAGE 800 Vac
(NOTE: FOR DC OPERATION, (NOTE: FOR DC OPERATION,
ENDURANCE VOLTAGE IS 1000 Vdc) ENDURANCE VOLTAGE IS 1000 Vdc
1,000 1,000

500 500
SAFE OPERATING REGION FOR CONTINUOUS SAFE OPERATING REGION FOR CONTINUOUS
INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE
0 0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000

CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TIME, HOURS CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TIME, HOURS

Figure 1. Recommended Safe Operating Area for Input- Figure 2. Recommended Safe Operating Area for Input-
Output Voltage-Endurance Voltage for Category 1 Output Voltage-Endurance Voltage for Category 2
Optocouplers. Optocouplers.

Category 3 Optocouplers:

6N135/6/7/8/9, OPTION 020


HCPL-2502/30/31, OPTION 020
HCPL-2601/02/11/12/30/31, OPTION 020
HCPL-2730/1, OPTION 020
HCPL-3000/3100/3101 EXTERNAL
HCPL-4502/03/34/62, OPTION 020 CREEPAGE
HCPL-4661, OPTION 020
5,500
WEAR-OUT REGION
5,000 DISTANCE
4,500 LED THROUGH
INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE, Vac

INSULATION
4,000 SAFE
OPERATING
3,500 REGION FOR
TRANSIENT
3,000 INPUT-OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
2,500
2,000
ENDURANCE VOLTAGE 800 Vac
DETECTOR
1,500
(NOTE: FOR DC OPERATION,
ENDURANCE VOLTAGE IS 1000 Vdc)
1,000
500 EXTERNAL
SAFE OPERATING REGION FOR CONTINUOUS
INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE CLEARANCE
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000

CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TIME, HOURS OPTOCOUPLER'S INSULATION PARAMETERS

Figure 3. Recommended Safe Operating Area for Figure 4. Optocouplers Insulation Parameters.
Input-Output Voltage-Endurance Voltage for
Category 3 Optocouplers.

WARNING: In all cases where regulatory compliance is required, working voltage as defined by the
regulatory agency cannot be exceeded.

14
INSULATIONAND REGULATION

Table 9
COMMON REGULATORY AGENCIES
Name Country Abbreviation
Verband Deutscher Electrotechniker Germany VDE
Underwriters Laboratories United States UL
Canadian Standards Association Canada CSA
British Standards Institute United Kingdom BSI
Norge Elektriske Materielkontrol Norway NEMKO
Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol Denmark DEMKO
Svenska Elektriske Materielkontrollanstalten AB Sweden SEMKO
Sahkotarkastuskeskus Elinspektionscentralen Finland SETI

Currently, little conformity exists Comparative Tracking Index protected against over-
between the various agencies (CTI) voltage with devices such as
regarding mechanical configura- Outer molding material charac- diverters, filters, capacitors,
tions and electrical test require- terization in the presence of etc.
ments. Within the European aqueous contaminants. The II Energy consuming equip-
Union, however, standardization higher the CTI value, the more ment (e.g., appliances)
of equipment as well as component resistant the material is to supplied through a fixed
level specifications is in progress. electrical arc tracking. CTI is installation.
In the interim, testing and often used with creepage by III Primarily equipment in fixed
approval according to equipment safety agencies to determine installations (e.g., fixed
type and environmental factors working voltage. industrial equipment).
must be obtained according to IV Primary supply level for
External Creepage
the control documents of each industrial factories.
The shortest distance along the
country. The International Insulation
outside surface, between input
Electrotechnical Commission Operational - required for
and output leads, measured in
(IEC), with worldwide correct equipment operation but
mm. Refer to Figure 4.
representation, provides a forum not as a protection against
for generating technical Dielectric Insulation Voltage
electric shock.
standards. The European Withstand Rating
Basic - protects against electric
Committee for Electrotechnical The ability to withstand without
shock.
Standardization (CENELEC), has breakdown a 60 second appli-
Supplementary - independently
European Commission authority cation of a defined dielectric
applied to basic insulation to
to adopt IEC standards as insulation voltage between input
protect against shock in the
European Norms (EN), with the and output leads.
event of its failure.
force of law. Distance Through Insulation Double - composed of both
Distance between the photo- basic and supplementary.
Common Terms emitter and photodetector Reinforced - A single insulation
External Clearance inside optocoupler cavity (also system composed of several
The shortest distance through called internal clearance). Refer layers (e.g., single and
air, between conductive input to Figure 4. supplementary).
and output leads, measured in Installation Class Internal Clearance
mm. Refer to Figure 4. I Equipment in closed See Distance Through
systems (e.g., telecom) Insulation.

15
INSULATION AND REGULATION

Internal Creepage advantages over Dielectric Rated Mains Voltage


The shortest border distance Withstand Voltage testing, Primary power voltage declared
between two separate insulating which might adversely affect the by manufacturer. Used to
materials measured between insulating material, and over categorize optocoupler
emitter and detector. through insulation distance maximum allowable working
Material Group (see Compara- requirements which not only voltage.
tive Tracking Index) increase manufacturing costs
I 600 < CTI but also do not necessarily
II 400 < CTI < 600 result in acceptable insulating
IIIa 175 < CTI < 400 capability.
IIIb 100 < CTI < 175 Pollution Degree
Partial Discharge 1 - Nonconductive pollution
Electric discharge that partially only.
bridges the insulation between 2 - Only occasional, temporary
two electrodes. Agilent supports conductivity due to
partial discharge measurements condensation.
per VDE0884, a technique 3 - Frequent conductive pollu-
developed to evaluate the tion due to condensation.
integrity of insulating materials. 4 - Persistent conductive pollu-
VDEs philosophy is that partial tion due to dust, rain or
discharge testing offers snow.

16
INSULATIONAND REGULATION

Common-Mode Transient Rejection


Circuit designers often encounter noise. Agilent specifies common- proprietary, low-cost Faraday
the adverse effects of common- mode rejection as common- shield which decouples the
mode noise in a design. Once a mode transient rejection optocoupler input side from the
common-mode problem is (CMTR). CMTR describes the output side. The second method
identified, there are several ways maximum tolerable rate-of-rise is by unique package design
that it can be resolved. However, (or fall) of a common-mode which minimizes input-to-output
common-mode interference voltage (given in volts per micro- capacitance. The importance of
manifests itself in many ways; second). The specification for these two strengths is explained
therefore, it may be hard to CMTR also includes the amplitude as follows.
determine whether it is the cause of the common-mode voltage
of a circuits misbehavior. If a (VCM) that can be tolerated. Figure 5 illustrates a Common-
system is connected and running Common-mode interference that mode transient pulse (VCM).
but only produces erroneous exceeds the maximum specifica-
data, common-mode noise may be tion might result in abnormal Figure 6a and 6b show interfer-
the reason. This section describes voltage transitions or excessive ence circuit models for two types
sources of common-mode noise on the output signal. of possible common-mode failure
problems, presents possible (CMTR is slightly different than mechanisms for a single-
solutions, and highlights the common-mode rejection ratio transistor optocoupler. The
technology that Agilent CMRR, often used for analog dashed lines are shown to
Technologies' Components Group devices and commonly specified indicate external components
uses to produce opto-isolators in dB as the ratio of the added to the optocoupler. VCM
with superior Common-Mode differential-mode gain to the represents a voltage spike across
Performance. common-mode gain.) the optocoupler isolation path
between the output-side ground
Common-mode rejection (CMR) Agilent optocouplers rely on two (VG2) and input-side ground (VG1).
is a measure of the ability of a key technical strengths to achieve VDM represents a signal voltage
device to tolerate common-mode high CMTR. The first is use of a applied across the input side.

INTERNAL SHIELD
TRANSMIT SIDE RECEIVE SIDE

LED PHOTODIODE
R VDM RL
OPTO-
ISOLATOR RL IP
V
IB
VO
CIS CSB
VG1
INPUT GROUND VCM
iCM
VOLTMETER VG2
VOLTMETER OUTPUT GROUND

+ (VCM)
NOTE: iCM GETS DIVERTED TO GROUND, VG2, WHEN INPUT IS OFF.
COMMON-MODE TRANSIENT
iCM IS SUPPLIED FROM GROUND, VG2, WHEN OUTPUT IS ON.

Figure 5. Illustration of VCM Common- Figure 6a. Interference Circuit


Mode Pulse. Model.

17
COMMON-MODE TRANSIENT REJECTION

INTERNAL SHIELD
Referring to Figure 6a the para-
sitic distributed capacitance CIS, iLP
which might tend to couple VDM RL
transient current into the transistor LED PHOTODIODE
IP IB
base node (for example when the CIA
VO
transistor is in the off state)
VG1
terminates on an internal Faraday INPUT GROUND VCM
shield. Therefore the transient VOLTMETER CIC VG2
current, ICM, gets diverted to OUTPUT GROUND
output ground (VG2). Referring to
Figure 6b, the parasitic distrib- NOTE: CURRENT STOLEN FROM LED: iLP = CIAdVCM
uted capacitances, CIA and CIC are dt

shown across the LED anode-to-


ground (VG2) and LED cathode- Figure 6b. Interference Circuit Model.
to-ground (VG2) respectively.
Because the LED anode is at a
relatively higher impedance than
the cathode (i.e., RLED to ground)
Figure 7 shows the possible is shown (successively) in the
current at this point will tend to
effect on the output voltage level high and low states. (This might
be modulated slightly during CM
of an optocoupler due to a be observed if Rled were con-
transients. For instance, if the
common-mode pulse. The output nected as in Figures 6a, 6b.)
LED is on, then during a positive
transient (i.e., dVCM /dt > 0)
current will be diverted away
from the LED. For fast enough
transients, this may turn the LED
off. (If RLED is connected to the VO
LED cathode side then CIC VCM
provides a parasitic path to divert
current towards or away from the t
LED.) This type of failure is
avoided by ensuring that CIA and
VOH
CIC are small. VIH
VIL
VOL
t
tTRANSIENT tTRANSIENT
VCM
TRANSIENT RATE OF CHANGE = t
TRANSIENT
TRANSIENT AMPLITUDE = VCM

Figure 7. Common Mode Interference Effect.

18
COMMON-MODE TRANSIENT REJECTION

HV +

ISOLATION ISOLATION

GATE GATE
DRIVE A1 B1 DRIVE
CONTROL
CIRCUITRY

MOTOR

1 2

GATE GATE
DRIVE B2 A2 DRIVE

HV -

Figure 8. Full-Bridge Power Switch Configuration.

As long as the amplitude VCM and transistors (A1, B1) is attached to example, a half bridge circuit that
value of dVCM /dt are less than the the drain of a second set of switches between +250 V and
ratings for the optocoupler being transistors (A2, B2). When -250 V in 100 ns creates a
used, VOH will remain above 2 V transistor set A turns on, set B common-mode transient signal of
(maximum TTL VIH) and VOL will turns off. Current flows from the 5000 V/s with an amplitude of
remain below 0.8 V (minimum positive supply, through 500 V (see Figure 9). The device
TTL VIL). Note that the slight transistor A1, through the load, that carries the control infor-
perturbations in output voltage and through transistor A2. When mation to each MOSFET must be
occur sometime after the input set B turns on, set A turns off, able to withstand this level of
pulse which causes them, due to and the polarity of the current common-mode interference.
the non-zero response time of the through the inductive load is Although this example may seem
output transistor to the reversed. extreme, it is a fact that engineers
perturbation signal. continue to use faster-switching
How does this operation create a transistors to increase motor
Common-mode signals can common-mode problem? The efficiency. Power MOSFETs, for
originate from several different input of each gate drive circuitry example, are commonly used in
sources. A full bridge power is referenced to the ground of the power inverter applications
inverter, shown in Figure 8, is a digital control circuitry; the because they are capable of high
good example of an application output common, on the other frequency, high power switching.
that can exhibit large amounts of hand, is floating and referenced The fast switching speeds of the
common-mode noise. Full-bridge to the source of its associated transistors, however, can
inverters are commonly found in power transistor. The floating generate common-mode signals
motor-speed control and switching commons of the upper gate drive with very high rates of change
power supply applications. The circuits rapidly switch between (dVCM/dt).
power inverter is generally used the positive and negative power
to produce an ac output from a supplies. This rapid switching The common-mode signal rate of
dc input. In a full-bridge inverter creates a large voltage swing rise can also be affected by the
application like that shown in across the input to output of the reverse recovery characteristics
Figure 8, the source of one set of gate drive circuitry. As an of diodes D1 and D2 in the power

19
COMMON-MODE TRANSIENT REJECTION

+250 V
I Q1

D1 I D2

Q1

MOTOR
V CM
VCM

D2 I D2

Q2
VCM

-250 V

Figure 10. Half-Bridge Inverter


+250 V
Waveforms.
V CM= 500 V
V 500 V 5000 V
V CM = =
t 0.1 s s
dV CM = 5000 V
dt s
-250 V
mode problems, providing
100 ns protection against common-mode
transients with slew rates as fast
as 15 kV/s at VCM as high as
Figure 9. Half-Bridge Example. 1500 V.

High electrical noise levels can


also contribute to common-mode
problems. A significant amount of
electrical noise is found in
inverter shown in Figure 9; these tion. The voltage and current industrial environments as a
diodes are often referred to as waveforms shown in Figure 10 result of the starting and operating
freewheeling diodes. If the illustrate what happens when Q1 of electric motors. When a large
inverter is driving an inductive turns back on. As Q1 starts to motor first turns on, it normally
load, such as a motor winding, turn on, the current through D2 requires a large in-rush current to
these diodes may become forward begins to decrease. The current reach operating speed. This large
biased during the normal through D2 continues to decrease current spike can generate a
operation of the inverter. For and actually goes negative for a significant amount of electrical
example, assume that Q1 of short time due to the storage of noise in its own and nearby
Figure 9 is turned on, Q2 is off, minority carrier charge in its systems. Even the electric motors
and current is flowing through Q1 junction. It is when this charge in a typical household environ-
and into the inductive load. When has been depleted that D2 begins ment vary in size from fractional
Q1 turns off, voltage VCM swings to turn off and VCM begins to to low integral horsepower units
in the negative direction until increase. If D2 turns off very and are often noisy ac-operated
diode D2 becomes forward biased quickly, VCM can also rise very or brushed dc-motors. Other
and conducts the load current. quickly, generating a large sources of electrical noise include
common-mode transient signal. microwave ovens, welding
It is when Q1 turns back on that equipment, and automobile
very high rates of rise can be For the particular case of driving ignitions.
generated. In extreme cases, the gate of an IGBT or power
when Q1 turns on again, the rate MOSFET in a power inverter, the Common-mode noise can enter a
of rise of voltage VCM is deter- HCPL-3120 IGBT/MOSFET gate system through conductive,
mined by how quickly diode D2 drive optical isolator is an inductive, or capacitive coupling.
recovers from forward conduc- effective solution for common- An example of a conducted

20
COMMON-MODE TRANSIENT REJECTION

noise voltage is the difference in


1 8 VCC+
ground potential that may exist SHIELD
0.01 F
1/2 RLED
between two connected systems 350
2 iLP 7
in a plant. The two systems may 1/2 RLED
3 iLN 6 VO
experience a small voltage CIA
CIC 15 pF
difference between their ground 4 5 GND
references. This voltage difference
might cause a ground-loop
current to flow. If the impedance
of the path through which the +
VCM
ground-loop current flows is large
enough, a significant amount of
interference will result. Capaci- Figure 11. AC Equivalent Circuit for HCPL-261X.
tive or inductive coupling may
occur when signal wires run close
to ac power cables. Electromag-
netically induced interference
(EMI) can also be coupled from to-output capacitance, typically European Community where
adjacent signal lines or nearby provide better common-mode systems designers need to
equipment, especially in factory rejection than transformers or achieve system-level standards
environments. Other sources of capacitively-coupled devices. The (now adopted as EN50081/
common-mode noise that can be CMR specification of an EN50082 which set limits on the
coupled into a system include optocoupler ranges up to amount of acceptable EMI a
lightning strikes and electrostatic VCM = 1500 V amplitude and up system radiates or to which it is
discharge (ESD). to 15,000 V/s rate of change of immune.)
VCM, for high-CMR products.
Optical isolation is a useful tech- A technique which may be used
nique for reducing common-mode Another advantage of optocoup- to further enhance CMTR is an
interference. Optocouplers, like lers lies in the area of EMI LED split-resistor technique as
transformers and capacitively- generation and susceptibility. shown in Figure 11; (note that
coupled devices, provide isolation Transformers typically radiate the VDM which would appear
between the input and output of a electromagnetic interference between the top and bottom
system. Transformers, by virtue (EMI) and are susceptible to RLEDs has not been shown in this
of their high primary-to- magnetic fields. Capacitively- ac equivalent circuit). By using
secondary capacitance, tend to coupled devices generate ground- two LED-resistors (instead of
have lower CMTR capability. loop current, thus generating one) the current change at the
Capacitively-coupled devices tend EMI. Optocouplers use light for anode of the LED is nearly
to have poor CMTR capability data transmission; additionally, canceled by the current change at
(since in these devices fast, they effectively eliminate ground- the cathode, thus tending to keep
transient common-mode pulses loop current. Therefore, they do the LED current constant. This
pass across the coupling capaci- not radiate nor are they affected makes the optical isolator more
tor and are not filtered out.) by stray magnetic fields. This immune to CM transients where
Optocouplers, having low input- ability is well-recognized in the CLA and CLC limit CMTR.

21
LED DEGRADATION

LED Degradation over Time


One concern for optocoupler require that the circuit designer Figure 14 illustrates how, based
lifetime is that LED light-output guardband the minimum on knowledge of initial and post-
(LOP) decreases over time. recommended operating IF by an stress LOP vs. IF, (for a GaAsP
Generally, light-output degrada- amount sufficient to account for LED) a minimum guardbanded IF
tion gets worse with increasing expected LOP degradation. can be determined to provide for
operating temperature and LOP degradation over the life of
operating LED current. A worst- Agilent has undertaken testing of the LED. For this case, the
case scenario is that over time, as LED degradation for periods of minimum recommended IF at
the LED becomes dimmer, the continuous operation up to at t = 0 hours (IF(min)) of 5 mA is
LOP will fall below the minimum least 10 khours for various LEDs guardbanded for 10 khours of
value needed for a part to switch used in Agilent optocouplers. operation to a value of 6.1 mA.
properly. Agilent Technologies, Figures 12a and 12b show the
an industry leader in LED normalized light output over a Note that in Figure 14 if the LOP
technology, tests LOP 10,000 hour period for Gallium vs. IF curves were linear over the
degradation under accelerated Arsenide Phosphide (GaAsP) and range between IF(min) and IGB(min)
conditions in order to provide Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (minimum IF guardbanded for
designers with information on the (AlGaAs) LEDs respectively. t = 10 khours) then the amount of
expected operating lifetime of guardbanding (percent change)
optocouplers. Optocouplers Figure 13 shows LOP as a would be equal to the amount of
which have an input driver IC are function of IF for a GaAsP LED LOP degradation (percent
designed such that the driver IC under operating conditions of change). Since in our case the
sets the proper input IF, guard- IF = 20 mA at an ambient curve is concave up the amount
banding for expected LED LOP temperature of TA = 125C. Curves of guardbanding is slightly less
degradation over the life of the are shown for t = 0 hours and than the percent change in LOP
optocoupler. (Examples are the t = 10 khours of continuous between t = 0 and t = 10 khours.
HCPL-3700, HCPL-7101, and operation. Figure 15 (which is a plot of the
HCPL-7840.) On the other hand, slope of the (t = 0) curve in
optocouplers requiring an input Optocouplers which use the Figure 14), shows that the slope
current-setting resistor (i.e., GaAsP and AlGaAs LEDs are is increasing up to about
without an input driver IC) listed in Figures 12a and 12b. IF = 20CmA, at which point it

22
LED DEGRADATION

NORMALIZED LED LIGHT OUTPUT AT t = 0 hr


1.2
flattens out and begins MEAN LOP
decreasing. 1.1 MEAN - 3 LOP
MEASURED IF = 16 mA
1.0
By empirically modeling the STRESSED IF = 20 mA

typical GaAsP LOP vs. IF curve 0.9


GaAsP LEDS ARE USED IN:
and applying knowledge of worst- 6N135/6/7/8/9
0.8 4N45/6
case (-3 ) degradation over time, 6N134, 6N140
0.7 HCPL-4502/3/4/6
guardbanded IGB(min) for a typical HCPL-02XX, HCPL-22XX
LED can be reduced to the HCPL-05XX, -25XX, -06XX, -26XX,
0.6
-07XX, -27XX
following equation: 0.5
HCPL-4100, -4200, -370X, -3120, -3150
HCPL-55XX, -65XX, -56XX, -66XX,
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -57XX, -67XX
IF(min) TIME (kHOURS)
IGB(min) =
1

a
Figure 12a. Normalized LED Light Output (LOP) vs. Time for GaAsP LED
(Stress IF = 20 mA, TA = 125C).
IF(min) 1.214
NORMALIZED LED LIGHT OUTPUT AT t = 0 hr

1.2
where, MEAN LOP
1.1 MEAN - 3 LOP
IF(min) = minimum recommended
IF at t = 0 hours. 1.0
MEASURED IF = 5 mA
STRESSED IF = 25 mA
IGB(min) = minmum guardbanded
0.9
IF after t = 10 khours. AlGaAs (TYPE 1) LED IS USED IN:
HCNW22XX/26XX/45XX/4562
a = 1.3 (empirical curve - fit) 0.8 HCNW135/6/7/8/9
= Post-stress LOP Factor HCNR200/1
0.7 HCPL-78XX
( 0.784 for 10 khours, HCPL-7100/1
HCPL-7601/11
TA = 125C, IF = 20 mA) 0.6

0.5
This equation applies well when 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
IF is approximately constant. TIME (kHOURS)

Example: To calculate the Figure 12b. Normalized LED Light Output (LOP) vs. Time for AlGaAs LED
(Stress IF = 25 mA, TA = 125C).
appropriate IGB(min) for an
HCPL-3120 note that
IF(min) = 7 mA. Applying the
above relationship for 10 khour
guardbanding,
IGB(min) = 8.50 mA.

1.0
LOP (NORMALIZED)
NORMALIZED TO LOP @ 20 mA

BEFORE STRESS

ESTIMATED LOP
(NORMALIZED)
0.1
AFTER 10 kHOURS
BASED ON %
DEGRADATION
AFTER STRESS
OF IF = 20 mA
0 (ACTUAL PERCENT
DEGRADATION
WILL BE SMALLER
WITH IF < 25 mA)

0
0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0
IF (mA)

Figure 13. Typical GaAsP LED Light-Output (LOP) vs. IF After 0 khours and 10
khours of Continuous Operation at 125C, IF = 20 mA.

23
LED DEGRADATION
NORMALIZED TO LOP @ IF (t = 0) = 20 mA

0.40
LOP (NORMALIZED) 350
0.35 BEFORE STRESS
300

d (NORMALIZED LOP) d(IF)


0.30 ESTIMATED LOP
MIN (NORMALIZED)
RECOMMENDED 250
0.25 AFTER 10 kHOURS
LOP
OF OPERATION
(PLEASE SEE 200
0.20
FIGURE 13)
0.15 150

0.10 MIN 100


GUARD-
MIN BANDED
0.05 IF = 6.1 mA @ 50
IF = 5 mA
@ t = 0 kHOURS t = 10 kHOURS
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0
0 1.0 10 100
IF (mA) IF (mA)

Figure 14. GaAsP LED Light Output (LOP) vs. IF on a Linear Scale (Stressed at Figure 15. Slope of Typical GaAsP
TA = 125C, TF = 20 mA). LOP vs. IF.

Factors which will increase the operating IF, the lower the 3. Operation at ambient
expected LED guardbanded- percent degradation will be as temperature TA < 125C will
operation times are: a function of time. also decrease the amount of
1. Operation at lower IF: LOP 2. Operation at Duty Factor LOP degradation (again, due to
decreases less with reduced (DF) less than 100% will decreased TJ) increasing
operating IF. Therefore, opera- increase guardbanded operat- operation lifetime.
tion at IGB < IF < 20 mA will ing lifetimes. For any particular
result in guardbanded operating duty factor, the new guard- Agilent also has LED degradation
lifetimes longerthan 10 khours. banded lifetime becomes: data available for other LED
This is due to the fact that lifetimecontinuous types. AlGaAs LEDs tend to be
lower operating IF reduces more linear than GaAsP LEDs and
DF (%)
junction temperature (TJ) display less degradation over time
which subsequently reduces 100
than GaAsP. Therefore the
the amount of degradation calculations used here can be
over time. Generally, the lower applied with confidence to
optocouplers using AlGaAs LEDs.
For further specific questions,
please contact your local Agilent
Technologies' sales
representative.

24
LED DEGRADATION

Guidelines for Printed Circuit Board Assembly


and Layout
250 ESD Precautions: Standard
electrostatic discharge precau-
Pre Heating Rate: 3C+1C/-0.5C/sec. Peak Temperature
Reflow Heating Rate: 2.5C0.5C/sec. 245C Peak Temperature tions should be taken in handling
240C
Peak Temperature
and assembly of the optocouplers
230C
200C
to prevent damage or degradation
200
TEMPERATURE (C)

2.5C0.5C/sec.
of the device.
180C Soldering Time
150C 200C
140C 30 sec Printed Circuit Board Layout:
3C+1C/-0.5C
30 sec An optocoupler performs reliably
50 sec
100
Pre Heating Time
only in a correctly designed
150C, 9030 sec. circuit. In most digital optocoup-
Room
TIGHT
TYPICAL
lers the amplifier at the output is
Temperature LOOSE required to operate with the very
0 low photocurrent from the
0 50 100 150 200 250
photodetector. Consequently
TIME (seconds)
these amplifiers can be sensitive
Figure 16. Temperature/Time Thermal Profile. to electrical disturbances. It is
therefore necessary to have
proper shielding and bypassing of
Agilent optocouplers are suitable immersed in the solder. To
the VCC and Ground traces.
for automatic printed circuit prevent chloride corrosion of the
Bypassing closely to each of the
board (PCB) assembly operations lead frame, halide fluxes should
optocouplers VCC-to-Ground pins
including surface mount assembly. not be used.
with low-inductance ceramic
The following guidelines are capacitor is recommended as
recommended for proper opera- Wave Soldering: The maximum shown in Figure 17.
tion and long term reliability of solder temperature allowed is
Agilent optocouplers. 260C for 10 seconds, with the
Figure 17 shows an optional PCB
solder 1.6 mm below the seating
layout for a high speed digital
Solder Reflow Process: Only one plane.
optocoupler for improving
soldering operation is recom- electrical noise immunity. The
mended within the thermal Solvent Cleaning: The solvent optional VCC and Ground traces
profile shown in Figure 16. With temperature and immersion time
between the pin rows of the
infrared lamp heating, use should not exceed 45C and three
optocoupler help shield the
precautions to avoid localized minutes respectively. For ultra-
output circuitry from electrical
temperature rise in the resin. sonic cleaning, environmentally
disturbances on the input pins,
Also, the resin should not be safe solvents such as ethyl and
thus improving common-mode
methyl alcohol are recommended.
rejection.

HCPL-2601/11 HCPL-2601/11

VCC BUS 1 8 VCC

ANODE 2 7 VE
0.1F

CATHODE 3 6 VOUT
OUTPUT

4 5 GND
GND BUS

10 mm MAX

Figure 17. Optional Printed Circuit Board Layout for Improved Electrical Noise Immunity.

25
Digital Optoisolators:
An Overview

Introduction
Agilent Technologies offers a wide
array of Optoisolators for noise
rejection, ground loop current
elimination, and high voltage PHOTO
DIODE HCPL-4504
isolation for digital data (PIN) HCPL-0454 V+
HCNW4504
transmission and communication
applications. The product offering
1 8
includes low speed (100 kbit/s to
1CM bit/s) split Darlington or
RIN
single transistor type VIN 2 7 RL

optoisolators to high speed 25 M


IF
bit/s cascaded amplifier stage
3 6
optoisolators with Schottky VOUT

transistor or CMOS output stage.


4 5 TRANSISTOR
SHIELD
Description 1
AMPLIFIER

Figure 1 shows a Photodiode/


Transistor Optoisolator where a LED 2
PIN photodiode detector is coupled
to a single transistor amplifier
output stage (e.g. HCPL-4504). Figure 1. Photodiode/Transistor Optoisolator
Compared to a typical
phototransistor optoisolator, a PIN
photodetector diode reduces the
PHOTO
base-collector Miller capacitance DIODE HCPL-0701
(PIN) 6N139/8
and allows operability at a much HCPL-4701/4731
higher speed.
1 8 VCC
Figure 2 shows a Split Darlington
Output Stage, where an emitter- R1
RL
VIN 2 7
follower stage is added between a
PIN photodiode and the output IF

amplifier. This allows the 3 6 VOUT


optoisolator to be driven at a
much lower input drive current, SPLIT
4 5
as low as 40 mA for the HCPL- SHIELD DARLINGTON
1 AMPLIFIER
4701/HCPL-4731 family or
0.5CmA for the 6N139 family. This
LED 2
allows much higher current
transfer ratio (CTR) or current
gain at the output, and TTL/ Figure 2. Split Darlington Transistor Optoisolator
CMOS gates can be easily driven.
DIGITAL INTERFACE
CASCADED
AMPLIFIER

PHOTO
DIODE VCC
HCPL-2601
(PIN)

R1 2
ENABLE R2
VIN
7
LED

VOUT
Figure 3 shows a photodiode 3 6

cascaded amplifier, coupled to a


Schottky transistor, open SHIELD 5
HIGH SPEED
SCHOTTKY
1
collector output stage. In order TRANSISTOR

for an open collector output


2
stage to function, a pull-up
resistor is required at the Figure 3. Cascaded Amplifier Optoisolator
output of the Optoisolator.
CASCADED
Figure 4 shows a photodiode and HCPL-2400 AMPLIFIER
HCPL-2430
cascaded amplifier, coupled to a PHOTO HCPL-2201
VCC
DIODE HCPL-2230
totem pole output stage. This (PIN)

type of output stage eliminates


the necessity of using a pull-up 8

resistor at the output. The R1 2


ENABLE
outputs can sink or source VIN
7
current allowing higher output
power drive capability. VOUT
3 6

Figure 5 shows a push-pull CMOS TOTEM POLE


OUTPUT STAGE
output stage. These types of 1
SHIELD 5
optoisolators are designed to
achieve highest speed 2
LED
performance (up to 25 M bit/s for Figure 4. Totem Pole Output Optoisolator
HCPL-7721/7720). The amplifier
stage presents very low input
INTEGRATED
impedance to the photodiode, CURRENT
SOURCE
and does not become saturated, HCPL-7721
HCPL-0721
while allowing the signal to be
amplified several folds through VDD1 1 8 VDD2
the amplifier stages, allowing C1
operation at relatively low LED
VIN 2 7 C2
drive currents (2 to 5 mA).
LOGIC
GATE INPUT NC* 3 6 VOUT

CMOS
PUSH-PULL
4 5 OUTPUT
SHIELD STAGE

1 2

*PIN 3 IS THE ANODE OF THE INTERNAL LED AND MUST BE LEFT UNCONNECTED FOR
GUARANTEED DATA SHEET PERFORMANCE.
C1, C2 = 0.01 TO 0.1 F

Figure 5. High Speed CMOS Optoisolators

27
Digital Logic Interface/Level
Shifting Applications

TTL Interface with Series LED Drive

HCPL-2201

R IN 1 VCC2 8 VCC2
VCC1 (+5 V)
(+5 V) TTL/
2 7 LSTTL DATA
OUTPUT
DATA TTL/
LSTTL 3 6 0.1 F
INPUT

GND
4 5

TOTEM
POLE
OUTPUT
GATE 1 2

VCC1 - VF - VOL
RIN =
IF

RECOMMENDED R IN = 1.1 k

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The circuit shown is an interface Maximum optocoupler propa- 1) HCPL-07XX, HCPL-2730/1,
between two TTL gates using an gation delay: 300 ns (refer to HCPL-4701, 6N138/9,
active output (totem pole) opto- alternative Agilent parts for CNW138/9 Low Input Current
coupler, the HCPL-2201. A series lower propagation delay times) Optocouplers
switching circuit drives the Typical signaling rate: dc to 5 2) HCPL-0201/11 Small-Outline
optocoupler LED. The designer MBd (refer to alternative Logic-Gate Optocoupler
chooses RIN to agree with the Agilent parts for higher speeds) 3) HCPL-52XX Hermetically
equation shown in the schematic. Sealed Logic-Gate
Typical optocoupler LED drive
The active output of the HCPL- Optocoupler
current: 2 mA
2201 can be directly connected to
4) CNN2201/11 Widebody
a TTL gate, and no pull-up
resistor is required. The HCPL-
Benefits Logic-Gate Optocoupler
2201 can sink enough current to No pull-up resistor required on 5) HCPL-2230/1 Dual-Channel
handle up to 16 LSTTL or 4 TTL the optocoupler output Logic-Gate Optocoupler
loads. interface 6) HCPL-05XX, HCPL-2530/1,
Low power dissipation on the HCNW135/6, 6N135/6 High
optocoupler input circuit Speed Optocoupler
Up to 20 V supply voltage for 7) HCPL-250L/260L/270L,
the HCPL-2201 HCPL-050L/060L/070L
3.3VCOptocouplers
DIGITAL INTERFACE:
Level Shifting/TTL Interface with Shunt LED Drive

+5 V
HCPL-4502/3

R IN 1 8

IF
VIN 74LS05 2 7 RL

IO I IL
3 6 VOUT

VOL IO (min) = IF CTR (min)


4 5
RL (min) = 15 VOL
R IN = 5 - V F
IO (min) + IIL
IF
-15 V

NOTE: FOR BEST CMR PERFORMANCE, CONNECT PIN 7 TO PIN 8.

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The above circuit shows how a Maximum optocoupler 1) HCPL-07XX, HCPL-2730/1,
0 to 5 V logic signal can be level propagation delay: 2 s (refer to HCPL-4701, 6N138/9,
shifted to a -15 to 0 V signal. The alternative Agilent parts for HCNW138/9 Low Input
circuit can safely be used for level lower propagation delays) Current Optocouplers
shifting up to 800 V. The circuit Typical signaling rate: dc to 1 2) HCPL-55XX Hermetically
uses an open collector output MBd (refer to alternative Sealed High Speed
logic gate, the 74LS405, to drive Agilent parts for higher speeds) Optocoupler
the LED of the HCPL-4502/3 Typical optocoupler LED drive 3) HCPL-0710 SO-8 High Speed
optocoupler. The HCPL-4502/3 current: 10 to 16 mA CMOS Optocoupler
also has an open-collector output.
Maximum output supply voltage 4) HCPL-250L/260L/270L,
The designer chooses RIN to agree
(pins 8-5): 30 V HCPL-050L/060L/070L
with the equation shown in the
Minimum CMR: 15 kV/s slew 3.3VCOptocouplers
schematic. This equation sets the
value of the optocoupler LED rate, 1500 V peak
forward current. The output of
the HCPL-4502/3 requires a pull- Benefits
up resistor, RL. The current- Reduces transient immunity
transfer ratio (CTR) of the problems
optocoupler determines the Convenient way of replacing
maximum amount of current the pulse transformer for high-
optocoupler output can sink while voltage level shifting
maintaining the output voltage
(between pins 5 and 6) of 0.5 V or
less.

29
DIGITAL INTERFACE
Low Power 8 MBd CMOS Interface

CD4050 HCPL-2300/HCPL-0300 CD4050


5V

8 0.1 VDD2
VDD1 20 pF 1 k F
RL
7
VIN VO
2 6
RI

3
5
1 2

VDD1 RI RL VDD1
(V) (k) (k) (V)

5 5.11 1 5
10 13.3 2.37 10
15 19.6 3.16 15

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


A CMOS-to-CMOS interface is Optocoupler LED current: 1) HCPL-7721/7720/7710 High
possible with Agilent opto- 0.5 mA minimum Speed CMOS Optocoupler
couplers. The above circuit Typical signaling rate: dc to 2) HCPL-0721//0720/0710 Small
shows an interface circuit for 8 MBd Outline High Speed CMOS
8CMBd applications. Over the Optocoupler
temperature range a CMOS Benefits
CD4050 Hex Buffer can source
Low power consumption
about 0.7 mA (minimum), which
is sufficient to drive the Simple interface
HCPL-2300/HCPL-0300
optocoupler. The 20 pF capacitor
allows peaking currents to assist
the LED turn on and off quickly.

30
DIGITAL INTERFACE
25 MBd CMOS Interface

HCPL-7721

VDD1 1 8 VDD2
C1 C2
VIN 2 7
74HCTO4
IO 74HCTO4
NC 3 6 VOUT

LED1

GND1 4 5 GND2
SHIELD

C1, C2 = 0.01 F TO 0.1 F

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


Up to 25 MBd CMOS-to-CMOS Typical logic low input power 1) HCPL-0721: SO8 package
interface is possible with the supply current for HCPL-7721: 2) HCPL-7720/0720: 25 MBd,
HCPL-7721 optocouplers. The 1.5 mA 8 ns PWD CMOS interface
above circuit requires only a Typical logic low input power optocoupler
bypass capacitor on each of the supply current for HCPL-7721: 3) HCPL-7710/0710: 25 MBd,
HCPL-7721 input-side and output- 7 mA 8 ns PWD CMOS interface
side power supply pins. Typical HCPL-7721 signalling optocoupler
rate: dc to 25 MBd
Typical HCPL-7721 pulse-width
distortion: 3 ns
Typical HCPL-7721 propagation
delay: 20 ns

Benefits
Lower power consumption
Very simple interface

31
DIGITAL INTERFACE
Low Power 100 kBd CMOS Interface

6N139

1 8
1/6 74HCTO4
R1
VIN 2 7 4.7 k
* 1/4 74HC/HCT08

3 6 VOUT

4 5

R 1 = VOH - VF
IF

* USE ANY SIGNAL DIODE FOR CMR PROTECTION

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


A CMOS-to-CMOS interface is Minimum optocoupler LED 1) HCPL-4701 Very Low Power
possible with Agilent opto- turn-on current: 0.5 mA (The High Gain Optocoupler
couplers. The above circuit HCPL-4701 optocoupler 2) HCPL-2730/1 Dual Channel
shows a cost-effective interface requires only 40 A) High Gain Optocoupler
for 100 kBd applications. The Typical signaling rate: dc to 3) HCPL-0731 Small Outline High
74HCT04 CMOS Hex Inverter that 100 kBd Gain Optocoupler
drives the optocoupler LED can Minimum optocoupler current 4) HCPL-57XX, HCPL-67XX,
source and sink up to 4 mA transfer ratio: 400% 6N140 Hermetically Sealed
current. The 6N139 optocoupler
High Gain Optocoupler
requires only 0.5 mA LED current
for operation. The signal diode
Benefits 5) HCPL-270L 3.3V Optocoupler
across resistor R1 protects against Low power consumption
common-mode transient voltages Simple interface
and is optional. The output circuit
uses a 74HCT08 so that the signal
from VIN to VOUT is not inverted.

32
DIGITAL INTERFACE
Isolated 3 V Logic Interface/Battery Operated Applications

HCPL-4701 RECOMMENDED VCC FILTER


VCC1 = 3 V 100
* VCC2 = 3 V

V IN 0.1 F 10.0 F
RL
R1 2 2
74LVU04

1 VOUT

* USE ANY 1
SIGNAL DIODE

TYPICAL POWER DISSIPATION FOR 3 V APPLICATION


(VCC1 , VCC2 = 3.0 V, RL = 11 k, R1 = 43.8 k)

VCC1 SIDE: VCC2 SIDE:


OPTOCOUPLER LED 50 W OPTOCOUPLER (VO , VCC2) 85 W
INPUT RESISTOR R1 70 W PULL-UP RESISTOR RL 790 W
TOTAL VCC1 SIDE 120 W TOTAL VCC2 SIDE 875 W

Description Performance of
The HCPL-4701 low-power Optocoupler Alternative Agilent Parts
optocoupler is used for 3 V-to-3 V Typical optocoupler current 1) HCPL-4731 Dual Low Power
Logic interface across an transfer ratio: 3500% at Optocoupler
isolation barrier. Only 40 A of IF = 40 A 2) HCPL-070A SO-8 Low Power
LED current (IF) is required to Input current for optocoupler Optocoupler
turn-on the optocoupler. Typical turn-on: 40 A 3) HCPL-073A SO-8 Dual Channel
power for dissipation for just the Low Power Optocoupler
optocoupler is 135 W at IF = 4) HCPL-050L/060L/070L,
Benefits
40 A, and 965 A at IF = 500 A. HCPL-250L/260L/270L
Low power dissipation
3.3 VCOptocouplers

33
Data Communications
Applications

Isolated RS-232C/E Interface


6N139

1 8 VCC

3.3 k
RS-232C 2 7 RL
INPUT
( 3 V TO 25 V)
1N4150
3 6 VO

CMOS or LSTTL
4 5

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The above schematic shows a RS-232C link twisted pair cable 1) HCPL4701, 6N138/9, 4N45/6,
very simple RS-232C data length: up to 120 m for low data HCPL-2730/1 High-Gain, Low
communication isolation rates Input Current Optocoupler
interface using a 6N139 Typical optocoupler propaga- 2) HCPL-0700/1, HCPL-0730/1,
optocoupler. This circuit operates tion delay: 20 s HCPL-M700/1 Small Outline
with an LED forward current of High-Gain, Low Input Current
0.5 mA when the input is at 3 V. Benefits Optocoupler
The 1N4150 diode protects the 3) HCPL-270L/HCPL-070L 3.3V,
Simple, low cost isolated
LED during negative signal 100 kBd Optocoupler
interface
voltages. Since a low diode
current is used to operate the Meets worldwide regulatory
6N139, the twisted pair line can standards for isolation
be up to 120 m. However, the data
rate may have to be lowered to
account for slower charging and
discharging of the total line
capacitance.
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated 3.3V RS-232 Interface

3.3V
HCPL-260L DS14C335

R1
R2
RS232
OUTPUT

1 2
DIGITAL
LOGIC
3.3V
HCPL-260L

R4
R3 RS232
INPUT

1 2

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The above isolated RS-232 circuit Typical signaling rate: up to 1) HCPL-263L/HCPL-063L Dual
uses two high-speed 3.3V 15CMBd Low Power Optocoupler
optocouplers that can switch up Optocoupler LED drive current: 2) HCPL-250L or HCPL-270L for
to 15 MBd signals. An isolated 5 mA low data rate applications
power supply is required to Typical Optocoupler Transient
power the DS14C335 driver/ Rejection: 10,000 V/s slew
receiver integrated circuit. rate, 50 V peak

Benefits
Compact design with small
outline optocouplers
Prevents common-mode
transients from interfering with
the signal
Low power dissipation

35
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated RS-485 Bus Interface

+5 V +5 V COMMON
ISOLATED
SUPPLY

TERMINATION

DS75176A
DATA IN
RS-485
HCPL-2631 LINE
DR/RX
ENABLE

VCC

DS75176A DATA IN
DATA OUT
HCPL-2601
RS-485
LINE HCPL-2631
DRIVER
GND 1 RECEIVER
ENABLE

TERMINATION
VCC
ISOLATION RS-485 BUS

DATA OUT
HCPL-2601

GND

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The above isolated RS-485 Typical optocoupler signaling 1) HCPL-2400/30 High Speed
interface circuit uses the HCPL- rate: greater than 10 MBd Optocoupler
26XX High Speed CMOS Typical optocoupler 2) HCPL-7721/7720/7710 High
optocoupler, which can transmit propagation delay: 28 ns Speed CMOS Optocoupler
digital signals faster than 10 MBd. Typical optocoupler pulse- 3) HCPL-54XX Hermetically
An isolated 5 V power supply is width distortion: 2 ns Sealed High Speed
required to power the RS-485 bus Optocoupler
side of the circuit.
Benefits 4) HCPL-0721/0720/0710 SO-8
Low signal distortion High Speed CMOS
Good transient immunity Optocoupler
5) HCPL-260L/263L 3.3V
Optocouplers

36
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated Device Net/CAN Communication Interface

5V

REGULATOR

+ +
5V 5V
HCPL-0720

1 8 5V 2

TX 2 7
3
0.1 F
VCC
3 6 TXD
5 V+
1
0.1 F C4 +
0.01
4 5 7
SHIELD F CANH 4 CAN+

1 2
3 SHIELD
5V 5V 82C250
HCPL-0720
6
CANL 2 CAN-
8 1
5 VREF
0.1 F RS REF
8 1 V-
7 2
RXD
GND 4
RX 6 3 2 D1
0.1 F 30 V
C1 R1
5 4
2 0.01 F 1M
SHIELD

1
2
2 500 V

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts:


DeviceNet, a factory floor com- Typical data rate (NRZ): Up to 1) HCPL-7721/7720/7710 High
munication network standard, 12 Mbit/s Speed CMOS Optocoupler
sometimes may require connect-
Compatible with 5 V CMOS and 2) HCPL-0721/0720/0710 SO-8
ing devices to be electrically
TTL logic gates High Speed CMOS
isolated. The HCPL-0720 high
Minimum common mode Optocoupler
speed CMOS optocoupler with a
transient immunity: 10 kV/sec
40 ns maximum propagation
at VCM = 1000 V
delay time meets the DeviceNet
physical layer specification.
Benefits
Direct interface to the
optoisolator input and output
(No external resistors
necessary)
Speed optimized for Profibus,
RS-485, DeviceNet/CAN
Small outline surface mount
package offers space/footprint
saving
Performance guaranteed over
industrial temperature range
(0 to 85C)

37
ANALOG APPLICATIONS
Isolated 4-20 mA Analog Current Loop Transmitter/Receiver

HCNR200
+ILOOP LED
0.001F HCNR200/201
Z1 1 NC 8
R1 5.1V R5
10k R4 80k LED
180 0.1 F 2 NC 7
LM158 Vcc
5.5V K1 K2
2N3906
HCNR200 + 3 6
PD1 + Vout
R2
10k 0.001F LM158
HCNR200
PD 2 4 PD1 PD2 5

2
-ILOOP R3
25
A) RECEIVER

+ILOOP
Vcc
5.5V
R8 2N3904
R2 100k R3
0.001F 150 LM158 10k
HCNR200 Z1 2N3904 +
R1 Vcc LED 5.1V
Vin 80k 0.1F HCNR200
2N3906 2N3904
+ R6 0.001F R4 PD 2
HCNR200 LM158 R7 140 10k
PD 1 3.2k

1
R5 -ILOOP
25
B) TRANSMITTER

NOTE: The two OP-AMPS shown are two separate LM158, and NOT two channels in a single DUAL package;
otherwise, the LOOP saide and input sied will not be properly isolated.

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCNR200/1 Analog Converts an analog voltage 1) HCPL-4100 20 mA Current
Optocoupler isolates both the input to an analog current and Loop Transmitter
transmitter and receiver circuit vice versa 2) HCPL-4200 20 mA Current
from the 4 - 20 mA Analog HCNR200/1 nonlinearity: 0.1% Loop Receiver
Current Loop. One important HCNR201 gain tolerance: 5%
feature of this circuit is that the
loop side of the circuit is powered
by the loop current. No isolated
Benefits
power supply is required. Low-cost simple circuit
No isolated power supply needed
on the 4 - 20 mA side of the
circuit

38
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated 20 mA Current Loop Interface

HCPL-4100 TRANSMITTER HCPL-4100 RECEIVER

Description Performance of Circuit


The above half-duplex, point-to- 1 mA noise margin in the
point, multi-drop, 20 mA current space state
loop configuration can alternat- 8 mA noise margin in the
ingly transmit bi-directional data mark state
over two wires. Only one current Typical signal rate and distance:
source is required. Each isolated 40 m at 100 kBd; over 200 m at
station with an HCPL-4100 10 kBd
transmitter and HCPL-4200
receiver optocouplers provides
excellent common-mode
Benefits
rejection. Maintains data integrity
Simple data transmission
system for industrial
applications

39
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Multidrop Line Receiver

UP TO 90 m 22 GA TW. PR. SHIELDED


1/2 DM8830

39

39
1 2 3 6 7 8
YX YX YX YX YX YX

6N138

1 8 +5 v

560
X 2 7 2.2 k
IF
Y 3 6 VO

4 5

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The above differentially driven Typical signaling rate: 18 kBd 1) HCPL-0700/01/30/31, HCPL-
circuit can use up to eight 6N138 (faster signaling rates can be M700/1, HCNW138/9, and
optocouplers at various receivers obtained with HCNW139 and HCPL-2730/31 Low-Input
along the 90 m line. All stations 6N139) Current Optocouplers
are isolated. The first station Typical optocoupler propaga- 2) HCPL-57XX, HCPL-67XX, and
would draw approximately tion delay time: tPHL = 2 s; tPLH 6N140 Hermetically Sealed
2.7 mA current, and the last = 20 s Low-Input Current
station 1.8 mA of LED drive Optocouplers
Up to 90 m distance
current. The output grounds of 3) HCPL-2300 High Speed, Low
the optocoupler may be Input Current Optocoupler
electrically separate. Benefits
Simple, low-cost, multidrop
circuit for low signaling rates

40
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 1

/ HCPL-0300

*
R1
C 1*

/ HCPL-0300

100M

BALANCED
TYPICAL SIGNAL RATE BAUD

SPLIT PHASE
10M 10% PULSE WIDTH DISTORTION
22 AWG UNSHIELDED TWISTED
PAIR WIRE CABLE (DEARBORN
NO. 862205)
1M
TA = 25 C
BALANCED
(SINGLE
100K HCPL-2300
NO EX- OR FF)

10K
1 10 100 1000 10,000

L LINE LENGTH METERS

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


A balanced RS-422 line driver Signaling rate: > 10 MBd at 100 HCPL-2602/12 High CMR Line
differentially drives a twisted pair m line length Receiver
line. Two HCPL-2300s provide Common mode rejection:
balanced signal direction for this > 15,000 V/s
line. The thresholds of the HCPL-
2300 will be nearly equal, provid-
ing symmetrical signal detection
Benefits
level. Since the propagation Very high common-mode
delays of the two optocouplers transient rejection
are similar, the pulse-width Data transmission for up to
distortion for this scheme will be 1 km distance
quite low for considerable line
lengths. The Exclusive-Or flip-
flop circuit at the optocoupler
output increases CMR protection
to an extremely high level and
balances the propagation delays.
For less demanding noise
environments, only one HCPL-
2300 with no EX-OR flip-flop may
be used. The maximum data rate,
however, will be somewhat
lower.
41
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 2

+5 V

HCPL-2631
H RL H
H H
L
DATA

L 0.1 F RL
RS L
L H

Z
ICM VCM LSTTL EXCLUSIVE
OR FLIP FLOP
1 2

Description Benefits Alternative Agilent Parts


This is a differential receiver Dual channel optocoupler 1) HCPL-0631 Small Outline,
using a dual-channel HCPL-2630 reduces boardspace Dual-Channel, High Speed
Optocoupler. The receiver circuit Balanced circuit increases CMR Optocoupler
can handle data up to 10 Mbd for performance thereby eliminat- 2) HCPL-4661 High-CMR, Dual-
short line lengths. The capaci- ing or reducing transient Channel Optocoupler
tance of the twisted-pair wire interference 3) HCPL-56XX Hermetically
introduces a propagation delay Sealed High Speed
and, as a result, the data rate Optocouplers
decreases with increasing line
length. At the optocoupler output,
an optional Exclusive-Or circuit
can be used to increase CMR and
to balance the propagation
delays.

Performance of Circuit
Signaling rate: up to 10 MBd
Optocoupler common mode
rejection: 10,000 V/s

42
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated Tri-State Line Driver

LOCAL VCC

RS HCPL-4661 8
RL RL 2
1 4
7
5
H L 2
DATA IN 3

ENABLE 4
6 6
(HIGH)
3 1/2 75159
5

LINE SIGNAL LINE


GND LINE VCC

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent


The above circuit converts a Optocoupler signaling rate: up Parts
single-ended signal to a split- to 10 MBd 1) HCPL-063N SO-8 High CMR
phase signal with a 75159 Tri- Optocoupler CMR: 15,000 V/s Dual Channel Optocoupler
State Line Driver and dual- at 1000 V peak (typical) 2) HCPL-2631 Dual Channel
channel HCPL-4661 High CMR High Speed Optocoupler
Optocoupler. When Input Enable Benefits 3) HCPL-0631 Small Outline,
goes low, the lower channel of Dual Channel Optocoupler
Higher data rate than a current
the optocoupler operates the
source pull-up 4) HCPL-56XX Hermetically
strobe input of the 75159 to
High CMR performance reduces Sealed High Speed
make both outputs open.
or eliminates transient noise Optocouplers
5) HCPL-053L/063L/073L,
HCPL-253L/263L/273L
3.3VCOptocouplers

43
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated Unbalanced Line Receiver

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The above illustration is an Signaling rate: up to 2 MBd at 1) HCPL-2611 High CMR, High
unbalanced line receiver using 90Cm (up to 10 MBd with Speed Optocoupler
the integrated voltage-clamp polarity non-reversing driver) 2) HCPL-0601/0631 Small Outline,
input optocoupler, HCPL-2602. Optocoupler common-mode High Speed Optocoupler
The circuit is unbalanced because transient rejection: 3) HCNW2601 Widebody, High
the termination impedance is 10,000 V/s (typical) Speed Optocoupler
different for both ends of the
differential signal received by the Benefits
HCPL-2602. TTL data is converted
Integrated line termination and
to a differential signal via the
voltage clamping saves board
differential line driver 9614, and
space
transmitted over twisted-pair
wire. The Schottky diode helps to Differential driver and optical
improve the turn-on and turn-off isolated receiver reduce or
delays. eliminate transient noise
interference

44
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
PROFIBUS/RS-422 1.5 MB/s

5V

8 1
ISO 5 V ISO 5 V

680 7 2 REG
0.01 F
820
RX 6 3

5 4
SHIELD

HCPL-061N

ISO 5 V
5V

8
ISO 5 V 1 VCC
1 k 1 k R
0.01
1 8
F 6
680 680 A +
TX 4
2 7 D RT
SN75176
0.01 F 3 7
3 6 DE B
TX
ENABLE
4 5 2 1M
SHIELD
RE GND 0.01 F
5
HCPL-063N

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


Profibus (Process Fieldbus) is Typical data rate (NRZ): Up to Low input drive current
essentially a twisted wire pair 10 Mbit/s maximizes LED lifetime/
serial link very similar to RS-485 Multipoint bus transmission line reliability
or 422. Profibus speed standard is application Speed optimized for Profibus
either lower speed (1.5 MBd) or Open collector output, HCMOS/ (1.5 MBd) and RS-422 (10 MBd)
higher speed (12 MBd). In this TTL compatible Performance guaranteed over
application circuit the Profibus is temperature (-40 to 85C)
Maximum propagation delay of
shown to be isolated with
optoisolator: 0.1 sec
HCPL-061N (single channel
Minimum common mode Alternative Agilent Parts
optoisolator) and HCPL-063N
transient immunity: 15 kV/sec 1) HCPL-0261 Single Channel
(dual channel optoisolator).
at VCM = 1000 V Optocoupler
Low minimum drive current: 2) HCPL-56XX High CMR,
3 mA Hermetically Sealed
Optocoupler
3) HCPL-050L/060L/070L,
HCPL-250L/260L/270L
3.3VCOptocouplers
4) HCPL-053L/063L/073L,
HCPL-253L/263L/273L
3.3VCOptocouplers

45
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Isolated PROFIBUS/RS-485
12 MB/s Communication Application

HCPL-0721 ISO 5 V
5V

8 1 ISO 5 V
0.01 F
7 2 REG

RX 6 3
0.01 F

5 4
SHIELD

HCPL-0721 ISO 5 V ISO 5 V


5V

1 8 8
1 VCC
R
TX 2 7 0.01 F
0.01
F 6
4 A +
3 6 D
0.01 F
RT
4 5
SHIELD 75ALS176D
3 7
DE B
ISO 5 V

5V 1 8
2
680 RE
2 7 GND

0.01 F 5
1 k
1M
3 6 0.01 F
TX
ENABLE
4 5
SHIELD
HCPL-061N

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


Profibus (Process Fieldbus) is Typical data rate (NRZ): Up to Low input drive current
essentially a twisted wire pair 12 Mbit/s maximizes LED lifetime/
serial link very similar to RS-485 Multipoint bus transmission line reliability
or 422. Profibus speed standard is application Speed optimized for Profibus
either lower speed (1.5 MBd) or Compatible with 5 V CMOS and and RS-485
higher speed (12 MBd). In this TTL logic gates Performance guaranteed over
isolated multipoint transmission temperature (-40 to 85C)
Maximum propagation delay of
application circuit, two different
optoisolator: 0.04 sec
optoisolators are utilized (HCPL-
0721 and HCPL-061N). Minimum common mode
transient immunity: 10 kV/sec
at VCM = 1000 V

46
Telecommunications
Applications

Telephone Ring Detection


6N139
0.02 F
100 k
R() 1 8 +5 V

56 k
22 M
2 7
-48 V dc 0.1 F 2N3906
1N4150
3 6
10 k
100 k
R(+) 4 5 VOUT
1 k

Description Performance of Circuit References


The 6N136 Low-Input Current Can detect 20 to 60 Hz, 30 to 80 6N139 Low-Input Current
Optocoupler is used to detect VRMS telephone ring signals Optocoupler Technical Data
standard telephone ring signals.
At the optocoupler output, a Benefits Alternative Agilent Parts
0.1 F base-collector capacitor Simple and inexpensive circuit 1) HCPL-0701 Small Outline, Low-
provides a large enough Miller- for ring signal detection Input Current Optocoupler
capacitance so that a low-
Meets worldwide regulatory 2) HCPL-3700/60 Threshold
frequency ring signal (20 to
isolation standards Sensing Optocoupler
60 Hz) causes the output to
remain low when ringing occurs. 3) HCNW139 Low-Input Current
Optocoupler
TELECOMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS
ISDN Interface

TELEPHONE LINE
ISOLATION BARRIER

RECEIVE
2-WIRE
ISDN PROTECTION
LINE CIRCUIT
TRANSMIT

1 8

2 7 LINE POLARITY
HCPL-4731
3 6
LINE RESPONSE
4 5
TELEPHONE
LINE
8 INTERFACE
PRIMARYSECONDARY 2
POWER ISOLATION HCPL-4701 6 CIRCUIT
3 SECONDARY/
BARRIER 5 EMERGENCY
EMERGENCY
POWER POWER

SWITCHED
MODE
VCC
SECONDARY
PRIMARY P0WER VCC RETURN
AC VOLTAGE SUPPLY POWER
POWER
SUPPLY

Description Performance of Benefits


The HCPL-4701 Low Power Optocoupler Low power dissipation
Optocoupler is suitable for Input current for turn-on: 40 A Compatible with 3 V Logic
standard telephone line interface Typical total power dissipation
functions such as: ring detection, with IF = 40 A: < 3 mW References
line polarity, and power on/off Typical propagation delay: 65 s HCPL-4701 Lower Power
detection. Integrated Services
Optocoupler Technical Data
Digital Network (ISDN) applica-
tions severely restrict the input HCPL-270L 3.3V Optocoupler
power that an optocoupler Technical Data
interface circuit can use, which
makes the HCPL-4701 an ideal
choice. Similarly, HCPL-270L,
3.3V optocoupler could be used
which is compatible with JEDEC
low voltage specifications.

48
Analog Isolation Applications
with Linear Optocouplers

HCNR200/1
1 NC 8
LED
2 NC 7
Introduction The HCNR200/1 optoisolator can be
K1 K2
Optoisolators transfer analog and used as a basic analog isolation 3 6
digital signals from one circuit section building block for a wide variety of
or module to another in the presence applications that require good 4 5
PD1 PD2
of a large potential difference or stability, linearity, bandwidth and
induced electrical noise between the low cost. The HCNR200/1 is very
flexible and, by appropriate design of Figure 1. HCNR-200/1 High Linearity
ground or common points of these
the application circuit, is capable of Analog Isolator
modules. Examples of analog isolation
applications are interfaces to: A/D operating in many different modes,
converters, sensing circuits such as including unipolar, bipolar, ac/dc,
thermocouples and transducers, inverting and non-inverting.
patient monitoring equipment, motor
speed and position measurement The HCPL-4562 and HCNW4562 are NC 1 8 V CC
circuits, audio and video amplifiers, recommended for very high
and power supply feedback. bandwidth (up to 15 MHz) AC analog ANODE 2 7 VB
designs. If the output transistor is
biased in the active region, the CATHODE 3 6 VO
Basic Building Blocks for current transfer ratio relationship for
Analog Isolation the HCPL-4562 can be represented NC 4 5 GND
Agilent Technologies HCNR200/1 as:
and HCPL4562 constitute basic
optical coupling building blocks for
IC = K ( IF / IFQ ) n Figure 2. HCPL-4562 High Bandwidth
Analog Isolator
high linearity isolation applications.
Figures 1 and 2 show the respective where IC is the collector current; IF is
optical coupling mechanisms for the LED input current, IFQ is LED
these two optoisolators. Both these input current at which K is
HCPL-4562
isolators use high-performance measured; K is the collector current 80

AlGaAs LEDs and photodiode when IF = IFQ; and n is the slope of I C


70
vs. IF on logarithmic scale.
IPB - BASE PHOTO CURRENT - A

combinations with higher speed and


linearity compared to conventional 60

optoisolators. The HCNR200/1 LED The exponent n varies with IF, but
50
illuminates two closely matched over some limited range of DI F, n can
photodiodes, one on the input side, be regarded as a constant. For ac- 40

and another on the output side. With signal applications, the HCPL-4562
30
a suitable applications circuit for the can be biased at an appropriate
TA = 25 C
HCNR200/1, the nonlinearity and quiescent current where the ratio of 20
VPB > 5 V

drift characteristics of the LED can the incremental photodiode current


10
be virtually eliminated. The output to incremental LED current is nearly
photodiode produces a photocurrent constant. Figure 3 shows the 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
that is linearly related to the light linearity characteristics of the IF - INPUT CURRENT - mA

output of the LED. The close HCPL-4562.


Figure 3. HCPL-4562 Base Photo
matching of the photodiodes and Current vs. Input Current
advanced design of the package
ensure the high linearity and stable
gain characteristics of the
optoisolator.
ANALOG APPLICATIONS
High Speed Isolation Amplifier

VCC2 +5 V
VCC1 +5 V

R2 R5 R7
LED
R3 68 k 10 k 470
10 k VOUT
R1 Q2 Q4
68 k 2N3904 2N3904
Q1 Q3
VIN
2N3906 2N3906
R4 R6
PD1 10 PD2 10

HCNR200/1
1 NC 8
LED
2 NC 7
ISOLATION
BARRIER K1 K2
3 6

4 PD1 PD2 5

Description Performance of References


This is a high-speed, low-cost Optocoupler HCNR200/1 Technical Data
isolation amplifier for use in the 1.5 MHz bandwidth
feedback path of switch-mode Stable gain Alternative Agilent Parts
power supplies or motor speed Low-cost support circuit 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800,
and position measurement. This HCPL-7840 Isolation Amplifier
Circuit couples only positive
circuit can be used in applica-
voltage signals 2) HCPL-4562 Wideband Analog/
tions where high bandwidth, low-
Video Optocoupler
cost, and stable gain are required,
but where accuracy is not critical. Benefits 3) HCPL-785X Hermetically
Low cost solution for coupling Sealed Isolation Amplifier
positive voltage analog signals
Simple way for sending power
supply voltage feedback signal
across isolation barrier

50
ANALOG APPLICATIONS
Precision Isolation Amplifier for Unipolar Signals

VCC1 +15 V VCC2 +15 V


C5
0.1F
C3
0.1F R4 R5
2.2 k 270
Q1
2N3906
R1 C1 R6 C2 R2
200 k 47 PF 6.8 k 33 PF 174 k 50 k
INPUT OUTPUT
BNC 1% BNC
1% 2 7 7 2
PD1 6 6 PD2
3 A1 A2 3
+ 4 LT1097 LT1097
4 +
C4 C6
R3 0.1F
0.1F 33 k

D1
VEE1 -15 V LED 1N4150 VEE2 -15 V

HCNR200/1
1 NC 8
LED
ISOLATION 2 NC 7
BARRIER
K1 K2
3 6

4 PD1 PD2 5

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit uses the HCNR200/1 DC to 10 kHz bandwidth HCNR200/1 Technical Data
High-Linearity Analog Optocoup- Stable gain
ler to achieve high accuracy and 0.1% nonlinearity Alternative Agilent Parts
wide dynamic range at a reason- 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800,
1 mV to 10 V input/output
able cost. This is accomplished by HCPL-7840 Isolation Amplifier
voltage range
using low-cost, precision op-amps
2) HCPL-4562 Wideband Analog/
with very low input bias currents
Benefits Video Optocoupler
and offset voltages. The circuit
couples only positive voltage Low-cost, high-accuracy solu- 3) HCPL-785X Hermetically
analog signals. tion for coupling analog signals Sealed Isolation Amplifier
Easy availability of support
circuit components
No offset adjustment is required

51
ANALOG APPLICATIONS
Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 1

C3 10 pF
C1 10 pF
R6 R7
180 k 50 k
R2
180 k D1 R4
680 GAIN
OC1 + OC1 OC1
R1 PD1 LED PD2 VOUT
VIN 50 k +
BALANCE
OC2 OC2 OC2
PD1 + LED PD2
R5
R3 D2 680 HCNR200/1
180 k 1 NC 8
LED
C2 10 pF
2 NC 7

ISOLATION K1 K2
BARRIER 3 6

4 PD1 PD2 5

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit shows how the 0.01% nonlinearity HCNR200/1 Technical Data
HCNR200 High Linearity Opto- Bandwidth: dc to 100 Hz
coupler can be used for transmit- Low transfer gain variation: 5% Alternative Agilent Parts
ting bipolar analog signals across (K3 of HCNR201) 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800,
an isolation boundary. This HCPL-7840 Isolation Amplifier
circuit uses two optocouplers:
OC1 and OC2; OC1 handles the
Benefits 2) HCPL-785X Hermetically
Low drift Sealed Isolation Amplifier
positive portions of the input
signal and OC2 handles the Low crossover distortion within
negative portions. Diodes D1 and the dc to 100 Hz frequency band
D2 help reduce cross-over distor- Good linearity
tion by keeping both amplifiers Very low offset
active during both positive and
negative portions of the input
signal.

52
ANALOG APPLICATIONS
Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 2

10 pF

D1 D3 R4
680 k
CNR201
+ C3 10 pF
R2 R3
10 k 4.7 k R5 R6
VIN LED 180 k 50 k

D2 +
GAIN
CONTROL

D4 VMAGNITUDE

+
+
C2 10 pF
VCC
6N138
+

R7
10 k R8
2.2 k

VSIGN

Description Performance of References


This circuit shows how bipolar Optocoupler HCNR200/1 Technical Data
analog signals can be transmitted 0.01% nonlinearity
across an isolation boundary by Wide bandwidth: dc to 1 MHz Alternative Agilent Parts
using just one HCNR200 opto- Low transfer gain variation: 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800,
coupler. This circuit provides an 5% (K3 of HCNR201) HCPL-7840 Isolation Amplifier
easy interface to A/D converters 2) HCNW2601 High Speed Digital
with two output signals: an Benefits Optocoupler (for the Sign
analog signal proportional to the signal)
Low drift
magnitude of the input signal, and
Very low offset 3) HCPL-785X Hermetically
a digital signal corresponding to
Sealed Isolation Amplifier
the Sign of the input signal. The
HCNW138 optocoupler, which
couples the Sign signal, can be
substituted with a faster opto-
coupler in case the Sign changes
faster than 50 kHz.

53
ANALOG APPLICATIONS
AC-Coupled Isolation Amplifier

+5 V
HCPL-4562
ID
+5 V 1 8

IF KPD R5 R7
5.6 k 470
2 7
VOUT
R1 2 F
2.2 k 3 6 Q3
2 F R4
Q2 18 k I3
VIN Q1 4 5
R2
1.8 k R6
D1 R3 Q1 2N3904 82
1N4150 330 Q3 2N3904

2
1
GAIN 1 KPD R4 R7 1
R3 R6

KPD = 0.0032 TYPICALLY

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit with the HCPL-4562 Typical bandwidth: 13 MHz 1) HCPL-4562 Wideband
Wideband Analog/Video Nominal gain of circuit: 1 Analog/Video Optocoupler
Optocoupler functions as an ac- Isolation-mode rejection: 46 dB Technical Data
coupled isolation amplifier that at 1 kHz 2) Application Note 951-2,
can be used for coupling audio or Linear Applications of
Overall nonlinearity: 0.5%
video signals. The input circuit Optocouplers
biases the optocoupler LED at a Optocoupler input current
quiescent current of about 6 mA, range: 4 mA-8 mA
Alternative Agilent
determined primarily by resistors Parts
R1, R2, and R3. Diode D1 helps to Benefits
1) HCPL-2502, 6N135, 6N136
stabilize the operating point over Simple solution for coupling
High Speed Transistor
the operating temperature range. audio and video signals
Output Optocouplers
An ac-coupled signal will modu-
late the collector current of 2) HCNW4562 Widebody Wide-
transistor Q1 and the optocoupler band Analog/Video Optocoupler
LED. The output circuit consists 3) HCPL-55XX, 4N55,
of a simple transresistance HCPL-6530/1 Hermetically
(current-in, voltage-out) amplifier Sealed High Speed
followed by a common-emitter Optocoupler
amplifier stage. 4) HCPL-05XX Small-Outline
High Speed Optocoupler

54
Isolated Video Interface

HCPL-4562

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit, with the HCPL-4562 Typical bandwidth: 15 MHz HCPL-4562 Wideband Analog/
Wideband Analog/Video Typical Gain variation: -1.1 dB Video Optocoupler Technical
Optocoupler, is optimized for at 5 MHz with reference at 0.1 Data
video signal coupling. The peaked MHz
response of the detector circuit Isolation Mode Rejection: Alternative Agilent Parts
helps extend the frequency range 122 dB at 120 Hz HCNW4562 Widebody Wideband
over which the gain is relatively Analog/Video Optocoupler
constant. The number of gain
Benefits
stages, the overall circuit
topology, and the dc bias points Cost-effective, high perfor-
are all chosen to maximize the mance video interface circuit
bandwidth.

55
Inverter Design Using
Gate Drive and Current Sense
Optocouplers

System Overview Isolated Gate Drive and simple isolation interface, Agilent
A typical motor drive and power IPM Interface provides Intelligent Power
control system shown in Figure 1 Many motor drive and power Module (IPM) interface
requires isolation between the control systems use pulse width optocouplers. All of Agilents gate
high voltage devices (IGBT/ modulation switching of power drive and IPM interface
MOSFET) and the low voltage devices to generate a three phase optocouplers meet stringent
devices (micro-controller). In variable voltage and variable industrial requirements with
addition to meeting the severe frequency power source. High critical performance:
requirements for the isolation performance motor drives require Minimum Common Mode
function, Agilent Technologies precision timing for turning on Rejection: 10 kV/s slew rate
optocouplers provide customized and turning off the power devices at 1,500 V peak transients
functionality such as direct gate on the inverter. The micro- Wide Operating Temperature
drive for IGBTs or power controller that controls the turn- Range: -40C to +85C
MOSFETs, and analog isolation on and turn-off of these power Over Current Protection and
for motor current sensing, voltage devices needs to be isolated from Fault Feedback (HCPL-316J)
sensing, speed measurement, and the high voltage inverter Safety Standards Certifications:
position measurement. side. Agilent Technologies offers UL, CSA, VDE
a variety of optocouplers that Fast Switching Speeds: 500 ns
have built-in gate drive capability. range (see detailed part
For solutions that require only a number specifications)
Wide Supply Voltage Range:
15 V to 30 V
+HV

GATE GATE GATE CURRENT


DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE SENSE

U+ V+ W+
A

3- PHASE
OUTPUT

VOLTAGE
SENSE GATE GATE GATE
DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE
C U- V- W-
B

CURRENT
SENSE
-HV

U+, U-, V+, V-, W+, W- A, B, C


ANALOG
ISOLATION

MICRO-
MOTOR SPEED, POSITION
CONTROLLER

Figure 1. Isolation Circuits for Power Control System Overview


MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS

Isolated Current and Common Mode Rejection including: the use of an internal
Voltage Sensing The detector shield in the or external output pull-up
Agilent Technologies provides optocoupler prevents CMR failure resistor, the position of the LED
several analog isolation amplifier due to capacitive coupling from current setting resistor, the
products for isolated precision the input side of the optocoupler, connection of the unused input
current and voltage sensing for through the package, to the package pins, and the value of
monitoring motor performance. detector IC. However, this shield the capacitor at the optocoupler
Agilent also offers a digital output does not eliminate the capacitive output (CL). The recommended
isolation amplifier for direct coupling between the LED and gate drive and IPM interface
connection to a micro-controller. the optocoupler output pins and application circuits for
Compared to Hall-Effect sensors, output ground as shown in Figure Agilent optocouplers have been
Agilents isolation amplifiers have 2. This capacitive coupling causes optimized to reduce the
excellent gain and offset perturbations in the LED current likelihood of CMR failure.
characteristics, especially very during common mode transients
low offset drift over a wide and becomes the major source of IPM Dead Time and
temperature range. In addition, CMR failures for a shielded Propagation Delay
they provide a compact, low-cost, optocoupler. The main design Specifications
and reliable solution for motor objective of a high CMR LED Many of Agilents gate drive and
drive designers that need to drive circuit becomes keeping the IPM interface optocouplers
accurately measure motor voltage LED in the proper state (on or include a Propagation Delay
and current. Some of the key off) during common mode Difference (PDD) specification
performance features include: transients. The recommended intended to help designers
12-bit linearity (HCPL-7860) application circuits for Agilents minimize dead time in their
over current detection (HCPL- gate drive applications can power inverter designs. Dead
788J) achieve 15 kV/s CMR while time is the time periods during
200 mV input range minimizing component which both the high and low side
-40C to +85C operating complexity. power transistors (Q1 and Q2) of
temperature range a power module are off. Any
15 kV/s isolation transient overlap in Q1 and Q2 conduction
immunity 1 8
will result in large currents
Safety Standards Certifications: 20 k flowing through the power
UL, CSA, VDE CLEDP devices between the high and low
2 CLED02 7
CLED01 voltage motor rails.
Analog Signal Isolation
for Speed and Position 3 6 To minimize dead time the
CLEDN designer must consider the
Measurement
Agilent Technologies offers a low propagation delay characteristics
cost, high accuracy, isolated
4 5 of the optocoupler as well as the
SHIELD
amplifier solution for the characteristics of the IGBT gate
measurement of speed and drive circuit. Considering only
position in a motor. With the use the delay characteristics of the
Figure 2. AC Equivalent for a Digital
of Agilent Technologies optocoupler (the characteristics
Optocoupler
HCNR201 and low cost of the IGBT gate drive circuit can
operational amplifiers, circuit Another cause of CMR failure for be analyzed in the same way) it is
designers have the flexibility of a shielded optocoupler is direct important to know the minimum
designing analog isolation coupling to the optocoupler and maximum turn-on (tPHL ) and
amplifiers that have low input output pins through CLED01 and turn-off (tPLH ) propagation delay
bias currents, high bandwidth, CLED02 in Figure 2. Many factors specifications, preferably over
stable gain, and very high influence the effect and the desired operating
linearity. magnitude of the direct coupling temperature range.

57
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS

The limiting case of zero dead The maximum dead time is also
time occurs when the input to Q1 equivalent to the difference
turns off at the same time that the between the maximum and
input to Q2 turns on. This case minimum propagation delay
determines the minimum delay difference specifications. The
between LED1 turn-off and LED2 maximum dead time (due to the
turn-on, which is related to the optocouplers) for the HCPL-4506
worst case optocoupler is 600 ns over an operating
propagation delay waveforms, as temperature range of -40C to
shown in Figure 3. A minimum +100C.
dead time of zero is achieved in
Figure 3 when the signal to
turn on LED2 is delayed by
(tPLH max - tPHL min ) from the LED1
turn off. Note that the
propagation delays used to
calculate PDD are taken at equal
temperatures since the
optocouplers under consideration
are typically mounted in close
proximity to each other.
(Specifically, tPLH max and ILED1
tPHLmin in the Figure 3 equations
are not the same as the tPLH max Q1 OFF
Q1 ON
and tPHL min, over the full VOUT1
VOUT2
operating temperature range, Q2 OFF
Q2 ON
specified in the data sheet.).
This delay is the maximum value
for the propagation delay ILED2
tPLH
difference specification that is MIN.
specified at 450 ns for the HCPL- tPLH
MAX.
4506 over an operating
PDD*
temperature range of -40C to MAX. tPHL
+100C. Delaying the LED signal MIN.
tPHL
by the maximum propagation MAX.
delay difference ensures that the
minimum dead time is zero, but it MAX.
DEAD TIME
does not tell a designer what the
MAXIMUM DEAD TIME (DUE TO OPTOCOUPLER)
maximum dead time will be. The
= (tPLH MAX. - tPLH MIN.) + (tPHL MAX. - tPHL MIN.)
maximum dead time occurs in the = (tPLH MAX. - tPHL MIN.) + (tPLH MIN. - tPHL MAX.)
highly unlikely case where one = PDD* MAX. - PDD* MIN.
optocoupler with the fastest tPLH PROPAGATION DELAY DIFFERENCE (PPD) MAX.
and another with the slowest tPHL = (tPLH - tPHL) MAX. = (tPLH MAX. - tPHL MIN.)
NOTE: THE PROPAGATION DELAYS USED TO CALCULATE THE
are in the same inverter leg. The PDD AND MAXIMUM DEAD TIME ARE TAKEN AT EQUAL TEMPERATURES.
maximum dead time in this case
becomes the sum of the spread in
Figure 3. Propagation Delay and Dead Time
the tPLH and tPHL propagation
delays as shown in Figure 3.

58
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS

Bootstrap Power Supply eliminating the need for isolated


Circuit for Power power supplies or dc-to-dc
converters. It can be modified to
Control Systems suit other Agilent gate drive
Figure 4 shows a bootstrapped optocouplers and current/voltage
output power supply circuit that sensing isolation amplifiers.
has the following benefits:
eliminates the need for an Component values were chosen
isolated power supply or a dc- for a 350 V rail =
to-dc converter, HV+ - HV - (240 V x 1.414).
lower cost solution compared When the lower IGBT is turned
to transformer based power on, VC1H charges up (through
supply, D1H ) to a voltage of:
less printed circuit board
space. VC1H = HV+ - [HV- + VSATM2+ VCC2H + VF (D1H )]
= 350 V - 3 V - 18 V - 1 V
This circuit includes a bootstrap
circuit for providing output = 328 V
power to the HCPL-316J gate HV+
drive optocouplers, thereby HV+

15 nF
C1H
R1H
47K R2H
20
VCC2(H)

D1H
A14P
1,000 V
VDESAT(H)
HV+
HIGH GATE-DRIVE 1k DUAL IGBT
DDSH
C2H RDESATH
HCPL-316J RTONH C3H A14P
1 VIN+ VE
16 1.2 F 0.1 F 1,000 V
2 15 10
VIN VLED2+ N/C (20%)
3 14
VCC1 DESAT
4 13 DZLH
GND1 VCC2 VC(H)
5 12 18 V
RESET VC
6 11 VO(H)
FAULT VOUT M1 DFBHI
7 10
VLED1+ VEE RGH (DSE130-12A,
8 9
VLED1 VEE 12.5 IXYS)
RBIASDH
20K

VE(H)
AC
DZ2H C4H MOTOR
12 V 250 nF
VEE(H)
R1L 15nF
D2H 47K C1L
A14P R2L
1,000 V 20

LOW GATE-DRIVE
HCPL-316J 1K
1 16 DDSL
VIN+ VE RDESATL
2 15 HV DIODE
VIN VLED2+
3 14 (LOW GATE-DRIVE CIRCUIT IS
VCC1 DESAT
4 13 M2
GND1 VCC2 IDENTICAL TO HIGH DFBLO
5 12 RGL
RESET VC GATE-DRIVE CIRCUIT) (DSE130-12A,
6 11 12.5
FAULT VOUT IXYS)
7 10
VLED1+ VEE
8 9
VLED1 VEE

HV

Figure 4. Bootstrap Circuit for Power Control System

59
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS

where VSATM2 is the saturation or Shunt Resistor Selection low cost applications. These
on voltage across the collector- for Current Sensing resistors are suitable for
emitter of IGBT M2; VF (D1H) is the The current-sensing shunt measuring current up to 28 Arms .
voltage across diode DD1H ; and resistor should have low See comparison table below.
HV+, HV- are the rail voltages. resistance to minimize power
dissipation, low inductance to Several four-terminal shunts
When M2 (low IGBT) switches off minimize di/dt induced voltage from Isotek suitable for sensing
and M1 (upper IGBT) switches spikes which could adversely currents in motor drives up to 71
on, VE(H) pulls up to HV+ -VSATM1. affect operation, and reasonable Arms (71 hp or 53 kW) are shown
This causes C4H to become tolerance to maintain overall in the comparison table below;
charged through D2H. Charge circuit accuracy. Choosing a the maximum current and motor
sharing between C1H and C4H particular value for the power range for each of the
results in the voltage across C4H shunt is usually a compromise PBV-series shunts are indicated.
which (in the absence of between minimizing power For shunt resistance from 50 mW
clamping diode DZ2H ) can be dissipation and maximizing down to 10 mW, the maximum
approximated by: accuracy. Smaller shunt current is limited by the input
resistance decrease power voltage range of the isolated
C4H VC4H = C1H 328 V dissipation, while larger shunt modulator. For the 5 mW and
VC4H = 19.6 V resistance can improve circuit 2 mW shunts, a heat sink may be
accuracy by utilizing the full input required due to the increased
where VC4H = the voltage drop range of the isolated modulator. power dissipation at higher
across C4H . The negative gate currents.
bias then is held at 12 V by Agilent Technologies
clamping Zener DZ2H. recommends Dale Electronics
two-terminal shunt resistors for

Low Cost Two Terminal Resistor Selection Guide (Supplier: Dale Electronics, Tel: 402-564-3131)
Shunt Resistor Shunt Price Tolerance Temp. Max. RMS Motor Power Range
Part Number Resistance Range Coefficient Current 120 Vac - 440 Vac
(m) (US$) (%) (ppm/C) (A) (hp) (kW)
LV-5.005 5 $0.40 - 1.00 1 <300 28.3 8 - 28 6 - 21
LVR-3.01 10 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 14.1 4 - 14 3 - 10
LVR-3.02 20 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 7 2-7 1.4 - 5
LVR-3.05 50 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 2.8 0.8 - 3 0.6 - 2
WSC-2.02* 20 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 7.1 2-7 1.4 - 5

* Surface Mount

High Performance Four-Terminal Shunt Resistor Selection Guide (Supplier: Isotek, Tel: 508-673-2900)
Shunt Resistor Shunt Unit Price Tolerance Temp. Max. RMS Motor Power Range
Part Number Resistance @ 2500 Qty. Coefficient Current 120 Vac - 440 Vac
(m) (US$) (%) (ppm/C) (A) (hp) (kW)
PBV-R050-0.5 50 $3.74 0.5 <30 3 0.8 - 3 0.6 - 2
PBV-R020-0.5 20 $3.74 0.5 <30 7 2-7 1.4 - 5
PBV-R010-0.5 10 $3.74 0.5 <30 14 4 - 14 3 - 10
PBV-R005-0.5 5 $4.09 0.5 <30 25 [28] 7-25 [8-28] 5-19 [6-21]
PBV-R002-0.5 2 $4.09 0.5 <30 39 [71] 11 - 39 8 - 29
[19 - 71] [14 - 53]
Note: Values in brackets are with a heatsink for the shunt.

60
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Isolated Integrated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET

+5 V HCPL-3120

1 8 +HVDC
270 + Vcc*
0.1 F
Rg
2 7

CONTROL
INPUT Q1
A 3-PHASE
3 6
VEE* AC
+ OPTIONAL
74XXX
OPEN
4 5
COLLECTOR

Q2 HVDC
*RECOMMENDED SUPPLY VOLTAGES
SINGLE SUPPLY Vcc = +18V VEE = 0V
DUAL SUPPLY Vcc = +15V VEE = -5V

VCC VEE VOL


Rg =
ION

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCPL-3120 drives the IGBTs Peak output current of 2.0A 1) HCPL-3150 0.5 Amp Isolated
or MOSFETs directly in this improves driving efficiency. IGBT Gate Driver
circuit and provides full Superior common mode 2) HCPL-3140 0.4 amp Isolated
regulatory approved isolation transient noise immunity: IGBT Gate driver
between the power and control 15 kV/s@Vcm = 1500 V. 3) HCPL-314J 0.4 Amp Dual IGBT
circuits. The output power supply Low Icc current and wide Vcc Gate Driver
can be derived from rail to rail range: 15 V - 30 V over -40C to 4) HCPL-315J 0.5 Amp Dual IGBT
supply by using a bootstrap 100C. Gate Driver
circuit illustrated in the Inverter Low VOL of 0.5 V eliminates the 5) HCPL-316J 2.0 Amp Isolated
Design using Gate Drive and need for negative Supply Gate Driver with Integrated
Current Sense Optocoupler Voltage (Vee). Desaturation Detection and
section. The value of Rg in the World wide regulatory Feedback.
above circuit is chosen to control approval.
the peak gate charge and Fast under voltage lockout
discharge current as well as the response: 0.6 s.
output power dissipation.

61
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Dual Channel Isolated Integrated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET

+5 V
HCPL-314J FLOATING
SUPPLY
270 1 16 VCC = 18 V
+HVDC
CONTROL 0.1 F +
INPUT
2 15
Rg
74XXX
OPEN 3 14
COLLECTOR
GND 1
3-PHASE
+5 V AC
FLOATING
SUPPLY
270 6 11 VCC = 18 V
CONTROL 0.1 F +
INPUT
7 10
Rg
74XXX
OPEN 8 9
COLLECTOR
GND 1 HVDC

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCPL-314J drives 2 IGBTs or Dual in 1 package saves 1) HCPL-315J 0.5 Amp Dual IGBT
MOSFETs directly in this circuit assembly costs. Gate Driver
and provides full regulatory Peak output current of 0.4 A 2) HCPL-3150 0.5 Amp Isolated
approved isolation between the best suited for low and IGBT Gate Driver
power and control circuits. The medium power IGBTs. 3) HCPL-3140 0.4 amp Isolated
output power supply can be Superior common mode IGBT Gate driver
derived from rail to rail supply transient noise immunity: 4) HCPL-3120 2.0 Amp IGBT
by using a bootstrap circuit 10 kV/s@Vcm = 1500 V. Gate Driver
illustrated in the Inverter Design Low Icc current and wide Vcc 5) HCPL-316J 2.0Amp Isolated
using Gate Drive and Current range: 10 V - 30 V over -40C to Gate Driver with Integrated
Sense Optocoupler section. The 100C. Desaturation Detection and
value of Rg in the above circuit is Low VOL of 1V eliminates the Feedback.
chosen to control the peak gate need for negative supply
charge and discharge current as voltage (Vee).
well as the output power Worldwide regulatory approval.
dissipation.

62
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Isolated Gate Drive for IGBT/MOSFET with Integrated
Desaturation Protection and Fault Feedback

VCC2
RESET 18 V
(INPUT)

DRIVE
HCPL-316J
SIGNAL 74ACT04 0.1 F
(INPUT) 1 16 20k
VIN+ VE VCC2
2 15 HV DIODE
VIN VLED2+ 0.1 F -5 V 1k
MICRO-CONTROLLER 3 14
VCC1 DESAT
4 13
VCC1 GND1 VCC2 RDESATH
5V 0.1 F 5 RESET VC
12
20k
3.3 k 6 11
FAULT VOUT
7 10
VLED1+ VEE 0.1 F RGATEH
300 pF 8 9
VLED1 VEE

DESAT
FAULT
(OUTPUT)

3-PHASE
OUTPUT

VCC VEE VOL


Rg =
ION

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCPL-316J drives IGBTs or Gate Drive Current : 2.0 A 1) HCPL-315J 0.5 Amp Dual IGBT
MOSFETs directly and provides Common mode Transient Gate Driver
additional IGBT desaturation Rejection: 15 kV/s@VCM = 2) HCPL-3150 0.5 Amp Isolated
protection. The Vce of the IGBT 1.5 kV IGBT Gate Driver
is monitored by Desat pin and IGBT gate protection response 3) HCPL-J314 0.4 amp Isolated
the IGBT will be slowly turned off time: 3 s. IGBT Gate driver
if Vdesat exceeds a threshold of IGBT fault signal propagation 4) HCPL-314J 0.4 Amp Dual IGBT
7 V. A fault feedback signal is delay: 10 s. Gate Driver
propagated to the input side to 5) HCPL-3120 2.0Amp Isolated
notify the micro-controller of the Benefits: Gate Driver.
detected fault condition. This Reduced assembly costs
FAULT output remains low until CMOS/TTL compatible
the part is reset. The 100 pF Local IGBT soft shutdown
blanking capacitor shown in the Worldwide regulatory approval
diagram above will delay the rise
of VDesat for a period of around
4 s to allow the IGBT sufficient
time to turn on and the collector
to settle to a low VDesat.

63
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Isolated Interface for Intelligent Power Module Gate Drive

HCPL-4506

HCPL-4506
HCPL-4506

1 8 VCC1 HCPL-4506

0.1 F HCPL-4506
20 K
ILED1 20 K
+5 V 2 7
+HV

310
VOUT1
3 6

CMOS
Q1

4 5 M
SHIELD

Q2
HCPL-4506
VCC2
1 8 HV

20 k 0.1 F 20 K
+5 V ILED2
2 7

310
3 6
VOUT2
CMOS IPM

4 5
SHIELD
HCPL-4506

Description Performance of Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCPL-4506 provides isolation Optocoupler 1) HCNW4506 widebody,
between the controller and the Minimum 15 kV/s transient VIORM = 1414 V, HCPL-J456,
IPM (Intelligent Power Module). immunity VIORM = 891 V, HCPL-0456, SO8
This optoisolator provides world Maximum propagation delay: package.
wide safety certification (UL, 500 ns 2) HCPL-4504, CNW4504, HCPL-
CSA, VDE, BSI). The HCPL-4506 Maximum propagation delay J454, HCPL-0454.
optocouplers can reject common difference between any two 3) HCPL-4503, HCNW4503, HCPL-
mode transients that have slew HCPL-4506s: 450 ns 0453.
rates as high as 15 kV/s and Specification guaranteed over
peak voltage up to 1500 V. -40C to 100C operating
Furthermore, this optocoupler temperature range.
has guaranteed Pulse Width
Distortion and Propagation Delay
Benefits
Difference specifications that
World wide regulatory approval.
allow the circuit designer to
Reduced deadtime
reduce switching dead time and
improve inverter efficiency.

64
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing with Analog Output

HV+

150 pF

+SUPPLY
10.0 k
+5 V +15 V
78L05
+5 V 0.1 F
IN OUT
HCPL-7840
0.1 F
1 8 0.1 F
0.1 F 8
2 7 2.00 k 6
0.01 7
39 VOUT
F 3 6 5 + MC34082A
+ 4 5 2.00 k
M 4
0.1 F
RSENSE

150 pF 10.0 k

-15 V

HV

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCPL-7840 Isolation Sense current: Up to 200 A 1) HCPL-7800A: 1% part-to-part
Amplifier can be used for Optocoupler bandwidth: gain tolerance, HCPL-7800: 3%
isolating the motor current Up to 100 kHz part-to-part gain tolerance.
sensing element from the Optocoupler nonlinearity: 0.2% 2) HCPL-788J: single ended
control circuit while at the same Optocoupler input offset output isolation amplifier with
time transmitting precision voltage: 0.2 mV (typical) integrated over current
analog signals. This circuit Optocoupler common-mode detection.
requires a low cost shunt resistor rejection: 15 kV/s 3) HCPL-7860 and HCPL-7870/
for monitoring the motor current. HCPL-0870: isolated 15 bit A/D
The voltage across the sensing Benefits converter.
resistor is fed to the HCPL-7840 Small size and lower profile 4) HCPL-786J: isolated 15 bit A/D
input pins 2 and 3. A floating circuit compared to Hall-Effect converter.
power supply (which in many device current sensing circuits.
applications could be the same Industry standard low profile
one used to drive the high side components are used in this
power transistors) is regulated to circuit.
5 V using a simple three-terminal High precision measurement
voltage regulator, 78L05. The while maintaining common
differential output from the mode transient immunity.
HCPL-7840 isolation amplifier is
converted to a ground-referenced
single-ended output voltage with
a simple differential amplifier
circuit (MC34082A and associated
components).

65
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Isolated A/D Converter for Phase Current Sensing

FLOATING
POSITIVE
SUPPLY +5V
HV+

GATE DRIVE
CIRCUIT

R1

CCLK VDD
D1 C1
0.1 F CLAT CHAN
5.1 V
R2 39 VDD1 VDD2 CDAT SCLK
VIN+ MCLK MCLK1 SDAT

MOTOR VIN- MDAT MDAT1 CS


+ - MCLK2 THR1
GND1 GND2 C3
RSENSE C2 0.1 F
0.01 F MDAT2 OVR1
HCPL-7860
GND RESET
TO
HCPL-X870 CONTROL
CIRCUIT
HV-

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


The HCPL-7860 Isolated Resolution due to linearity: Integrated analog-to-digital
Modulator and the HCPL-x870 12 bits at tDELAY = 18 s, converter means fewer
Digital Interface IC together form 14 bits at tDELAY = 94 s components required.
an isolated programmable two- Common-mode transient High common-mode transient
chip analog-to-digital converter. rejection: dV/dt = 15 kV/s @ rejection ensures no
The isolated modulator allows VCM = 1500 V corruption of data.
direct measurement of motor Signal-to-Noise: SNR = 62 dB Low gain temperature-
phase currents in power inverters (minimum) coefficient and offset voltage
while the digital interface IC can Regulatory Isolation Ratings: ensure high accuracy
be programmed to optimize the VISO = 3750 V (per UL 1577), measurements.
conversion speed and resolution. VIORM = 848 V; VIOTM = 6000 V
Input Offset Drift: 4 V / C References
(typical) 1) HCPL-7860/x870 Technical
Reference Voltage Tolerance: Data
4% (1% within shipment 2) High precision current sensing
tube) resistor suppliers: Dale in USA;
Isabellenhutte in Germany;
and PCN in Japan

66
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing with Analog Output
and:Over Current Detection
HV +

FLOATING
GATE DRIVE POSITIVE
CIRCUIT SUPPLY

R4

C1
D1 0.1 F
5.1 V 5 HCPL-788J GND2 16
VDD1
C6
0.1 F
1 VIN+ VDD2 15 C
R2 C2 R3 4.7 k
39 0.1 F 2 FAULT 14
MOTOR VIN TO OTHER
+ R1 + PHASE
8 GND1 ABSVAL 13 OUTPUTS
RSENSE
7 VDD1 VOUT 12 A/D

3 CH VREF 11 VREF

4 CL VDD2 10 C8 C4 C7 C5

6 VLED+ GND2 9

GND
HV +

C5 = C7 = C8 = 470 pF
+5 V C4 = 0.1 F

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


The HCPL-788J can be used for Overcurrent fault response: No additional fault detection
isolating the motor current 3 s typical circuitry needed
sensing element from the control Sense current up to 100 A or Direct interface with micro-
circuit while at the same time more controller
transmitting precision analog Bandwidth: 30 kHz typical Smaller size and lower profile
signals and over current fault Nonlinearity: 0.06% typical compared to Hall-Effect device
signal. This circuit requires a high Input offset voltage: 3 mV max. based current sensing circuits
precision-sensing resistor for over temp. High precision measurement
monitoring the motor current. Common-mode rejection: while at the same time
The voltage across the sensing 10 kV/s@VCM = 15 kV min. maintaining transient immunity
resistor is fed to the HCPL-788J
input pins 2 and 3. The single-
ended output allows it to
interface directly with the A/D
port of the micro-controller. The
sensing resistor is available from
several suppliers, which are listed
in the Inverter Design using Gate
Drive and Current Sense
Optocoupler section.

67
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using an Isolation Amplifier

HV+

150 pF

R1

+SUPPLY
10.0 k
+5 V +15 V
78L05
+5 V
IN OUT
HCPL-7840
0.1 F
1 8 0.1 F
0.1 F 8
2 7 2.00 k 6
0.1 7
39 VOUT
R2 F 3 6 5 +
MC34082A
4 5 2.00 k
4
0.1 F

HV 150 pF 10.0 k

-15 V

Description Performance of Circuit Agilent Alternative Parts


The HCPL-7840 isolation 15 kV/s transient rejection 1) HCPL-786J: isolated 15 bit A/D
amplifier can be used for sensing 0.05% nonlinearity converter
the rectified dc power supply 5% gain tolerance
voltage in a power inverter. An References
isolated 5 V power supply Benefits 1) HCPL-7860/x870 Technical
regulated to 5 V using a simple Few components Data
three-terminal voltage regulator High electrical noise immunity 2) High precision current sensing
powers the HCPL-7840 input resistor suppliers: Dale in USA;
circuit. The resistor divider Isabellenhutte in Germany;
network is used so that the and PCN in Japan
full scale voltage at the HCPL-
7840 input is 200 mV. The
impedance of the resistor divider
must be less than 1 k so that the
input resistance (500 k) and
input bias current (1 mA) of the
isolation amplifier do not affect
the accuracy of the measurement.
To obtain higher bandwidths, the
input bypass capacitor (across
HCPL-7840s pins 2 and 3 ) can be
reduced, but it should not be
reduced much below 1000 pF to
maintain gain accuracy of the
isolation amplifier.

68
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using a Linear Optocoupler

HV+ VCC

VI
U1 U3
R1 HCPL-4562 HCPL-4562
8 8
R3
2 2
R4 R5
6 6
VO
3 5 5 3

R2

HV
+ U2
ISOLATION
BARRIER

VO R2
C1
VI R1

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


The HCPL-4562 Linear 122 dB isolation mode rejection No isolated 5 V input power
Optocoupler is used in a servo ratio supply is required for
circuit to sense the rectified dc optocoupler U1
0.25% nonlinearity
power supply voltage of a power Simple circuit
0.3%/C gain variation
inverter. The series resistor R1
temperature coefficient
limits the current that drives the Alternative Agilent Parts
input LED of optocoupler U1. The
1) HCPL-7800A: 1% part-to-part
forward current through the LED
gain tolerance
of the HCPL-4562 optocoupler is
2) HCPL-7800: 3% part-to-part
proportional to the dc high
gain tolerance
voltage power supply rail.

When the circuit is balanced with


the potentiometer R3, the output
voltage VO is proportional to the
high voltage dc power supply as
shown by the equation:
V O / VI = R 2 / R1

69
MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS
Low Cost Isolation Amplifier for Motor Speed
and Position Measurement

VCC2 +5 V

VCC1 +5 V

R5 R7
R2 10 k 470
+ LED 68 k
0-10 V R3
VOUT
10 k
R1 Q2 2N3904 Q4 2N3904
68 k
VIN Q1 2N3906 Q3 2N3906
M
R4 R6
10 10
PD1 PD2

HCNR200/1
A 4-20 mA

ISOLATION
BARRIER

Description 7 - 10 mA at the nominal input Performance of Circuit


This is a high-speed, low-cost operating voltage according to 1.5 MHz bandwidth
isolation amplifier that can be the following equation: Stable gain
used for the measurement of Low-cost support circuit
motor speed and position. The IF = (VIN / R1) / K1 Circuit couples only positive
analog signal coming from the voltage signals
motor is assumed to be 0 to 10 V, where K1 (i.e., IPD1 /IF ) of the
or 4 to 20 mA. This circuit can be optocoupler is typically about
Benefits
used in applications where high 0.5%. R2 is then selected to
Low cost solution for coupling
bandwidth, low-cost, and stable achieve the desired output
positive voltage analog signals
gain are required, but where voltage according to the equation,
Simple way for isolating motor
accuracy is not critical. This VOUT /VIN = R2 / R1. The purpose
speed and position analog
circuit is a good example of how of R4 and R6 is to improve the
signals
a designer can trade off accuracy dynamic response (i.e., stability)
to achieve improvements in of the input and output circuits by
bandwidth and cost. The circuit lowering the local loop gains. R3
has a bandwidth of about 1.5 MHz and R5 are selected to provide
with stable gain characteristics enough current to drive the bases
and requires few external of Q2 and Q4. And R7 is selected
components. R1 is selected to so that Q4 operates at about the
achieve an LED current of about same collector current as Q2.

70
Industrial Applications

AC/DC Voltage Threshold Sensing


VCC
HCPL-3700/60
RX/2
1 AC VCC 8

2 DC+ 7 RL
UP TO
800 Vac
3 DC- VO 6 VOUT HCPL-3700/60 SCHEMATIC

RX/2 DC+ INPUT VCC


4 AC GND 5
2 ICC 8
D1 D2
AC INPUT CONFIGURATION 1
AC IO V
O
INPUT D3 D4
VCC 6
HCPL-3700/60 4

1 AC VCC 8 3 5

RX/2 DC INPUT GND


2 DC+ 7 RL
UP TO
1000 Vdc RX/2
3 DC- VO 6 VOUT

4 AC GND 5

DC INPUT CONFIGURATION

Description Performance of Circuit References


The HCPL-3700/60 Threshold- HCPL-3760 optocoupler 1) Agilent Application Note AN
Sensing Optocoupler can be used threshold input current: 1.3 mA 1004, Threshold Sensing for
for sensing the ac/dc power on/ (typical) Industrial Control Systems
off condition. At the optocoupler Typical optocoupler propaga- 2) HCPL-3700/60 Threshold
input, only a pair of series tion delay: 10 s Sensing Optocoupler
resistors RX/2 are required to limit Optocoupler common mode Technical Data
the current. The ac signal can be transient immunity: 600 V/s
filtered with a capacitor at either (typical) Alternative Agilent Parts
the input or the output of the
Maximum input voltage: up to HCPL-576X: Hermetically Sealed
optocoupler. For more
1000 Vdc, or 800 Vac Threshold Sensing Optocoupler
information refer to Agilent
Application Note AN 1004,
Threshold Sensing for Industrial Benefits
Control Systems. The value of RX HCPL 3700/60s built-in diode
determines the threshold sensing bridge and hysteresis circuit
voltage. reduces component count
HCPL-3760s low threshold
sensing current reduces power
dissipation
Threshold voltage can be
adjusted by external resistor RX
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
Optical Isolation In Flat-Panel Displays

HCPL-0708/HCPL-0738

HIGH VOLTAGE
DC SUPPLY

CONTROLLER ROW/ FLAT


STATE COLUMN PANEL
MACHINE DRIVERS DISPLAY

ISOLATION
BOUNDARY

Description Performance of Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCPL-0708 high-speed, Optocoupler 1) HCPL-0201/11 Small Outline
optocoupler isolates the low- Maximum propagation delay Low Input Current
voltage logic circuit from the time: 60 ns Optocoupler
high-voltage Flat-Panel Display Typical pulse width distortion 2) HCPL-52XX Hermetically
row/column drivers. Examples of of 15Cns Sealed Low Input Current
Flat-Panel Display technologies Common-mode transient Optocoupler
requiring such high voltage rejection: 15,000 V/s at 1000 V 3) HCNW-2201/11 Widebody Low
technologies are Electro- peak Input Current Optocoupler
Luminescence, Fluorescence, and
4) HCPL-2430/1 20 MBd Logic-
Plasma technologies. The
optocoupler serves the functions
Benefits Gate Optocoupler
of level shifting and safety Compact size and easy interface
isolation. compared to pulse transformers
Low input current allowing
CMOS interface
Low component count

72
Power Supply Applications

Optical Isolation in a Switching Power


Supply - Circuit No. 1
ISOLATION
BOUNDARY

AC
RECTIFIER POWER OUTPUT
LOAD
SWITCH FILTER
MAINS

PWM
CONTROLLER
ISO-AMP WITH +
CNR200/1 GAIN SYSTEM
OPTOCOUPLER REFERENCE

POWER-OFF
AND
UNDER-VOLTAGE SENSE DIGITAL INTERRUPT MICRO-
OPTOCOUPLER PROCESSOR

HCPL-0708

Description Performance of References


Switching power supplies often Optocoupler 1) HCNR200/1 Analog
need to couple digital and analog HCNR200/1 has 0.01% non- Optocoupler Technical Data
signals between the primary and linearity and up to 1 MHz 2) HCPL-0708 High Speed
secondary circuits. The above bandwidth Optocoupler Technical Data
schematic shows an analog error HCPL-0708 has 60Cns maximum
signal representing the difference propagation delay time Alternative Agilent Parts
between the output voltage and Both HCNR200/1 and HCPL-0708 1) HCPL-7800 Isolation Amplifier
the reference voltage being fed optocouplers meet worldwide
back to the primary side using a 2) HCPL-4503, HCNW4503 High
regulatory insulation guidelines CMR Digital Optocoupler
HCNR200/1 Analog Optocoupler.
The analog error signal helps the 3) HCNW2601/11 Widebody, High
pulse-width modulation (PWM)
Benefits Speed Digital Optocoupler
controller determine the exact Accurate monitoring and con-
4) 4N25, 4N35, CNY17, HCPL-181,
pulse-width to make the filtered trol of secondary output voltage
HCPL-817 Phototransistor
output voltage match the system Power off condition detectable Optocouplers
reference voltage. In a similar at an early stage enabling the
manner, the HCPL-0708 Digital microprocessor to save critical
Optocoupler can be used to information
monitor the primary side power-
off and under-voltage condition.
Optical Isolation in a Switching Power Supply -
Circuit No. 2

D1 R3

C1 R4
5V R9 R13
+

CATHODE
SUS* R7
ANODE
D4
HCPL-2200
R1
D5 PWM CHIP
L

C8
AC L1
POWER
+
R10
C2 ISOLATED
N C6 C7
D2 DC
R2 HCPL-2200 OUTPUT

C3
R8 +
R12
5V R11
C4 R5
* SUS = SILICON UNILATERAL SWITCH

D3 R6

Description Performance of References


The above figure shows a push- Optocoupler HCPL-2200 High CMR
pull switching power supply that Maximum propagation delay: Optocoupler Technical Data
utilizes the HCPL-2200 300 ns
optocoupler to drive switching Input turn-on current: 1.6 mA Alternative Agilent Parts
transistors. The above circuit Common-mode transient 1) HCPL-2219 Very High CMR
uses a silicon unilateral switch rejection: 1000 V/s Optocoupler
(SUS) to bootstrap start the 2) HCNW2601/11 Widebody High
power supply when power is first CMR Optocoupler
applied. The inhibit function in
Benefits
the HCPL-2200 optocoupler has The power switches are
been used to good advantage to protected from common-mode
provide a common-mode conduc- conduction failures caused by
tion interlock function that will EMI
not allow both the switching Regulation range is increased
transistors to turn on at the same since no deadtime is required
time. Design is tolerant to propaga-
tion delay changes due to lot-to-
lot component variations

74
Optical Isolation in a DC/DC Converter

Isolation Boundary

DC Input Synchronous
Power Switch Rectifier/ Load
Output Filter

Digital Optocoupler
PWM Controller
HCPL-0708

Isolated
Bias Supply

Description Performance of Alternative Agilent Parts


The HCPL-0708 high speed Optocoupler 1) HCPL-0600 High Speed
optocoupler provides very good HCPL-0708: 60Cns maximum Optocoupler
safety isolation between primary propagation delay time and 2) HCPL-2200 High CMR
and secondary sections of the 15Cns typical pulse width Optocoupler
DC/DC converter as shown in the distortion 3) 4N25, 4N35, CNY17, HCPL-181,
above figure. The switching 10KV/s minimum CMR @ Vcm HCPL-817 Phototransistor
frequency specification of the = 1KV Optocouplers
DC/DC converter is met by the Wide operating temperature:
low propagation delay (60Cns -40 to 100C
max.) and 15Cns typical pulse
width distortion of HCPL-0708
CMOS compatible high speed
Benefits
optocoupler. The smaller size, Accurate monitoring and
better noise immunity control of output voltage
performance, high reliability and Low propagation delay
wide operating temperature make Small size and high reliability
HCPL-0708 ideally suited for such CMOS compatible and easy
applications. interface

75
Application Notes

The following application notes and technical articles are available on


Agilent Technologies web site at

http://www.agilent.com/view/optocouplers

They can also be obtained from your local Agilent Technologies' sales
office or authorized Agilent distributor.

Application Notes
AN 1004
Threshold Sensing for Industrial Control Systems with the
HCPL-3700 Interface Optocoupler
AN 1018
Designing with the HCPL-4100 and HCPL-4200 Current Loop
Optocouplers
AN 1023 (Pub. 3/85)
Radiation Immunity of Agilent Technologies Optocouplers
AN 1024 (Pub. 3/85)
Ring Detection with the HCPL-3700 Optocouplers
AN 1043 (Pub. 2/97)
Common-Mode Noise: Sources and Solutions
AN 1046 (Pub. 11/96)
Low On-Resistance Solid State Relays
AN 1059 (Pub. 2/93)
High CMR Isolation Amplifier for Current Sensing Applications
AN 1063 (Pub. 7/93)
A Designers Guide to HCPL-7600 Series, Low Input-Current,
High Speed Optocouplers
AN 1074 (Pub. 11/96)
Optocoupler Input-Output Endurance Voltage
AN 1078 (Pub. 11/96)
Designing with Agilent Technologies Isolation Amplifiers
AN 1087 (Pub. 11/96)
Thermal Data for Optocouplers
AN 1252
Variable Speed Drive Applications in the Consumer Market
AN 1253
Variable Speed Drive Applications in the High-power
Industrial:Market
Application Notes, continued

AN 1254
Variable Speed Drive Applications in the Low-power
Industrial:Market
AN 951-1
Applications for Low Input Current, High Gain Optocouplers
AN 951-2
Linear Applications of Optocouplers
SN 101
Overview of Agilent Technologies Optical Isolation Technology and Products for
Motor Control Applications

77
www.agilent.com/semiconductors
For product information and a complete list of
distributors, please go to our web site.
For technical assistance call:
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Data subject to change.
Copyright 2002 Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Obsoletes 5968-4800E
June 7, 2002
5988-4082EN