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Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials


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Standard Specifications
for Highway Bridges
17th Edition 2002

Adopted and Published by the


American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
444 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 249
Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright 2002 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. All
Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be re-
produced in any form without permission of the publishers.

Code: HB-17 ISBN: 156051-171-0

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY
AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
20012002

VOTING MEMBERS

Officers:

President: Brad Mallory, Pennsylvania


Vice President: James Codell, Kentucky
Secretary/Treasurer: Larry King, Pennsylvania

Regional Representatives:

Region I: Joseph Boardman, New York, One-Year Term


James Weinstein, New Jersey, Two-Year Term

Region II: Bruce Saltsman, Tennessee, One-Year Term


Fred Van Kirk, West Virginia, Two-Year Term

Region III: Kirk Brown, Illinois, One-Year Term


Henry Hungerbeeler, Missouri, Two-Year Term

Region IV: Joseph Perkins, Alaska, One-Year Term


Tom Stephens, Nevada, Two-Year Term

NON-VOTING MEMBERS

Immediate Past President: E. Dean Carlson, Kansas


Executive Director: John Horsley, Washington, D.C.

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2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
HIGHWAY SUBCOMMITTEE ON
BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES
2002

TOM LULAY, Oregon, Chairman


SANDRA LARSON, Vice Chairman
JAMES D. COOPER, Federal Highway Administration, Secretary

ALABAMA, William F. Conway, George H. SOUTH CAROLINA, Randy R. Cannon, Jeff


Connor Sizemore
ALASKA, Richard A. Pratt SOUTH DAKOTA, John C. Cole
ARIZONA, F. Daniel Davis TENNESSEE, Edward P. Wasserman
ARKANSAS, Phil Brand TEXAS, Mary Lou Ralls
CALIFORNIA, Richard Land U.S. DOT, Nick E. Mpras
COLORADO, Mark A. Leonard UTAH, David Nazare
CONNECTICUT, Gordon Barton VERMONT, James McCarthy
DELAWARE, Doug Finney, Dennis OShea VIRGINIA, Malcolm T. Kerley
D.C., Donald Cooney WASHINGTON, Jerry Weigel, Tony M. Allen
FLORIDA, William N. Nickas WEST VIRGINIA, James Sothen
GEORGIA, Paul Liles, Brian Summers WISCONSIN, Stanley W. Woods
HAWAII, Paul Santo WYOMING, Gregg C. Fredrick, Keith R.
IDAHO, Matthew M. Farrar Fulton
ILLINOIS, Ralph E. Anderson
INDIANA, Mary Jo Hamman ALBERTA, Dilip K. Dasmohapatra
IOWA, Norman L. McDonald MANITOBA, Ismail Elkholy
KANSAS, Kenneth F. Hurst, Loren R. Risch NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, John C.
KENTUCKY, Stephen E. Goodpaster Pangalinan
LOUISIANA, Hossein Ghara, Mark J. Morvant NEW BRUNSWICK, David Cogswell
MAINE, James E. Tukey NORTHAMPTON, R. T. Hughes
MARYLAND, Earle S. Freedman NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, John Bowen
MASSACHUSETTS, Alexander K. Bardow NOVA SCOTIA, Alan MacRae, Mark Pertus
MICHIGAN, Steve Beck ONTARIO, Vacant
MINNESOTA, Dan Dorgan, Kevin Western SASKATCHEWAN, Herv Bachelu
MISSISSIPPI, Harry Lee James
MISSOURI, Shyam Gupta FHWA, Shoukry Elnahal
MONTANA, William S. Fullerton MASS. METRO. DIST. COMM., David
NEBRASKA, Lyman D. Freemon Lenhardt
NEVADA, William C. Crawford, Jr. N.J. TURNPIKE AUTHORITY, Richard
NEW HAMPSHIRE, Mark Richardson Raczynski
NEW JERSEY, Harry A. Capers, Jr., Richard NY STATE BRIDGE AUTHORITY, William
W. Dunne Moreau
NEW MEXICO, Jimmy D. Camp PORT AUTH. OF NY AND NJ, Joseph J.
NEW YORK, James OConnell, George Kelly, Joseph Zitelli
Christian BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Wade Casey
NORTH CAROLINA, Gregory R. Perfettie MILITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
NORTH DAKOTA, Terry Udland COMMAND, Robert D. Franz
OHIO, Timothy Keller U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS-DEPT.
OKLAHOMA, Robert J. Rusch, Veldo Goins OF THE ARMY, Paul Tan
OREGON, Mark E. Hirota U.S. COAST GUARD, Jacob Patnaik
PENNSYLVANIA, R. Scott Christie U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-
PUERTO RICO, Jaime Cabre FOREST SERVICE, Nelson Hernandez
RHODE ISLAND, Kazem Farhoumand

iii

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
PREFACE
to
Seventeenth Edition

Major changes and revisions to this edition are as follows:


1. The Interim Specifications of 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 have been
adopted and are included.
2. The commentaries from 1996 through 2000 are provided and have been cross-referenced
with each other, where appropriate.
3. In 1997, Section 15, TFE Bearing Surface, Division I, was replaced by Section 14,
Bearings.
4. In 1997, Section 19, Pot Bearings, Division I, was replaced by Section 14, Bearings.
5. In 1997, Section 20, Disc Bearings, Division I, was replaced by Section 14, Bearings.
6. In 2002, Section 16, Steel Tunnel Liner Plates, Division I, became Section 15.
7. In 2002, Section 17, Soil-Reinforced Concrete Structure Interaction Systems, Division
I, became Section 16.
8. In 2002, Section 18, Soil-Thermoplastic Pipe Interaction Systems, Division I, became
Section 17.
9. A new companion CD-ROM with advance search features is included with each book.
10. The Federal Highway Administration and the States have established a goal that the
LRFD standards be used on all new bridge designs after 2007; only edits related to technical
errors in the seventeenth edition will be made hereafter. These Standard Specifications are ap-
plicable to new structure designs prior to 2007 and for the maintenance and rehabilitation of
existing structures.

iv

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
INTRODUCTION

The compilation of these specifications began in 1921 with the organization of the
Committee on Bridges and Structures of the American Association of State Highway
Officials. During the period from 1921, until printed in 1931, the specifications were
gradually developed, and as the several divisions were approved from time to time,
they were made available in mimeographed form for use of the State Highway
Departments and other organizations. A complete specification was available in 1926
and it was revised in 1928. Though not in printed form, the specifications were valu-
able to the bridge engineering profession during the period of development.
The first edition of the Standard Specifications was published in 1931, and it was
followed by the 1935, 1941, 1944, 1949, 1953, 1957, 1961, 1965, 1969, 1973, 1977,
1983, 1989, 1992, and 1996 revised editions. The present seventeenth edition consti-
tutes a revision of the 1996 specifications, including those changes adopted since the
publication of the sixteenth edition and those through 2002.
In the past, Interim Specifications were usually published in the middle of the cal-
endar year, and a revised edition of this book was generally published every 4 years.
However, since the Federal Highway Administration and the States have established a
goal that the LRFD standards be used on all new bridge designs after 2007, only edits
related to technical errors in the seventeenth edition will be made hereafter. These
Standard Specifications are applicable to new structure designs prior to 2007 and for
the maintenance and rehabilitation of existing structures. Future revisions will have
the same status as standards of the American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and are approved by at least two-thirds of the
Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures. These revisions are voted on by the
Association Member Departments prior to the publication of a new edition of this book,
and if approved by at least two-thirds of the members, they are included in a new edition
as standards of the Association. Members of the Association are the 50 State Highway
or Transportation Departments, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Each mem-
ber has one vote. The U.S. Department of Transportation is a nonvoting member.
Future revisions will be displayed on AASHTOs website via a link from the
titles book code listing, HB-17, in the Bookstore of www.transportation.org. An e-mail
notification will also be sent to previous purchasers notifying them that a revision is
available for download. Please check the site periodically to ensure that you have the
most up-to-date and accurate information.
The Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges are intended to serve as a stan-
dard or guide for the preparation of State specifications and for reference by bridge
engineers.
Primarily, the specifications set forth minimum requirements which are consistent
with current practice, and certain modifications may be necessary to suit local condi-
tions. They apply to ordinary highway bridges and supplemental specifications may be
required for unusual types and for bridges with spans longer than 500 feet.
Specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the
American Welding Society, the American Wood Preservers Association, and the
National Forest Products Association are referred to, or are recognized. Numerous re-
search bulletins are noted for references.
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials wishes to
express its sincere appreciation to the above organizations, as well as to those univer-
sities and representatives of industry whose research efforts and consultations have
been most helpful in continual improvement of these specifications.
Extensive references have been made to the Standard Specifications for
Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing also published by
AASHTO, including equivalent ASTM specifications which have been reproduced in
the Associations Standard Specifications by permission of the American Society for
Testing and Materials.
v

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Attention is also directed to the following publications prepared and published by
the Bridge Subcommittee:
AASHTO Guide for Commonly Recognized (CoRe) Structural Elements1998
Edition
AASHTO Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Steel Girder Highway
Bridges with Design Examples for I-Girder and Box-Girder Bridges2002
Edition
AASHTO Guide Specifications-Thermal Effects in Concrete Bridge Super-
structures1989 Edition
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications1998 Edition
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 2nd Edition, SI1998 Edition
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 2nd Edition, US1998 Edition
AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications, 1st Edition
2001 Edition
AASHTO/AWS-D1.5M/D1.5:2001 An American National Standard: Bridge
Welding Code and its Commentary2002 Edition
Bridge Data Exchange (BDX) Technical Data Guide1995 Edition
Construction Handbook for Bridge Temporary Works1995 Edition
Guide Design Specifications for Bridge Temporary Works1995 Edition
Guide for Painting Steel Structures1997 Edition
Guide Specifications and Commentary for Vessel Collision Design of Highway
Bridges1991 Edition
Guide Specifications for Alternative Load Factor Design Procedures for Steel
Beam Bridges Using Braced Compact Sections1991 Edition
Guide Specifications for Aluminum Highway Bridges1991 Edition
Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete
Bridges, 2nd Edition1999 Edition
Guide Specifications for Design of Pedestrian Bridges, 1997 Edition
Guide Specifications for Distribution of Loads for Highway Bridges1994
Edition
Guide Specifications for Fatigue Evaluation of Existing Steel Bridges1990
Edition
Guide Specifications for Highway Bridge Fabrication with HPS070W Steel
2000 Edition
Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design, 2nd Edition1999 Edition
Guide Specifications for Strength Design of Truss Bridges (Load Factor
Design)1985 Edition
Guide Specifications for Strength Evaluation of Existing Steel and Concrete
Bridges1989 Edition
Guide Specifications for Structural Design of Sound Barriers1989 Edition
Guide Specification for the Design of Stress-Laminated Wood Decks1991
Edition
Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems1993 Edition
Manual for Condition Evaluation of Bridges2000 Edition
vi

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Movable Bridge Inspection, Evaluation and Maintenance Manual1998 Edition
Standard Specifications for Movable Highway Bridges1988 Edition
Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires
and Traffic Signals, 4th Edition2001 Edition

Additional bridges and structures publications prepared and published by other


AASHTO committees and task forces are as follows:
Guide Specifications for Cathodic Protection of Concrete Bridge Decks1994
Edition
Guide Specifications for Polymer Concrete Bridge Deck Overlays1995 Edition
Guide Specifications for Shotcrete Repair of Highway Bridges1998 Edition
Inspectors Guide for Shotcrete Repair of Bridges1999 Edition
Manual for Corrosion Protection of Concrete Components in Bridges1992
Edition
Two Parts: Guide Specifications for Concrete Overlay Pavements and Bridge
Decks1990 Edition
AASHTO Maintenance Manual: The Maintenance and Management of
Roadways and Bridges1999 Edition

The following have served as chairmen of the Committee since its inception in 1921:
Messrs, E.F. Kelley, who pioneered the work of the Committee, Albin L. Gemeny, R. B.
McMinn, Raymond Archiband, G. S. Paxson, E. M. Johnson, Ward Goodman, Charles
Matlock, Joseph S. Jones, Sidney Poleynard, Jack Freidenrich, Henry W. Derthick,
Robert C. Cassano, Clellon Loveall, James E. Siebels, David Pope, and Tom Lulay. The
Committee expresses its sincere appreciation of the work of these men and of those ac-
tive members of the past, whose names, because of retirement, are no longer on the roll.
Suggestions for the improvement of the specifications are welcomed. They should
be sent to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures, AASHTO, 444
North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 249, Washington, D.C. 20001. Inquiries as to the
intent or application of the specifications should be sent to the same address.

ABBREVIATIONS
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
ACI American Concrete Institute
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
AITC American Institute of Timber Construction
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AWS American Welding Society
AWPA American Wood Preservers Association
CRSI Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
CS Commercial Standards
NDS National Design Specifications for Stress Grade Lumber and Its
Fastenings
NFPA National Forest Products Association
RMA Rubber Manufacturers Association
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SSPC Steel Structures Painting Council
WPA Western Pine Association
WRI Wire Reinforcement Institute
WWPA Western Wood Products Association
vii

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
1997 Interim Specifications

Table of Contents

The 1997 Interim Specifications include the following revisions and additions to articles of the 16th
edition of the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 1996.

DIVISION IDESIGN

ARTICLE PAGE

SECTION 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
SECTION 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
8.16.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
8.16.8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
8.17.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184.2
8.32.2.2 and 8.32.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
9.16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
9.17.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
10.32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
10.34.3.2.1, 10.34.3.2.2 and Figure 10.34.3.1A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
10.34.5.1 and 10.34.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
10.38.1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
10.48.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.48.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281.1
10.49.3.1, 10.49.3.2 and 10.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283284
10.61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
12.4.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
12.6.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
12.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
12.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
SECTION 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
17.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
17.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
17.4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370.1
17.6.4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
18.4.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

DIVISION IICONSTRUCTION

3.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
SECTION 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
SECTION 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
SECTION 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563

COMMENTARIES:
DIVISION I: SECTIONS 8, 10, 12, 14, 17 AND 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-11C-30
DIVISION II: SECTIONS 3 AND 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-31C-35

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2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
AASHTO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

DIVISION I
DESIGN

SECTION 1GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1 DESIGN ANALYSIS AND GENERAL STRUCTURAL


INTEGRITY FOR BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.1.1 Design Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.1.2 Structural Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.2 BRIDGE LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.3 WATERWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.3.2 Hydraulic Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.3.2.1 Site Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.3.2.2 Hydrologic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.3.2.3 Hydraulic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.4 CULVERT LOCATION, LENGTH, AND WATERWAY OPENINGS . .4
1.5 ROADWAY DRAINAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.6 RAILROAD OVERPASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.6.1 Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.6.2 Blast Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.7 SUPERELEVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
1.8 FLOOR SURFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
1.9 UTILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

SECTION 2GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

2.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.1.1 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.1.2 Width of Roadway and Sidewalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.2 STANDARD HIGHWAY CLEARANCESGENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.2.1 Navigational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.2.2 Roadway Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.2.3 Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.2.4 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
2.2.5 Curbs and Sidewalks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.3 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.3.1 Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.3.2 Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.4 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR UNDERPASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.4.1 Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.4.2 Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.4.3 Curbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.5 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR TUNNELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.5.1 Roadway Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.5.2 Clearance between Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.5.3 Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.5.4 Curbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.6 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR DEPRESSED ROADWAYS . . . . . . .10
ix

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
x CONTENTS Division I

2.6.1 Roadway Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10


2.6.2 Clearance between Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.6.3 Curbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.7 RAILINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.7.1 Vehicular Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.7.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.7.1.2 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.7.1.3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2.7.2 Bicycle Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2.7.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2.7.2.2 Geometry and Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2.7.3 Pedestrian Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.7.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.7.3.2 Geometry and Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
2.7.4 Structural Specifications and Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

SECTION 3LOADS

PART ATYPES OF LOADS

3.1 NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17


3.2 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
3.3 DEAD LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
3.4 LIVE LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.5 OVERLOAD PROVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.6 TRAFFIC LANES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.7 HIGHWAY LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.7.1 Standard Truck and Lane Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.7.2 Classes of Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.7.3 Designation of Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.7.4 Minimum Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.7.5 H Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.7.6 HS Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.8 IMPACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.8.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.8.1.1 Group AImpact shall be included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.8.1.2 Group BImpact shall not be included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.8.2 Impact Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.9 LONGITUDINAL FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
3.10 CENTRIFUGAL FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.11 APPLICATION OF LIVE LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.11.1 Traffic Lane Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.11.2 Number and Position of Traffic Lane Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.11.3 Lane Loads on Continuous Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.11.4 Loading for Maximum Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.12 REDUCTION IN LOAD INTENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.13 ELECTRIC RAILWAY LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.14 SIDEWALK, CURB, AND RAILING LOADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.14.1 Sidewalk Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.14.2 Curb Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.14.3 Railing Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.15 WIND LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xi

3.15.1 Superstructure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26


3.15.1.1 Group II and Group V Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.15.1.2 Group III and Group VI Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
3.15.2 Substructure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
3.15.2.1 Forces from Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
3.15.2.2 Forces Applied Directly to the Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
3.15.3 Overturning Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
3.16 THERMAL FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.17 UPLIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.18 FORCES FROM STREAM CURRENT AND FLOATING ICE,
AND DRIFT CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.18.1 Force of Stream Current on Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.18.1.1 Stream Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.18.1.2 Pressure Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.18.1.3 Drift Lodged Against Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.18.2 Force of Ice on Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3.18.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3.18.2.2 Dynamic Ice Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3.18.2.3 Static Ice Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3.19 BUOYANCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3.20 EARTH PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3.21 EARTHQUAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

PART BCOMBINATIONS OF LOADS

3.22 COMBINATIONS OF LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

PART CDISTRIBUTION OF LOADS

3.23 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS TO STRINGERS, LONGITUDINAL


BEAMS, AND FLOOR BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.23.1 Position of Loads for Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.23.2 Bending Moments in Stringers and Longitudinal Beams . . . . . . . . . .32
3.23.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.23.2.2 Interior Stringers and Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.23.2.3 Outside Roadway Stringers and Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.23.2.3.1 Steel-Timber-Concrete T-Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.23.2.3.2 Concrete Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
3.23.2.3.3 Total Capacity of Stringers and Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
3.23.3 Bending Moments in Floor Beams (Transverse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
3.23.4 Precast Concrete Beams Used in Multi-Beam Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
3.24 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND DESIGN OF CONCRETE
SLABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
3.24.1 Span Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
3.24.2 Edge Distance of Wheel Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
3.24.3 Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
3.24.3.1 Case AMain Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic
(Spans 2 to 24 Feet Inclusive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
3.24.3.2 Case BMain Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
3.24.4 Shear and Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
3.24.5 Cantilever Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
3.24.5.1 Truck Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
3.24.5.1.1 Case AReinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
3.24.5.1.2 Case BReinforcement Parallel to Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xii CONTENTS Division I

3.24.5.2 Railing Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36


3.24.6 Slabs Supported on Four Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.24.7 Median Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.24.8 Longitudinal Edge Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.24.9 Unsupported Transverse Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.24.10 Distribution Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.25 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON TIMBER FLOORING . . .38
3.25.1 Transverse Flooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
3.25.2 Plank and Nail Laminated Longitudinal Flooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
3.25.3 Longitudinal Glued Laminated Timber Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
3.25.3.1 Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
3.25.3.2 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.25.3.3 Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.25.3.4 Stiffener Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.25.4 Continuous Flooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.26 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS AND DESIGN OF
COMPOSITE WOOD-CONCRETE MEMBERS . . . . . . . . .40
3.26.1 Distribution of Concentrated Loads for Bending Moment
and Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.26.2 Distribution of Bending Moments in Continuous Spans . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.26.3 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.27 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON STEEL
GRID FLOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.27.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.27.2 Floors Filled with Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.27.3 Open Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.28 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS FOR BENDING MOMENT
IN SPREAD BOX GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.28.1 Interior Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.28.2 Exterior Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.29 MOMENTS, SHEARS, AND REACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
3.30 TIRE CONTACT AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

SECTION 4FOUNDATIONS

PART AGENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS

4.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43


4.2 FOUNDATION TYPE AND CAPACITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.2.1 Selection of Foundation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.2.2 Foundation Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.2.2.1 Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.2.2.2 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.2.2.3 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.2.3 Soil, Rock, and Other Problem Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.3 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION AND TESTING
PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.3.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.3.2 Minimum Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
4.3.3 Minimum Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.3.4 Laboratory Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.3.5 Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xiii

PART BSERVICE LOAD DESIGN METHOD


ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

4.4 SPREAD FOOTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45


4.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4.1.1 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4.1.2 Footings Supporting Non-Rectangular Columns or Piers . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4.1.3 Footings in Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4.1.4 Footings in Sloped Portions of Embankments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4.1.5 Distribution of Bearing Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4.3 Design Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
4.4.4 Soil and Rock Property Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
4.4.5 Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
4.4.5.1 Minimum Embedment and Bench Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
4.4.5.2 Scour Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4.4.5.3 Footing Excavations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4.4.5.4 Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4.4.6 Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4.4.7 Geotechnical Design on Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4.4.7.1 Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4.4.7.1.1 Factors Affecting Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
4.4.7.1.1.1 Eccentric Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
4.4.7.1.1.2 Footing Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
4.4.7.1.1.3 Inclined Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
4.4.7.1.1.4 Ground Surface Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
4.4.7.1.1.5 Embedment Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
4.4.7.1.1.6 Ground Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
4.4.7.1.1.7 Layered Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
4.4.7.1.1.8 Inclined Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
4.4.7.1.2 Factors of Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
4.4.7.2 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
4.4.7.2.1 Stress Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
4.4.7.2.2 Elastic Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
4.4.7.2.3 Consolidation Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
4.4.7.2.4 Secondary Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
4.4.7.2.5 Tolerable Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
4.4.7.3 Dynamic Ground Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
4.4.8 Geotechnical Design on Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
4.4.8.1 Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
4.4.8.1.1 Footings on Competent Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
4.4.8.1.2 Footings on Broken or Jointed Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
4.4.8.1.3 Factors of Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
4.4.8.2 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
4.4.8.2.1 Footings on Competent Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
4.4.8.2.2 Footings on Broken or Jointed Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
4.4.8.2.3 Tolerable Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
4.4.9 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
4.4.10 Dynamic/Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
4.4.11 Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
4.4.11.1 Loads and Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
4.4.11.1.1 Action of Loads and Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
4.4.11.1.2 Isolated and Multiple Footing Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xiv CONTENTS Division I

4.4.11.2 Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67


4.4.11.2.1 Critical Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.2.2 Distribution of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.3 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.3.1 Critical Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.3.2 Footings on Piles or Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.4 Development of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.4.1 Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.4.2 Critical Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.5 Transfer of Force at Base of Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.5.1 Transfer of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.5.2 Lateral Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4.4.11.5.3 Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.4.11.5.4 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.4.11.5.5 Dowel Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.4.11.5.6 Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.4.11.5.7 Splicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.4.11.6 Unreinforced Concrete Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.4.11.6.1 Design Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.4.11.6.2 Pedestals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.5 DRIVEN PILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.5.1.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.5.1.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.5.1.3 Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
4.5.1.4 Lateral Tip Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.1.5 Estimated Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.1.6 Estimated and Minimum Tip Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.1.7 Piles Through Embankment Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.1.8 Test Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.2 Pile Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.2.1 Friction Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.2.2 End Bearing Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.2.3 Combination Friction and End Bearing Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.2.4 Batter Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.3 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
4.5.4 Design Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.5 Selection of Soil and Rock Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.6 Selection of Design Pile Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.6.1 Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.6.1.1 Factors Affecting Axial Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.6.1.2 Axial Capacity in Cohesive Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.6.1.3 Axial Capacity in Cohesionless Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.6.1.4 Axial Capacity on Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
4.5.6.2 Factor of Safety Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
4.5.6.3 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
4.5.6.4 Group Pile Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
4.5.6.5 Lateral Loads on Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
4.5.6.6 Uplift Loads on Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
4.5.6.6.1 Single Pile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
4.5.6.6.2 Pile Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
4.5.6.7 Vertical Ground Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
4.5.6.7.1 Negative Skin Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xv

4.5.6.7.2 Expansive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72


4.5.6.8 Dynamic/Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
4.5.7 Structural Capacity of Pile Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
4.5.7.1 Load Capacity Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
4.5.7.2 Piles Extending Above Ground Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
4.5.7.3 Allowable Stress in Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
4.5.7.4 Cross-Section Adjustment for Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
4.5.7.5 Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.8 Protection Against Corrosion and Abrasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.9 Wave Equation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.10 Dynamic Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.11 Maximum Allowable Driving Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.12 Tolerable Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.13 Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.14 Protection Against Deterioration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.14.1 Steel Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
4.5.14.2 Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.14.3 Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.15 Spacing, Clearances, and Embedment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.15.1 Pile Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.15.1.1 Pile Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.15.1.2 Minimum Projection into Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.15.2 Bent Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16 Precast Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16.1 Size and Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16.2 Minimum Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16.3 Minimum Diameter of Tapered Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16.4 Driving Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16.5 Vertical Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16.6 Spiral Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
4.5.16.7 Reinforcement Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.16.8 Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.16.9 Handling Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17 Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.2 Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.3 Minimum Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.4 General Reinforcement Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.5 Reinforcement into Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.6 Shell Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.7 Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.17.8 Reinforcement Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.18 Steel H-Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.18.1 Metal Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.18.2 Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
4.5.18.3 Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.18.4 Lugs, Scabs, and Core-Stoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.18.5 Point Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.19 Unfilled Tubular Steel Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.19.1 Metal Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.19.2 Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.19.3 Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.19.4 Column Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xvi CONTENTS Division I

4.5.20 Prestressed Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77


4.5.20.1 Size and Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.20.2 Main Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.20.3 Vertical Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
4.5.20.4 Hollow Cylinder Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.5.20.5 Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.5.21 Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.5.21.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.5.21.2 Limitations on Untreated Timber Pile Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.5.21.3 Limitations on Treated Timber Pile Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6 DRILLED SHAFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1.3 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1.4 Embedment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1.5 Shaft Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1.6 Batter Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
4.6.1.7 Shafts Through Embankment Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
4.6.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
4.6.3 Design Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
4.6.4 Selection of Soil and Rock Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
4.6.4.1 Presumptive Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
4.6.4.2 Measured Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
4.6.5 Geotechnical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
4.6.5.1 Axial Capacity in Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
4.6.5.1.1 Side Resistance in Cohesive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
4.6.5.1.2 Side Resistance in Cohesionless Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
4.6.5.1.3 Tip Resistance in Cohesive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
4.6.5.1.4 Tip Resistance in Cohesionless Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
4.6.5.2 Factors Affecting Axial Capacity in Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
4.6.5.2.1 Soil Layering and Variable Soil Strength with Depth . . . . . . . . . . . .83
4.6.5.2.2 Ground Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
4.6.5.2.3 Enlarged Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
4.6.5.2.4 Group Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
4.6.5.2.4.1 Cohesive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
4.6.5.2.4.2 Cohesionless Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
4.6.5.2.4.3 Group in Strong Soil Overlying Weaker Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
4.6.5.2.5 Vertical Ground Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
4.6.5.2.6 Method of Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
4.6.5.3 Axial Capacity in Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
4.6.5.3.1 Side Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
4.6.5.3.2 Tip Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
4.6.5.3.3 Factors Affecting Axial Capacity in Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
4.6.5.3.3.1 Rock Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
4.6.5.3.3.2 Rock Mass Discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.6.5.3.3.3 Method of Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.6.5.4 Factors of Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.6.5.5 Deformation of Axially Loaded Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.6.5.5.1 Shafts in Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.6.5.5.1.1 Cohesive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.6.5.5.1.2 Cohesionless Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.6.5.5.1.3 Mixed Soil Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
4.6.5.5.2 Shafts Socketed into Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xvii

4.6.5.5.3 Tolerable Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87


4.6.5.6 Lateral Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4.6.5.6.1 Factors Affecting Laterally Loaded Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4.6.5.6.1.1 Soil Layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4.6.5.6.1.2 Ground Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4.6.5.6.1.3 Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4.6.5.6.1.4 Group Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4.6.5.6.1.5 Cyclic Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
4.6.5.6.1.6 Combined Axial and Lateral Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
4.6.5.6.1.7 Sloping Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
4.6.5.6.2 Tolerable Lateral Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
4.6.5.7 Dynamic/Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6 Structural Design and General Shaft Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.2.1 Longitudinal Bar Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.2.2 Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.2.3 Transverse Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.2.4 Handling Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.2.5 Reinforcement Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.2.6 Reinforcement into Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.3 Enlarged Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
4.6.6.4 Center-to-Center Shaft Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
4.6.7 Load Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
4.6.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
4.6.7.2 Load Testing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
4.6.7.3 Load Test Method Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
4.7 NOTE: Article Number Intentionally Not Used

PART CSTRENGTH DESIGN METHOD


LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

4.8 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91


4.9 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
4.10 LIMIT STATES, LOAD FACTORS,
AND RESISTANCE FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
4.10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
4.10.2 Serviceability Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
4.10.3 Strength Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
4.10.4 Strength Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.10.5 Load Combinations and Load Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.10.6 Performance Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11 SPREAD FOOTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11.1.2 Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11.1.3 Scour Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11.1.4 Frost Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11.1.5 Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
4.11.1.6 Groundwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
4.11.1.7 Uplift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
4.11.1.8 Deterioration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
4.11.1.9 Nearby Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
4.11.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xviii CONTENTS Division I

4.11.3 Movement Under Serviceability Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97


4.11.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.3.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.3.3 Movement Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.3.4 Settlement Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.3.4.1 Settlement of Footings on Cohesionless Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.3.4.2 Settlement of Footings on Cohesive Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.3.4.3 Settlement of Footings on Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.4 Safety Against Soil Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.4.1 Bearing Capacity of Foundation Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
4.11.4.1.1 Theoretical Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.1.2 Semi-empirical Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.1.3 Plate Loading Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.1.4 Presumptive Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.1.5 Effect of Load Eccentricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.1.6 Effect of Groundwater Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.2.1 Semi-empirical Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
4.11.4.2.2 Analytic Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.4.2.3 Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.4.2.4 Presumptive Bearing Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.4.2.5 Effect of Load Eccentricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.4.3 Failure by Sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.4.4 Loss of Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.5 Structural Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.6 Construction Considerations for Shallow Foundations . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.6.2 Excavation Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.11.6.3 Compaction Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.12 DRIVEN PILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.12.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
4.12.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
4.12.3 Selection of Design Pile Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
4.12.3.1 Factors Affecting Axial Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
4.12.3.1.1 Pile Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
4.12.3.1.2 Groundwater Table and Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
4.12.3.1.3 Effect of Settling Ground and Downdrag Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
4.12.3.1.4 Uplift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.2 Movement Under Serviceability Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.2.2 Tolerable Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.2.3 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.2.3a Cohesive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.2.3b Cohesionless Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.2.4 Lateral Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.3 Resistance at Strength Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.3.1 Axial Loading of Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.12.3.3.2 Analytic Estimates of Pile Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.3 Pile of Capacity Estimates Based on In Situ Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.4 Piles Bearing on Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.5 Pile Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.6 Presumptive End Bearing Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.7 Uplift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xix

4.12.3.3.7a Single Pile Uplift Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104


4.12.3.3.7b Pile Group Uplift Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.8 Lateral Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.9 Batter Pile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.10 Group Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.10a Cohesive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
4.12.3.3.10b Cohesionless Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.12.3.3.10c Pile Group in Strong Soil Overlying a Weak
or Compressible Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.12.3.3.11 Dynamic/Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.12.4 Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.12.4.1 Buckling of Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.12.5 Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.13 DRILLED SHAFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.13.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.13.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
4.13.3 Geotechnical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
4.13.3.1 Factors Affecting Axial Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.1.1 Downdrag Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.1.2 Uplift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.2 Movement Under Serviceability Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.2.2 Tolerable Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.2.3 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.2.3a Settlement of Single Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.2.3b Group Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.2.4 Lateral Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.3 Resistance at Strength Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.3.1 Axial Loading of Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.3.2 Analytic Estimates of Drilled Shaft Capacity
in Cohesive Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.3.3 Estimation of Drilled-Shaft Capacity in Cohesionless Soils . . . . .107
4.13.3.3.4 Axial Capacity in Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.13.3.3.5 Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.6 Uplift Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.6a Uplift Capacity of a Single Drilled Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.6b Group Uplift Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.7 Lateral Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.8 Group Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.8a Cohesive Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.8b Cohesionless Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.3.3.8c Group in Strong Soil Overlying Weaker Compressible Soil . . .108
4.13.3.3.9 Dynamic/Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.4 Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
4.13.4.1 Buckling of Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109

SECTION 5RETAINING WALLS

PART AGENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS

5.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111


5.2 WALL TYPE AND BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
5.2.1 Selection of Wall Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
5.2.1.1 Rigid Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xx CONTENTS Division I

5.2.1.2 Nongravity Cantilevered Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112


5.2.1.3 Anchored Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
5.2.1.4 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
5.2.1.5 Prefabricated Modular Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
5.2.2 Wall Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
5.2.2.1 Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
5.2.2.2 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
5.2.2.3 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
5.2.2.4 Tolerable Deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
5.2.3 Soil, Rock, and Other Problem Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
5.3 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION AND TESTING PROGRAMS . . . .116
5.3.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
5.3.2 Minimum Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
5.3.3 Minimum Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
5.3.4 Laboratory Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
5.3.5 Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
5.4 NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
PART BSERVICE LOAD DESIGN METHOD ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN
5.5 RIGID GRAVITY AND SEMI-GRAVITY WALL DESIGN . . . . . . . .121
5.5.1 Design Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
5.5.2 Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
5.5.3 Water Pressure and Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
5.5.4 Seismic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
5.5.5 Structure Dimensions and External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
5.5.6 Structure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
5.5.6.1 Base or Footing Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
5.5.6.2 Wall Stems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
5.5.6.3 Counterforts and Buttresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
5.5.6.4 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
5.5.6.5 Expansion and Contraction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
5.5.7 Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
5.5.8 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
5.6 NONGRAVITY CANTILEVERED WALL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
5.6.1 Design Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
5.6.2 Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
5.6.3 Water Pressure and Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
5.6.4 Seismic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
5.6.5 Structure Dimensions and External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
5.6.6 Structure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
5.6.7 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
5.6.8 Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
5.7 ANCHORED WALL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
5.7.1 Design Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
5.7.2 Earth Pressure and Surcharge Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
5.7.3 Water Pressure and Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
5.7.4 Seismic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
5.7.5 Structure Dimensions and External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
5.7.6 Structure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
5.7.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
5.7.6.2 Anchor Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
5.7.7 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
5.7.8 Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
5.7.9 Anchor Load Testing and Stressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxi

5.8 MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALL DESIGN . . . . . . .138


5.8.1 Structure Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
5.8.2 External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
5.8.3 Bearing Capacity and Foundation Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
5.8.4 Calculation of Loads for Internal Stability Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
5.8.4.1 Calculation of Maximum Reinforcement Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
5.8.4.2 Determination of Reinforcement Tensile Load at the Connection
to the Wall Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
5.8.5 Determination of Reinforcement Length Required for
Internal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
5.8.5.1 Location of Zone of Maximum Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
5.8.5.2 Soil Reinforcement Pullout Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
5.8.6 Reinforcement Strength Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
5.8.6.1 Design Life Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
5.8.6.1.1 Steel Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
5.8.6.1.2 Geosynthetic Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
5.8.6.2 Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
5.8.6.2.1 Steel Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
5.8.6.2.2 Geosynthetic Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
5.8.7 Soil Reinforcement/Facing Connection Strength Design . . . . . . . . . 158
5.8.7.1 Connection Strength for Steel Soil Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.8.7.2 Connection Strength for Geosynthetic Reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.8.8 Design of Facing Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
5.8.8.1 Design of Stiff or Rigid Concrete, Steel, and Timber Facings . . . . . .160
5.8.8.2 Design of Flexible Wall Facings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
5.8.8.3 Corrosion Issues for MSE Facing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
5.8.9 Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
5.8.9.1 External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
5.8.9.2 Internal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
5.8.9.3 Facing/Soil Reinforcement Connection Design for
Seismic Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
5.8.10 Determination of Lateral Wall Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
5.8.11 Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
5.8.12 Special Loading Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
5.8.12.1 Concentrated Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
5.8.12.2 Traffic Loads and Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
5.8.12.3 Hydrostatic Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
5.8.12.4 Design for Presence of Obstructions in the Reinforced
Soil Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
5.9 PREFABRICATED MODULAR WALL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
5.9.1 Structure Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
5.9.2 External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
5.9.3 Bearing Capacity and Foundation Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
5.9.4 Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
5.9.5 Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

PART CSTRENGTH DESIGN METHOD


LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

5.10 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174


5.11 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
5.12 NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
5.13 LIMIT STATES, LOAD FACTORS AND
RESISTANCE FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxii CONTENTS Division I

5.13.1 Serviceability Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175


5.13.2 Strength Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
5.13.3 Strength Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
5.13.4 Load Combinations and Load Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
5.13.5 Performance Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
5.14 GRAVITY AND SEMI-GRAVITY WALL DESIGN, AND
CANTILEVER WALL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
5.14.1 Earth Pressure Due to Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
5.14.2 Earth Pressure Due to Surcharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
5.14.3 Water Pressure and Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
5.14.4 Seismic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
5.14.5 Movement Under Serviceability Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
5.14.6 Safety Against Soil Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
5.14.6.1 Bearing Capacity Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
5.14.6.2 Sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
5.14.6.3 Overturning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
5.14.6.4 Overall Stability (Revised Article 5.2.2.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
5.14.7 Safety Against Structural Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
5.14.7.1 Base of Footing Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
5.14.7.2 Wall Stems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
5.14.7.3 Counterforts and Buttresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
5.14.7.4 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
5.14.7.5 Expansion and Contraction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
5.14.8 Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

SECTION 6CULVERTS

6.1 CULVERT LOCATION, LENGTH, AND WATERWAY


OPENINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
6.2 DEAD LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
6.2.1 Culvert in trench, or culvert untrenched on yielding foundation . . .181
6.2.2 Culvert untrenched on unyielding foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
6.3 FOOTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
6.4 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS THROUGH
EARTH FILLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
6.5 DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
6.6 DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

SECTION 7SUBSTRUCTURES

PART AGENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS

7.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183


7.1.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
7.1.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
7.1.3 Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
7.1.4 Foundation and Retaining Wall Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
7.2 NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183

PART BSERVICE LOAD DESIGN METHOD


ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

7.3 PIERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183


7.3.1 Pier Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxiii

7.3.1.1 Solid Wall Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183


7.3.1.2 Double Wall Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
7.3.1.3 Bent Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.3.1.4 Single-Column Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.3.2 Pier Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.3.2.1 Collision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.3.2.2 Collision Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.3.2.3 Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.3.2.4 Facing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.4 TUBULAR PIERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.4.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.4.2 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.5 ABUTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.5.1 Abutment Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.5.1.1 Stub Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.5.1.2 Partial-Depth Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.5.1.3 Full-Depth Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7.5.1.4 Integral Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
7.5.2 Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
7.5.2.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
7.5.2.2 Reinforcement for Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
7.5.2.3 Drainage and Backfilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
7.5.3 Integral Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
7.5.4 Abutments on Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
7.5.5 Abutments on Modular Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
7.5.6 Wingwalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
7.5.6.1 Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
7.5.6.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187

PART CSTRENGTH DESIGN METHOD


LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

7.6 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187

SECTION 8REINFORCED CONCRETE

PART AGENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS

8.1 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189


8.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
8.1.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
8.1.3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
8.2 CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
8.3 REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193

PART BANALYSIS

8.4 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193


8.5 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
8.6 STIFFNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
8.7 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND POISSONS RATIO . . . . . . . . . .193
8.8 SPAN LENGTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
8.9 CONTROL OF DEFLECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
8.9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxiv CONTENTS Division I

8.9.2 Superstructure Depth Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194


8.9.3 Superstructure Deflection Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
8.10 COMPRESSION FLANGE WIDTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
8.10.1 T-Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
8.10.2 Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
8.11 SLAB AND WEB THICKNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
8.12 DIAPHRAGMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
8.13 COMPUTATION OF DEFLECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195

PART CDESIGN

8.14 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195


8.14.1 Design Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
8.14.2 Composite Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
8.14.3 Concrete Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
8.15 SERVICE LOAD DESIGN METHOD (Allowable Stress Design) . . . .197
8.15.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.2 Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.2.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.2.1.1 Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.2.1.2 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.2.1.3 Bearing Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.2.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.3 Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.4 Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
8.15.5 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
8.15.5.1 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
8.15.5.2 Shear Stress Carried by Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
8.15.5.2.1 Shear in Beams and One-Way Slabs and Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
8.15.5.2.2 Shear in Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
8.15.5.2.3 Shear in Tension Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
8.15.5.2.4 Shear in Lightweight Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
8.15.5.3 Shear Stress Carried by Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
8.15.5.4 Shear Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
8.15.5.4.3 Shear-Friction Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
8.15.5.5 Horizontal Shear Design for Composite Concrete
Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
8.15.5.5.5 Ties for Horizontal Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
8.15.5.6 Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
8.15.5.7 Special Provisions for Slabs of Box Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
8.15.5.8 Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
8.16 STRENGTH DESIGN METHOD (Load Factor Design) . . . . . . . . . . .202
8.16.1 Strength Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
8.16.1.1 Required Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
8.16.1.2 Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
8.16.2 Design Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
8.16.3 Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
8.16.3.1 Maximum Reinforcement of Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
8.16.3.2 Rectangular Sections with Tension Reinforcement Only . . . . . . . . . .203
8.16.3.3 Flanged Sections with Tension Reinforcement Only . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
8.16.3.4 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . .204
8.16.3.5 Other Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
8.16.4 Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxv

8.16.4.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204


8.16.4.2 Compression Member Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
8.16.4.2.1 Pure Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
8.16.4.2.2 Pure Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
8.16.4.2.3 Balanced Strain Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
8.16.4.2.4 Combined Flexure and Axial Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
8.16.4.3 Biaxial Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
8.16.4.4 Hollow Rectangular Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
8.16.5 Slenderness Effects in Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
8.16.5.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
8.16.5.2 Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
8.16.6 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
8.16.6.1 Shear Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
8.16.6.2 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
8.16.6.2.1 Shear in Beams and One-Way Slabs and Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
8.16.6.2.2 Shear in Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
8.16.6.2.3 Shear in Tension Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
8.16.6.2.4 Shear in Lightweight Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
8.16.6.3 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
8.16.6.4 Shear Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
8.16.6.4.4 Shear-Friction Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
8.16.6.5 Horizontal Shear Strength for Composite Concrete
Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
8.16.6.5.5 Ties for Horizontal Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
8.16.6.6 Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
8.16.6.7 Special Provisions for Slabs of Box Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
8.16.6.8 Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
8.16.7 Bearing Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
8.16.8 Serviceability Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
8.16.8.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
8.16.8.2 Service Load Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
8.16.8.3 Fatigue Stress Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
8.16.8.4 Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212

PART DREINFORCEMENT

8.17 REINFORCEMENT OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213


8.17.1 Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
8.17.2 Distribution of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
8.17.2.1 Flexural Tension Reinforcement in Zones of Maximum Tension . . .213
8.17.2.2 Transverse Deck Slab Reinforcement in T-Girders
and Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
8.17.2.3 Bottom Slab Reinforcement for Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
8.17.3 Lateral Reinforcement of Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
8.17.4 Reinforcement for Hollow Rectangular Compression Members . . .214
8.18 REINFORCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . .215
8.18.1 Maximum and Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . .215
8.18.2 Lateral Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
8.18.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
8.18.2.2 Spirals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
8.18.2.3 Ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
8.18.2.4 Seismic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
8.19 LIMITS FOR SHEAR REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxvi CONTENTS Division I

8.19.1 Minimum Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216


8.19.2 Types of Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
8.19.3 Spacing of Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
8.20 SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . .216
8.21 SPACING LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
8.22 PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
8.23 HOOKS AND BENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
8.23.1 Standard Hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
8.23.2 Minimum Bend Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
8.24 DEVELOPMENT OF FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . .218
8.24.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
8.24.2 Positive Moment Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
8.24.3 Negative Moment Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
8.25 DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMED BARS AND DEFORMED
WIRE IN TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
8.26 DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMED BARS IN COMPRESSION . . . .219
8.27 DEVELOPMENT OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
8.28 DEVELOPMENT OF BUNDLED BARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
8.29 DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD HOOKS IN TENSION . . . . . . . .220
8.30 DEVELOPMENT OF WELDED WIRE FABRIC IN TENSION . . . .221
8.30.1 Deformed Wire Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
8.30.2 Smooth Wire Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
8.31 MECHANICAL ANCHORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
8.32 SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
8.32.1 Lap Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
8.32.2 Welded Splices and Mechanical Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
8.32.3 Splices of Deformed Bars and Deformed Wire in Tension . . . . . . . .223
8.32.4 Splices of Bars in Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
8.32.4.1 Lap Splices in Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
8.32.4.2 End-Bearing Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
8.32.4.3 Welded Splices or Mechanical Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
8.32.5 Splices of Welded Deformed Wire Fabric in Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
8.32.6 Splices of Welded Smooth Wire Fabric in Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224

SECTION 9PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

PART AGENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS

9.1 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225


9.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225
9.1.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225
9.1.3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
9.2 CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
9.3 REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
9.3.1 Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
9.3.2 Non-Prestressed Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228

PART BANALYSIS

9.4 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228


9.5 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
9.6 SPAN LENGTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
9.7 FRAMES AND CONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxvii

9.7.1 Cast-in-Place Post-Tensioned Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228


9.7.2 Bridges Composed of Simple-Span Precast Prestressed Girders
Made Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.7.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.7.2.2 Positive Moment Connection at Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.7.2.3 Negative Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.7.3 Segmental Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.7.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.7.3.2 Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.7.3.3 Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.8 EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.8.1 T-Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.8.2 Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
9.8.3 Precast/Prestressed Concrete Beams with Wide Top Flanges . . . . . .230
9.9 FLANGE AND WEB THICKNESSBOX GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.9.1 Top Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.9.2 Bottom Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.9.3 Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.10 DIAPHRAGMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.10.2 T-Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.10.3 Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.11 DEFLECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.11.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
9.11.2 Segmental Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
9.11.3 Superstructure Deflection Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
9.12 DECK PANELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
9.12.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
9.12.2 Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231

PART CDESIGN

9.13 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231


9.13.1 Design Theory and General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
9.13.2 Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
9.13.3 Composite Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
9.14 LOAD FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
9.15 ALLOWABLE STRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
9.15.1 Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
9.15.2 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
9.15.2.1 Temporary Stresses Before Losses Due to Creep
and Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
9.15.2.2 Stress at Service Load After Losses Have Occurred . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
9.15.2.3 Cracking Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
9.15.2.4 Anchorage Bearing Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
9.16 LOSS OF PRESTRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
9.16.1 Friction Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
9.16.2 Prestress Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
9.16.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
9.16.2.1.1 Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
9.16.2.1.2 Elastic Shortening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
9.16.2.1.3 Creep of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
9.16.2.1.4 Relaxation of Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
9.16.2.2 Estimated Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxviii CONTENTS Division I

9.17 FLEXURAL STRENGTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236


9.17.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
9.17.2 Rectangular Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
9.17.3 Flanged Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
9.17.4 Steel Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237
9.18 DUCTILITY LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237
9.18.1 Maximum Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237
9.18.2 Minimum Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237
9.19 NON-PRESTRESSED REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
9.20 SHEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
9.20.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
9.20.2 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
9.20.3 Shear Strength Provided by Web Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
9.20.4 Horizontal Shear DesignComposite Flexural Members . . . . . . . .239
9.20.4.5 Ties for Horizontal Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
9.21 POST-TENSIONED ANCHORAGE ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
9.21.1 Geometry of the Anchorage Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
9.21.2 General Zone and Local Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
9.21.2.1 General Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
9.21.2.2 Local Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
9.21.2.3 Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
9.21.3 Design of the General Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
9.21.3.1 Design Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
9.21.3.2 Nominal Material Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
9.21.3.3 Use of Special Anchorage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
9.21.3.4 General Design Principles and Detailing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . .241
9.21.3.5 Intermediate Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
9.21.3.6 Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
9.21.3.7 Multiple Slab Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
9.21.4 Application of Strut-and-Tie Models to the Design
of Anchorage Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
9.21.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
9.21.4.2 Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
9.21.4.3 Struts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
9.21.4.4 Ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
9.21.5 Elastic Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
9.21.6 Approximate Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
9.21.6.1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
9.21.6.2 Compressive Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
9.21.6.3 Bursting Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
9.21.6.4 Edge-Tension Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
9.21.7 Design of the Local Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
9.21.7.1 Dimensions of the Local Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
9.21.7.2 Bearing Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
9.21.7.3 Special Anchorage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
9.22 PRETENSIONED ANCHORAGE ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
9.23 CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRESS TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
9.24 DECK PANELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247

PART DDETAILING

9.25 FLANGE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247


9.26 COVER AND SPACING OF STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxix

9.26.1 Minimum Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247


9.26.2 Minimum Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
9.26.3 Bundling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
9.26.4 Size of Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
9.27 POST-TENSIONING ANCHORAGES AND COUPLERS . . . . . . . . .248
9.28 EMBEDMENT OF PRESTRESSED STRAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
9.29 BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249

SECTION 10STRUCTURAL STEEL

PART AGENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS

10.1 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251


10.1.1 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
10.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.2 Structural Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.3 Steels for Pins, Rollers, and Expansion Rockers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.4 FastenersRivets and Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.5 Weld Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.6 Cast Steel, Ductile Iron Castings, Malleable Castings, Cast Iron,
and Bronze or Copper Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.6.1 Cast Steel and Ductile Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.6.2 Malleable Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
10.2.6.3 Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257

PART BDESIGN DETAILS

10.3 REPETITIVE LOADING AND TOUGHNESS


CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
10.3.1 Allowable Fatigue Stress Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
10.3.2 Load Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
10.3.3 Charpy V-Notch Impact Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
10.3.4 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
10.4 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF SPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
10.5 DEPTH RATIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
10.6 DEFLECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
10.7 LIMITING LENGTHS OF MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
10.8 MINIMUM THICKNESS OF METAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
10.9 EFFECTIVE AREA OF ANGLES AND TEE SECTIONS
IN TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
10.10 OUTSTANDING LEGS OF ANGLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
10.11 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
10.12 FLEXURAL MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
10.13 COVER PLATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
10.14 CAMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
10.15 HEAT-CURVED ROLLED BEAMS AND WELDED
PLATE GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
10.15.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
10.15.2 Minimum Radius of Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
10.15.3 Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
10.16 TRUSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxx CONTENTS Division I

10.16.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268


10.16.2 Truss Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
10.16.3 Secondary Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
10.16.4 Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
10.16.5 Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
10.16.6 Working Lines and Gravity Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
10.16.7 Portal and Sway Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
10.16.8 Perforated Cover Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
10.16.9 Stay Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
10.16.10 Lacing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
10.16.11 Gusset Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
10.16.12 Half-Through Truss Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
10.16.13 Fastener Pitch in Ends of Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
10.16.14 Net Section of Riveted or High-Strength Bolted
Tension Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
10.17 BENTS AND TOWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
10.17.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
10.17.2 Single Bents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
10.17.3 Batter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
10.17.4 Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
10.17.5 Bottom Struts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
10.18 SPLICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
10.18.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
10.18.1.1 Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
10.18.1.2 Fillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
10.18.1.3 Design Force for Flange Splice Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
10.18.1.4 Truss Chords and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
10.18.2 Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
10.18.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
10.18.2.2 Flange Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
10.18.2.3 Web Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275
10.18.3 Compression Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
10.18.4 Tension Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
10.18.5 Welded Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
10.19 STRENGTH OF CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
10.19.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
10.19.2 End Connections of Floor Beams and Stringers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
10.19.3 End Connections of Diaphragms and Cross Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
10.20 DIAPHRAGMS AND CROSS FRAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
10.20.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
10.20.2 Stresses Due to Wind Loading When Top Flanges
Are Continuously Supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
10.20.2.1 Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
10.20.2.2 Diaphragms and Cross Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
10.20.3 Stresses Due to Wind Load When Top Flanges
Are Not Continuously Supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.21 LATERAL BRACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.22 CLOSED SECTIONS AND POCKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.23 WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.23.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.23.2 Effective Size of Fillet Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.23.2.1 Maximum Size of Fillet Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.23.2.2 Minimum Size of Fillet Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
10.23.3 Minimum Effective Length of Fillet Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxxi

10.23.4 Fillet Weld End Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281


10.23.5 Seal Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
10.24 FASTENERS (RIVETS AND BOLTS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
10.24.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
10.24.2 Hole Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282
10.24.3 Washer Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282
10.24.4 Size of Fasteners (Rivets or High-Strength Bolts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.5 Spacing of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.5.1 Pitch and Gage of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.5.2 Minimum Spacing of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.5.3 Minimum Clear Distance Between Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.5.4 Maximum Spacing of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.6 Maximum Spacing of Sealing and Stitch Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.6.1 Sealing Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.6.2 Stitch Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
10.24.7 Edge Distance of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.24.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.24.8 Long Rivets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.25 LINKS AND HANGERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.25.1 Net Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.25.2 Location of Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.25.3 Size of Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.25.4 Pin Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
10.25.5 Pins and Pin Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.26 UPSET ENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.27 EYEBARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.27.1 Thickness and Net Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.27.2 Packing of Eyebars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.28 FORKED ENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.29 FIXED AND EXPANSION BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.29.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.29.2 Bronze or Copper-Alloy Sliding Expansion Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.29.3 Rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
10.29.4 Sole Plates and Masonry Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.29.5 Masonry Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.29.6 Anchor Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.29.7 Pedestals and Shoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.30 FLOOR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.30.1 Stringers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.30.2 Floor Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.30.3 Cross Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.30.4 Expansion Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
10.30.5 End Floor Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
10.30.6 End Panel of Skewed Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
10.30.7 Sidewalk Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
10.30.8 Stay-in-Place Deck Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
10.30.8.1 Concrete Deck Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
10.30.8.2 Metal Stay-in-Place Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287

PART CSERVICE LOAD DESIGN METHOD


ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

10.31 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287


10.32 ALLOWABLE STRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxxii CONTENTS Division I

10.32.1 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287


10.32.2 Weld Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
10.32.3 Fasteners (Rivets and Bolts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
10.32.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
10.32.3.3 Applied Tension, Combined Tension, and Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
10.32.3.4 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
10.32.4 Pins, Rollers, and Expansion Rockers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
10.32.5 Cast Steel, Ductile Iron Castings, Malleable Castings,
and Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
10.32.5.1 Cast Steel and Ductile Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
10.32.5.2 Malleable Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
10.32.5.3 Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
10.32.5.4 Bronze or Copper-Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
10.32.6 Bearing on Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.33 ROLLED BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.33.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.33.2 Bearing Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.34 PLATE GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.34.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.34.2 Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.34.2.1 Welded Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
10.34.2.2 Riveted or Bolted Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
10.34.3 Thickness of Web Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
10.34.3.1 Girders Not Stiffened Longitudinally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
10.34.3.2 Girders Stiffened Longitudinally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
10.34.4 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
10.34.5 Longitudinal Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
10.34.6 Bearing Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
10.34.6.1 Welded Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
10.34.6.2 Riveted or Bolted Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
10.35 TRUSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
10.35.1 Perforated Cover Plates and Lacing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
10.35.2 Compression MembersThickness of Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
10.36 COMBINED STRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
10.37 SOLID RIB ARCHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
10.37.1 Moment Amplification and Allowable Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
10.37.2 Web Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
10.37.3 Flange Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
10.38 COMPOSITE GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
10.38.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
10.38.2 Shear Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
10.38.3 Effective Flange Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
10.38.4 Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
10.38.5 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
10.38.5.1 Horizontal Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
10.38.5.1.1 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
10.38.5.1.2 Ultimate Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306
10.38.5.1.3 Additional Connectors to Develop Slab Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
10.38.5.2 Vertical Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
10.38.6 Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
10.39 COMPOSITE BOX GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
10.39.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
10.39.2 Lateral Distribution of Loads for Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . .307

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxxiii

10.39.3 Design of Web Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307


10.39.3.1 Vertical Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
10.39.3.2 Secondary Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
10.39.4 Design of Bottom Flange Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
10.39.4.1 Tension Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
10.39.4.2 Compression Flanges Unstiffened . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
10.39.4.3 Compression Flanges Stiffened Longitudinally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
10.39.4.4 Compression Flanges Stiffened Longitudinally and Transversely . . .311
10.39.4.5 Compression Flange Stiffeners, General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
10.39.5 Design of Flange to Web Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
10.39.6 Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
10.39.7 Lateral Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
10.39.8 Access and Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
10.40 HYBRID GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
10.40.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
10.40.2 Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
10.40.2.1 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
10.40.2.2 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
10.40.2.3 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.40.3 Plate Thickness Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.40.4 Bearing Stiffener Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41 ORTHOTROPIC-DECK SUPERSTRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.2 Wheel Load Contact Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.3 Effective Width of Deck Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.3.1 Ribs and Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.3.2 Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.4 Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.4.1 Local Bending Stresses in Deck Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
10.41.4.2 Bending Stresses in Longitudinal Ribs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.3 Bending Stresses in Transverse Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.4 Intersections of Ribs, Beams, and Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.5 Thickness of Plate Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.5.1 Longitudinal Ribs and Deck Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.5.2 Girders and Transverse Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.6 Maximum Slenderness of Longitudinal Ribs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.7 Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.8 Stiffness Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.8.1 Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.8.2 Vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
10.41.4.9 Wearing Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
10.41.4.10 Closed Ribs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316

PART DSTRENGTH DESIGN METHOD


LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

10.42 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316


10.43 LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
10.44 DESIGN THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
10.45 ASSUMPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
10.46 DESIGN STRESS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
10.47 MAXIMUM DESIGN LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
10.48 FLEXURAL MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxxiv CONTENTS Division I

10.48.1 Compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317


10.48.2 Braced Noncompact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
10.48.3 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
10.48.4 Partially Braced Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
10.48.5 Transversely Stiffened Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320
10.48.6 Longitudinally Stiffened Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321
10.48.7 Bearing Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321
10.48.8 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321
10.49 SINGLY SYMMETRIC SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
10.49.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
10.49.2 Singly Symmetric Sections with Transverse Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . .322
10.49.3 Longitudinally Stiffened Singly Symmetric Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
10.49.4 Singly Symmetric Braced Noncompact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
10.49.5 Partially Braced Members with Singly Symmetric Sections . . . . . .323
10.50 COMPOSITE SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
10.50.1 Positive Moment Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
10.50.1.1 Compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
10.50.1.2 Noncompact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
10.50.2 Negative Moment Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
10.50.2.1 Compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
10.50.2.2 Noncompact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
10.51 COMPOSITE BOX GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
10.51.1 Maximum Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
10.51.2 Lateral Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
10.51.3 Web Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
10.51.4 Tension Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
10.51.5 Compression Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
10.51.6 Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
10.51.7 Design of Flange to Web Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
10.52 SHEAR CONNECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
10.52.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
10.52.2 Design of Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
10.52.3 Maximum Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
10.53 HYBRID GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
10.53.1 Noncomposite Hybrid Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
10.53.1.1 Compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
10.53.1.2 Braced Noncompact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
10.53.1.3 Partially Braced Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
10.53.2 Composite Hybrid Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
10.53.3 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
10.54 COMPRESSION MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
10.54.1 Axial Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
10.54.1.1 Maximum Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
10.54.1.2 Effective Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
10.54.2 Combined Axial Load and Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
10.54.2.1 Maximum Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
10.54.2.2 Equivalent Moment Factor C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.55 SOLID RIB ARCHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.55.1 Moment Amplification and Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.55.2 Web Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.55.3 Flange Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.56 SPLICES, CONNECTIONS, AND DETAILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.56.1 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxxv

10.56.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331


10.56.1.2 Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.56.1.3 Bolts and Rivets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
10.56.1.4 Slip-Critical Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
10.56.2 Bolts Subjected to Prying Action by Connected Parts . . . . . . . . . . .333
10.56.3 Rigid Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
10.57 OVERLOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
10.57.1 Noncomposite Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
10.57.2 Composite Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
10.57.3 Slip-Critical Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
10.58 FATIGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.58.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.58.2 Composite Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.58.2.1 Slab Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.58.2.2 Shear Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.58.3 Hybrid Beams and Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.59 DEFLECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.60 ORTHOTROPIC SUPERSTRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
10.61 CONSTRUCTIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
10.61.1 Web Bend Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
10.61.2 Web Shear Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
10.61.3 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of the Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
10.61.4 Compression Flange Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336

SECTION 11ALUMINUM DESIGN

11.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337


11.2 BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
11.3 SOIL-METAL PLATE INTERACTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
11.4 STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR HIGHWAY SIGNS,
LUMINAIRES, AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
11.5 BRIDGE RAILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337

SECTION 12SOIL-CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURE


INTERACTION SYSTEMS

12.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339


12.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
12.1.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
12.1.3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
12.1.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
12.1.5 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
12.1.6 Soil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
12.1.6.1 Soil Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
12.1.6.2 Pipe Arch Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
12.1.6.3 Arch Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
12.1.7 Abrasive or Corrosive Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
12.1.8 Minimum Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
12.1.9 End Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
12.1.10 Construction and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
12.2 SERVICE LOAD DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
12.2.1 Wall Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxxvi CONTENTS Division I

12.2.2 Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341


12.2.3 Seam Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
12.2.4 Handling and Installation Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
12.3 LOAD FACTOR DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.3.1 Wall Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.3.2 Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.3.3 Seam Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.3.4 Handling and Installation Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.4 CORRUGATED METAL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.4.1.2 Service Load Designsafety factor, SF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.4.1.3 Load Factor Designcapacity modification factor,  . . . . . . . . . . . .342
12.4.1.4 Flexibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
12.4.1.5 Minimum Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
12.4.2 Seam Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
12.4.3 Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
12.4.3.1 Steel Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
12.4.3.2 Aluminum Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
12.4.4 Chemical and Mechanical Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.4.5 Smooth-Lined Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5 SPIRAL RIB METAL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5.2 Soil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5.2.3 Pipe-Arch Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5.2.4 Special Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5.2.5 Construction and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5.3 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
12.5.3.2 Flexibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.5.3.3 Minimum Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.5.4 Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.5.4.1 Steel Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.5.4.2 Aluminum Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.5.5 Chemical and Mechanical Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.5.5.1 Steel Spiral Rib Pipe and Pipe-Arch Requirements
AASHTO M 218 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.5.5.2 Aluminum Spiral Rib Pipe and Pipe-Arch Requirements
AASHTO M 197 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
12.6 STRUCTURAL PLATE PIPE STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.1.2 Service Load Designsafety factor, SF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.1.3 Load Factor Designcapacity modification
factor,  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.1.4 Flexibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.1.5 Minimum Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.2 Seam Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.3 Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.3.1 Steel Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.3.2 Aluminum Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
12.6.4 Chemical and Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
12.6.4.1 Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe-Arch, and Arch Material
RequirementsAASHTO M 219, Alloy 5052 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
12.6.4.2 Steel Structural Plate Pipe, Pipe-Arch, and Arch Material
RequirementsAASHTO M 167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxxvii

12.6.5 Structural Plate Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348


12.7 LONG-SPAN STRUCTURAL PLATE STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . .348
12.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
12.7.2 Structure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
12.7.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
12.7.2.2 Acceptable Special Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
12.7.3 Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
12.7.3.1 Settlement Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
12.7.3.2 Footing Reactions (Arch Structures) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
12.7.3.3 Footing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
12.7.4 Soil Envelope Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
12.7.4.1 Soil Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
12.7.4.2 Construction Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
12.7.4.3 Service Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
12.7.5 End Treatment Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
12.7.5.1 Standard Shell End Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
12.7.5.2 Balanced Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
12.7.5.3 Hydraulic Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
12.7.5.3.1 Backfill Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
12.7.5.3.2 Cut-Off (Toe) Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
12.7.5.3.3 Hydraulic Uplift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.7.5.3.4 Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.7.6 Multiple Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.8 STRUCTURAL PLATE BOX CULVERTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.8.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.8.2 Structural Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.8.3 Structure Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
12.8.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
12.8.4.1 Analytical Basis for Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
12.8.4.2 Load Factor Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
12.8.4.3 Plastic Moment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
12.8.4.4 Footing Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356
12.8.5 Manufacturing and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356

SECTION 13WOOD STRUCTURES

13.1 GENERAL AND NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357


13.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
13.1.2 Net Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
13.1.3 Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
13.1.4 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
13.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
13.2.1 Sawn Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
13.2.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
13.2.1.2 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
13.2.2 Glued Laminated Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
13.2.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
13.2.2.2 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
13.2.3 Structural Composite Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.2.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.2.3.2 Laminated Veneer Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.2.3.3 Parallel Strand Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xxxviii CONTENTS Division I

13.2.3.4 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359


13.2.4 Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.3 PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.3.1 Requirement for Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.3.2 Treatment Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.3.3 Field Treating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.3.4 Fire Retardant Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.4 DEFLECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
13.5 DESIGN VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.2 Tabulated Values for Sawn Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.2.2 Stress Grades in Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.3 Tabulated Values for Glued Laminated Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.4 Tabulated Values for Structural Composite Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.5 Adjustments to Tabulated Design Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.5.1 Wet Service Factor, CM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
13.5.5.2 Load Duration Factor, CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369
13.5.5.3 Adjustment for Preservative Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369
13.6 BENDING MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369
13.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369
13.6.2 Notching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
13.6.3 Modulus of Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
13.6.4 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
13.6.4.1 Allowable Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
13.6.4.2 Size Factor, CF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
13.6.4.3 Volume Factor, CV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
13.6.4.4 Beam Stability Factor, CL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
13.6.4.5 Form Factor, Cf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
13.6.5 Shear Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
13.6.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
13.6.5.2 Actual Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
13.6.5.3 Allowable Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
13.6.6 Compression Perpendicular to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
13.6.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
13.6.6.2 Allowable Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
13.6.6.3 Bearing Area Factor, Cb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
13.6.7 Bearing on Inclined Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
13.7 COMPRESSION MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
13.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
13.7.2 Eccentric Loading or Combined Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
13.7.3 Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
13.7.3.1 Net Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
13.7.3.2 Allowable Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
13.7.3.3 Column Stability Factor, Cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
13.7.3.4 Tapered Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
13.7.3.5 Round Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
13.7.4 Bearing Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
13.8 TENSION MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
13.8.1 Tension Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
13.8.2 Tension Perpendicular to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
13.9 MECHANICAL CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
13.9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
13.9.2 Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xxxix

13.9.3 Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383


13.9.4 Washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383

SECTION 14BEARINGS

14.1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385


14.2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385
14.3 NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385
14.4 MOVEMENTS AND LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386
14.4.1 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
14.5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
14.5.1 Load and Movement Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
14.5.2 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
14.5.3 Forces in the Structure Caused by Restraint of Movement
at the Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
14.5.3.1 Horizontal Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
14.5.3.2 Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
14.6 SPECIAL DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
14.6.1 Metal Rocker and Roller Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
14.6.1.1 General Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
14.6.1.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
14.6.1.3 Geometric Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
14.6.1.4 Contact Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
14.6.2 PTFE Sliding Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.1 PTFE Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.2 Mating Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.3 Minimum Thickness Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.3.1 PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.3.2 Stainless Steel Mating Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.4 Contact Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.5 Coefficient of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
14.6.2.6 Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
14.6.2.6.1 PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
14.6.2.6.2 Mating Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
14.6.3 Bearings with Curved Sliding Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
14.6.3.1 Geometric Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
14.6.3.2 Resistance to Lateral Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
14.6.4 Pot Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
14.6.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
14.6.4.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.3 Geometric Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.4 Elastomeric Disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.5 Sealing Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.5.1 Rings with rectangular cross-sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.5.2 Rings with circular cross-sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.6 Pot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.7 Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
14.6.4.8 Lateral Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
14.6.5 Steel Reinforced Elastomeric BearingsMethod B . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
14.6.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
14.6.5.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
14.6.5.3 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396
14.6.5.3.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xl CONTENTS Division I

14.6.5.3.2 Compressive Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396


14.6.5.3.3 Compressive Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
14.6.5.3.4 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
14.6.5.3.5 Combined Compression and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
14.6.5.3.6 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
14.6.5.3.7 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
14.6.6 Elastomeric Pads and Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings
Method A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
14.6.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
14.6.6.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
14.6.6.3 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
14.6.6.3.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
14.6.6.3.2 Compressive Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
14.6.6.3.3 Compressive Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
14.6.6.3.4 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
14.6.6.3.5 Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
14.6.6.3.5a PEP and CDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
14.6.6.3.5b FGP and Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
14.6.6.3.6 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.6.3.7 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.6.4 Resistance to Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.7 Bronze or Copper Alloy Sliding Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.7.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.7.2 Coefficient of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.7.3 Limits on Load and Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.7.4 Clearances and Mating Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.8 Disc Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.8.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.8.3 Overall Geometric Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
14.6.8.4 Elastomeric Disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.8.5 Shear Resisting Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.8.6 Steel Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9 Guides and Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.2 Design Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.3 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.4 Geometric Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.5 Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.5.1 Load Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.5.2 Contact Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.9.6 Attachment of Low-Friction Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
14.6.10 Other Bearing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
14.7 LOAD PLATES AND ANCHORAGE FOR BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . .402
14.7.1 Plates for Load Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
14.7.2 Tapered Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
14.7.3 Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
14.8 CORROSION PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402

SECTION 15STEEL TUNNEL LINER PLATES

15.1 GENERAL AND NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403


15.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xli

15.1.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403


15.2 LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
15.3 DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404
15.3.1 Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404
15.3.2 Joint Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404
15.3.3 Minimum Stiffness for Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405
15.3.4 Critical Buckling of Liner Plate Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405
15.3.5 Deflection or Flattening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405
15.4 CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . .406
15.4.1 Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
15.4.2 Minimum Mechanical Properties of Flat Pipe
Before Cold Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
15.4.3 Dimensions and Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
15.5 SECTION PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
15.6 COATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
15.7 BOLTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
15.8 SAFETY FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406

SECTION 16SOIL-REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE


INTERACTION SYSTEMS

16.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407


16.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
16.1.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
16.1.3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.1.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.1.5 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.1.6 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.1.7 Abrasive or Corrosive Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.1.8 End Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.1.9 Construction and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.2 SERVICE LOAD DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.3 LOAD FACTOR DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.4 REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.4.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.4.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.4.2.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.4.2.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
16.4.2.3 Concrete Cover for Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
16.4.3 Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
16.4.3.1 Standard Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
16.4.3.2 Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
16.4.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
16.4.4.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
16.4.4.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
16.4.4.2.1 Earth Loads and Pressure Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
16.4.4.2.1.1 Standard Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
16.4.4.2.1.2 Nonstandard Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
16.4.4.2.2 Pipe Fluid Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
16.4.4.2.3 Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412
16.4.4.3 Minimum Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412
16.4.4.4 Design Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412
16.4.5 Indirect Design Method Based on Pipe Strength
and Load-Carrying Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xlii CONTENTS Division I

16.4.5.1 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412


16.4.5.1.1 Ultimate D-load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.5.2 Bedding Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.5.2.1 Earth Load Bedding Factor for Circular Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.5.2.2 Earth Load Bedding Factor for Arch and Elliptical Pipe . . . . . . . .415
16.4.5.2.3 Live Load Bedding Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.5.2.4 Intermediate Trench Widths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.6 Direct Design Method for Precast Reinforced Concrete
Circular Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.6.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.6.2 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
16.4.6.3 Strength-Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
16.4.6.4 Process and Material Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
16.4.6.5 Orientation Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
16.4.6.6 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
16.4.6.6.1 Reinforcement for Flexural Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
16.4.6.6.2 Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
16.4.6.6.3 Maximum Flexural Reinforcement Without Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . .418
16.4.6.6.3.1 Limited by Radial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
16.4.6.6.3.2 Limited by Concrete Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
16.4.6.6.4 Crack Width Control (Service Load Design) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
16.4.6.6.5 Shear Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
16.4.6.6.6 Radial Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
16.4.6.6.6.1 Radial Tension Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
16.4.6.6.6.2 Shear Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
16.4.6.6.6.3 Stirrup Reinforcement Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.4.6.6.6.3.1 Radial Tension Stirrup Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.4.6.6.6.3.2 Shear Stirrup Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.4.6.6.6.3.3 Stirrup Embedment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.4.6.6.6.3.4 Other Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.4.7 Development of Quadrant Mat Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5 REINFORCED CONCRETE ARCH, CAST-IN-PLACE . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5.2.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5.2.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5.3 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5.3.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
16.5.3.2 Minimum Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.5.3.3 Strength-Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.5.3.4 Splices of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.5.3.5 Footing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6 REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX, CAST-IN-PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.2.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.2.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.3 Concrete Cover for Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.4.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
16.6.4.2 Modification of Earth Loads for Soil Structure
Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
16.6.4.2.1 Embankment Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
16.6.4.2.2 Trench Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I CONTENTS xliii

16.6.4.3 Distribution of Concentrated Load Effects to Bottom Slab . . . . . . . .425


16.6.4.4 Distribution of Concentrated Loads in Skewed Culverts . . . . . . . . . .425
16.6.4.5 Span Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
16.6.4.6 Strength-Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
16.6.4.7 Crack Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
16.6.4.8 Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7 REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX, PRECAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.2.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.2.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.3 Concrete Cover for Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.4.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.4.2 Modification of Earth Loads for Soil-Structure Interaction . . . . . . . .426
16.7.4.2.1 Embankment Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.4.2.2 Trench Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.4.3 Distribution of Concentrated Load Effects
in Sides and Bottoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
16.7.4.4 Distribution of Concentrated Loads in Skewed Culverts . . . . . . . . . .427
16.7.4.5 Span Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.7.4.6 Strength-Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.7.4.7 Crack Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.7.4.8 Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8 PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE THREE-SIDED
STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8.2.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8.2.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8.3 Concrete Cover for Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8.4 Geometric Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
16.8.5 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.2 Distribution of Concentrated Load Effects in Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.3 Distribution of Concentrated Loads in Skewed Culverts . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.4 Shear Transfer in Transverse Joints Between Culvert
Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.5 Span Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.6 Strength-Reduction Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.7 Crack Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.8 Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.9 Deflection Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
16.8.5.10 Footing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
16.8.5.11 Structure Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
16.8.5.12 Scour Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429

SECTION 17SOIL-THERMOPLASTIC PIPE INTERACTION SYSTEMS

17.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431


17.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
17.1.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
17.1.3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xliv CONTENTS Division I-A

17.1.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431


17.1.5 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
17.1.6 Soil Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
17.1.6.1 Soil Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
17.1.7 Abrasive or Corrosive Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
17.1.8 Minimum Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
17.1.9 End Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
17.1.10 Construction and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
17.2 SERVICE LOAD DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
17.2.1 Wall Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
17.2.2 Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
17.2.3 Handling and Installation Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
17.3 LOAD FACTOR DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
17.3.1 Wall Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
17.3.2 Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
17.3.3 Handling and Installation Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
17.4 PLASTIC PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
17.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
17.4.1.2 Service Load Designsafety factor, SF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.1.3 Load Factor Designcapacity modification factor,  . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.1.4 Flexibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.1.5 Minimum Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.1.6 Maximum Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.1.7 Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.2 Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.2.1 PE Corrugated Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.2.2 PE Ribbed Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.2.3 Profile Wall PVC Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
17.4.3 Chemical and Mechanical Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
17.4.3.1 Polyethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
17.4.3.1.1 Smooth wall PE pipe requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
17.4.3.1.2 Corrugated PE pipe requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
17.4.3.1.3 Ribbed PE pipe requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
17.4.3.2 Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
17.4.3.2.1 Smooth wall PVC pipe requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
17.4.3.2.2 Ribbed PVC pipe requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436

DIVISION I-A
SEISMIC DESIGN

SECTION 1INTRODUCTION

1.1 PURPOSE AND PHILOSOPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439


1.2 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439
1.3 BASIC CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
1.4 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
1.6 FLOW CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441

SECTION 2SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS

2.1 NOTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I-A CONTENTS xlv

SECTION 3GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1 APPLICABILITY OF SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447


3.2 ACCELERATION COEFFICIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
3.3 IMPORTANCE CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
3.4 SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
3.5 SITE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
3.5.1 Site Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
3.6 ELASTIC SEISMIC RESPONSE COEFFICIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
3.6.1 Elastic Seismic Response Coefficient for Single Mode Analysis . . . .450
3.6.2 Elastic Seismic Response Coefficient for Multimodal Analysis . . . .450
3.7 RESPONSE MODIFICATION FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
3.8 DETERMINATION OF ELASTIC FORCES
AND DISPLACEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
3.9 COMBINATION OF ORTHOGONAL SEISMIC FORCES . . . . . . . .450
3.10 MINIMUM SEAT-WIDTH REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
3.11 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SINGLE SPAN BRIDGES . . . . . .451
3.12 REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY BRIDGES AND STAGED
CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452

SECTION 4ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS

4.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453


4.2 SELECTION OF ANALYSIS METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
4.2.1 Special Requirements for Single-Span Bridges
and Bridges in SPC A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
4.2.2 Special Requirements for Curved Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
4.2.3 Special Requirements for Critical Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
4.3 UNIFORM LOAD METHODPROCEDURE 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
4.4 SINGLE MODE SPECTRAL ANALYSIS METHOD
PROCEDURE 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
4.5 MULTIMODE SPECTRAL ANALYSIS METHOD
PROCEDURE 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
4.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
4.5.2 Mathematical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
4.5.2(A) Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
4.5.2(B) Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
4.5.3 Mode Shapes and Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
4.5.4 Multimode Spectral Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
4.5.5 Combination of Mode Forces and Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
4.6 TIME HISTORY METHODPROCEDURE 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456

SECTION 5DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BRIDGES


IN SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY A

5.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457


5.2 DESIGN FORCES FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE
CATEGORY A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
5.3 DESIGN DISPLACEMENTS FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE
CATEGORY A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
5.4 FOUNDATION AND ABUTMENT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY A . . . . . . .457
5.5 STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY A . . . . . . .458

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xlvi CONTENTS Division I-A

5.6 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY A . . . . . . .458

SECTION 6DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BRIDGES


IN SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY B

6.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459


6.2 DESIGN FORCES FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE
CATEGORY B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
6.2.1 Design Forces for Structural Members and Connections . . . . . . . . .459
6.2.2 Design Forces for Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
6.2.3 Design Forces for Abutments and Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
6.3 DESIGN DISPLACEMENTS FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE
CATEGORY B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
6.3.1 Minimum Support Length Requirements for Seismic
Performance Category B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
6.4 FOUNDATION AND ABUTMENT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY B . . . . . . .460
6.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
6.4.2 Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
6.4.2(A) Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
6.4.2(B) Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
6.4.2(C) Special Pile Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
6.4.3 Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
6.4.3(A) Free-Standing Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
6.4.3(B) Monolithic Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
6.5 STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY B . . . . . . .462
6.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
6.5.2 P-delta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
6.6 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORY B . . . . . . .462
6.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
6.6.2 Minimum Transverse Reinforcement Requirements
for Seismic Performance Category B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
6.6.2(A) Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
6.6.2(B) Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement . . . . . . . . . . .463

SECTION 7DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BRIDGES


IN SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES C AND D

7.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465


7.2 DESIGN FORCES FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE
CATEGORIES C AND D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
7.2.1 Modified Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
7.2.1(A) Modified Design Forces for Structural Members
and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
7.2.1(B) Modified Design Forces for Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
7.2.2 Forces Resulting from Plastic Hinging in the Columns,
Piers, or Bents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .466

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division I-A CONTENTS xlvii

7.2.2(A) Single Columns and Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .466


7.2.2(B) Bents with Two or More Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .466
7.2.3 Column and Pile Bent Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
7.2.4 Pier Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
7.2.5 Connection Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
7.2.5(A) Longitudinal Linkage Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
7.2.5(B) Hold-Down Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
7.2.5(C) Column and Pier Connections to Cap Beams and Footings . . . . . . . .467
7.2.6 Foundation Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
7.2.7 Abutment and Retaining Wall Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
7.3 DESIGN DISPLACEMENT FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE
CATEGORIES C AND D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
7.3.1 Minimum Support Length Requirements for Seismic Performance
Categories C and D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
7.4 FOUNDATION AND ABUTMENT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES
C AND D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
7.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
7.4.2 Foundation Requirements for Seismic Performance
Category C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469
7.4.2(A) Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469
7.4.2(B) Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469
7.4.2(C) Special Pile Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469
7.4.3 Abutment Requirements for Seismic Performance
Category C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
7.4.3(A) Free-Standing Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
7.4.3(B) Monolithic Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
7.4.4 Additional Requirements for Foundations
for Seismic Performance Category D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
7.4.4(A) Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
7.4.4(B) Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.4.5 Additional Requirements for Abutments
for Seismic Performance Category D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.5 STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMIC
PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES C AND D . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.5.2 P-delta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.6 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR SEISMIC PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES
C AND D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.6.2 Column Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.6.2(A) Vertical Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.6.2(B) Flexural Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
7.6.2(C) Column Shear and Transverse Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472
7.6.2(D) Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement at Plastic Hinges . . . . . .472
7.6.2(E) Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement . . . . . . . . . . .473
7.6.2(F) Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473
7.6.3 Pier Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473
7.6.4 Column Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474
7.6.5 Construction Joints in Piers and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
xlviii CONTENTS Division II

DIVISION II
CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476

SECTION ISTRUCTURE EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL

1.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477


1.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
1.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
1.4 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
1.4.1 Depth of Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
1.4.2 Foundation Preparation and Control of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
1.4.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
1.4.2.2 Excavations Within Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
1.4.2.3 Foundations on Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
1.4.2.4 Other Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
1.4.2.5 Approval of Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
1.4.3 Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
1.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .479
1.5.1 Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .479
1.5.2 Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .479

SECTION 2REMOVAL OF EXISTING STRUCTURES

2.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481


2.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481
2.3 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481
2.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481
2.3.2 Salvage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481
2.3.3 Partial Removal of Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481
2.3.4 Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .482
2.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .482

SECTION 3TEMPORARY WORKS

3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483


3.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
3.1.2 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
3.1.3 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
3.1.4 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
3.1.5 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
3.2 FALSEWORK AND FORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.2 Falsework Design and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.2.1 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.2.2 Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.2.3 Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.2.4 Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.2.5 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484
3.2.3 Formwork Design and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485
3.2.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS xlix

3.2.3.2 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485


3.2.3.3 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485
3.2.3.4 Tube Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485
3.2.3.5 Stay-in-Place Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486
3.2.4 Removal of Falsework and Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486
3.2.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486
3.2.4.2 Time of Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486
3.2.4.3 Extent of Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486
3.3 COFFERDAMS AND SHORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.3.2 Protection of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.3.3 Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.4 TEMPORARY WATER CONTROL SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.4.2 Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.4.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487
3.5 TEMPORARY BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488
3.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488
3.5.2 Detour Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488
3.5.3 Haul Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488
3.5.4 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488
3.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488

SECTION 4DRIVEN FOUNDATION PILES

4.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489


4.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489
4.2.1 Steel Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489
4.2.1.1 Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489
4.2.2 Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489
4.2.3 Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489
4.3 MANUFACTURE OF PILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1 Precast Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1.1 Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1.2 Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1.3 Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1.4 Curing and Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1.5 Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1.5.1 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.1.6 Storage and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.2 Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.2.1 Inspection of Metal Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.3.2.2 Placing Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490
4.4 DRIVING PILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
4.4.1 Pile Driving Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
4.4.1.1 Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
4.4.1.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
4.4.1.1.2 Drop Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
4.4.1.1.3 Air Steam Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
4.4.1.1.4 Diesel Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
4.4.1.1.5 Vibratory Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492
4.4.1.1.6 Additional Equipment or Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
l CONTENTS Division II

4.4.1.2 Driving Appurtenances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492


4.4.1.2.1 Hammer Cushion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492
4.4.1.2.2 Pile Drive Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492
4.4.1.2.3 Pile Cushion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492
4.4.1.2.4 Leads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492
4.4.1.2.5 Followers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492
4.4.1.2.6 Jets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2 Preparation for Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.1 Site Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.1.1 Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.1.2 Preboring to Facilitate Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.1.3 Predrilled Holes in Embankments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.2 Preparation of Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.2.1 Collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.2.2 Pointing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.2.2.3 Pile Shoes and Lugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.3 Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.3.1 Driving of Test Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
4.4.3.2 Accuracy of Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .494
4.4.4 Determination of Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .494
4.4.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .494
4.4.4.2 Method AEmpirical Pile Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .494
4.4.4.3 Method BWave Equation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .494
4.4.4.4 Method CDynamic Load Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495
4.4.4.5 Method DStatic Load Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495
4.4.5 Splicing of Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.4.5.1 Steel Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.4.5.2 Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.4.5.3 Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.4.6 Defective Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.4.7 Pile Cut-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.4.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.4.7.2 Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496
4.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
4.5.1 Method of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
4.5.1.1 Timber, Steel, and Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
4.5.1.1.1 Piles Furnished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
4.5.1.1.2 Piles Driven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
4.5.1.2 Pile Splices, Pile Shoes, and Pile Lugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
4.5.1.3 Load Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
4.5.2 Basis of Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497

SECTION 5DRILLED PILES AND SHAFTS

5.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .499


5.2 SUBMITTALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .499
5.2.1 Contractor Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .499
5.2.2 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .499
5.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.3.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.3.2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.3.3 Casings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.4 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS li

5.4.1 Protection of Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500


5.4.2 Construction Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.4.3 General Methods and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.4.4 Dry Construction Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.4.5 Wet Construction Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
5.4.6 Temporary Casing Construction Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
5.4.7 Permanent Casing Construction Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
5.4.8 Alternative Construction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
5.4.9 Excavations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
5.4.10 Casings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
5.4.11 Slurry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .502
5.4.12 Excavation Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .502
5.4.13 Reinforcing Steel Cage Construction and Placement . . . . . . . . . . . .502
5.4.14 Concrete Placement, Curing, and Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .503
5.4.15 Test Shafts and Bells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .503
5.4.16 Construction Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .503
5.4.17 Integrity Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
5.5 DRILLED SHAFT LOAD TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
5.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
5.6.1 Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
5.6.1.1 Drilled Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
5.6.1.2 Bell Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
5.6.1.3 Test Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.1.4 Test Bells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.1.5 Exploration Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.1.6 Permanent Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.1.7 Load Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2 Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.1 Drilled Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.2 Bell Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.3 Test Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.4 Test Bells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.5 Exploration Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.6 Permanent Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.7 Load Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505
5.6.2.8 Unexpected Obstructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505

SECTION 6GROUND ANCHORS

6.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507


6.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507
6.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507
6.3.1 Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507
6.3.2 Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507
6.3.3 Steel Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
6.3.4 Corrosion Protection Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
6.3.5 Miscellaneous Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
6.4 FABRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
6.4.1 Bond Length and Tendon Bond Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
6.4.1.1 Grout Protected Ground Anchor Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
6.4.1.2 Encapsulation Protected Ground Anchor Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
6.4.2 Unbonded Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
6.4.3 Anchorage and Trumpet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
6.4.4 Tendon Storage and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
6.5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lii CONTENTS Division II

6.5.1 Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509


6.5.2 Tendon Insertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510
6.5.3 Grouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510
6.5.4 Trumpet and Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510
6.5.5 Testing and Stressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510
6.5.5.1 Testing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510
6.5.5.2 Performance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511
6.5.5.3 Proof Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511
6.5.5.4 Creep Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512
6.5.5.5 Ground Anchor Load Test Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512
6.5.5.6 Lock Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513
6.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513

SECTION 7EARTH RETAINING SYSTEMS

7.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515


7.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
7.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
7.3.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
7.3.1.1 Cast-in-Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
7.3.1.2 Pneumatically Applied Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
7.3.1.3 Precast Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
7.3.1.4 Segmental Concrete Facing Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
7.3.2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.3 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.4 Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.5 Drainage Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.5.1 Pipe and Perforated Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.5.2 Geotextile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.5.3 Permeable Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.5.4 Geocomposite Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.6 Structure Backfill Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.6.2 Crib and Cellular Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.3.6.3 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
7.4 EARTHWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
7.4.1 Structure Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
7.4.2 Foundation Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
7.4.3 Structure Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
7.5 DRAINAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
7.5.1 Concrete Gutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
7.5.2 Weep Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
7.5.3 Drainage Blankets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518
7.5.4 Geocomposite Drainage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518
7.6 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518
7.6.1 Concrete and Masonry Gravity Walls,
Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518
7.6.2 Sheet Pile and Soldier Pile Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518
7.6.2.1 Sheet Pile Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518
7.6.2.2 Soldier Pile Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519
7.6.2.3 Anchored Sheet Pile and Soldier Pile Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519
7.6.2.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519
7.6.2.3.2 Wales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS liii

7.6.2.3.3 Concrete Anchor Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520


7.6.2.3.4 Tie-rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
7.6.2.3.5 Ground Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
7.6.2.3.6 Earthwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
7.6.3 Crib Walls and Cellular Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
7.6.3.1 Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
7.6.3.2 Crib Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
7.6.3.3 Concrete Monolithic Cell Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521
7.6.3.4 Member Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521
7.6.3.5 Backfilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521
7.6.4 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521
7.6.4.1 Facing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521
7.6.4.2 Soil Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .522
7.6.4.3 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .522
7.7 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .522

SECTION 8CONCRETE STRUCTURES

8.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525


8.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.1.2 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.1.3 Construction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.2 CLASSES OF CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.2.2 Normal Weight Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.2.3 Lightweight Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.3.1 Cements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
8.3.2 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
8.3.3 Fine Aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
8.3.4 Coarse Aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
8.3.5 Lightweight Aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
8.3.6 Air-Entraining and Chemical Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
8.3.7 Mineral Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.3.8 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.4 PROPORTIONING OF CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.4.1 Mix Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.4.1.1 Responsibility and Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.4.1.2 Trial Batch Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.4.1.3 Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.4.2 Water Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
8.4.3 Cement Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528
8.4.4 Mineral Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528
8.4.5 Air-Entraining and Chemical Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528
8.5 MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528
8.5.1 Storage of Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528
8.5.2 Storage of Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528
8.5.3 Measurement of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
8.5.4 Batching and Mixing Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
8.5.4.1 Batching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
8.5.4.2 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
8.5.5 Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
8.5.6 Sampling and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
liv CONTENTS Division II

8.5.7 Evaluation of Concrete Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530


8.5.7.1 Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
8.5.7.2 For Controlling Construction Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
8.5.7.3 For Acceptance of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
8.5.7.4 For Control of Mix Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
8.5.7.5 Steam and Radiant Heat-Cured Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
8.6 PROTECTION OF CONCRETE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL
CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.2 Rain Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.3 Hot Weather Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.4 Cold Weather Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.4.1 Protection During Cure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.4.2 Mixing and Placing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.4.3 Heating of Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
8.6.5 Special Requirements for Bridge Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
8.6.6 Concrete Exposed to Salt Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
8.6.7 Concrete Exposed to Sulfate Soils or Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
8.7 HANDLING AND PLACING CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
8.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
8.7.2 Sequence of Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
8.7.2.1 Vertical Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
8.7.2.2 Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
8.7.2.3 Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
8.7.2.4 Box Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
8.7.2.5 Precast Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
8.7.3 Placing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
8.7.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
8.7.3.2 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
8.7.4 Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534
8.7.5 Underwater Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534
8.7.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534
8.7.5.2 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534
8.7.5.3 Cleanup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.8 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.8.2 Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.8.3 Bonding and Doweling to Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.8.4 Forms at Construction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.9 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION JOINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
8.9.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.1 Premolded Expansion Joint Fillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.2 Polystyrene Board Fillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.3 Contraction Joint Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.4 Pourable Joint Sealants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.5 Metal Armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.6 Waterstops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.6.1 Rubber Waterstops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.6.2 Polyvinylchloride Waterstops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
8.9.2.6.3 Copper Waterstops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.9.2.6.4 Testing of Waterstop Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.9.3 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.9.3.1 Open Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lv

8.9.3.2 Filled Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537


8.9.3.3 Sealed Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.9.3.4 Waterstops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.9.3.5 Expansion Joint Armor Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.10 FINISHING PLASTIC CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
8.10.2 Roadway Surface Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .538
8.10.2.1 Striking Off and Floating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .538
8.10.2.2 Straightedging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .538
8.10.2.3 Texturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .538
8.10.2.3.1 Dragged . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.10.2.3.2 Broomed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.10.2.3.3 Tined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.10.2.4 Surface Testing and Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.10.3 Pedestrian Walkway Surface Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.10.4 Troweled and Brushed Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.10.5 Surface Under Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.11 CURING CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.11.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
8.11.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.2.1 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.2.2 Liquid Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.2.3 Waterproof Sheet Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.3 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.3.1 Forms-In-Place Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.3.2 Water Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.3.3 Liquid Membrane Curing Compound Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.3.4 Waterproof Cover Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
8.11.3.5 Steam or Radiant Heat Curing Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
8.11.4 Bridge Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
8.12 FINISHING FORMED CONCRETE SURFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
8.12.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
8.12.2 Class 1Ordinary Surface Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
8.12.3 Class 2Rubbed Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
8.12.4 Class 3Tooled Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
8.12.5 Class 4Sandblasted Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
8.12.6 Class 5Wire Brushed or Scrubbed Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
8.13 PRECAST CONCRETE MEMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
8.13.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
8.13.2 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
8.13.3 Materials and Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
8.13.4 Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
8.13.5 Storage and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
8.13.6 Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544
8.13.7 Epoxy Bonding Agents for Precast Segmental Box Girders . . . . . . .544
8.13.7.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544
8.13.7.1.1 Test 1Sag Flow of Mixed Epoxy Bonding Agent . . . . . . . . . . . .544
8.13.7.1.2 Test 2Gel Time of Mixed Epoxy Bonding Agent . . . . . . . . . . . .544
8.13.7.1.3 Test 3Open Time of Bonding Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544
8.13.7.1.4 Test 4Three-Point Tensile Bending Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545
8.13.7.1.5 Test 5Compression Strength of Cured Epoxy
Bonding Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545
8.13.7.1.6 Test 6Temperature Deflection of Epoxy Bonding Agent . . . . . .545

8.13.7.1.7 Test 7Compression and Shear Strength of Cured Epoxy

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lvi CONTENTS Division II

Bonding Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545


8.13.7.2 Mixing and Installation of Epoxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
8.14 MORTAR AND GROUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
8.14.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
8.14.2 Materials and Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
8.14.3 Placing and Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.15 APPLICATION OF LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.15.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.15.2 Earth Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.15.3 Construction Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.15.4 Traffic Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.16 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.16.1 Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
8.16.2 Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .548

SECTION 9REINFORCING STEEL

9.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549


9.2 MATERIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
9.2.1 Uncoated Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
9.2.2 Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
9.2.3 Stainless Steel Reinforcing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
9.2.4 Mill Test Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
9.3 BAR LISTS AND BENDING DIAGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
9.4 FABRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.4.1 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.4.2 Hooks and Bend Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.4.3 Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.5 HANDLING, STORING, AND SURFACE CONDITION
OF REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.6 PLACING AND FASTENING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.6.2 Support Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.6.3 Precast Concrete Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.6.4 Wire Bar Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550
9.6.5 Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
9.6.6 Repair of Damaged Epoxy Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
9.7 SPLICING OF BARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
9.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
9.7.2 Lap Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
9.7.3 Welded Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
9.7.4 Mechanical Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
9.8 SPLICING OF WELDED WIRE FABRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552
9.9 SUBSTITUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552
9.10 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552
9.11 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552

SECTION 10PRESTRESSING

10.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553


10.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553
10.1.2 Details of Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553
10.2 SUPPLEMENTARY DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553
10.2.1 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lvii

10.2.2 Composite Placing Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554


10.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.1 Prestressing Steel and Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.1.1 Strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.1.2 Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.1.3 Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.2 Post-Tensioning Anchorages and Couplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.2.1 Bonded Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.2.2 Unbonded Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554
10.3.2.3 Special Anchorage Device Acceptance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555
10.3.2.3.7 Cyclic Loading Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555
10.3.2.3.8 Sustained Loading Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555
10.3.2.3.9 Monotonic Loading Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555
10.4 PLACEMENT OF DUCTS, STEEL, AND ANCHORAGE
HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556
10.4.1 Placement of Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556
10.4.1.1 Vents and Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556
10.4.2 Placement of Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556
10.4.2.1 Placement for Pretensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556
10.4.2.2 Placement for Post-Tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .557
10.4.2.2.1 Protection of Steel After Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .557
10.4.3 Placement of Anchorage Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .557
10.5 IDENTIFICATION AND TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .557
10.5.1 Pretensioning Method Tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
10.5.2 Post-Tensioning Method Tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
10.5.3 Anchorage Assemblies and Couplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
10.6 PROTECTION OF PRESTRESSING STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
10.7 CORROSION INHIBITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
10.8 DUCTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558
10.8.1 Metal Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
10.8.2 Polyethylene Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
10.8.3 Duct Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
10.8.4 Duct Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
10.9 GROUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
10.9.1 Portland Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
10.9.2 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
10.9.3 Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560
10.10 TENSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560
10.10.1 General Tensioning Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560
10.10.1.1 Concrete Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560
10.10.1.2 Prestressing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560
10.10.1.3 Sequence of Stressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .561
10.10.1.4 Measurement of Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .561
10.10.2 Pretensioning Method Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .561
10.10.3 Post-Tensioning Method Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
10.11 GROUTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
10.11.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
10.11.2 Preparation of Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
10.11.3 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
10.11.4 Mixing of Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
10.11.5 Injection of Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .563
10.11.6 Temperature Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .563
10.12 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .563

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lviii CONTENTS Division II

10.12.1 Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .563


10.12.2 Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .563

SECTION 11STEEL STRUCTURES

11.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565


11.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565
11.1.2 Notice of Beginning of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565
11.1.3 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565
11.1.4 Inspectors Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565
11.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.2.1 Shop Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.2.2 Erection Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.2.3 Camber Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.3.1 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.3.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.3.1.2 Carbon Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.3.1.3 High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.3.1.4 High-Strength Low-Alloy, Quenched and Tempered Structural
Steel Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
11.3.1.5 High-Yield Strength, Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Plate . . .566
11.3.1.6 Eyebars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567
11.3.1.7 Structural Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567
11.3.2 High-Strength Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567
11.3.2.1 Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567
11.3.2.2 Identifying Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567
11.3.2.3 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567
11.3.2.4 Galvanized High-Strength Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
11.3.2.5 Alternative Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
11.3.2.6 Load Indicator Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
11.3.3 Welded Stud Shear Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
11.3.3.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
11.3.3.2 Test Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
11.3.3.3 Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
11.3.3.4 Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.3.5 Check Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.4 Steel Forgings and Steel Shafting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.4.1 Steel Forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.4.2 Cold Finished Carbon Steel Shafting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.5 Steel Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.5.1 Mild Steel Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.5.2 Chromium Alloy-Steel Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.6 Iron Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.6.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.6.2 Workmanship and Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.6.3 Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.3.7 Galvanizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
11.4 FABRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.1 Identification of Steels During Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.2 Storage of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3 Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lix

11.4.3.1 Direction of Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570


11.4.3.2 Plate Cut Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3.2.1 Edge Planing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3.2.2 Oxygen Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3.2.3 Visual Inspection and Repair of Plate Cut Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3.3 Bent Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3.3.2 Cold Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
11.4.3.3.3 Hot Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.4 Fit of Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.5 Abutting Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.6 Facing of Bearing Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.7 Straightening Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.8 Bolt Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.8.1 Holes for High-Strength Bolts and Unfinished
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.8.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
11.4.8.1.2 Punched Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.1.3 Reamed or Drilled Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.1.4 Accuracy of Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.2 Accuracy of Hole Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.2.1 Accuracy Before Reaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.2.2 Accuracy After Reaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.3 Numerically Controlled Drilled Field Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.4 Holes for Ribbed Bolts, Turned Bolts,
or Other Approved Bearing Type Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .572
11.4.8.5 Preparation of Field Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573
11.4.9 Pins and Rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573
11.4.9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573
11.4.9.2 Boring Pin Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573
11.4.9.3 Threads for Bolts and Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573
11.4.10 Eyebars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573
11.4.11 Annealing and Stress Relieving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573
11.4.12 Curved Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574
11.4.12.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574
11.4.12.2 Heat Curving Rolled Beams and Welded Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574
11.4.12.2.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574
11.4.12.2.2 Type of Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574
11.4.12.2.3 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574
11.4.12.2.4 Position for Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574
11.4.12.2.5 Sequence of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
11.4.12.2.6 Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
11.4.12.2.7 Measurement of Curvature and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
11.4.13 Orthotropic-Deck Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
11.4.13.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
11.4.13.2 Flatness of Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
11.4.13.3 Straightness of Longitudinal Stiffeners Subject to Calculated
Compressive Stress, Including Orthotropic-Deck Ribs . . . . . . .576
11.4.13.4 Straightness of Transverse Web Stiffeners and Other Stiffeners
Not Subject to Calculated Compressive Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
11.4.14 Full-Sized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
11.4.15 Marking and Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
11.5 ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lx CONTENTS Division II

11.5.1 Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576


11.5.2 Welded Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
11.5.3 Preassembly of Field Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
11.5.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
11.5.3.2 Bolted Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.3.3 Check AssemblyNumerically Controlled Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.3.4 Field Welded Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.4 Match Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.5 Connections Using Unfinished, Turned, or Ribbed Bolts . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.5.2 Turned Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.5.3 Ribbed Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
11.5.6 Connections Using High-Strength Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
11.5.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
11.5.6.2 Bolted Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
11.5.6.3 Surface Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
11.5.6.4 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
11.5.6.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
11.5.6.4.2 Rotational-Capacity Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .579
11.5.6.4.3 Requirement for Washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580
11.5.6.4.4 Turn-of-Nut Installation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580
11.5.6.4.5 Calibrated Wrench Installation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580
11.5.6.4.6 Alternative Design Bolts Installation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581
11.5.6.4.7 Direct Tension Indicator Installation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581
11.5.6.4.7a Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581
11.5.6.4.7b Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582
11.5.6.4.8 Lock-Pin and Collar Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582
11.5.6.4.9 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582
11.5.7 Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
11.6 ERECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
11.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
11.6.2 Handling and Storing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
11.6.3 Bearings and Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
11.6.4 Erection Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
11.6.4.1 Conformance to Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
11.6.4.2 Erection Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
11.6.4.3 Maintaining Alignment and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
11.6.5 Field Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
11.6.6 Pin Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
11.6.7 Misfits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
11.7 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
11.7.1 Method of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
11.7.2 Basis of Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585

SECTION 12STEEL GRID FLOORING

12.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587


12.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
12.1.2 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
12.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
12.2.1 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
12.2.2 Protective Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lxi

12.2.3 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587


12.2.4 Skid Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
12.3 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
12.4 PROVISION FOR CAMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
12.5 FIELD ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
12.6 CONNECTION TO SUPPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
12.7 WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
12.8 REPAIRING DAMAGED GALVANIZED COATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . .588
12.9 PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE FILLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
12.9.1 Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
12.9.2 Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589
12.10 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589

SECTION 13PAINTING

13.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591


13.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
13.1.2 Protection of Public and Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
13.1.3 Protection of the Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
13.1.4 Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
13.2 PAINTING METAL STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
13.2.1 Coating Systems and Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
13.2.2 Weather Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
13.2.3 Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .592
13.2.3.1 Blast Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .592
13.2.3.2 Steam Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .593
13.2.3.3 Solvent Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .593
13.2.3.4 Hand Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .593
13.2.4 Application of Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .593
13.2.4.1 Application of Zinc-Rich Primers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594
13.2.5 Measurement and Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594
13.3 PAINTING GALVANIZED SURFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594
13.4 PAINTING TIMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.4.2 Preparation of Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.4.3 Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.4.4 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.4.5 Painting Treated Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.4.6 Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.5 PAINTING CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.5.1 Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.5.2 Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.5.3 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595
13.5.4 Measurement and Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .596

SECTION 14STONE MASONRY

14.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597


14.1.1 Rubble Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597
14.1.2 Ashlar Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597
14.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxii CONTENTS Division II

14.2.1.1 Rubble Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597


14.2.1.2 Ashlar Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597
14.2.2 Shipment and Storage of Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597
14.2.3 Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597
14.3 MANUFACTURE OF STONE FOR MASONRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.2 Surface Finishes of Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.3 Rubble Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.3.1 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.3.2 Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.3.3 Dressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.4 Ashlar Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.4.1 Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.4.2 Dressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598
14.3.4.3 Stretchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.3.5 Arch Ring Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.4 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.4.1 Weather Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.4.2 Mixing Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.4.3 Selection and Placing of Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.4.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.4.3.2 Rubble Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
14.4.3.3 Ashlar Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.4 Beds and Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.5 Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.6 Cores and Backing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.6.2 Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.6.3 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.6.4 Leveling Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600
14.4.7 Facing for Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
14.4.8 Copings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
14.4.8.1 Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
14.4.8.2 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
14.4.9 Dowels and Cramps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
14.4.10 Weep Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
14.4.11 Pointing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
14.4.12 Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .602
14.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .602

SECTION 15CONCRETE BLOCK AND BRICK MASONRY

15.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603


15.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.1 Concrete Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.2 Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.3 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.4 Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.5 Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.6 Sampling and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.6.1 Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603
15.2.6.2 Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lxiii

15.3 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604


15.3.1 Weather Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604
15.3.2 Laying Block and Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604
15.3.3 Placement of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604
15.3.4 Grouting of Voids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604
15.3.5 Copings, Bridge Seats, and Backwalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .605
15.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .606

SECTION 16TIMBER STRUCTURES

16.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .607


16.1.1 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .607
16.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .607
16.2.1 Lumber and Timber (Solid Sawn or Glued Laminated) . . . . . . . . . .607
16.2.2 Steel Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .607
16.2.3 Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.2.4 Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.2.5 Galvanizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.2.6 Timber Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.2.6.1 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.2.6.2 Split Ring Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.2.6.3 Shear-Plate Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.2.6.4 Spike-Grid Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608
16.3 FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
16.3.1 Workmanship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
16.3.2 Storage of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
16.3.3 Treated Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
16.3.3.1 Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
16.3.3.2 Framing and Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
16.3.3.3 Cuts and Abrasions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
16.3.3.4 Bored Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
16.3.3.5 Temporary Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
16.3.4 Installation of Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
16.3.5 Holes for Bolts, Dowels, Rods, and Lag Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
16.3.6 Bolts and Washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610
16.3.7 Countersinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.8 Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.9 Framed Bents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.9.1 Mud Sills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.9.2 Concrete Pedestals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.9.3 Sills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.9.4 Posts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.9.5 Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.9.6 Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.10 Stringers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
16.3.11 Plank Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612
16.3.12 Nail Laminated or Strip Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612
16.3.13 Glue Laminated Panel Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612
16.3.14 Composite Wood-Concrete Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612
16.3.15 Wheel Guards and Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612
16.3.16 Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613
16.4 PAINTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxiv CONTENTS Division II

16.5 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613


16.6 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613

SECTION 17PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF WOOD

17.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615


17.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615
17.2.1 Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615
17.2.2 Preservatives and Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615
17.2.3 Coal-tar Roofing Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615
17.3 IDENTIFICATION AND INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615
17.3.1 Branding and Job Site Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615
17.3.2 Inspection at Treatment Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .616
17.3.3 Certificate of Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .616
17.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .616

SECTION 18BEARINGS

18.1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .617


18.2 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .617
18.2.1 AASHTO Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .617
18.2.2 ASTM Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .617
18.2.3 Other Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
18.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
18.4 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
18.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
18.4.1.1 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
18.4.2 Special Material Requirements for Metal Rocker and
Roller Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
18.4.3 Special Material Requirements for PTFE Sliding Surfaces . . . . . . .619
18.4.3.1 PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619
18.4.3.2 Adhesives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619
18.4.3.3 Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619
18.4.3.4 Interlocked Bronze and Filled PTFE Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619
18.4.4 Special Material Requirements for Pot Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619
18.4.5 Special Material Requirements for Steel Reinforced
Elastomeric Bearings and Elastomeric Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.5.1 Elastomer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.5.2 Fabric Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.5.3 Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.6 Special Material Requirements for Bronze or
Copper Alloy Sliding Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.6.1 Bronze and Copper Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.6.1.1 Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.6.1.2 Rolled Copper-Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.6.2 Oil Impregnated Metal Powder Sintered Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.7 Special Material Requirements for Disc Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.7.1 Elastomeric Rotational Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.8 Special Material Requirements for Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.8.1 Low-friction Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
18.4.8.2 Adhesive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.4.9 Special Requirements for Bedding Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lxv

18.4.9.1 Fabric-Reinforced Elastomeric Bedding Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623


18.4.9.2 Sheet Lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.4.9.3 Caulk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.4.9.4 Grout and Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.5 FABRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.5.2 Special Fabrication Requirements for Metal Rocker and
Roller Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.5.2.1 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.5.2.2 Lubricant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
18.5.3 Special Fabrication Requirements for PTFE Sliding Bearings . . . .625
18.5.3.1 Fabrication of PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.3.2 Attachment of PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.3.2.1 Flat Sheet PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.3.2.2 Curved Sheet PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.3.2.3 Woven PTFE Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.3.3 Stainless Steel Mating Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.3.4 Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.4 Special Fabrication Requirements for Curved Sliding Bearings . . .625
18.5.5 Special Fabrication Requirements for Pot Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.5.1 Pot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.5.2 Sealing Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
18.5.5.3 Elastomeric Rotational Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.6 Special Fabrication Requirements for Steel Reinforced
Elastomeric Bearings and Elastomeric Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.6.1 Requirements for All Elastomeric Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.6.2 Steel Laminated Elastomeric Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.6.3 Fabric Reinforced Elastomeric Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.6.4 Plain Elastomeric Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.7 Special Fabrication Requirements for Bronze and
Copper Alloy Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.7.1 Bronze Sliding Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.7.2 Copper Alloy Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.8 Special Fabrication Requirements for Disc Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.8.1 Steel Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.8.2 Elastomeric Rotational Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.9 Special Fabrication Requirements for Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
18.5.10 Special Requirements for Load Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.5.11 Special Requirements for Anchor Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.6 CORROSION PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7 TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.1.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.1.3 Test Pieces to be Supplied to the Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.1.4 Tapered Sole Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.2 Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.2.1 Material Certification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627
18.7.2.2 Material Friction Test (Sliding Surfaces Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628
18.7.2.3 Dimensional Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628
18.7.2.4 Clearance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628
18.7.2.5 Short-term Compression Proof Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628
18.7.2.6 Long-term Compression Proof Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxvi CONTENTS Division II

18.7.2.7 Bearing Friction Test (for sliding surfaces only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628


18.7.2.8 Long-term Deterioration Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629
18.7.2.9 Bearing Horizontal Force Capacity (Fixed or
Guided Bearings Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629
18.7.3 Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629
18.7.4 Special Testing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629
18.7.4.1 Special Test Requirements for Rocker and Roller Bearings . . . . . . . .629
18.7.4.2 Special Test Requirements for PTFE Sliding Bearings . . . . . . . . . . .629
18.7.4.3 Special Test Requirements for Curved Sliding Bearings . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.4 Special Test Requirements for Pot Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.4.1 Material Certification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.4.2 Testing by the Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.4.3 Bearing Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.5 Test Requirements for Elastomeric Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.5.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.5.2 Frequency of Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630
18.7.4.5.3 Ambient Temperature Tests on the Elastomer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
18.7.4.5.4 Low Temperature Tests on the Elastomer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
18.7.4.5.5 Visual Inspection of the Finished Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
18.7.4.5.6 Short-Duration Compression Tests on Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
18.7.4.5.7 Long-Duration Compression Tests on Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
18.7.4.5.8 Shear Modulus Tests on Materials from Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
18.7.4.7 Test Requirements for Bronze and Copper Alloy Bearings . . . . . . . .631
18.7.4.8 Test Requirements for Disc Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.7.4.8.1 Material Certification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.7.4.8.2 Testing by the Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.7.4.8.3 Bearing Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.7.5 Cost of Transporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.7.6 Use of Tested Bearings in the Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.8 PACKING, SHIPPING AND STORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.9 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.9.1 General Installation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
18.9.2 Special Installation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.9.2.1 Installation of Rocker and Roller Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.9.2.2 Installation of Elastomeric Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.9.2.3 Installation of Guideways and Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.9.2.4 Installation of Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.10 DOCUMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.10.1 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.10.2 Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.10.3 Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
18.11 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634
18.12 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634

SECTION 19BRIDGE DECK JOINT SEALS

19.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635


19.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635
19.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635
19.4 MANUFACTURE AND FABRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635
19.4.1 Compression Seal Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635
19.4.2 Joint Seal Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lxvii

19.5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635


19.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635
19.5.2 Compression Seal Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636
19.5.3 Joint Seal Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636
19.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636

SECTION 20RAILINGS

20.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637


20.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.1.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.1.3 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.1.4 Line and Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2 METAL RAILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2.1 Materials and Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2.1.1 Steel Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2.1.2 Aluminum Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2.1.3 Metal Beam Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2.1.4 Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
20.2.3 Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.3 CONCRETE RAILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.3.1 Materials and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.4 TIMBER RAILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.5 STONE AND BRICK RAILINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.6 TEMPORARY RAILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.7 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.7.1 Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
20.7.2 Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638

SECTION 21WATERPROOFING

21.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639


21.1.1 Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.1.2 Dampproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.1 Asphalt Membrane Waterproofing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.1.1 Asphalt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.1.2 Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.1.3 Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.2 Preformed Membrane Waterproofing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.2.1 Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.2.2 Preformed Membrane Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
21.2.2.3 Mastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640
21.2.3 Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640
21.2.4 Dampproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640
21.2.5 Inspection and Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640
21.3 SURFACE PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640
21.4 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640
21.4.1 Asphalt Membrane Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxviii CONTENTS Division II

21.4.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641


21.4.1.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641
21.4.1.3 Special Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641
21.4.1.4 Damage Patching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641
21.4.2 Preformed Membrane Waterproofing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642
21.4.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642
21.4.2.2 Installation on Bridge Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642
21.4.2.3 Installation on Other Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642
21.4.3 Protective Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642
21.4.4 Dampproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643
21.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643

SECTION 22SLOPE PROTECTION

22.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645


22.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645
22.1.2 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645
22.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645
22.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645
22.3.1 Aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645
22.3.2 Wire-Enclosed Riprap (Gabions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645
22.3.3 Filter Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645
22.3.4 Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.3.5 Sacked Concrete Riprap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.3.6 Portland Cement Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.3.7 Pneumatically Applied Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.3.8 Precast Portland Cement Concrete Blocks
and Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.3.9 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.3.10 Geocomposite Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.4 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.4.1 Preparation of Slopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.4.2 Bedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.4.3 Filter Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646
22.4.4 Geocomposite Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
22.4.5 Hand Placing Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
22.4.6 Machine-Placed Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
22.4.6.1 Dry Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
22.4.6.2 Underwater Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
22.4.7 Wire-Enclosed Riprap (Gabions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
22.4.7.1 Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
22.4.7.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648
22.4.8 Grouted Riprap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648
22.4.9 Sacked Concrete Riprap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648
22.4.10 Concrete Slope Paving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648
22.4.10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648
22.4.10.2 Cast-in-Place Slope Paving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649
22.4.10.3 Precast Slope Paving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649
22.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649
22.5.1 Method of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649
22.5.1.1 Stone Riprap and Filter Blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649
22.5.1.2 Sacked Concrete Riprap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649
22.5.1.3 Wire-Enclosed Riprap (Gabions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lxix

22.5.1.4 Cast-in-Place Concrete Slope Paving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650


22.5.1.5 Precast Concrete Slope Paving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.1.6 Filter Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2 Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.2 Stone Riprap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.3 Sacked Concrete Riprap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.4 Wire-Enclosed Riprap (Gabions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.5 Cast-in-Place Concrete Slope Paving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.6 Precast Concrete Slope Paving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.7 Filter Blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.8 Filter Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650
22.5.2.9 Geocomposite Drain System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650

SECTION 23MISCELLANEOUS METAL

23.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .651


23.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .651
23.3 FABRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .651
23.4 GALVANIZING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .651
23.5 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .651
23.6 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .651

SECTION 24PNEUMATICALLY APPLIED MORTAR

24.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653


24.2 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
24.2.1 Cement, Aggregate, Water, and Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
24.2.2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
24.2.3 Anchor Bolts or Studs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
24.3 PROPORTIONING AND MIXING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
24.3.1 Proportioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
24.3.2 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
24.4 SURFACE PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654
24.4.1 Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654
24.4.2 Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654
24.4.3 Concrete or Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654
24.5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654
24.5.1 Placement of Reinforcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654
24.5.2 Placement of Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654
24.5.2.1 Weather Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655
24.5.2.2 Protection of Adjacent Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655
24.5.3 Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655
24.5.4 Curing and Protecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655
24.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655

SECTION 25STEEL AND CONCRETE TUNNEL LINERS

25.1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657


25.2 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxx CONTENTS Division II

25.3 MATERIALS AND FABRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657


25.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657
25.3.2 Forming and Punching of Steel Liner Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657
25.4 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658
25.4.1 Steel Liner Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658
25.4.2 Precast Concrete Liner Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658
25.4.3 Grouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658
25.5 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658
25.6 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658

SECTION 26METAL CULVERTS

26.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659


26.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.3.1 Corrugated Metal Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.3.2 Structural Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.3.3 Nuts and Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.3.4 Mixing of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.3.5 Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
26.3.6 Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.3.7 Protective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.3.8 Bedding and Backfill Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.3.8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.3.8.2 Long-Span Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.3.8.3 Box Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.4 ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.4.2 Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660
26.4.2.1 Field Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661
26.4.2.2 Joint Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661
26.4.2.3 Soil Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661
26.4.2.4 Joint Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661
26.4.3 Assembly of Long-Span Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .662
26.5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .662
26.5.1 Placing CulvertsGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .662
26.5.2 Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .662
26.5.3 Bedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .664
26.5.4 Structural Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .665
26.5.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .665
26.5.4.2 Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .665
26.5.4.3 Long-Span Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .665
26.5.4.4 Box Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .666
26.5.4.5 Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .666
26.5.5 Arch Substructures and Headwalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .666
26.5.6 Inspection Requirements for CMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .667
26.6 CONSTRUCTION PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .667
26.7 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .667
26.8 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .667

SECTION 27CONCRETE CULVERTS

27.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Division II CONTENTS lxxi

27.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669


27.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669
27.3.1 Reinforced Concrete Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669
27.3.2 Joint Sealants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669
27.3.2.1 Cement Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669
27.3.2.2 Flexible Watertight Gaskets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669
27.3.2.3 Other Joint Sealant Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.3.3 Bedding, Haunch, Lower Side and Backfill or Overfill Material . . .670
27.3.3.1 Precast Reinforced Concrete Circular, Arch, and Elliptical Pipe . . . .670
27.3.3.2 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.4 ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.4.2 Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.5.2 Bedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.5.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
27.5.2.2 Precast Reinforced Concrete Circular Arch and Elliptical Pipe . . . . .673
27.5.2.3 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .673
27.5.3 Placing Culvert Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .673
27.5.4 Haunch, Lower Side and Backfill or Overfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .674
27.5.4.1 Precast Reinforced Concrete Circular Arch and Elliptical Pipe . . . . .674
27.5.4.1.1 Haunch Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .674
27.5.4.1.2 Lower Side Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .677
27.5.4.1.3 Overfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .677
27.5.4.2 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .677
27.5.4.2.1 Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .677
27.5.4.3 Placing of Haunch, Lower Side and Backfill or Overfill . . . . . . . . . .677
27.5.4.4 Cover Over Culvert During Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .678
27.6 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .678
27.7 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .678

SECTION 28WEARING SURFACES

28.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679


28.2 LATEX MODIFIED CONCRETE TYPE WEARING SURFACE . . .679
28.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679
28.2.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679
28.2.2.1 Portland Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679
28.2.2.2 Aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679
28.2.2.3 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679
28.2.2.4 Latex Emulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679
28.2.2.5 Latex Modified Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .680
28.2.3 Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .680
28.2.3.1 New Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .680
28.2.3.2 Existing Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .680
28.2.4 Proportioning and Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681
28.2.5 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681
28.2.5.1 Weather Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681
28.2.5.2 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681
28.2.5.3 Placing and Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682
28.2.5.3.1 Construction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682
28.2.5.3.2 Placing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxxii CONTENTS Figures

28.2.5.3.3 Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682


28.2.6 Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682
28.2.7 Acceptance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682
28.2.8 Measurement and Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .683

SECTION 29EMBEDMENT ANCHORS

29.1 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685


29.2 PREQUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685
29.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685
29.4 CONSTRUCTION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685
29.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685
29.6 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .686
29.7 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .686

SECTION 30THERMOPLASTIC PIPE

30.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687


30.1.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
30.1.2 Workmanship and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
30.2 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
30.3 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
30.3.1 Thermoplastic Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
30.3.2 Bedding Material and Structural Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
30.4 ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
30.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
30.4.2 Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
30.4.2.1 Field Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
30.5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
30.5.1 General Installation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
30.5.2 Trench Widths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
30.5.3 Foundation and Bedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689
30.5.4 Structural Backfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689
30.5.5 Minimum Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689
30.5.6 Installation Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689
30.6 MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689
30.7 PAYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689

LIST OF FIGURES
DIVISION I
DESIGN

SECTION 2GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

Figure 2.3.1 Clearance Diagram for Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8


Figure 2.4A Clearance Diagrams for Underpasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Figure 2.5 Clearance Diagram for TunnelsTwo-Lane Highway Traffic . .9
Figure 2.7.4A Pedestrian Railing, Bicycle Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Figure 2.7.4B Traffic Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

SECTION 3LOADS

Figure 3.7.6A Standard H Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Figures CONTENTS lxxiii

Figure 3.7.6B Lane Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23


Figure 3.7.7A Standard HS Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

SECTION 4FOUNDATIONS

Figure 4.4.3A Design Terminology for Spread Footing Foundations . . . . . . .48


Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1A Definition Sketch for Loading and Dimensions
for Footings Subjected to Eccentric or Inclined Loads,
Modified after EPRI (1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1B Contact Pressure for Footing Loaded Eccentrically
About One Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.1C Contact Pressure for Footing Loaded Eccentrically
About Two Axes, Modified after AREA (1980) . . . . . . . . . .53
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.4A Modified Bearing Capacity Factors for Footings
on Sloping Ground, Modified after Meyerhof (1957) . . . . .54
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.4B Modified Bearing Capacity Factors for Footing Adjacent
Sloping Ground, Modified after Meyerhof (1957) . . . . . . . . .54
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.6A Definition Sketch for Influence of Ground Water Table
on Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.7A Typical Two-Layer Soil Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.7B Modified Bearing Capacity Factor for Two-Layer Cohesive
Soil with Softer Soil Overlying Stiffer Soil, EPRI (1983) . .56
Figure 4.4.7.1.1.8A Definition Sketch for Footing Base Inclination . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Figure 4.4.7.2.1A Boussinesg Vertical Stress Contours for Continuous
and Square Footings, Modified after Sowers (1979) . . . . . .58
Figure 4.4.7.2.3A Typical Consolidation Compression Curve
for Overconsolidated SoilVoid Ratio
Versus Vertical Effective Stress, EPRI (1983) . . . . . . . . . . .60
Figure 4.4.7.2.3B Typical Consolidation Compression Curve
for Overconsolidated SoilVoid Strain
Versus Vertical Effective Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Figure 4.4.7.2.3C Reduction Factor to Account for Effects of Three-
Dimensional Consolidation Settlement, EPRI (1983) . . . . .60
Figure 4.4.7.2.3D Percentage of Consolidation as a Function of Time
Factor, T, EPRI (1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Figure 4.4.8.1.1A Allowable Contact Stress for Footings on Rock with Tight
Discontinuities, Peck, et al. (1974) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Figure 4.4.8.2.2A Relationship Between Elastic Modulus and Uniaxial
Compressive Strength for Intact Rock, Modified
after Deere (1968) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Figure 4.5.4A Design Terminology for Driven Pile Foundations . . . . . . . . . .71
Figure 4.6.3A Design Terminology for Drilled Shaft Foundations . . . . . . . . .81
Figure 4.6.5.1.1A Identification of Portions of Drilled Shafts Neglected
for Estimation of Drilled Shaft Side Resistance
in Cohesive Soil, Reese and ONeill (1988) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Figure 4.6.5.3.1A Procedure for Estimating Average Unit Shear for Smooth
Wall Rock-Socketed Shafts, Horvath et al. (1983) . . . . . . . .85
Figure 4.6.5.5.1.1A Load Transfer in Side Resistance Versus Settlement Drilled
Shafts in Cohesive Soil, after Reese and ONeill (1988) . . .87
Figure 4.6.5.5.1.1B Load Transfer in Tip Bearing Settlement Drilled Shafts
in Cohesive Soil, after Reese and ONeill (1988) . . . . . . . . .87
Figure 4.6.5.5.1.2A Load Transfer in Side Resistance Versus Settlement Drilled Shafts
in Cohesionless Soil, after Reese and ONeill (1988) . . . . . .88

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxxiv CONTENTS Figures

Figure 4.6.5.5.1.2B Load Transfer in Tip Bearing Versus Settlement Drilled Shafts
in Cohesionless Soil, after Reese and ONeill (1988) . . . . . .88
Figure 4.6.5.5.2A Influence Coefficient for Elastic Settlement of Rock-Socketed
Drilled Shafts, Modified after Pells and Turner (1979) . . . .89
Figure 4.6.5.5.2B Influence Coefficient for Elastic Uplift Displacement of
Rock-Socketed Drilled Shafts, Modified after Pells and
Turner (1979) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Figure 4.12.3.2.1-1 Location of Equivalent Footing after Duncan and Buchignami
(1976) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104.1
Figure 5.2A Typical Mechanically Stabilized Earth Gravity Walls . . . . .112
Figure 5.2B Typical Prefabricated Modular Gravity Walls . . . . . . . . . . .113
Figure 5.2C Typical Rigid Gravity, Semi-Gravity Cantilever, Nongravity
Cantilever, and Anchored Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Figure 5.5.1A Terms Used in Design of Rigid Gravity and Semi-Gravity
Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Figure 5.5.2A Computational Procedures for Active Earth Pressures
(Coulomb Analysis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Figure 5.5.2B Procedure to Determine Lateral Pressure Due to Point and
Line Loads, Modified after Terzaghi (1954) . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Figure 5.5.2C Computational Procedures for Passive Earth Pressures for Slop-
ing Wall with Horizontal Backfill (Caquot and Kerisel Analy-
sis), Modified after U.S. Department of Navy (1982) . . . . . .124
Figure 5.5.2D Computational Procedures for Passive Earth Pressures for Ver-
tical Wall with Sloping Backfill (Caquot and Kerisel Analysis),
Modified after U.S. Department of Navy (1982) . . . . . . . . .125
Figure 5.5.5A Design Criteria for Rigid Retaining Walls,
(Coulomb Analysis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Figure 5.6.2A Simplified Earth Pressure Distributions for Permanent
Flexible Cantilevered Walls with Discrete Vertical Wall
Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Figure 5.6.2B Simplified Earth Pressure Distributions and Design
Procedures for Permanent Flexible Cantilevered Walls
with Continuous Vertical Wall Elements, Modified after
Teng (1962) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Figure 5.6.2C Simplified Earth Pressure Distributions for Temporary
Flexible Cantilevered Walls with Discrete Vertical Wall
Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Figure 5.6.2D Simplified Earth Pressure Distributions for Temporary
Flexible Cantilevered Walls with Continuous Vertical
Wall Elements, Modified after Teng (1962) . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Figure 5.7.1A Typical Terms Used in Flexible Anchored Wall Design . . . .133
Figure 5.7.2A Guidelines for Estimating Earth Pressure on Walls with
Two or More Levels of Anchors Constructed from the Top
Down, Modified after Terzaghi and Peck (1967) . . . . . . . .134
Figure 5.7.2B Settlement Profiles Behind Braced or Anchored Walls,
Modified after Clough and ORourke (1990) . . . . . . . . . . .135
Figure 5.8.1A MSE Wall Element Dimensions Needed for Design . . . . . . .139
Figure 5.8.2A External Stability for Wall with Horizontal Backslope
and Traffic Surcharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Figure 5.8.2B External Stability for Wall with Sloping Backslope . . . . . . .141
Figure 5.8.2C External Stability for Wall with Broken Backslope . . . . . . .142
Figure 5.8.2D Overall and Compound Stability of Complex MSE
Wall Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Figure 5.8.3A Calculation of Vertical Stress for Bearing Capacity
Calculations (for Horizontal Backslope Condition) . . . . .144

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Figures CONTENTS lxxv

Figure 5.8.3B Calculation of Vertical Stress for Bearing Capacity


Calculations (for Sloping Backslope Condition) . . . . . . . .145
Figure 5.8.4.1A Calculation of Vertical Stress for Horizontal Backslope
Condition, Including Live Load and Dead Load
Surcharges for Internal Stability Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Figure 5.8.4.1B Calculation of Vertical Stress for Sloping Backslope
Condition for Internal Stability Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Figure 5.8.4.1C Variation of the Coefficient of Lateral Stress Ratio Kr/Ka
with Depth in a Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall . . . .149
Figure 5.8.5.1A Location of Potential Failure Surface for Internal Stability
Design of MSE Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Figure 5.8.5.2A Default Values for the Pullout Friction Factor, F* . . . . . . . .151
Figure 5.8.6A Parameters for Metal Reinforcement Strength
Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Figure 5.8.6B Parameters for Geosynthetic Reinforcement Strength
Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Figure 5.8.7.2A Determination of Hinge Height for Segmental Concrete
Block Faced MSE Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Figure 5.8.9.1A Seismic External Stability of a MSE Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162
Figure 5.8.9.2A Seismic Internal Stability of a MSE Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
Figure 5.8.10A Empirical Curve for Estimating Anticipated Lateral
Displacement During Construction for MSE Walls . . . . .165
Figure 5.8.12.1A Distribution of Stress from Concentrated Vertical Load
Pv for Internal and External Stability Calculations . . . . .166
Figure 5.8.12.1B Distribution of Stress from Concentrated Horizontal
Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Figure 5.8.12.1C Superposition of Concentrated Dead Loads for External
Stability Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Figure 5.8.12.1D Location of Maximum Tensile Force Line in Case of
Large Surcharge Slabs (Inextensible Reinforcements) . . .169
Figure 5.8.12.4A Structural Connection of Soil Reinforcement Around
Backfill Obstructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Figure 5.9.2A Lateral Earth Pressures for Prefabricated Modular Walls,
Case IContinuous Pressure Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Figure 5.9.3B Lateral Earth Pressures for Prefabricated Modular Walls,
Case IIIrregular Pressure Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Figure 5.14.6-1 Earth Loads and Stability Criteria for Walls with Clayey
Soils in the Backfill or Foundation (after Duncan et al.,
1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Figure 5.14.6-2 Earth Loads and Stability Criteria for Walls with Granular
Backfills and Foundations on Sand or Gravel
(after Duncan et al., 1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Figure 5.14.6-3 Earth Loads and Stability Criteria for Walls with Granular
Backfills and Foundations on Rock
(after Duncan et al., 1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Figure 5.14.7-1 Contact Pressure Distribution for Structural Design
of Footings on Soil and Rock at Strength Limit States . . .179

SECTION 7SUBSTRUCTURES

Figure 7.5.4A Limiting Values of Differential Settlement Based on Field


Surveys of Simple and Continuous Span Structures
of Various Span Lengths, Moulton, et al. (1985) . . . . . . . .186

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxxvi CONTENTS Figures

SECTION 8REINFORCED CONCRETE

Figure 8.15.5.8 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202


Figure 8.16.4.4.1 Definition of Wall Slenderness Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
Figure 8.16.6.8 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Figure 8.29.1 Hooked-Bar Details for Development of Standard Hooks . .221
Figure 8.29.4 Hooked-Bar Tie Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221

SECTION 9PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Figure 9.16.2.1.1 Mean Annual Relative Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235

SECTION 10STRUCTURAL STEEL

Figure 10.3.1C Illustrative Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264


Figure C10.18.2.3.4 Positive Flexure Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-101
Figure C10.18.2.3.4 Negative Flexure Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-101
Figure 10.18.5A Splice Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
Figure 10.34.3.1A Web Thickness Versus Girder Depth for Noncomposite
Symmetrical Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Figure 10.39.4.3A Longitudinal StiffenersBox Girder Compression
Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Figure 10.39.4.3B Spacing and Size of Transverse Stiffeners (for Flange
Stiffened Longitudinally and Transversely) . . . . . . . . . . . .310
Figure 10.40.2.1A Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
Figure 10.40.2.1B Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
Figure 10.50A Plastic Stress Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
Figure 1 Article C10.50.1.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-130

SECTION 12SOIL-CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURE


INTERACTION SYSTEMS

Figure 12.7.1A Standard Terminology of Structural Plate Shapes


Including Long-Span Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
Figure 12.7.4A Typical Structural Backfill Envelope and Zone
of Structure Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
Figure 12.7.4B Assumed Pressure Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
Figure 12.7.5A Standard Structure End Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353
Figure 12.8.2A Standard Terminology of Structural Plate Box Culvert
Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355

SECTION 13WOOD STRUCTURES

Figure 13.7.1A Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381

SECTION 14BEARINGS

Figure 14.4 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388


Figure 14.5.2-1 Typical Bearing Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389
Figure 14.6.3.2-1 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
Figure C14.6.4.3-1 Pot BearingCritical Dimensions for Clearances . . . . . . .C-17

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Figures CONTENTS lxxvii

Figure 14.6.5.2-1 Map of Low Temperature Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396


Figure 14.6.5.3.3-1 Load Deflection Behavior of Elastomeric Bearings . . . . . . . .396
Figure C14.6.5.3.3-1 Load Deflection Behavior of Elastomeric Bearings . . . . . . .C-21
Figure C14.6.5.3.6-1 Elastomeric BearingInteraction Between Compressive
Stress and Rotation Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-22

SECTION 15STEEL TUNNEL LINER PLATES

Figure 15.2.3A Diagram for Coefficient Cd for Tunnels in Soil


( = Friction Angle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404

SECTION 16SOIL-REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE


INTERACTION SYSTEMS

Figure 16.4A Heger Pressure Distribution and Arching Factors . . . . . . . .413


Figure 16.4B Standard Embankment Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
Figure 16.4C Standard Trench Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
Figure 16.4D Trench Beddings, Miscellaneous Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416
Figure 16.4E Embankment Beddings, Miscellaneous Shapes . . . . . . . . . . .417
Figure 16.4F Suggested Design Pressure Distribution Around a Buried
Concrete Pipe for Analysis by Direct Design . . . . . . . . . . .420
Figure 16.4G Essential Features of Types of Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420
Figure 16.4H General Relationship of Vertical Earth Load
and Lateral Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
Figure 16.6A Concrete Box Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424

DIVISION I-A
SEISMIC DESIGN

SECTION 1INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.6A Design Procedure Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442


Figure 1.6B Sub Flow Chart for Seismic Performance Categories B,
C, and D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443

SECTION 3GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Figure C3.2 Schematic Representation Showing How Effective


Peak Acceleration and Effective Peak Velocity
Are Obtained from a Response Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . .C-42
Figure 3.2A Acceleration CoefficientContinental United States . . . . . .447
Figure 3.2B Acceleration CoefficientAlaska, Hawaii
and Puerto Rico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
Figure C3.5A Average Acceleration Spectra for Different Site Conditions
(after Seed, et al., 1976) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-44
Figure C3.5B Normalized Response Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-45
Figure C3.5C Ground Motion Spectra for A = 0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-46
Figure C3.5D Ground Motion Spectra for A = 0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-46
Figure C3.5E Comparison of Free Field Ground Motion Spectra and
Lateral Design Force Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-47
Figure 3.10 Dimensions for Minimum Support Length
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxxviii CONTENTS Figures

SECTION 4ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS

Figure 4.4A Bridge Deck Subjected to Assumed Transverse


and Longitudinal Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
Figure C4.4A Plan View of a Bridge Subjected to a Transverse
Earthquake Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-54
Figure 4.4B Bridge Deck Subjected to Equivalent Transverse
and Longitudinal Seismic Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
Figure C4.4B Displacement Function Describing the Transverse
Position of the Bridge Deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-54
Figure C4.4C Deflected Shape Due to Uniform Static Loading . . . . . . . . .C-55
Figure C4.4D Transverse Free Vibration of the Bridge in
Assumed Mode Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-55
Figure C4.4E Characteristic Static Loading Applied to the
Bridge System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-56
Figure C4.5.2 Iterative Procedure for Including Abutment Soil
Effects in the Seismic Analysis of Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . .C-57

SECTION 7DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BRIDGES IN SEISMIC


PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES C AND D

Figure C7.2.2A Development of Approximate Overstrength


Interaction Curves from Nominal Strength
Curves (after Gajer and Wagh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-65
Figure C7.6.2A Confining Pressure Provided by a Spirally
Reinforced Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-69
Figure C7.6.2B Confining Pressure Provided by a Rectangular
Reinforced Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-70
Figure C7.6.2C Tie Details in a Rectangular Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-71
Figure C7.6.2D Tie Details in a Square Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-71

DIVISION II
CONSTRUCTION

SECTION 16TIMBER STRUCTURES

Figure 16.3 Nail Placement Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613

SECTION 26METAL CULVERTS

Figure 26.5 Typical Cross-Section Showing Materials


Around the Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .663
Figure 26.5.2 A-D: Foundation Improvement Methods When Required . .664
Figure 26.5.3 V Shaped Bed (Foundation) for Larger Pipe Arch,
Horizontal Ellipse and Underpass Structures . . . . . . . . . .665
Figure 26.5.4 End Treatment of Skewed Flexible Culvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . .666

SECTION 27CONCRETE CULVERTS

Figure 27.5A Standard Embankment Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .671


Figure 27.5B Standard Trench Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .672
Figure 27.5C Trench Beddings, Miscellaneous Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .673

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Tables CONTENTS lxxix

Figure 27.5D Embankment Beddings, Miscellaneous Shapes . . . . . . . . . . .674


Figure 27.5E Box Sections, Embankment/Trench Bedding . . . . . . . . . . . . .678

SECTION 30THERMOPLASTIC PIPE

Figure 30.5.1 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688

LIST OF TABLES
DIVISION I
DESIGN

SECTION 3LOADS

Table 3.22.1A Table of Coefficients  and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31


Table 3.23.1 Distribution of Wheel Loads in Longitudinal Beams . . . . . . .33
Table 3.23.3.1 Distribution of Wheel Loads in Transverse Beams . . . . . . . . .34

SECTION 4FOUNDATIONS

Table 4.2.3A Problem Conditions Requiring Special Consideration . . . . . 44


Table 4.4.7.1A Bearing Capacity Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Table 4.4.7.2.2A Elastic Constants of Various Soils, Modified after U.S.
Department of Navy (1982) and Bowles (1982) . . . . . . . . . .59
Table 4.4.7.2.2B Elastic Shape and Rigidity Factor, EPRI (1983) . . . . . . . . . . .59
Table 4.4.8.1.2A Values of Coefficient Nms for Estimation of the Ultimate
Bearing Capacity of Footings on Broken or Jointed Rock
(Modified after Hoek (1983)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Table 4.4.8.1.2B Typical Range of Uniaxial Compressive Strength (Co) as a
Function of Rock Category and Rock Type . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Table 4.4.8.2.2A Summary of Poissons Ration for Intact Rock, Modified
after Kulhawy (1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Table 4.4.8.2.2B Summary of Elastic Moduli for Intact Rock, Modified after
Kulhawy (1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Table 4.5.6.2A Recommended Factor of Safety on Ultimate Geotechnical
Capacity Based on Specified Construction Control . . . . . .72
Table 4.5.7.3A Allowable Working Stress for Round Timber Piles . . . . . . . . .73
Table 4.6.5.1.1A Recommended Values of  and fsi for Estimation of
Drilled Shaft Side Resistance in Cohesive Soil,
Reese and ONeill (1988) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Table 4.6.5.1.4A Recommended Values of qT* for Estimation of Drilled Shaft
Tip Resistance in Cohesionless Soil, after Reese and ONeill
(1988) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Table 4.10.6-1 Performance Factors for Strength Limit States for Shallow
Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Table 4.10.6-2 Performance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit States
in Axially Loaded Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Table 4.10.6-3 Performance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit
States in Axially Loaded Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Table 4.11.4.1.4-1 Presumptive Allowable Bearing Pressures for Spread
Footing Foundations, Modified after U.S. Department
of the Navy, 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Table 4.11.4.2.4-1 Presumptive Bearing Pressures (tsf) for Foundations on
Rock (after Putnam, 1981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxxx CONTENTS Tables

SECTION 5RETAINING WALLS

Table 5.5.2A Relationship Between Soil Backfill Type and Wall


Rotation to Mobilize Active and Passive Earth Pressures
Behind Rigid Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Table 5.5.2B Ultimate Friction Factors and Friction Angles
for Dissimilar Materials, after U.S. Department
of the Navy (1982) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Table 5.6.2A General Notes and Legend Simplified Earth Pressure
Distributions for Permanent and Temporary Flexible
Cantilevered Walls with Discrete Vertical Wall Elements . .131
Table 5.7.6.2A Presumptive Ultimate Values of Load Transfer
for Preliminary Design of Anchors in Soil, Modified
after Cheney (1982) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Table 5.7.6.2B Presumptive Ultimate Values of Load Transfer
for Preliminary Design of Anchors in Rock, Modified
after Cheney (1982) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Table 5.8.5.2A Default Values for the Scale Effect Correction Factor,
(infinity sign*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Table 5.8.6.1.2A Minimum Requirements for Geosynthetic Products
to Allow Use of Defaulted Reduction Factor
for Long-Term Degradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Table 5.8.6.1.2B Default of Minimum Values for the Total Geosynthetic
Ultimate Limit State Strength Reduction Factor, RF . . . .157
Table 5.8.7.2A Default and Minimum Values for the Total Geosynthetic
Ultimate Limit State Strength Reduction Factor
at the Facing Connection, RFc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158

SECTION 8REINFORCED CONCRETE

Table 8.9.2 Recommended Minimum Depths for Constant Depth


Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
Table 8.14.3 Effective Length Factors, k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Table 8.23.2.1 Minimum Diameters of Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Table 8.32.3.2 Tension Lap Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223

SECTION 9PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Table 9.16.2.2 Estimate of Prestress Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236

SECTION 10STRUCTURAL STEEL

Table 10.2A Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258


Table 10.2B Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
Table 10.3.1A Allowable Fatigue Stress Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
Table 10.3.1B Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Table 10.3.2A Stress Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Table 10.3.3A Temperature Zone Designations for Charpy V-Notch
Impact Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Table 10.24.2 Nominal Hole Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282
Table 10.32.1A Allowable StressesStructural Steel (In pounds per
square inch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288
Table 10.32.3A Allowable Stresses for Low-Carbon Steel Bolts and Power
Driven Rivets (in psi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Tables CONTENTS lxxxi

Table 10.32.3B Allowable Stresses on High-Strength Bolts or Connected


Material (ksi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
Table 10.32.3C Nominal Slip Resistance for Slip-Critical Connections
(Slip Resistance per Unit of Bolt Area, Fs, ksi) . . . . . . . . . .291
Table 10.32.4.3A Allowable StressesSteel Bars and Steel Forgings . . . . . . . .293
Table 10.32.5.1A Allowable StressesCast Steel and Ductile Iron . . . . . . . . .294
Table 10.36A Bending-Compression Interaction Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . .302
Table 10.48.1.2A Limitations for Compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Table 10.48.2.1A Limitations for Braced Noncompact Sections . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Table 10.56A Design Strength of Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332
Table 10.57A Design Slip Resistance for Slip-Critical Connections (Slip
Resistance per Unit of Bolt Area, Fs = Tb, ksi) . . . . . . .334

SECTION 12SOIL-CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURE


INTERACTION SYSTEMS

Table 12.7.2A Minimum Requirements for Long-Span Structures


with Acceptable Special Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
Table 12.8.2A Geometric Requirements for Box Culverts . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
Table 12.8.4A C2, Adjustment Coefficient Values for Number
of Wheels Per Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356
Table 12.8.4B P, Crown Moment Proportioning Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356
Table 12.8.4C Rh, Haunch Moment Reduction Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356

SECTION 13WOOD STRUCTURES

Table 13.2.1A Net Dry Dimensions for Dressed Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358


Table 13.2.2A Standard Net Finished Widths of Glue Laminated Timber
Manufactured from Western Species or Southern Pine . . .359
Table 13.5.1A Tabulated Design Values for Visually Graded
Lumber and Timbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361
Table 13.5.1B Tabulated Design Values for Mechanically Graded
Dimension Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368
Table 13.5.2A Tabulated Design Values for Bearing Parallel to Grain . . . .369
Table 13.5.3A Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood
Timber with Members Stressed Primarily in Bending . . .370
Table 13.5.3B Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood
Timber with Members Stressed Primarily in Axial Tension
or Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373
Table 13.5.4A Representative Tabulated Design Values for Laminated
Veneer Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Table 13.5.4B Representative Tabulated Design Values for Parallel Strand
Lumber, Design Values in Pounds Per Square Inch (psi) . . .376
Table 13.5.5A Load Duration Factor, CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
Table 13.6.1A Values of the Bearing Area Factor, Cb, for Small
Bearing Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
Table 13.7.1A Support Condition Coefficients for Tapered Columns . . . . .382

SECTION 14BEARINGS

Table 14.5.2-1 Bearing Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389


Table 14.6.2.4-1 Limits on Contact Stress for PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
Table 14.6.2.5-1 Design Coefficients of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxxxii CONTENTS Tables

Table 14.6.5.2-1 Elastomer Properties at Different Hardnesses . . . . . . . . . . .395


Table 14.6.5.2-2 Low Temperature Zones and Elastomer Grades . . . . . . . . . .396

SECTION 15 STEEL TUNNEL LINER PLATES

Table 15.3.2.2 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405


Table 15.5A Section Properties for Four-Flange Liner Plate . . . . . . . . . . .406
Table 15.5B Section Properties for Two-Flange Liner Plate . . . . . . . . . . .406

SECTION 16SOIL-REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE


INTERACTION SYSTEMS

Table 16.4A Standard Embankment Installation Soils and Minimum


Compaction Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
Table 16.4B Standard Trench Installation Soils and Minimum
Compaction Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
Table 16.4C Equivalent USCS and AASHTO Soil Classifications
for SIDD Soil Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412
Table 16.4D Design Values of Parameters in Bedding
Factor Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
Table 16.4E Bedding Factors for Circular Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
Table 16.4F Bedding Factors, BLL, for HS 20 Live Loadings . . . . . . . . . . .419

DIVISION I-A
SEISMIC DESIGN

SECTION 3GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Table 3.4 Seismic Performance Category (SPC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449


Table 3.5.1 Site Coefficient (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
Table 3.7 Response Modification Factor (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451

SECTION 4ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS

Table 4.2A Minimum Analysis Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453


Table 4.2B Regular Bridge Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453

SECTION 7DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BRIDGES IN SEISMIC


PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES C AND D

Table C7.2.2A Recommended Increased Values of Materials Properties . . .C-66

DIVISION II
CONSTRUCTION

SECTION 8CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Table 8.2 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526


Table 8.3 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Tables CONTENTS lxxxiii

SECTION 11STEEL STRUCTURES

Table 11.4.3.3.2 Minimum Cold-Bending Radii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571


Table 11.5A Required Fastener Tension Minimum Bolt Tension
in Pounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578
Table 11.5B Nut Rotation from the Snug-Tight Condition Geometry
of Outer Faces of Bolted Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .579
Table 11.5C Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582

SECTION 13PAINTING

Table 13.2.1 Untitled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .592

SECTION 15CONCRETE BLOCK AND BRICK MASONRY

Table 15.1 Grouting Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .605

SECTION 16TIMBER STRUCTURES

Table 16.1 Typical Dimensions of Timber Connectors


(dimensions in inches) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608

SECTION 18BEARINGS

Table 18.4.3.1-1 Physical Properties of PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619


Table 18.4.5.1-1A Material Testspolychloroprene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621
Table 18.4.5.1-1B Material Testspolyisoprene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .622
Table 18.4.7.1-1 Physical Properties of Polyether Urethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
Table 18.5.1.5-1 Fabrication Tolerances and Surface Finish Requirements . .624

SECTION 26METAL CULVERTS

Table 26.4 Categories of Pipe Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661


Table 26.6 Minimum Cover for Construction Loads (Round,
Pipe-Arch, Ellipse and Underpass Shapes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .667

SECTION 27CONCRETE CULVERTS

Table 27.5A Standard Embankment Installation Soils and Minimum


Compaction Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .675
Table 27.5B Standard Trench Installation Soils and Minimum
Compaction Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
Table 27.5C Equivalent USCS and AASHTO Soil Classifications
or SIDD Soil Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .677

APPENDICES:
ALive Load Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .691
BTruck Train Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .695
CColumns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .696

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
lxxxiv CONTENTS Commentary

DPlastic Section Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .700


EMetric Equivalents and Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .701

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .797

COMMENTARYInterim SpecificationsBridges1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-1

COMMENTARYInterim SpecificationsBridges1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-11

COMMENTARYInterim SpecificationsBridges1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-39

COMMENTARYInterim SpecificationsBridges1999/2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-91

As referenced in Section 4.12.3.3.7b and 4.13.2, the following figures have been reprinted
from the 1993 Commentary of the 1993 Interims to the Standard Specifications for Highway
Bridges:

Figure C4.12.3.7.2-1 Uplift of Group of Closely-Spaced Piles in Cohesionless


Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104.1
Figure C4.12.3.7.2-2 Uplift of Group of Piles in Cohesive Soils after Tomlinson
(1987) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104.1
Figure C4.13.3.3.4-1 Elastic Settlement Influence Factor as a Function of Embed-
ment Ratio and Modulus Ratio after Donald, Sloan and
Chiu, 1980, as presented by Reese and ONeill (1988) . . . .104.1
Figure C4.13.3.3.4-4 Bearing Capacity Coefficient, Ksp after Canadian
Geotechnical Society (1985) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104.1

2009 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.


All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Section 1
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GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1 DESIGN ANALYSIS AND GENERAL 1.3 WATERWAYS


STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY FOR BRIDGES
1.3.1 General
The intent of these Specifications is to produce in-
tegrity of design in bridges. 1.3.1.1 Selecting favorable stream crossings should
be considered in the preliminary route determination to
minimize construction, maintenance, and replacement
costs. Natural stream meanders should be studied and, if
1.1.1 Design Analysis
necessary, channel changes, river training works, and
other construction that would reduce erosion problems
When these Specifications provide for empirical for-
and prevent possible loss of the structure should be con-
mulae, alternate rational analyses, based on theories or
sidered. The foundations of bridges constructed across
tests and accepted by the authority having jurisdiction,
channels that have been realigned should be designed for
will be considered as compliance with these Specifica-
possible deepening and widening of the relocated channel
tions.
due to natural causes. On wide flood plains, the lowering
of approach embankments to provide overflow sections
that would pass unusual floods over the highway is a
1.1.2 Structural Integrity means of preventing loss of structures. Where relief
bridges are needed to maintain the natural flow distribu-
Designs and details for new bridges should address tion and reduce backwater, caution must be exercised in
structural integrity by considering the following: proportioning the size and in locating such structures to
avoid undue scour or changes in the course of the main
(a) The use of continuity and redundancy to provide river channel.
one or more alternate load paths.
(b) Structural members and bearing seat widths that 1.3.1.2 Usually, bridge waterways are sized to pass
are resistant to damage or instability. a design flood of a magnitude and frequency consistent
(c) External protection systems to minimize the ef- with the type or class of highway. In the selection of the
fects of reasonably conceived severe loads. waterway opening, consideration should be given to the
amount of upstream ponding, the passage of ice and de-
bris and possible scour of the bridge foundations. Where
floods exceeding the design flood have occurred, or where
1.2 BRIDGE LOCATIONS superfloods would cause extensive damage to adjoining
property or the loss of a costly structure, a larger water-
The general location of a bridge is governed by the way opening may be warranted. Due consideration should
route of the highway it carries, which, in the case of a new be given to any federal, state, and local requirements,
highway, could be one of several routes under considera-
tion. The bridge location should be selected to suit the par- 1.3.1.3 Relief openings, spur-dikes, debris deflectors
ticular obstacle being crossed. Stream crossings should be and channel training works should be used where needed
located with regard to initial capital cost of bridgeworks to minimize the effect of adverse flood flow conditions.
and the minimization of total cost including river channel Where scour is likely to occur, protection against damage
training works and the maintenance measures necessary from scour should be provided in the design of bridge
to reduce erosion. Highway and railroad crossings should piers and abutments. Embankment slopes adjacent to
provide for possible future works such as road widening. structures subject to erosion should be adequately pro-
3

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4 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 1.3.1.3

tected by rip-rap, flexible mattresses, retards, spur dikes 1.4 CULVERT LOCATION, LENGTH, AND
or other appropriate construction. Clearing of brush and WATERWAY OPENINGS
trees along embankments in the vicinity of bridge open-
ings should be avoided to prevent high flow velocities and Culvert location, length, and waterway openings
possible scour. Borrow pits should not be located in areas should be in accordance with the AASHTO Guide on the
which would increase velocities and the possibility of Hydraulic Design of Culverts in Highway Drainage
scour at bridges. Guidelines.

1.5 ROADWAY DRAINAGE


1.3.2 Hydraulic Studies
The transverse drainage of the roadway should be pro-
Hydraulic studies of bridge sites are a necessary part of vided by a suitable crown in the roadway surface and lon-
the preliminary design of a bridge and reports of such gitudinal drainage by camber or gradient. Water flowing
studies should include applicable parts of the following downgrade in a gutter section should be intercepted and
outline: not permitted to run onto the bridge. Short, continuous
span bridges, particularly overpasses, may be built with-
out inlets and the water from the bridge roadway carried
1.3.2.1 Site Data downslope by open or closed chutes near the end of the
bridge structure. Longitudinal drainage on long bridges
(a) Maps, stream cross sections, aerial photographs. should be provided by scuppers or inlets which should be
(b) Complete data on existing bridges, including dates of sufficient size and number to drain the gutters ade-
of construction and performance during past floods. quately. Downspouts, where required, should be made of
(c) Available high water marks with dates of occur- rigid corrosion-resistant material not less than 4 inches in
rence. least dimension and should be provided with cleanouts.
(d) Information on ice, debris, and channel stability. The details of deck drains should be such as to prevent the
(e) Factors affecting water stages such as high water discharge of drainage water against any portion of the
from other streams, reservoirs, flood control projects, structure or on moving traffic below, and to prevent ero-
and tides. sion at the outlet of the downspout. Deck drains may be
(f) Geomorphic changes in channel flow. connected to conduits leading to storm water outfalls at
ground level. Overhanging portions of concrete decks
should be provided with a drip bead or notch.
1.3.2.2 Hydrologic Analysis
1.6 RAILROAD OVERPASSES
(a) Flood data applicable to estimating floods at site,
including both historical floods and maximum floods 1.6.1 Clearances
of record.
(b) Flood-frequency curve for site. Structures designed to overpass a railroad shall be in
(c) Distribution of flow and velocities at site for flood accordance with standards established and used by the af-
discharges to be considered in design of structure. fected railroad in its normal practice. These overpass
(d) Stage-discharge curve for site. structures shall comply with applicable Federal, State, and
local laws.
Regulations, codes, and standards should, as a mini-
1.3.2.3 Hydraulic Analysis mum, meet the specifications and design standards of the
American Railway Engineering Association, the Associa-
(a) Backwater and mean velocities at bridge opening tion of American Railroads, and AASHTO.
for various trial bridge lengths and selected discharges.
(b) Estimated scour depth at piers and abutments of 1.6.2 Blast Protection
proposed structures.
(c) Effect of natural geomorphic stream pattern On bridges over railroads with steam locomotives,
changes on the proposed structure. metal likely to be damaged by locomotive gases, and all
(d) Consideration of geomorphic changes on nearby concrete surfaces less than 20 feet above the tracks, shall
structures in the vicinity of the proposed structure. be protected by blast plates. The plates shall be placed to

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1.6.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 5

take account of the direction of blast when the locomotive the standard practice of the commission for the highway
is on level or superelevated tracks by centering them on a construction, except that the superelevation shall not ex-
line normal to the plane of the two rails at the centerline ceed O. 10 foot per foot width of roadway.
of the tracks. The plates shall be not less than 4 feet wide
and shall be cast-iron, a corrosion and blast-resistingalloy,
or asbestos-board shields, so supported that they may be
readily replaced.The thickness of plates and other parts in 1.8 FLOOR SURFACES
direct contact with locomotive blast shall be not less than
3/4 inch for cast iron, VEinch for alloy, 9'2 inch for plain as- All bridge floors shall have skid-resistant charactens-
bestos-board, and 7/16 inch for corrugated asbestos-board. tics.
Bolts shall be not less than VEinch in diameter. Pockets
which may hold locomotive gases shall be avoided as far
as practical. All fastenings shall be galvanized or made of
corrosion-resistantmaterial.
1.9 UTILITIES
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1.7 SUPERELEVATION Where required, provisions shall be made for trolley


wire supports and poles, lighting pillars, electric conduits,
The superelevation of the floor surface of a bridge on telephone conduits, water pipes, gas pipes, sanitary sew-
a horizontal curve shall be provided in accordance with ers, and other utility appurtenances.

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(Blank page)
Section 2
GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

2.1 GENERAL 2.2 STANDARD HIGHWAY CLEARANCES-


GENERAL
2.1.1 Notations
2.2.1 Navigational
Af = area of flanges (Article 2.7.4.3)
b = flange width (Article 2.7.4.3) Permits for the construction of crossings over naviga-
C = modification factor for concentrated load, P, used in ble streams must be obtained from the U.S. Coast Guard
the design of rail members (Article 2.7.1.3.1) and other appropriate agencies. Requests for such permits
D = clear unsupported distance between flange compo- from the U.S. Coast Guard should be addressed to the ap-
nents (Article 2.7.4.3) propriate District Commander. Permit exemptions are al-
d = depth of W or I section (Article 2.7.4.3) lowed on nontidal waterways which are not used as a
Fa = allowable axial stress (Article 2.7.4.3) means to transport interstate or foreign commerce, and are
Fb = allowable bending stress (Article 2.7.4.2) not susceptible to such use in their natural condition or by
F, = allowable shear stress (Article 2.7.4.2) reasonable improvement.
F, = minimum yield stress (Article 2.7.4.2)
fa = axial compression stress (Article 2.7.4.3) 2.2.2 Roadway Width
h = height of top rail above reference surface (Figure
2.7.4B) For recommendations on roadway widths for various
L = post spacing (Figure 2.7.4B) volumes of traffic, see AASHTO A Policy on Geometric
P = railing design loading = 10 kips (Article 2.7.1.3 Design of Highways and Streets, or A Policy on Design
and Figure 2.7.4B) Standards-Interstate System.
P = railing design loading equal to P, P/2 or P/3 (Article
2.7.1.3.5) 2.2.3 Vertical Clearance
t = flange or web thickness (Article 2.7.4.3)
w = pedestrian or bicycle loading (Articles 2.7.2.2 and Vertical clearance on state trunk highways and inter-
2.7.3.2) state systems in rural areas shall be at least 16 feet over
the entire roadway width with an allowance for resurfac-
ing. On state trunk highways and interstate routes through
2.1.2 Width of Roadway and Sidewalk urban areas, a l6-foot clearance shall be provided except
in highly developed areas. A l6-foot clearance should be
The width of roadway shall be the clear width mea- provided in both rural and urban areas where such clear-
sured at right angles to the longitudinal center line of the ance is not unreasonably costly and where needed for de-
bridge between the bottoms of curbs. If brush curbs or fense requirements. Vertical clearance on all other high-
curbs are not used, the clear width shall be the minimum ways shall be at least 14 feet over the entire roadway
width measured between the nearest faces of the bridge width with an allowance for resurfacing.
railing.
The width of the sidewalk shall be the clear width, 2.2.4 Other
measured at right angles to the longitudinal center line of
the bridge, from the extreme inside portion of the handrail The channel openings and clearances shall be accept-
to the bottom of the curb or guardtimber. If there is a truss, able to agencies having jurisdiction over such matters.
girder, or parapet wall adjacent to the roadway curb, the Channel openings and clearances shall conform in
width shall be measured to the extreme walk side of these width, height, and location to all federal, state, and local
members. requirements.
7

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8 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 2.2.5

2.2.5 Curbs and Sidewalks HORIZONTAL CLEARANCE

The face of the curb is defined as the vertical or slop-


ing surface on the roadway side of the curb. Horizontal
measurements of roadway curbs are from the bottom of
the face, or, in the case of stepped back curbs, from the
bottom of the lower face. Maximum width of brush curbs,
if used, shall be 9 inches.
Where curb and gutter sections are used on the road-
way approach, at either or both ends of the bridge, the
curb height on the bridge may equal or exceed the curb
height on the roadway approach. Where no curbs are used
:L-
o

on the roadway approaches, the height of the bridge curb


above the roadway shall be not less than 8 inches, and
1 ROADWAY WIDTH
preferably not more than 10 inches. O1
Where sidewalks are used for pedestrian traffic on
urban expressways, they shall be separated from the
FIGURE 2.3.1 Clearance Diagram for Bridges
bridge roadway by the use of a combination railing as
shown in Figure 2.7.4B.
In those cases where a New Jersey type parapet or a limits of structure costs, type of structure, volume and de-
sign speed of through traffic, span arrangement, skew, and
curb is constructed on a bridge, particularly in urban areas
terrain make the 30-foot offset impractical, the pier or
that have curbs and gutters leading to a bridge, the same
wall may be placed closer than 30 feet and protected by
widths between curbs on the approach roadways will be
the use of guardrail or other barrier devices. The guardrail
maintained across the bridge structure. A parapet or other
or other device shall be independently supported with the
railing installed at or near the curb line shall have its ends
properly flared, sloped, or shielded. roadway face at least 2 feet O inches from the face of pier
or abutment.
The face of the guardrail or other device shall be at
2.3 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR BRIDGES
least 2 feet O inches outside the normal shoulder line.
2.3.1 Width
2.4.2 Vertical Clearance
The horizontal clearance shall be the clear width and
the vertical clearance the clear height for the passage of A vertical clearance of not less than 14 feet shall be
vehicular traffic as shown in Figure 2.3.1. provided between curbs, or if curbs are not used, over the
The roadway width shall generally equal the width of entire width that is available for traffic.
the approach roadway section including shoulders. Where
curbed roadway sections approach a structure, the same 2.4.3 Curbs
section shall be carried across the structure.
Curbs, if used, shall match those of the approach road-
2.3.2 Vertical Clearance way section.

The provisions of Article 2.2.3 shall be used. 2.5 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR TUNNELS

2.4 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES See Figure 2.5.


FOR UNDERPASSES
2.5.1 Roadway Width
See Figure 2.4A.
The horizontal clearance shall be the clear width and
2.4.1 Width the vertical clearance the clear height for the passage of
vehicular traffic as shown in Figure 2.5.
The pier columns or walls for grade separation struc- Unless otherwise provided, the several parts of the
tures shall generallybe located a minimum of 30 feet from structures shall be constructed to secure the following
the edges of the through-traffic lanes. Where the practical limiting dimensions or clearances for traffic.

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2.5.1 DIVISION I-DESIGN 9

>7

30'-O MIN. PAVEMENT

GENERAL CONDITION

FACE OF WALL FACE OF WALL


OR PIER
Y

FACE OF
GUARD RAIL
Y $
2 - 0 MIN.

PAVEMENT
SHOULDER SHOULDER
LIMITED CONDITION

*The barrier to facc of wall or pier distance should not be less than the dynamic defection of the barrier for impact by a full-sized automobile at
impact conditions of approximately 25 degrees and 60 miles per hour. For information on dynamic deflection of various harriers, see AASHTO Road-
side Design Guide.

FIGURE 2.4A Clearance Diagrams for Underpasses (See Article 2.4 for General Requirements.)

NOT LESS THAN 30 FT.


HORIZONTAL CLEARANCE

I t
ROADWAY WIDTH
AT LEAST 2 FT. GREATER THAN
APPROACH TRAVELLED WAY
BUT NOT LESS THAN 24FT. o
FIGURE 2.5 Clearance Diagram for 'Iiinnels-Two-Lane Highway Traffic

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10 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 2.5.1
~

The clearances and width of roadway for two-lane traf- railing or barrier with a pedestrian railing along the edge
fic shall be not less than those shown in Figure 2.5. The of the structure. On urban expressways, the separation
roadway width shall be increased at least 10 feet and shall be made by a combination railing.
preferably 12 feet for each additional traffic lane.
2.7.1 Vehicular Railing
2.5.2 Clearance between Walls
2.7.1.1 General
The minimum width between walls of two-lane tunnels
shall be 30 feet. 2.7.1.1.1 Although the primary purpose of traffic
railing is to contain the average vehicle using the struc-
2.5.3 Vertical Clearance ture, consideration should also be given to (a) protection
of the occupants of a vehicle in collision with the railing,
The vertical clearance between curbs shall be not less (b) protection of other vehicles near the collision, (c) pro-
than 14 feet. tection of vehicles or pedestrians on roadways underneath

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the structure, and (d) appearance and freedom of view
2.5.4 Curbs from passing vehicles.

The width of curbs shall be not less than 18 inches. The 2.7.1.1.2 Materials for traffic railings shall be con-
height of curbs shall be as specified for bridges. crete, metal, timber, or a combination thereof. Metal ma-
For heavy traffic roads, roadway widths greater than terials with less than 10-percent tested elongation shall
the above minima are recommended. not be used.
If traffic lane widths exceed 12 feet the roadway width
may be reduced 2 feet O inches from that calculated from 2.7.1.1.3 Traffic railings should provide a smooth,
Figure 2.5. continuous face of rail on the traffic side with the posts set
back from the face of rail. Structural continuity in the rail
members, including anchorage of ends, is essential. The
2.6 HIGHWAY CLEARANCES FOR
railing system shall be able to resist the applied loads at
DEPRESSED ROADWAYS
all locations.
2.6.1 Roadway Width
2.7.1.1.4 Protrusions or depressions at rail joints
shall be acceptable provided their thickness or depth is no
The clear width between curbs shall be not less than
greater than the wall thickness of the rail member or VE
that specified for tunnels.
inch, whichever is less.
2.6.2 Clearance between Walls
2.7.1. I .5 Careful attention shall be given to the treat-
ment of railings at the bridge ends. Exposed rail ends,
The minimum width between walls for depressed road-
posts, and sharp changes in the geometry of the railing
ways carrying two lanes of traffic shall be 30 feet.
shall be avoided. A smooth transition by means of a con-
tinuation of the bridge barrier, guardrail anchored to the
2.6.3 Curbs
bridge end, or other effective means shall be provided to
protect the traffic from direct collision with the bridge rail
The width of curbs shall be not less than 18 inches. The
ends.
height of curbs shall be as specified for bridges.
2.7.1.2 Geometry
2.7 RAILINGS
2.7.1.2.1 The heights of rails shall be measured rela-
Railings shall be provided along the edges of struc- tive to the reference surface which shall be the top of the
tures for protection of traffic and pedestrians. Other suit- roadway, the top of the future overlay if resurfacing is an-
able applications may be warranted on bridge-length cul- ticipated, or the top of curb when the curb projection is
verts as addressed in the AASHTO Roadside Design greater than 9 inches from the traffic face of the railing.
Guide.
Except on urban expressways, a pedestrian walkway 2.7.1.2.2 Traffic railings and traffic portions of
may be separated from an adjacent roadway by a traffic combination railings shall not be less than 2 feet 3 inches

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2.7.1.2.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 11

from the top of the reference surface. Parapets designed load of the rail. The vertical load shall be applied alter-
with sloping traffic faces intended to allow vehicles to nately upward or downward. The attachment shall also be
ride up them under low angle contacts shall be at least 2 designed to resist an inward transverse load equal to one-
feet 8 inches in height. fourth the transverse rail design load.

2.7.1.2.3 The lower element of a traffic or combina- 2.7.1.3.5 Rail members shall be designed for a mo-
tion railing should consist of either a parapet projecting ment, due to concentrated loads, at the center of the panel
at least 18 inches above the reference surface or a rail and at the posts of PL/6 where L is the post spacing and
centered between 15 and 20 inches above the reference P is equal to P, P/2, or P/3, as modified by the factor C
surface. where required. The handrail members of combination
railings shall be designed for a moment at the,center of the
2.7.1.2.4 For traffic railings, the maximum clear panel and at the posts of O. 1wL2.
opening below the bottom rail shall not exceed 17 inches
and the maximum opening between succeeding rails shall 2.7.1.3.6 The transverse force on concrete parapet
not exceed 15 inches. For combination railings, accom- and barrier walls shall be spread over a longitudinal length
modating pedestrian or bicycle traffic, the maximum of 5 feet.
opening between railing members shall be governed by
Articles 2.7.2.2.2 and 2.7.3.2.1, respectively. 2.7.1.3.7 Railings other than those shown in Figure
2.7.4B are permissible provided they meet the require-
2.7.1.2.5 The traffic faces of all traffic rails must be ments of this Article. Railing configurations that have
within 1 inch of a vertical plane through the traffic face of been successfully tested by full-scale impact tests are ex-
the rail closest to traffic. empt from the provisions of this Article.

2.7.1.3 Loads 2.7.2 Bicycle Railing

2.7.1.3.1 When the height of the top of the top traffic 2.7.2.1 General
rail exceeds 2 feet 9 inches, the total transverse load dis-
tributed to the traffic rails and posts shall be increased by 2.7.2.1.1 Bicycle railing shall be used on bridges
the factor C. However, the maximum load applied to any specifically designed to carry bicycle traffic, and on
one element need not exceed P, the transverse design load. bridges where specific protection of bicyclists is deemed
necessary.
2.7.1.3.2 Rails whose traffic face is more than 1 inch
behind a vertical plane through the face of the traffic rail 2.7.2.1.2 Railing components shall be designed
closest to traffic or centered less than 15 inches above the with consideration to safety, appearance, and when the
reference surface shall not be considered to be traffic rails bridge carries mixed traffic freedom of view from passing
for the purpose of distributing P or CP, but may be con- vehicles.
sidered in determining the maximum clear vertical open-
ing, provided they are designed for a transverse loading 2.7.2.2 Geometry and Loads
equal to that applied to an adjacent traffic rail or P/2,
whichever is less. 2.7.2.2.1 The minimum height of a railing used to
protect a bicyclist shall be 54 inches, measured from the
2.7.1.3.3 Transverse loads on posts, equal to P, or CP, top of the surface on which the bicycle rides to the top of
shall be distributed as shown in Figure 2.7.4B. A load the top rail.
equal to one-half the transverse load on a post shall si-
multaneously be applied longitudinally, divided among 2.7.2.2.2 Within a band bordered by the bikeway
not more than four posts in a continuous rail length. Each surface and a line 27 inches above it, all elements of the
traffic post shall also be designed to resist an indepen- railing assembly shall be spaced such that a 6-inch sphere
dently applied inward load equal to one-fourth the out- will not pass through any opening. Within a band bor-
ward transverse load. dered by lines 27 and 54 inches, elements shall be spaced
such that an 8-inch sphere will not pass through any
2.7.1.3.4 The attachment of each rail required in a opening. If a railing assembly employs both horizontal
traffic or combination railing shall be designed to resist a and vertical elements, the spacing requirements shall
vertical load equal to one-fourth of the transverse design apply to one or the other, but not to both. Chain link fence

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12 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 2.7.2.2.2

is exempt from the rail spacing requirements listed ter of gravity of the upper rail, but at a height not greater
above. In general, rails should project beyond the face of than 54 inches.
posts andlor pickets.

2.7.2.2.3 The minimum design loadings for bicycle 2.7.2.2.6 Refer to Figures 2.1.4A and 2.7.4B for
railing shall be w = 50 pounds per linear foot transversely more information concerning the application of loads.
and vertically, acting simultaneously on each rail.
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2.7.2.2.4 Design loads for rails located more than 54 2.7.3 Pedestrian Railing
inches above the riding surface shall be determined by the
designer. 2.7.3.1 General

2.7.2.2.5 Posts shall be designed for a transverse 2.7.3.1.1 Railing components shall be proportioned
load of WL(where L is the post spacing) acting at the cen- commensurate with the type and volume of anticipated

,l
(To be used adjacent to a sidewalk when highway traffic is separatedfrom pedestrian
traffic by a traffic railing.)
PEDESTRIAN RAILING

w- W L

.-E

+
9

BICYCLE RAILING
NOTE:
If screening or solid face is presented, number of rails may be reduced; wind loads must be added if solid face is
utilized.

NOTES:
1 . Loadings on left are applied to rails.
2. Loads on right are applied to posts.
3. The shapes of rail members are illustrative only. Any material or combination of materials listed in Article
2.7 may be used in any configuration.
4. The spacing illustrated are maximum values. Rail elements spacings shall conform to Articles 2.7.2.2.2and
2.7.3.2.1.

NOMENCLATURE
w = Pedestrian or bicycle loading per unit length of rail
L = Post spacing

FIGURE 2.7.4A Pedestrian Railing, Bicycle Railing

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2.7.3.1 1 DIVISION I-DESIGN 13

pedestrian traffic. Consideration should be given to ap- 2.7.3.2.2 The minimum design loading for pedestrian
pearance, safety and freedom of view from passing vehi- railing shall be w = 50 pounds per linear foot, transversely
cles. and vertically, acting simultaneously on each longitudinal
member. Rail members located more than 5 feet O inches
2.7.3.1.2 Materials for pedestrian railing may be above the walkway are excluded from these requirements.
concrete, metal, timber, or a combination thereof.
2.7.3.2.3 Posts shall be designed for a transverse load
2.7.3.2 Geometry and Loads of WL(where Lis the post spacing) acting at the center of
gravity of the upper rail or, for high rails, at 5 feet O inches
2.7.3.2.1 The minimum height of a pedestrian railing maximum above the walkway.
shall be 42 inches measured from the top of the walkway
to the top of the upper rail member. Within a band bor- 2.7.3.2.4 Refer to Figures 2.7.4A and 2.7.4B for
dered by the walkway surface and a line 27 inches above more information concerning the application of loads.
it, all elements of the railing assembly shall be spaced
such that a 6-inch sphere will not pass through any open- 2.7.4 Structural Specifications and Guidelines
ing. For elements between 27 and 42 inches above the
walking surface, elements shall be spaced such that an 2.7.4.1 Railings shall be designed by the elastic meth-
eight-inch sphere will not pass through any opening. od to the allowable stresses for the appropriate material.

p -L

(To be used when curb projects more than 9"from the traffic face of railing.)

COMBINATIONTRAFFIC AND PEDESTRIAN RAILING

-9 max.

(To be used where there is no curb or curb projects 9 or less from traffic face of railing.)

TRAFFIC RAILING

FIGURE 2.7.4B Traffic Railing

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14 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 2.7.4.1

I
lw
-w-' WL
-a-

.-
.-

oP

COMBINATION TRAFFIC AND BICYCLE RAILING

NOTES:
1. Loadings on left are applied to rails.
2. Loadings on right are applied to posts.
3. The shapes of rail members are illustrative only. Any material or combination of materials listed in Article
2.7 may be used in any configuration.
4. The spacings illustrated are maximum values. Rail element spacings shall conform to Article 2.7.1.2.4.

NOMENCLATURE
P = Highway design loading = 10 kips.
h = Height of top of top rail above reference surface (in.).
L = Post spacing (ft).
w = Pedestrian loading per unit length of rail.
C=l+-h - 3 L 1
18

FIGURE 2.7.4B (Continued)

For aluminum alloys the design stresses given in the Square and rectangular steel tubes and steel W and
Specz$cations for Aluminum Structures Fifth Edition, De- I sections in bending with tension and compression
cember 1986, for Bridge and Similar Type Structures pub- on extreme fibers of laterally supported compact sec-
lished by the Aluminum Association, Inc. for alloys 6061- tions having an axis of symmetry in the plane of
T6 (Table A.6), 6351-T5 (Table A.6) and 6063-T6 (Table loading may be designed for an allowable stress Fb =
A.6) shall apply, and for cast aluminum alloys the design O. 60Fy.
stresses given for alloys A444.0-T4 (Table A.9), A356.0-
T61 (Table A.9) and A356.0-T6 (Table A.9) shall apply. 2.7.4.3 The requirements for a compact section are
For fabrication and welding of aluminum railing, see as follows:
Article 11.5. (a) The width to thickness ratio of projecting elements
of the compression flange of W and I sections shall not
2.7.4.2 The allowable unit stresses for steel shall be exceed
as given in Article 10.32, except as modified below.
For steels not generally covered by these Specifica-
tions, but having a guaranteed yield strength, Fy,the al-
lowable unit stress, shall be derived by applying the gen-
eral formulas as given in these Specificationsunder "Unit
Stresses" except as indicated below. (b) The width to thickness ratio of the compression
The allowable unit stress for shear shall be F, = flange of square or rectangular tubes shall not exceed
0.33Fy.
Round or oval steel tubes may be proportioned using
an allowable bending stress, Fb = 0,66F,, provided the R/t
ratio (radius/thickness) is less than or equal to 40.

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2.7.4.3 DIVISION I-DESIGN 15

(c) The D/t ratio of webs shall not exceed (e) the distance between lateral supports in inches of
W or I sections shall not exceed
D <-
13,000
- (2 - 3) 2,400b
t - fi -5

(d) If subject to combined axial force and bending, the


D/t ratio of webs shall not exceed or

20,000,000Af
5 (2 - 7)
D dFY
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

-<
t

but need not be less than

-<>
D 7 O00
(2 - 5 )
t J F Y

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(Blank page)
Section 3
LOADS
ParA
TYPES OF LOADS

3.1 NOTATIONS

A = maximum expected acceleration of bedrock at the site


a = length of short span of slab (Article 3.24.6)
B = buoyancy (Article 3.22)
b = width of pier or diameter of pile (Article 3.18.2.2.4)
b = length of long span of slab (Article 3.24.6)
C = combined response coefficient
C = stiffness parameter = K(W/L) (Article 3.23.4.3)
C = centrifugal force in percent of live load (Article 3.10.1)
CF = centrifugal force (Article 3.22)
C, = coefficient for nose inclination (Article 3.18.2.2.1)
CM = steel bending stress coefficient (Article 3.25.1.5)
CR = steel shear stress coefficient (Article 3.25.1.5)
D = parameter used in determination of load fraction of wheel load (Article 3.23.4.3)
D = degree of curve (Article 3.10.1)
D = dead load (Article 3.22)
D.F. = fraction of wheel load applied to beam (Article 3.28.1)
DL = contributing dead load
E = width of slab over which a wheel load is distributed (Article 3.24.3)
E = earth pressure (Article 3.22)
EQ = equivalent static horizontal force applied at the center of gravity of the structure

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
E, = modulus of elasticity of concrete (Article 3.26.3)
E, = modulus of elasticity of steel (Article 3.26.3)
E,,, = modulus of elasticity of wood (Article 3.26.3)
F = horizontal ice force on pier (Article 3.18.2.2.1)
Fb = allowable bending stress (Article 3.25.1.3)
F, = allowable shear stress (Article 3.25.1.3)
g = 32.2 ft./sec.2
I = impact fraction (Article 3.8.2)
I = gross flexural moment of inertia of the precast member (Article 3.23.4.3)
ICE = ice pressure (Article 3.22)
J = gross Saint-Venant torsional constant of the precast member (Article 3.23.4.3)
K = stream flow force constant (Article 3.18.1)
K = stiffness constant (Article 3.23.4)
K = wheel load distribution constant for timber flooring (Article 3.25.1.3)
k = live load distribution constant for spread box girders (Article 3.28.1)
L = loaded length of span (Article 3.8.2)
L = loaded length of sidewalk (Article 3.14.1.1)
17

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18 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.1

L = live load (Article 3.22)


L = span length (Article 3.23.4)
LF = longitudinal force from live load (Article 3.22)
M D = moment capacity of dowel (Article 3.25.1.4)
M, = primary bending moment (Article 3.25.1.3)
M, = total transferred secondary moment (Article 3.25.1.4)
NB = number of beams (Article 3.28.1)
NL = number of traffic lanes (Article 3.23.4)
n = number of dowels (Article 3.25.1.4)
P = live load on sidewalk (Article 3.14.1.1)
P = stream flow pressure (Article 3.18.1)
P = total uniform force required to cause unit horizontal deflection of whole structure
P = load on one rear wheel of truck (Article 3.24.3)
P = wheel load (Article 3.24.5)
P = design wheel load (Articie 325.i.3)
PIS = 12,000 pounds (Article 3.24.3)
Pm = 16,000 pounds (Article 3.24.3)
p = effective ice strength (Article 3.18.2.2.1)
p = proportion of load carried by short span (Article 3.24.6.1)
R = radius of curve (Article 3.10.1)
R = normalized rock response
R = rib shortening (Article 3.22)
RD = shear capacity of dowel (Article 3.25.1.4)
-
R, = primary shear (Article 3.25.1.3)
R, = total secondary shear transferred (Article 3.25.1.4)
S = design speed (Article 3.10.1)
S = soil amplification spectral ratio
S = shrinkage (Article 3.22)
S = average stringer spacing (Article 3.23.2.3.1)
S = spacing of beams (Article 3.23.3)
S = width of precast member (Article 3.23.4.3)
S = effective span length (Article 3.24.1)
S = span length (Article 3.24.8.2)
S = beam spacing (Article 3.28.1)
s = effective deck span (Article 3.25.1.3)
SF = stream flow (Article 3.22)
T = period of vibration
T = temperature (Article 3.22)
t = thickness of ice (Article 3.18.2.2.4)
t = deck thickness (Article 3.25.1.3)

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V = variable spacing of truck axles (Figure 3.7.7A)
V = velocity of water (Article 3.18.1)
W = combined weight on the first two axles of a standard HS Truck (Figure 3.7.7A)
W = width of sidewalk (Article 3.14.1.1)
W = wind load on structure (Article 3.22)
W = total dead weight of the structure
We = width of exterior girder (Article 3.23.2.3.2)
W = overall width of bridge (Article 3.23.4.3)
W = roadway width between curbs (Article 3.28.1)
WL = wind load on live load (Article 3.22)
w = width of pier or diameter of circular-shaft pier at the level of ice action (Article 3.18.2.2.1)
X = distance from load to point of support (Article 3.24.5.1)
x = subscript denoting direction perpendicular to longitudinal stringers (Article 3.25.1.3)

L
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3.1 DIVISION I-DESIGN 19

z = reduction for ductility and risk assessment


= (with appropriate script) coefficient applied to actual loads for service load and load factor designs (Article 3.22)
y = load factor (Article 3.22)
UPL = proportional limit stress perpendicular to grain (Article 3.25.1.4)
B = load combination coefficient for buoyancy (Article 3.22.1)
c = load combination coefficient for centrifugal force (Article 3.22.1)
D = load combination coefficient for dead load (Article 3.22.1)
E = load combination coefficient for earth pressure (Article 3.22.1)
EQ = load combination coefficient for earthquake (Article 3.22.1)

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
PICE = load combination coefficient for ice (Article 3.22.1)
L = load combination coefficient for live load (Article 3.22.1)
R = load combination coefficient for rib shortening, shrinkage, and temperature (Article 3.22.1)
s = load combination coefficient for stream flow (Article 3.22.1)
w = load combination coefficient for wind (Article 3.22.1)
m = load combination coefficient for wind on live load (Article 3.22.1)
= Poissons ratio (Article 3.23.4.3)

3.2 GENERAL 3.2.5 The loading combinations shall be in accordance


with Article 3.22.
3.2.1 Structures shall be designed to carry the following
loads and forces: 3.2.6 When a bridge is skewed, the loads and forces car-
ried by the bridge through the deck system to pin connec-
Dead load. tions and hangers should be resolved into vertical, lateral,
Live load. and longitudinal force components to be considered in the
Impact or dynamic effect of the live load. design.
Wind loads.
Other forces, when they exist, as follows:
Longitudinal forces; centrifugal force; thermal forces; 3.3 DEADLOAD
earth pressure; buoyancy; shrinkage stresses; rib short-
ening; erection stresses; ice and current pressure; and 3.3.1 The dead load shall consist of the weight of the
earthquake stresses. entire structure, including the roadway, sidewalks, car
tracks, pipes, conduits, cables, and other public utility
Provision shall be made for the transfer of forces be- services.
tween the superstructure and substructure to reflect the ef-
fect of friction at expansion bearings or shear resistance at 3.3.2 The snow and ice load is considered to be offset
elastomeric bearings. by an accompanying decrease in live load and impact and
shall not be included except under special conditions.
3.2.2 Members shall be proportioned either with refer-
3.3.2.1 If differential settlement is anticipated in a
ence to service loads and allowable stresses as provided
structure, consideration should be given to stresses result-
in Service Load Design (Allowable Stress Design) or, al-
ing from this settlement.
ternatively, with reference to load factors and factored
strength as provided in Strength Design (Load Factor De-
3.3.3 If a separate wearing surface is to be placed when
sign).
the bridge is constructed, or is expected to be placed in the
future, adequate allowance shall be made for its weight in
3.2.3 When stress sheets are required, a diagram or no- the design dead load. Otherwise, provision for a future
tation of the assumed loads shall be shown and the wearing surface is not required.
stresses due to the various loads shall be shown separately.
3.3.4 Special consideration shall be given to the neces-
3.2.4 Where required by design conditions, the concrete sity for a separate wearing surface for those regions where
placing sequence shall be indicated on the plans or in the the use of chains on tires or studded snow tires can be
special provisions. anticipated.

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20 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.3.5

3.3.5 Where the abrasion of concrete is not expected, traffic lanes, spaced across the entire bridge roadway
the traffic may bear directly on the concrete slab. If con- width measured between curbs.
sidered desirable, YAinch or more may be added to the
slab for a wearing surface. 3.6.3 Fractional parts of design lanes shall not be used,
but roadway widths from 20 to 24 feet shall have two de-
3.3.6 The following weights are to be used in comput- sign lanes each equal to one-half the roadway width.
ing the dead load:
3.6.4 The traffic lanes shall be placed in such numbers
#/cu.ft. and positions on the roadway, and the loads shall be
Steel or cast steel ........................ 490 placed in such positions within their individual traffic
Cast iron .............................. 450 lanes, so as to produce the maximum stress in the mem-
Aluminum alloys ........................ 175 ber under consideration.
Timber (treated or untreated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Concrete, plain or reinforced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Compacted sand, earth, gravel, or ballast . . . . . 120 3.7 HIGHWAY LOADS
Loose sand, earth, and gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Macadam or gravel, rolled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 3.7.1 Standard Truck and Lane Loads*
Cinder filling ........................... 60
Pavement, other than wood block . . . . . . . . . . . 150
3.7.1.1 The highway live loadings on the roadways
Railway rails, guardrails, and fastenings
(per linear foot of track) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 of bridges or incidental structures shall consist of standard
trucks or lane loads that are equivalent to truck trains. Two
Stone masonry .......................... 170
Asphalt plank, 1 in. thick . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Ib. sq. ft. systems of loading are provided, the H loadings and the
HS loadings-the HS loadings being heavier than the cor-
responding H loadings.
3.4 LIVELOAD
3.7.1.2 Each lane load shall consist of a uniform load
The live load shall consist of the weight of the applied per linear foot of traffic lane combined with a single con-
moving load of vehicles, cars, and pedestrians. centrated load (or two concentrated loads in the case of
continuous spans-see Article 3.11.3), so placed on the
3.5 OVERLOAD PROVISIONS span as to produce maximum stress. The concentrated
load and uniform load shall be considered as uniformly
3.5.1 For all loadings less than H 20, provision shall be distributed over a 10-foot width on a line normal to the
made for an infrequent heavy load by applying Loading center line of the lane.
Combination IA (see Article 3.22), with the live load as-
sumed to be H or HS truck and to occupy a single lane 3.7.1.3 For the computation of moments and shears,
without concurrent loading in any other lane. The over- different concentrated loads shall be used as indicated in
load shall apply to all parts of the structure affected, ex- Figure 3.7.6B. The lighter concentrated loads shall be
cept the roadway deck, or roadway deck plates and stiff- used when the stresses are primarily bending stresses, and
ening ribs in the case of orthotropic bridge super- the heavier concentrated loads shall be used when the
structures. stresses are primarily shearing stresses.

3.5.2 Structures may be analyzed for an overload that is


selected by the operating agency in accordance with
Loading Combination Group IB in Article 3.22.

3.6 TRAFFIC LANES *Note: The system of lane loads defined here (and illustrated in Figure
3.7.6.B) was developed in order to give a simpler method of calculating
moments and shears than that based on wheel loads of the truck.
3.6.1 The lane loading or standard truck shall be as- Appendix B shows the truck train loadings of the 1935 Specifications
sumed to occupy a width of 10 feet. of AASHO and the corresponding lane loadings.
In 1944, the HS series of trucks was developed. These approximate the
effect of the corresponding 1935 truck preceded and followed by a train
3.6.2 These loads shall be placed in 12-foot wide design of trucks weighing three-fourths as much as the basic truck.

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3.7.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 21

3.7.2 Classes of Loading gross weight in tons of the tractor truck. The variable axle
spacing has been introduced in order that the spacing of
There are four standard classes of highway loading: axles may approximate more closely the tractor trailers
H 20, H 15, HS 20, and HS 15. Loading H 15 is 75% of now in use. The variable spacing also provides a more sat-
Loading H 20. Loading HS 15 is 75% of Loading HS 20. isfactory loading for continuous spans, in that heavy axle
If loadings other than those designated are desired, they loads may be so placed on adjoining spans as to produce
maximum negative moments.
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

shall be obtained by proportionately changing the weights


shown for both the standard truck and the corresponding
lane loads.
3.8 IMPACT
3.7.3 Designation of Loadings
3.8.1 Application
The policy of affixing the year to loadings to identify
Highway Live Loads shall be increased for those struc-
them was instituted with the publication of the 1944 Edi-
tural elements in Group A, below, to allow for dynamic,
tion in the following manner:
vibratory and impact effects. Impact allowances shall not
H 15 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be be applied to items in Group B. It is intended that impact
designated................................................. H 15-44 be included as part of the loads transferred from super-
?3 20 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be structure to substructure,but shall not be included in loads
designated................................................. H 20-44 transferred to footings nor to those parts of piles or
H 15-S 12 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be columns that are below ground.
designated................................................. HS 15-44
H 20-S 16 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be 3.8.1.1 Group A-Impact shall be included.
designated................................................. HS 20-44
(1) Superstructure,including legs of rigid frames.
The affix shall remain unchanged until such time as the (2) Piers, (with or without bearings regardless of type)
loading specification is revised. The same policy for iden- excluding footings and those portions below the
tification shall be applied, for future reference, to loadings ground line.
previously adopted by AASHTO. (3) The portions above the ground line of concrete or
steel piles that support the superstructure.
3.7.4 Minimum Loading
3.8.1.2 Group B-Impact shall not be included.
Bridges supporting Interstate highways or other high-
ways which carry, or which may carry, heavy truck traf- (1) Abutments, retaining walls, piles except as speci-
fic, shall be designed for HS 20-44 Loading or an Alter- fied in Article 3.8.1.1 (3).
nate Military Loading of two axles four feet apart with (2) Foundation pressures and footings.
each axle weighing 24,000 pounds, whichever produces (3) Timber structures.
the greatest stress. (4) Sidewalk loads.
(5) Culverts and structures having 3 feet or more
3.7.5 H Loading cover.

The H loadings consist of a two-axle truck or the cor- 3.8.2 Impact Formula
responding lane loading as illustrated in Figures 3.7.6A
and 3.7.6B. The H loadings are designated H followed by 3.8.2.1 The amount of the impact allowance or in-
a number indicating the gross weight in tons of the stan- crement is expressed as a fraction of the live load stress,
dard truck. and shall be determined by the formula:
3.7.6 HS Loading
I=--- 50
The HS loadings consist of a tractor truck with semi- L + 125
trailer or the corresponding lane load as illustrated in Fig- in which,
ures 3.7.7A and 3.7.6B. The HS loadings are designated
by the letters HS followed by a number indicating the I = impact fraction (maximum 30 percent);

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22 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.8.2.1

P
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

H 20-44 8,000 LBS. 32,000 LBS.*


t i 15-44 6,000 LBS. 24,000 LBS.

14'-O" -
31 W = TOTAL WEIGHT
21 TRUCK AND LOAD 12
I 7-
!

4 10.1 w ----
CLEARANCE AND
LOAD LANE WIDTH
1o '-0"
I I

FIGURE 3.7.6A Standard H Trucks

*In the design of timber floors and orthotropic steel decks (excluding transverse beams) for H 20 Loading, one
axle load of 24,000 pounds or two axle loads of 16,000 pounds each spaced 4 feet apart may be used, whichever
produces the greater stress, instead of the 32,000-pound axle shown.

**For slab design, the center line of wheels shall be assumed to be 1 foot from face of curb. (See Article 3.24.2.)

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3.8.2.1 DIVISION 1-DESIGN 23

18,000 LBS. FOR MOMENT*


ONCENTRATED 26,000 LBS. FOR SHEAR
I c U N I F O R M LOAD 640 LBS. PER LINEAR FOOT OF LOAD LANE

H20-44 LOADING
HS20-44 LOADING

L ONCENTRATED
13,500 LBS. FOR MOMENT*
19,500 LBS. FOR SHEAR
1 rUNIFORM LOAD 480 LBS. PER LINEAR FOOT OF LOAD LANE

H15-44 LOADING
HS15-44 LOADING

FIGURE 3.7.6B Lane Loading

*For the loading of continuous spans involving lane loading refer to Article 3.11.3 which provides for an
additional concentrated load.

L = length in feet of the portion of the span that is 3.8.2.3 For culverts with cover
loaded to produce the maximum stress in the 00 to l-O inc. I = 30%
member. 1-1to 2-O inc. I = 20%
2-1 to 2-11 inc. I = 10%
3.8.2.2 For uniformity of application, in this formula,
the loaded length, L, shall be as follows:

(a) For roadway floors: the design span length. 3.9 LONGITUDINAL FORCES
(b) For transverse members, such as floor beams: the
span length of member center to center of supports. Provision shall be made for the effect of a longitudinal
(c) For computing truck load moments: the span force of 5 % of the live load in all lanes carrying traffic
length, or for cantilever arms the length from the mo- headed in the same direction. All lanes shall be loaded for
ment center to the farthermost axle. bridges likely to become one directional in the future. The
(d) For shear due to truck loads: the length of the load used, without impact, shall be the lane load plus the
loaded portion of span from the point under consider- concentrated load for moment specified in Article 3.7,
ation to the far reaction; except, for cantilever arms, with reduction for multiple-loaded lanes as specified in
use a 30% impact factor. Article 3.12, The center of gravity of the longitudinal
(e) For continuous spans: the length of span under force shall be assumed to be located 6 feet above the floor
consideration for positive moment, and the average of slab and to be transmitted to the substructure through the
two adjacent loaded spans for negative moment. superstructure.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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24 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.9

HS20-44 8,000 LBS. 32,000 LBS.* 32,000 LES#'


HS15-44 6.000 LBS. 24,000 LBS. 24,000 LBS.

I
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

W = COMBINED WEIGHT ON THE FIRST TWO AXLES WHICH IS THE SAME


AS FOR THE CORRESPONDING H TRUCK.
V = VARIABLE SPACING - 14 FEET TO 30 FEET INCLUSIVE. SPACING TO BE
USED IS THAT WHICH PRODUCES MAXIMUM STRESSES.
CLEARANCE AND
bOAD YON,: WID7

FIGURE 3.7.7A Standard HS Trucks

*In the design of timber floors and orthotropic steel decks (excluding transverse beams) for H 20 Loading, one
axle load of 24,000 pounds or two axle loads of 16,000pounds each, spaced 4 feet apart may be used, whichever
produces the greater stress, instead of the 32,000-pound axle shown.

**For slab design, the center line of wheels shall be assumed to be 1 foot from face of curb. (SeeArticle 3.24.2.)

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3.10 DIVISION I-DESIGN 25

3.10 CENTRIFUGAL FORCES 3.11.3 Lane Loads on Continuous Spans

3.10.1 Structures on curves shall be designed for a hor- For the determination of maximum negative moment
izontal radial force equal to the following percentage of in the design of continuous spans, the lane load shown in
the live load, without impact, in all traffic lanes: Figure 3.7.6B shall be modified by the addition of a sec-
ond, equal weight concentrated load placed in one other
6.68s span in the series in such position to produce the maxi-
C=0.00117S2D=-
R (3 - 2) mum effect. For maximum positive moment, only one
concentrated load shall be used per lane, combined with
where, as many spans loaded uniformly as are required to pro-
duce maximum moment.
C = the centrifugal force in percent of the live load,
without impact;
S = the design speed in miles per hour; 3.11.4 Loading for Maximum Stress
D = the degree of curve;
R = the radius of the curve in feet. 3.11.4.1 On both simple and continuous spans, the
type of loading, whether lane load or truck load, to be
3.10.2 The effects of superelevation shall be taken into used shall be the loading which produces the maximum
account. stress. The moment and shear tables given in Appendix
A show which types of loading controls for simple
3.10.3 The centrifugal force shall be applied 6 feet spans.
above the roadway surface,measured along the center line
of the roadway. The design speed shall be determined with
3.11.4.2 For continuous spans, the lane loading shall
regard to the amount of superelevation provided in the
roadway. The traffic lanes shall be loaded in accordance be continuous or discontinuous; only one standard H or
with the provisions of Article 3.7 with one standard truck HS truck per lane shall be considered on the structure.
on each design traffic lane placed in position for maxi-
mum loading.
3.12 REDUCTION IN LOAD INTENSITY
3.10.4 Lane loads shall not be used in the computation
of centrifugal forces. 3.12.1 Where maximum stresses are produced in any
member by loading a number of traffic lanes simultane-
3.10.5 When a reinforced concrete floor slab or a steel ously, the following percentages of the live loads may be
grid deck is keyed to or attached to its supporting mem- used in view of the improbability of coincident maximum
bers, it may be assumed that the deck resists, within its loading:
plane, the shear resulting from the centrifugal forces act-
ing on the live load. Percent
One or two lanes ......................... .lo0
Three lanes .............................. 90
3.11 APPLICATION OF LIVE LOAD
Four lanes or more ........................ 75
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.11.1 Traffic Lane Units


3.12.2 The reduction in load intensity specified in Arti-
In computing stresses, each 10-foot lane load or single cle 3.12.1 shall not be applicable when distributionfactors
standard truck shall be considered as a unit, and fractions from Table 3.23.1 are used to determine moments in lon-
of load lane widths or trucks shall not be used. gitudinal beams.

3.11.2 Number and Position of Traffc Lane Units 3.12.3 The reduction in intensity of loads on transverse
members such as floor beams shall be determined as
The number and position of the lane load or truck loads in the case of main trusses or girders, using the number
shall be as specified in Article 3.7 and, whether lane or of traffic lanes across the width of roadway that must
truck loads, shall be such as to produce maximum stress, be loaded to produce maximum stresses in the floor
subject to the reduction specified in Article 3.12. beam.

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26 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.13

3.13 ELECTRIC RAILWAY LOADS 3.14.2.2 Where sidewalk, curb, and traffk rail form
an integral system, the traffic railing loading shall be ap-
If highway bridges carry electric railway traffic, the plied and stresses in curbs computed accordingly.
railway loads shall be determined from the class of traffic
which the bridge may be expected to carry. The possibil- 3.14.3 Railing Loading
ity that the bridge may be required to carry railroad freight
cars shall be given consideration. For Railing Loads, see Article 2.7.1.3.

3.14 SIDEWALK, CURB, AND RAILING 3.15 WIND LOADS


LOADING
The wind load shall consist of moving uniformly dis-
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.14.1 Sidewalk Loading tributed loads applied to the exposed area of the structure.
The exposed area shall be the sum of the areas of all mem-
3.14.1.1 Sidewalk floors, stringers, and their imme- bers, including floor system and railing, as seen in eleva-
diate supports shall be designed for a live load of 85 tion at 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the structure.
pounds per square foot of sidewalk area. Girders, trusses, The forces and loads given herein are for a base wind ve-
arches, and other members shall be designed for the fol- locity of 100 miles per hour. For Group II and Group V
lowing sidewalk live loads: loadings, but not for Group III and Group VI loadings,
they may be reduced or increased in the ratio of the square
Spans O to 25 feet in length . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 lb./ft.* of the design wind velocity to the square of the base wind
Spans 26 to 100 feet in length . . . . . . . . . . .60 lb./ft.2 velocity provided that the maximum probable wind ve-
Spans over 100 feet in length according to the formula locity can be ascertained with reasonable accuracy, or
provided that there are permanent features of the terrain
(
P = 30+- 3 3 ( 5 5 5-
;w) (3-3)
which make such changes safe and advisable. If a change
in the design wind velocity is made, the design wind ve-
locity shall be shown on the plans.
in which
3.15.1 Superstructure Design
P = live load per square foot, max. 60-lb. per sq. ft.
L = loaded length of sidewalk in feet. 3.15.1.1 Group II and Group V Loadings
W = width of sidewalk in feet.
3.15.1.1.1 A wind load of the following intensity
3.14.1.2 In calculating stresses in structures that sup- shall be applied horizontally at right angles to the longi-
port cantilevered sidewalks, the sidewalk shall be fully tudinal axis of the structure:
loaded on only one side of the structure if this condition
produces maximum stress. For trusses and arches ........75 pounds per square foot
For girders and beams ........50 pounds per square foot
3.14.1.3 Bridges for pedestrian and/or bicycle traffic
3.15.1.1.2 The total force shall not be less than 300
shall be designed for a live load of 85 PSF.
pounds per linear foot in the plane of the windward chord
and 150 pounds per linear foot in the plane of the leeward
3.14.1.4 Where bicycle or pedestrian bridges are ex- chord on truss spans, and not less than 300 pounds per lin-
pected to be used by maintenance vehicles, special design ear foot on girder spans.
consideration should be made for these loads.
3.15.1.2 Group III and Group VI Loadings
3.14.2 Curb Loading
Group III and Group VI loadings shall comprise the
3.14.2.1 Curbs shall be designed to resist a lateral loads used for Group II and Group V loadings reduced by
force of not less than 500 pounds per linear foot of curb, 70% and a load of 100 pounds per linear foot applied at
applied at the top of the curb, or at an elevation 10 inches right angles to the longitudinal axis of the structure and
above the floor if the curb is higher than 10 inches. 6 feet above the deck as a wind load on a moving live load.

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~ ~~ ~-

3.15.1.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 27

When a reinforced concrete floor slab or a steel grid This load shall be applied at a point 6 feet above the
deck is keyed to or attached to its supporting members, deck.
it may be assumed that the deck resists, within its plane,
the shear resulting from the wind load on the moving 3.15.2.1.3 For the usual girder and slab bridges hav-
live load. ing maximum span lengths of 125 feet, the following
wind loading may be used in lieu of the more precise load-
3.15.2 Substructure Design ing specified above:

Forces transmitted to the substructure by the super- W (wind load on structure)


structureand forces applied directly to the substructureby 50 pounds per square foot, transverse
wind loads shall be as follows: 12 pounds per square foot, longitudinal
Both forces shall be applied simultaneously.
3.15.2.1 Forces from Superstructure
WL (wind load on live load)
3.15.2.1.I The transverse and longitudinal forces 100 pounds per linear foot, transverse
transmitted by the superstructure to the substructure for 40 pounds per linear foot, longitudinal
various angles of wind direction shall be as set forth in the Both forces shall be applied simultaneously.
following table. The skew angle is measured from the per-
pendicular to the longitudinal axis and the assumed wind
direction shall be that which produces the maximum 3.15.2.2 Forces Applied Directly
stress in the substructure.The transverse and longitudinal to the Substructure
forces shall be applied simultaneously at the elevation of
the center of gravity of the exposed area of the super- The transverse and longitudinal forces to be applied di-
structure. rectly to the substructure for a 100-mile per hour wind
shall be calculated from an assumed wind force of 40
pounds per square foot. For wind directions assumed
Tmsses Girders
skewed to the substructure, this force shall be resolved
Skew Angle Lateral Longitudinal Lateral Longitudinal
Load Load into components perpendicular to the end and front ele-

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ofwind Load Load
Degrees PSF PSF PSF PSF vations of the substructure.The component perpendicular
O 75 O 50 O
to the end elevation shall act on the exposed substructure
15 70 12 44 6 area as seen in end elevation and the component perpen-
30 65 28 41 12 dicular to the front elevation shall act on the exposed areas
45 47 41 33 16
60 24 50 17 19
and shall be applied simultaneously with the wind loads
from the superstructure.The above loads are for Group II
and Group V loadings and may be reduced by 70%
The loads listed above shall be used in Group II and for Group III and Group VI loadings, as indicated in Arti-
Group V loadings as given in Article 3.22. cle 3.22.

3.15.2.1.2 For Group III and Group VI loadings,


these loads may be reduced by 70% and a load per linear 3.15.3 Overturning Forces
foot added as a wind load on a moving live load, as given
in the following table: The effect of forces tending to overturn structures
shall be calculated under Groups II, III, V, and VI of
Article 3.22 assuming that the wind direction is at right
Skew Angle
of Wind Lateral Load Longitudinal Load angles to the longitudinalaxis of the structure. In addition,
Degrees lb./ft. lb./ft. an upward force shall be applied at the windward quarter
point of the transverse superstructure width. This force
O 100 O
15 88 12 shall be 20 pounds per square foot of deck and sidewalk
30 82 24 plan area for Group II and Group V combinations and
45 66 32 6 pounds per square foot for Group III and Group VI
60 34 38
combinations.

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28 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.16

3.16 THERMAL FORCES ity distribution and thus a triangular pressure distribution,
shall be calculated by the formula:
Provision shall be made for stresses or movements re-
sulting from variations in temperature. The rise and fall in
temperature shall be fixed for the locality in which the
structure is to be constructed and shall be computed from where,
an assumed temperature at the time of erection. Due con- Pavg= average stream pressure, in pounds per square
sideration shall be given to the lag between air tempera- foot,
ture and the interior temperature of massive concrete Vavg= average velocity of water in feet per second,
members or structures. computed by dividing the flow rate by the flow
The range of temperature shall generally be as follows: area,
Metal structures: K = a constant, being 1.4 for all piers subjected to
Moderate climate, from O to 120F drift build-up and square-ended piers, 0.7 for
Cold climate, from - 30 to 120F
circular piers, and 0.5 for angle-ended piers
Temperature Temperature where the angle is 30 degrees or less.
Rise Fail
Concrete structures: The maximum stream flow pressure, P,, shall be
Moderate climate . . . . . . . . . . 30F 40F equal to twice the average stream flow pressure,Pavg,com-
Cold climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35F 45F
puted by Equation 3-4. Stream flow pressure shall be a tri-
angular distribution with p, located at the top of water
3.17 UPLIFT elevation and a zero pressure located at the flow line.

3.17.1 Provision shall be made for adequate attachment 3.18.1.1.2 The stream flow forces shall be computed
of the superstructure to the substructure by ensuring that by the product of the stream flow pressure, taking into ac-
the calculated uplift at any support is resisted by tension count the pressure distribution, and the exposed pier area.
members engaging a mass of masonry equal to the largest In cases where the corresponding top of water elevation is
force obtained under one of the following conditions: above the low beam elevation, stream flow loading on the
superstructure shall be investigated.The stream flow pres-
(a) 100% of the calculated uplift caused by any load- sure acting on the superstructuremay be taken as P,, with
ing or combination of loadings in which the live plus a uniform distribution.
impact loading is increased by 100%.
(b) 150% of the calculated uplift at working load
level. 3.18.1.2 Pressure Components

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
3.17.2 Anchor bolts subject to tension or other elements When the direction of stream flow is other than normal
of the structure stressed under the above conditions shall to the exposed surface area, or when bank migration or a
be designed at 150% of the allowable basic stress. change of stream bed meander is anticipated, the effects
of the directional components of stream flow pressure
shall be investigated.
3.18 FORCES FROM STREAM CURRENT AND
FLOATING ICE, AND DRIFT CONDITIONS
3.18.1.3 Drift Lodged Against Pier
All piers and other portions of structures that are sub-
ject to the force of flowing water, floating ice, or drift shall Where a significant amount of drift lodged against a
be designed to resist the maximum stresses induced pier is anticipated, the effects of this drift buildup shall be
thereby. considered in the design of the bridge opening and the
bridge components. The overall dimensions of the drift
3.18.1 Force of Stream Current on Piers buildup shall reflect the selected pier locations, site con-
ditions, and known drift supply upstream. When it is an-
3.18.1.1 Stream Pressure ticipated that the flow area will be significantly blocked
by drift buildup, increases in high water elevations,
3.18.1.1.1 The effect of flowing water on piers and stream velocities, stream flow pressures, and the potential
drift build-up, assuming a second-degree parabolic veloc- increases in scour depths shall be investigated.

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3.18.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 29

3.18.2 Force of Ice on Piers 3.18.2.2.3 The following values of effective ice
strength appropriate to various situations may be used as
3.18.2.1 General a guide.

Ice forces on piers shall be selected, having regard (a) In the order of 100 psi where breakup occurs
to site conditions and the mode of ice action to be ex- at melting temperatures and where the ice runs as
pected. Consideration shall be given to the following small "cakes" and is substantially disintegrated in its
modes: structure.
(b) In the order of 200 psi where breakup occurs at
(a) Dynamic ice pressure due to moving ice-sheets melting temperatures,but the ice moves in large pieces
and ice-floes carried by streamflow, wind, or currents. and is internally sound.
(b) Static ice pressure due to thermal movements of (c) In the order of 300 psi where at breakup there is an
continuous stationary ice-sheets on large bodies of initial movement of the ice sheet as a whole or where
water. large sheets of sound ice may strike the piers.
(c) Static pressure resulting from ice-jams. (d) In the order of 400 psi where breakup or major ice
(d) Static uplift or vertical loads resulting from adher- movement may occur with ice temperatures signifi-
ing ice in waters of fluctuating level. cantly below the melting point.

3.18.2.2 Dynamic Ice Force 3.18.2.2.4 The preceding values for effective ice
strength are intended for use with piers of substantial mass
3.18.2.2.1 Horizontal forces resulting from the pres- and dimensions. The values shall be modified as neces-
sure of moving ice shall be calculated by the formula: sary for variations in pier width or pile diameter, and de-
sign ice thickness by multiplying by the appropriate coef-
ficient obtained from the following table:

where, bit Coefficient


F = horizontal ice force on pier in pounds; 0.5 1.8
C, = coefficient for nose inclination from table; 1.o 1.3
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

p = effective ice strength in pounds per square inch; 1.5 1.1


t = thickness of ice in contact with pier in inches; 2.0 1.o
w = width of pier or diameter of circular-shaft pier at 3.0 0.9
the level of ice action in inches. 4.0 or greater 0.8

Inclination of Nose to vertical Cn where,


b = width of pier or diameter of pile;
O" to 15" 1.o0 t = design ice thickness.
15" to 30" 0.75
30" to 45" 0.50
3.18.2.2.5 Piers should be placed with their longitu-
3.18.2.2.2 The effective ice strength p shall normally dinal axis parallel to the principal direction of ice action.
be taken in the range of 100 to 400 pounds per square inch The force calculated by the formula shall then be taken to
on the assumption that crushing or splitting of the ice act along the direction of the longitudinal axis. A force
takes place on contact with the pier. The value used shall transverse to the longitudinal axis and amounting to not
be based on an assessment of the probable condition of the less than 15%of the longitudinal force shall be considered
ice at time of movement, on previous local experience, to act simultaneously.
and on assessment of existing structure performance. Rel-
evant ice conditions include the expected temperature of 3.18.2.2.6 Where the longitudinal axis of a pier can-
the ice at time of movement, the size of moving sheets and not be placed parallel to the principal direction of ice ac-
floes, and the velocity at contact. Due consideration shall tion, or where the direction of ice action may shift, the
be given to the probability of extreme rather than average total force on the pier shall be computed by the formula
conditions at the site in question. and resolved into vector components. In such conditions,

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30 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.18.2.2.6

forces transverse to the longitudinal axis shall in no case holes and crushed rock, pipe drains or gravel drains, or by
be taken as less than 20% of the total force. perforated drains.

3.18.2.2.7 In the case of slender and flexible piers, 3.21 EARTHQUAKES


consideration should be given to the vibrating nature of
dynamic ice forces and to the possibility of high momen- In regions where earthquakes may be anticipated,
tary pressures and structural resonance. structures shall be designed to resist earthquake motions
by considering the relationship of the site to active faults,
3.18.2.3 Static Ice Pressure the seismic response of the soils at the site, and the dy-
namic response characteristics of the total structure in ac-
cordance with Division I-A-Seismic Design.
Ice pressure on piers frozen into ice sheets on large
bodies of water shall receive special consideration where
there is reason to believe that the ice sheets are subject to Part B
significant thermal movements relative to the piers. COMBINATIONS OF LOADS

3.19 BUOYANCY 3.22 COMBINATIONS OF LOADS


Buoyancy shall be considered where it affects the de-
3.22.1 The following Groups represent various combi-
sign of either substructure, including piling, or the super-
nations of loads and forces to which a structure may be
structure.
subjected. Each component of the structure, or the foun-
dation on which it rests, shall be proportioned to with-
3.20 EARTH PRESSURE stand safely all group combinations of these forces that
are applicable to the particular site or type. Group loading
combinations for Service Load Design and Load Factor
3.20.1 Structures which retain fills shall be proportioned Design are given by:
to withstand pressure as given by Coulombs Equation or
by other expressions given in Section 5 , Retaining
Walls; provided, however, that no structure shall be de-
signed for less than an equivalent fluid weight (mass) of
30 pounds per cubic foot.

where,
3.20.2 For rigid frames a maximum of one-half of the
N = group number;
moment caused by earth pressure (lateral) may be used to
y = load factor, see Table 3.22.1A;
reduce the positive moment in the beams, in the top slab,
= coefficient, see Table 3.22.1A;
or in the top and bottom slab, as the case may be. D = deadload;
L = live load;
3.20.3 When highway traffic can come within a hori- I = live load impact;
zontal distance from the top of the structure equal to one- E = earth pressure;
half its height, the pressure shall have added to it a live B =buoyancy;
load surcharge pressure equal to not less than 2 feet of W = wind load on structure;
WL = wind load on live load-100 pounds per linear
earth.
foot;
LF = longitudinal force from live load;
3.20.4 Where an adequately designed reinforced con- CF = centrifugal force;
crete approach slab supported at one end by the bridge is R = rib shortening;
provided, no live load surcharge need be considered. S = shrinkage;
T = temperature;
EQ =earthquake;
3.20.5 All designs shall provide for the thorough SF = stream flow pressure;
drainage of the back-filling material by means of weep ICE = ice pressure.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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3.22.1 DIVISION I-DESIGN 31

TABLE 3.22.1A Table of Coefficients y and

Culvert

Culvert

(L + I),, - Live load plus impact for AASHTO Highway H or HS loading


(L + I)p - Live load plus impact consistent with the overload criteria of the operation
agency.

* 1.25 may be used for design of outside roadway beam when com- For culvert loading specifications, see Article 6.2.
bination of sidewalk live load as well as traffic live load plus impact
governs the design, but the capacity of the section should not be less E = 1.O and 0.5 for lateral loads on rigid frames (check both load-
than required for highway traffic live load only using a beta factor of ings to see which one governs). See Article 3.20.
1.67. 1.00 may be used for design of deck slab with combination of For Load Factor Design
loads as described in Article 3.24.2.2.
E = 1.3 for lateral earth pressure for retaining was and rigid
frames excluding rigid culverts. For lateral at-rest earth
pressures, E = 1.15
** Percentage = Maximum Unit Stress (Operating Rating)
Allowable Basic Unit Stress
E = 0.5 for lateral earth pressure when checking positive
moments in rigid frames. This complies with Article 3.20.
1.O for vertical earth pressure
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

E =
D = 0.75 when checking member for minimum axial load and
For Service Load Design maximum moment or maximum eccentricity . . . . .For
D = 1.O when checking member for maximum axial Column
load and minimum moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design
% (Column 14) Percentage of Basic Unit Stress
D = 1.O for flexural and tension members
No increase in allowable unit stresses shall be permitted for members E = 1.O for Rigid Culverts
or connections carrying wind loads only. E = 1.5 for Flexible Culverts
For Group X loading (culverts) the E factor shall be applied to verti-
E = 1 .OO for vertical and lateral loads on all other structures. cal and horizontal loads.

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32 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.22.2

3.22.2 For service load design, the percentage of the culations of horizontal shear in rectangular timber beams
basic unit stress for the various groups is given in Table shall be in accordance with Article 13.3.
3.22.1A.
The loads and forces in each group shall be taken as ap- 3.23.2 Bending Moments in Stringers and
propriate from Articles 3.3 to 3.21. The maximum section Longitudinal Beams**
required shall be used.
3.23.2.1 General
3.22.3 For load factor design, the gamma and beta fac-
tors given in Table 3.22.1A shall be used for designing In calculating bending moments in longitudinal beams
structural members and foundations by the load factor or stringers, no longitudinal distribution of the wheel
concept. loads shall be assumed. The lateral distribution shall be
determined as follows.
3.22.4 When long span structures are being designed by
load factor design, the gamma and beta factors specified 3.23.2.2 Interior Stringers and Beams
for Load Factor Design represent general conditions and
The live load bending moment for each interior
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

should be increased if, in the Engineers judgment,


expected loads, service conditions, or materials of stringer shall be determined by applying to the stringer the
construction are different from those anticipated by the fraction of a wheel load (both front and rear) determined
specifications. in Table 3.23.1.

3.22.5 Structures may be analyzed for an overload that 3.23.2.3 Outside Roadway Stringers and Beams
is selected by the operating agency. Size and configuration
of the overload, loading combinations, and load distribu- 3.23.2.3.1 Steel-Timber-Concrete T-Beams
tion will be consistent with procedures defined in permit
policy of that agency. The load shall be applied in Group 3.23.2.3.1.1 The dead load supported by the outside
IB as defined in Table 3.22.1A. For all loadings less than roadway stringer or beam shall be that portion of the floor
H 20, Group IA loading combination shall be used (see slab carried by the stringer or beam. Curbs, railings, and
Article 3.5). wearing surface, if placed after the slab has cured, may be
distributed equally to all roadway stringers or beams.

Part C 3.23.2.3.1.2 The live load bending moment for out-


DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS side roadway stringers or beams shall be determined by
applying to the stringer or beam the reaction of the wheel
load obtained by assuming the flooring to act as a simple
3.23 DISTRIBUTIONOF LOADS TO span between stringers or beams.
STRINGERS, LONGITUDINALBEAMS,
AND FLOOR BEAMS* 3.23.2.3.1.3 When the outside roadway beam or
stringer supports the sidewalk live load as well as traffic
3.23.1 Position of Loads for Shear live load and impact and the structure is to be designed by
the service load method, the allowable stress in the beam
3.23.1.1 In calculating end shears and end reactions or stringer may be increased by 25% for the combination
in transverse floor beams and longitudinal beams and of dead load, sidewalk live load, traffic live load, and im-
stringers, no longitudinal distribution of the wheel load pact, providing the beam is of no less carrying capacity
shall be assumed for the wheel or axle load adjacent to the than would be required if there were no sidewalks. When
transverse floor beam or the end of the longitudinal beam the combination of sidewalk live load and traffic live load
or stringer at which the stress is being determined. plus impact governs the design and the structure is to be
designed by the load factor method, 1.25 may be used as
3.23.1.2 Lateral distribution of the wheel loads at
the beta factor in place of 1.67.
ends of the beams or stringers shall be that produced by
assuming the flooring to act as a simple span between
3.23.2.3.1.4 In no case shall an exterior stringer have
stringers or beams. For wheels or axles in other positions
on the span, the distribution for shear shall be determined less carrying capacity than an interior stringer.
by the method prescribed for moment, except that the cal- ~

**In view of the complexity of the theoretical analysis involved in the


distribution of wheel loads to stringers, the empirical method herein de-
*Provisions in this Article shall not apply to orthotropic deck bridges. scribed is authorized for the design of normal highway bridges.

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3.23.2.3.1.4 DIVISION I-DESIGN 33

TABLE 3.23.1 Distributionof Wheel Loads in members with the narrow edges of the laminations bearing on the sup-
Longitudinal Beams ports (see Article 16.3.13-Division II).
'In this case the load on each stringer shall be the reaction of the
wheel loads, assuming the flooringbetween the stringers to act as a sim-
Bridge Designed ple beam.
Bridge Designed for for Two or more @'Design of I-Beam Bridges" by N. M. Newmark-Proceedings,
Kind of Floor One Traffic Lane Traffic Lanes ASCE, March 1948.
hThe sidewalk live load (see Article 3.14) shall be omitted for inte-
Timber? rior and exterior box girders designed in accordancewith the wheel load
Plankb S14.0 S13.75 distribution indicated herein.
Nail laminated' 'Distribution factors for Steel Bridge Corrugated Plank set forth
4" thick or multiple above are based substantially on the following reference:
layefl floors over 5"
thick s14.5 s14.0 Journal of Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 67, NO. 2, 1977
Nail laminatedc "Wheel Load Distribution of Steel Bridge Plank," by Conrad P. Heins,
6" or more thick S15.0 S14.25 Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Maryland.
If S exceeds 5' If S exceeds 6.5' These distribution factors were developed based on studies using
use footnote f. use footnote f. 6" X 2" steel corrugated plank. The factors should yield safe results for
Glued laminatede other corrugated configurations provided primary bending stiffness is
Panels on glued the same as or greater than the 6" X 2" corrugatedplank used in the stud-
laminated stringers ies.
4" thick s14.5 S14.0
6" or more thick S16.0 S15.0 3.23.2.3.1.5 In the case of a span with concrete floor
If S exceeds 6' If S exceeds 7.5' supported by 4 or more steel stringers, the fraction of the
use footnote f. use footnote f.
On steel stringers wheel load shall not be less than:
4" thick SI45 S14.0
6" or more thick S15.25 s14.5
If S exceeds 5.5' If S exceeds 7' S
use footnote f. use footnote f. 5.5
Concrete:
On steel I-Beam
stringersg and where, S = 6 feet or less and is the distance in feet be-
prestressed tween outside and adjacent interior stringers, and
concrete girders s17.0 ,515.5
If S exceeds 10' If S exceeds 14'
use footnote f. use footnote f. S
On concrete
T-Beams S16.5 S16.0 4.0 + 0.25s
If S exceeds 6' If S exceeds 10'
use footnote f. use footnote f.
On timber where, S is more than 6 feet and less than 14 feet. When
stringers S16.0 S15.0 S is 14 feet or more, use footnote f, Table 3.23.1.
If S exceeds 6' If S exceeds 10'
use footnote f. use footnote f.
Concrete box 3.23.2.3.2 Concrete Box Girders
girdersh S18.0 S17.0
If S exceeds 12' If S exceeds 16'
use footnote f. use footnote f. 3.23.2.3.2.1 The dead load supported by the exterior
On steel box girders See Article 10.39.2. girder shall be determined in the same manner as for steel,
On prestressed con- timber, or concrete T-beams, as given in Article
crete spread box
Beams See Article 3.28. 3.23.2.3.1.
Steel grid:
(Less than 4" thick) s14.5 S14.0 3.23.2.3.2.2 The factor for the wheel load distribu-
(4" or more) S16.0 S5.0 tion to the exterior girder shall be WJ7,where We is the
If S exceeds 6' If S exceeds 10.5'
use footnote f. use footnote f. width of exterior girder which shall be taken as the top
Steel bridge slab width, measured from the midpoint between girders
Corrugated plank' to the outside edge of the slab. The cantilever dimension
(2" min. depth) s15.5 SI45
of any slab extending beyond the exterior girder shall
S = average stringer spacing in feet. preferably not exceed half the girder spacing.
&Timberdimensions shown are for nominal thickness.
bPlank floors consist of pieces of lumber laid edge to edge with the
wide faces bearing on the supports (see Article 16.3.11-Division II).
cNail laminated floors consist of pieces of lumber laid face to face
3.23.2.3.3 Total Capacio of Stringers and Beams
with the narrow edges bearing on the supports, each piece being nailed
to the preceding piece (see Article 16.3.12-Division II). The combined design load capacity of all the beams
dMultiplelayer floors consist of two or more layers of planks, each
layer being laid at an angle to the other (see Article 16.3.11-Division II). and stringers in a span shall not be less than required to
eGlued laminated panel floors consist of vertically glued laminated support the total live and dead load in the span.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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34 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.23.3

3.23.3 Bending Moments in Floor Beams TABLE 3.23.3.1 Distribution of Wheel Loads
(Transverse) in Transverse Beams

3.23.3.1 In calculating bending moments in floor Fraction of


Wheel Load to
beams, no transverse distribution of the wheel loads shall Each Floor
be assumed. Kind of Floor Beam
PianPb S
3.23.3.2 If longitudinal stringers are omitted and the 4
floor is supported directly on floor beams, the beams shall
be designed or loads determined in accordance with Nail laminated or glued laminated, -S
Table 3.23.3.1. 4 inches in thickness, or multiplelaye8 4.5
floors more than 5 inches thick
3.23.4 Precast Concrete Beams Used
in Multi-Beam Decks
Nail laminatedc or glued laminated,
6 inches or more in thickness
-
Sf
5
3.23.4.1 A multi-beam bridge is constructed with Concrete Sf
-
precast reinforced or prestressed concrete beams that are 6
placed side by side on the supports. The interaction be-
Steel grid (less than 4 inches thick) S
-
tween the beams is developed by continuous longitudinal 4.5
shear keys used in combination with transverse tie as-
semblies which may, or may not, be prestressed, such as Steel grid (4 inches or more) -
Sf
6
bolts, rods, or prestressing strands, or other mechanical
means. Full-depth rigid end diaphragms are needed to en-
sure proper load distribution for channel, single- and Steel bridge corrugated plank (2 inches
minimum depth)
-S
5.5
multi-stemmed tee beams.
Note:
S = spacing of floor beams in feet.
3.23.4.2 In calculating bending moments in multi-
a-eFor footnotes a through e, see Table 3.23.1.
beam precast concrete bridges, conventional or pre-
stressed, no longitudinal distribution of wheel load shall If S exceeds denominator, the load on the beam shall be the
be assumed. reaction of the wheels loads assuming the flooring between beams to
act as a simple beam.

3.23.4.3 The live load bending moment for each sec-


tion shall be determined by applying to the beam the frac- L = span length measured parallel to longitudinal
tion of a wheel load (both front and rear) determined by girders in feet; for girders with cast-in-place end
the following equation: diaphragms, use the length between end dia-
phragms;
Load Fraction = -
S
(3-11)
+
K = {(l II>I/J}
D
If the value of .\/yJ exceeds 5.0, or the skew exceeds
45 degrees, the live load distribution should be deter-
where,
mined using a more precise method, such as the Articulate
Plate Theory or Grillage Analysis. The Load Fraction,
S = width of precast member;
SD,need not be greater than 1.
D = (5.75 - 0.5NL) + 0.7NL(1 - 0.2C) (3-12)
NL = number of traffic lanes from Article 3.6;
where,
C = K(W/L) fow W/L e 1
= KforWL2 1 (3-13) I = moment of inertia;
J = Saint-Venant torsion constant;
where, I.( = Poissons ratio for girders.

W = overall width of bridge measured perpendicular In lieu of more exact methods, J may be estimated using
to the longitudinal girders in feet; the following equations:

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3.23.4.3 DIVISION I-DESIGN 35

For Non-voided Rectangular Beams, Channels, Tee 3.24.1.2 The following effective span lengths shall
Beams: be used in calculating the distribution of loads and bend-
ing moments for slabs continuous over more than two
J = C{(1/3)bt3(1- 0.63Oth)) supports:

where. (a) Slabs monolithic with beams or slabs monolithic


b = the length of each rectangular component within with walls without haunches and rigid top flange pre-
the section, stressed beams with top flange width to minimum
t = the thickness of each rectangular component thickness ratio less than 4.0. S shall be the clear span.
within the section. (b) Slabs supported on steel stringers, or slabs sup-
ported on thin top flange prestressed beams with top
flange width to minimum thickness ratio equal to or
The flanges and stems of stemmed or channel sections are
greater than 4.0. S shall be the distance between
considered as separate rectangular components whose
edges of top flange plus one-half of stringer top flange
values are summed together to calculate Y.Note that for
width.
Rectangular Beams with Circular Voids the value of J
(c) Slabs supported on timber stringers. S shall be the
can usually be approximated by using the equation above
clear span plus one-half thickness of stringer.
for rectangular sections and neglecting the voids.

For Box-Section Beams: 3.24.2 Edge Distance of Wheel Loads

J = 2ttf(b- t)(d- t,) 3.24.2.1 In designing slabs, the center line of the
bt + dt, - t2 - t: wheel load shall be 1 foot from the face of the curb. If
curbs or sidewalks are not used, the wheel load shall be 1
where foot from the face of the rail.

b = the overall width of the box,


d = the overall depth of the box,
3.24.2.2 In designing sidewalks, slabs and support-
t = the thickness of either web, ing members, a wheel load located on the sidewalk shall
tf = the thickness of either flange.
be 1 foot from the face of the rail. In service load design,
the combined dead, live, and impact stresses for this load-
ing shall be not greater than 150% of the allowable
The formula assumes that both flanges are the same thick-
stresses. In load factor design, 1.O may be used as the beta
ness and uses the thickness of only one flange. The same
factor in place of 1.67 for the design of deck slabs. Wheel
is true of the webs.
loads shall not be applied on sidewalks protected by a
For preliminary design, the following values of K may
traffic barrier.
be used:

3.24.3 Bending Moment


Bridge mpe Beam Qpe K
Multi-beam Non-voided rectangular beams 0.7 The bending moment per foot width of slab shall be
Rectangular beams with circular voids 0.8 calculated according to methods given under Cases A and
Box section beams 1.o
Channel, single- and multi-stemmed tee beams 2.2

*The slab distribution set forth herein is based substantially on the


Westergaard theory. The following references are furnished concern-
3.24 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND DESIGN ing the subject of slab design.
OF CONCRETE SLABS* Public Roads, March 1930, Computation of Stresses in Bridge Slabs
Due to Wheel Loads, by H. M. Westergaard.
University of Illinois, Bulletin No. 303, Solutions for Certain Rec-
3.24.1 Span Lengths (See Article 8.8) tangular Slabs Continuous over Flexible Supports, by Vernon P. Jensen;
Bulletin 304, A Distribution Procedure for the Analysis of Slabs Con-
3.24.1.1 For simple spans the span length shall be the tinuous over Flexible Beams, by Nathan M. Newmark; Bulletin 315,
Moments in Simple Span Bridge Slabs with Stiffened Edges, by Ver-
distance center to center of supports but need not exceed non P. Jensen; and Bulletin 346, Highway Slab Bridges with Curbs;
clear span plus thickness of slab. Laboratory Tests and Proposed Design Method.

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36 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.24.3

B, unless more exact methods are used considering tire HS 15 Loading:


contact area. The tire contact area needed for exact meth- Use 3/4 of the values obtained from the formulas for
ods is given in Article 3.30. HS 20 Loading
In Cases A and B:
S = effective
span length, in feet, as defined under Moments in continuous spans shall be determined by
?Span Lengths? Articles 3.24.1 and 8.8; suitable analysis using the truck or appropriate lane
E = width of slab in feet over which a wheel load is loading.
distributed;
P = load on one rear wheel of truck (PISor Pz0); 3.24.4 Shear and Bond
P,5 = 12,000 pounds for H 15 loading;
P2,, = 16,000 pounds for H 20 loading. Slabs designed for bending moment in accordance
with Article 3.24.3 shall be considered satisfactory in
3.24.3.1 Case A-Main Reinforcement bond and shear.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Perpendicular to Trafic (Spans 2 to 24
Feet Inclusive) 3.24.5 Cantilever Slabs

The live load moment for simple spans shall be deter- 3.24.5.1 Truck Loads
mined by the following formulas (impact not included):
Under the following formulas for distribution of loads
HS 20 Loading: on cantilever slabs, the slab is designed to support the load
independently of the effects of any edge support along the
( 32 P20 per
Moment in foot - pounds (3 - 15)
+

=
foot width of slab -
end of the cantilever. The distribution given includes the
effect of wheels on parallel elements.
HS 15 Loading:
3.24.5.1.1 Case A-Reinforcement
Perpendicular to Trafic
( Pis = Moment in foot - pounds (3 - 16)
per foot - width of slab Each wheel on the element perpendicular to traffic
shall be distributed over a width according to the follow-
In slabs continuous over three or more supports, a conti- ing formula:
nuity factor of 0.8 shall be applied to the above formulas
for both positive and negative moment.
E = 0.8X + 3.75 (3-17)

The moment per foot of slab shall be (PE) X foot-


3.24.3.2 Case B-Main Reinforcement Parallel pounds, in which X is the distance in feet from load to
to Trafic point of support.

For wheel loads, the distribution width, E, shall be 3.24.5.1.2 Case B-Reinforcement
(4 + 0.06s) but shall not exceed 7.0 feet. Lane loads are Parallel to Trafic
distributed over a width of 2E. Longitudinally reinforced The distribution width for each wheel load on the ele-
slabs shall be designed for the appropriate HS loading. ment parallel to traffic shall be as follows:
For simple spans, the maximum live load moment per
foot width of slab, without impact, is closely approxi- E = 0.35X + 3.2, but shall not exceed 7.0 feet (3-18)
mated by the following formulas:
The moment per foot of slab shall be (PIE) X foot-
HS 20 Loading: pounds.

Spans up to and including 50 feet: LLM = 900s 3.24.5.2 Railing Loads


foot-pounds
Spaps 50 feet to 100 feet: LLM = 1,000 Railing loads shall be applied in accordance with Arti-
(1.30s-20.0) cle 2.7. The effective length of slab resisting post loadings
foot-pounds shall be equal to E = 0.8X + 3.75 feet where no parapet

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3.24.5.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 37

is used and equal to E = 0.8X + 5.0 feet where a parapet beam integral with and deeper than the slab, or an integral
is used, where X is the distance in feet from the center of reinforced section of slab and curb.
the post to the point under investigation. Railing and
wheel loads shall not be applied simultaneously. 3.24.8.2 The edge beam of a simple span shall be de-
signed to resist a live load moment of 0.10 PS, where,
3.24.6 Slabs Supported on Four Sides
P = wheel load in pounds PI5or Pz0;
3.24.6.1 For slabs supported along four edges and re- S = span length in feet.
inforced in both directions, the proportion of the load car-
ried by the short span of the slab shall be given by the fol- 3.24.8.3 For continuous spans, the moment may be
lowing equations: reduced by 20% unless a greater reduction results from a
more exact analysis.
For uniformly distributed load, p = - b4 (3-19)
a4 + b4
3.24.9 Unsupported Transverse Edges

For concentrated load at center, p = b3 (3-20) The design assumptions of this article do not provide for
a3 + b3
~

the effect of loads near unsupported edges.Therefore, at the


where, ends of the bridge and at intermediatepoints where the con-
tinuity of the slab is broken, the edges shall be supported by
p = proportion of load carried by short span; diaphragms or other suitable means. The diaphragms shall
a = length of short span of slab; be designed to resist the full moment and shear produced
b = length of long span of slab. by the wheel loads which can come on them.

3.24.6.2 Where the length of the slab exceeds 1% 3.24.10 Distribution Reinforcement
times its width, the entire load shall be carried by the
transverse reinforcement. 3.24.10.1 To provide for the lateral distributionof the
concentrated live loads, reinforcement shall be placed
3.24.6.3 The distribution width, E, for the load taken transverse to the main steel reinforcement in the bottoms
by either span shall be determined as provided for other of all slabs except culvert or bridge slabs where the depth
slabs. The moments obtained shall be used in designing of fill over the slab exceeds 2 feet.
the center half of the short and long slabs. The reinforce-
ment steel in the outer quarters of both short and long
3.24.10.2 The amount of distribution reinforcement
spans may be reduced by 50%. In the design of the sup-
shall be the percentage of the main reinforcement steel
porting beams, considerationshall be given to the fact that
required for positive moment as given by the following
the loads delivered to the supporting beams are not uni-
formulas:
formly distributed along the beams.
For main reinforcement parallel to traffic,
3.24.7 Median Slabs
1O0
Percentage = -Maximum 50% (3 - 21)
Raised median slabs shall be designed in accordance ?is
with the provisions of this article with truck loadings so For main reinforcement perpendicular to traffic,
placed as to produce maximum stresses. Combined dead, 220
live, and impact stresses shall not be greater than 150% of Percentage = -Maximum 67% (3 - 22)
the allowable stresses. Flush median slabs shall be de-
?is
signed without overstress. where, S = the effective span length in feet.

3.24.8 Longitudinal Edge Beams 3.24.10.3 For main reinforcement perpendicular to


traffic, the specified amount of distribution reinforcement
3.24.8.1 Edge beams shall be provided for all slabs shall be used in the middle half of the slab span, and not
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

having main reinforcement parallel to traffic. The beam less than 50% of the specified amount shall be used in the
may consist of a slab section additionally reinforced, a outer quarters of the slab span.

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38 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.25

3.25 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON support. The maximum moment is for a wheel position.as-
TIMBER FLOORING sumed to be centered between the supports.

For the calculation of bending moments in timber M, = P(S1 log,, s -K ) (3 - 23)


flooring each wheel load shall be distributed as follows.
R, = .034P (3 - 24)

3.25.1 Transverse Flooring Thus, (3 - 25)

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
3.25.1.1 In the direction of flooring span, the wheel
load shall be distributed over the width of tire as given in
Article 3.30. t= 3whichever is greater (3 - 26)
Normal to the direction of flooring span, the wheel load 2F"
shall be distributed as follows:
Plank floor: the width of plank, but not less than 10 where,
inches.
Non-interconnected* nail laminated panel floor: 15 M, = primary
bending moment in inch-pounds per
inch;
inches, but not to exceed panel width.
Non-interconnected glued laminated panel floor: 15 R, = primary shear in pounds per inch;
x = denotes direction perpendicular to longitudinal
inches plus thickness of floor, but not to exceed panel
stringers;
width. Continuous nail laminated floor and interconnected
P = design wheel load in pounds;
nail laminated panel floor, with adequate shear transfer
s = effective deck span in inches;
between panels**: 15 inches plus thickness of floor, but
t = deck thickness, in inches, based on moment or
not to exceed panel width.
shear, whichever controls;
Interconnected* glued laminated panel floor, with ad-
K = design constant depending on design load as
equate shear transfer between panels**, not less than 6 follows:
inches thick: 15 inches plus twice thickness of floor. but
not to exceed panel width. H 15 K = 0.47

3.25.1.2 For transverse flooring the span shall be H20 K=0.51


taken as the clear distance between stringers plus one-half Fb = allowable bending stress, in pounds per square
the width of one stringer, but shall not exceed the clear inch, based on load applied parallel to the wide
span plus the floor thickness. face ofthe laminations (seeTables 13.2.2AandB);
F, = allowable shear stress, in pounds per square inch,
3.25.1.3 One design method for interconnected based on load applied parallel to the wide face of
glued laminated panel floors is as follows: For glued lam- the laminations (see Tables 13.2.2Aand B).
inated panel decks using vertically laminated lumber with
the panel placed in a transverse direction to the stringers 3.25.1.4 The determination of the minimum size and
and with panels interconnected using steel dowels, the de- spacing required of the steel dowels required to transfer
termination of the deck thickness shall be based on the fol- the load between panels shall be based on the following
lowing equations for maximum unit primary moment and equation:
shear.? The maximum shear is for a wheel position as-
sumed to be 15 inches or less from the center line of the
n=- 1,000 [% :i]
x y+- (3 - 27)
OPL

where,
*The terms interconnected and non-interconnected refer to the joints n = number of steel dowels required for the given
between the individual nail laminated or glued laminated panels.
spans;
**This shear transfer may he accomplished using mechanical fasten-
ers, splines, or dowels along the panel joint or other suitable means. upL= proportional limit stress perpendicular to grain
?The equations are developed for deck panel spans equal to or greater - (for Douglas fir or Southern pine, use 1,000psi);
than the width of the tire (as specified in Article 3.30), but not greater R, =,total secondary shear transferred, in pounds, de-
than 200 inches. termined by the relationship:

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3.25.1.4 DIVISION I-DESIGN 39
- 3.25.2.2 Normal to the direction of the span the
R, = 6Ps / 1,000 for s 5 50 inches (3 - 28)
wheel load shall be distributed as follows:
or.
Plank floor: 20 inches;
- Non-interconnected nail laminated floor: width of tire
R, = 2s (s - 20) for s > 50 inches (3- 29) plus thickness of floor, but not to exceed panel
width. Continuous nail laminated floor and inter-
M, = total secondary moment transferred, in inch- connected nail laminated floor, with adequate shear
pound, determined by the relationship, transfer between panels*, not less than 6 inches
thick: width of tire plus twice thickness of floor.
- Ps
My = -(s - 10) for s 5 50inches (3 - 30) 3.25.2.3 For longitudinal flooring the span shall be
1,600
taken as the clear distance between floor beams plus one-
- PS (S - 30)
My =-- for s > 50 inches (3 - 31)
half the width of one beam but shall not exceed the clear
20 (s - 10) span plus the floor thickness.

3.25.3 Longitudinal Glued Laminated Timber


RDand MD= shear and moment capacities, respec-
Decks
tively, as given in the following table:
3.25.3.1 Bending Moment
Total
Shear Moment Steel Stress Dowel
Diameter Capacity Capacity Coefficients Laigth In calculating bending moments in glued laminated
-----
OfDowel RD MD CR CM timber longitudinal decks, no longitudinal distribution of
in. ib. in.-lb. Yin. Yh3 in. wheel loads shall be assumed. The lateral distribution
0.5 600 850 36.9 81.5 8.50 shall be detemiined as follows.
.625 800 1,340 22.3 41.7 10.00 The live load bending moment for each panel shall be
.75 1,020 1,960 14.8 24.1 11 S O determined by applying to the panel the fraction of a
A75 1.260 2,720 10.5 15.2 13.00
1 .o 1.520 3.630 7.75 10.2 14.50 wheel load determined from the following equations:
1.125 1,790 4,680 5.94 7.15 15.50
1.U 2,100 5,950 4.69 5.22 17.00
TWO OR MORE TRAFFIC LANES
1.375 2,420 7,360 3.78 3.92 18.00
1.5 2,770 8,990 3.11 3.02 19.50

Load Fraction = WP or- wp whichever is


3.75 + - 5.00
3.25.1.5 In addition, the dowels shall be checked to
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

28
ensure that the allowable stress of the steel is not exceeded
using the following equation: greater.

ONE TRAFFIC LANE


(3 - 32)

Load Fraction = WP wp ,whichever is


where, L
4.25 + -
U = minimum yield point of steel pins in
28
pounds per square inch (see Table greater.
- - 10.32.1A);
n, R,, My = as previously defined; where, W, = Width of Panel; in feet (3.5 I.W, 5 4.5)
CR,CM = steel stress coefficients as given in pre-
ceding table. L =Length of span for simple span bridges and the
length of the shortest span for continuous bridges in
3.25.2 Plank and Nail Laminated Longitudinal feet.
Flooring
*This shear transfer m a y be accomplishedusing mechanical fasteners,
3.25.2.1 In the direction of the span, the wheel load splines, or dowels along the panel joint or spreader beam located at in-
shall be distributed over 10 inches. tervals along the panels or other suitable means.

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40 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.25.3.2

3.25.3.2 Shear shall be distributed over a transverse width of 5 feet for


bending moment and a width of 4 feet for shear.
When calculating the end shears and end reactions for
each panel, no longitudinal distribution of the wheel 3.26.1.2 For composite T-beams of wood and con-
loads shall be assumed. The lateral distribution of the crete, as described in Article 20.19.2, Division II, the ef-
wheel load at the supports shall be that determined by the fective flange width shall not exceed that given in Article
equation: 10.38.3. Shear connectors shall be capable of resisting
Wheel Load Fraction per Panel both vertical and horizontal movement.

3.26.2 Distribution of Bending Moments in


W Continuous Spans
= 2but not less than i.
4.00
3.26.2.1 Both positive and negative moments shall
For wheel loads in other positions on the span, the lateral be distributed in accordance with the following table:
&.HDu&iori for siieai- ie detemUiiei; iy hie m e i i i ~
Maximum Bending Moments-Percent of Simple
prescribed for moment. Span Moment
Maximum Uniform Maximum Live
3.25.3.3 Deflections Dead Load Moments Load Moments
Wood Composite Concentrated Uniform
The maximum deflection may be calculated by apply- Subdeck Slab Load Load
ing to the panel the wheel load fraction determined by the Span Pos. Neg. Pos. Neg. POS. Neg. Pos. Neg.
method prescribed for moment. 50 55 45 75 25 15 55
Interim 50
End 70 60 70 60 85 30 85 65
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.25.3.4 StiffenerArrangement 2-Span. 65 70 60 75 85 30 80 75


~ ~~~ ~~ ~~

*Continuousbeam of 2 equal spans.


The transverse stiffeners shall be adequately attached
to each panel, at points near the panel edges, with either
steel plates, thm-bolts, C-clips or aluminum brackets.The
stiffener spacing required will depend upon the spacing 3.26.2.2 Impact should be considered in computing
needed in order to prevent differential panel movement; stresses for concrete and steel, but neglected for wood.
however, a stiffener shall be placed at mid-span with ad-
ditional stiffeners placed at intervals not to exceed 10feet. 3.26.3 Design
The stiffness factor EI of the stiffener shall not be less than
80,000 kipin*. The analysis and design of composite wood-concrete
members shall be based on assumptions that account for
3.25.4 Continuous Flooring the different mechanical properties of the components. A
suitable procedure may be based on the elastic properties
If the flooring is continuous over more than two spans, of the materials as follows:
the maximum bending moment shall be assumed as being -
E, = 1 for slab in which the net concrete thickness is
80% of that obtained for a simple span. less than half the overall depth of the compos-
ite section
3.26 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS AND -
EC = 2 for slab in which the net concrete thickness is
DESIGN OF COMPOSITEWOOD- at least half the overall depth of the composite
CONCRETE MEMBERS section
Es = 18.75 (for Douglas fir and Southern pine)
-
3.26.1 Distribution of Concentrated Loads for E,
Bending Moment and Shear
in which,
3.26.1.1 For freely supported or continuous slab E, = modulus of elasticity of concrete;
spans of composite wood-concrete construction, as de- E, = modulus of elasticity of wood;
scribed in Article 16.3.14, Division II, the wheel loads E, = modulus of elasticity of steel.

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3.27 DIVISION I-DESIGN 41

3.27 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON 3.27.3.3 Edges of open grid steel floors shall be sup-
STEEL GRID FLOORS* ported by suitable means as required. These supports may
be longitudinal or transverse, or both, as may be required
3.27.1 General to support all edges properly.

3.27.1.1 The grid floor shall be designed as continu-


3.27.3.4 When investigating for fatigue, the mini-
ous, but simple.span moments may be used and reduced mum cycles of maximum stress shall be used.
as provided in Article 3.24.

3.28 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS FOR BENDING


3.27.1.2 The following rules for distribution of loads MOMENT IN SPREAD BOX GIRDERS**
assume that the grid floor is composed of main elements
that span between girders, stringers, or cross beams, and 3.28.1 Interior Beams
secondary elements that are capable of transfening load
between the main elements. The live load bending moment for each interior beam in
a spread box beam superstructure shall be determined by
3.27.1.3 Reinforcement for secondary elements shall applying to the beam the fraction (D.F.) of the wheel load
consist of bars or shapes welded to the main steel. (both front and rear) determined by the following equation:

D.F. = -
2NL + k z (3 - 33)
3.27.2 Floors Filled with Concrete
NB

3.27.2.1 The distribution and bending moment shall where,


be as specified for concrete slabs. Article 3.24. The fol- NL = number of design traffic lanes (Article 3.6);
lowing items specified in that article shall also apply to N = number of beams (4 INB 5 10);
concrete filled steel grid floors: S = beam spacing in feet (6.57 5 S 5 11.00);
L = span length in feet;
Longitudinal edge beams k = 0.07 W - N, (O.10NL - 0.26) - 0.20N - 0.12;
Unsupported transverse edges (3-34)
Span lengths W = numeric value of the roadway width between
curbs expressed in feet (32 5 W 5 66).
3.27.2.2 The strength of the composite steel and con-
crete slab shall be determined by means of the trans-
3.28.2 Exterior Beams
formed area method. The allowable stresses shall be as
SetforthinArticles 8.15.2, 8.16.1, and 10.32. The live load bending moment in the exterior beams
shall be determined by applying to the beams the reaction
3.27.3 Open Floors of the wheel loads obtained by assuming the flooring to
3.27.3.1 A wheel load shall be distributed, normal to act as a simple span (of length S) between beams, but shall
the main elements, over a width equal to 11/4inches per not be less than 2NL/NB.
ton of axle load plus twice the distance center to center of
3.29 MOMENTS, SHEARS, AND REACTIONS
main elements. The portion of the load assigned to each
main element shall be applied uniformly over a length
Maximum moments, shears, and reactions are given
equal to the rear tire width (20 inches for H 20, 15 inches
in tables, Appendix A, for H 15, H 20, HS 15, and HS 20
for H 15).
loadings. They are calculated for the standard truck or
the lane loading applied to a single lane on freely sup-
3.27.3.2 The strength of the section shall be deter- ported spans. It is indicated in the table whether the
mined by the moment of inertia method. The allowable standard truck or the lane loadings produces the maxi-
stresses shall be as set forth in Article 10.32. mum stress.

**The provisions of Article 3.12, Reduction in Load Intensity, were


*Provisions in this article shall not apply to orthotropic bridge super- not applied in the development of the provisions presented in Articles
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

structures. 3.28.1 and 3.28.2.

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42 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 3.30

3.30 TIRE CONTACT AREA

The tire contact area for the Alternate Military Load-


ing or HS 20-44 shall be assumed as a rectangle with a
length in the direction of traffic of 10 inches, and a width
of tire of 20 inches. For other design vehicles, the tire con-
tact should be determined by the engineer.
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Section 4
FOUNDATIONS
Part A
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND MATERIALS

4.1 GENERAL 4.2.2.2 Settlement

Foundations shall be designed to support all live and The settlement of foundations may be determined
dead loads, and earth and water pressure loadings in ac- using procedures described in Articles 4.4,4.5, or 4.6 for
cordance with the general principles specified in this sec- service load design and Articles 4.11, 4.12, or 4.13 for
tion. The design shall be made either with reference to ser- strength design, or other generally accepted methodolo-
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

vice loads and allowable stresses as provided in SERVICE gies. Such methods are based on soil and rock parameters
LOAD DESIGN or, alternatively, with reference to load measured directly or inferred from the results of in situ
factors, and factored strength as provided in STRENGTH andor laboratory tests.
DESIGN.
4.2.2.3 Overall Stability
4.2 FOUNDATIONTYPE AND CAPACITY The overall stability of slopes in the vicinity of
foundations shall be considered as part of the design of
4.2.1 Selection of Foundation Type foundations.

Selection of foundation type shall be based on an 4.2.3 Soil, Rock, and Other Problem Conditions
assessment of the magnitude and direction of loading,
depth to suitable bearing materials, evidence of previous Geologic and environmental conditions can influence
flooding, potential for liquefaction, undermining or the performance of foundations and may require special
scour, swelling potential, frost depth and ease and cost of consideration during design. To the extent possible, the
construction. presence and influence of such conditions shall be evalu-
ated as part of the subsurface exploration program. A rep-
4.2.2 Foundation Capacity resentative, but not exclusive, listing of problem condi-
tions requiring special consideration is presented in Table
Foundations shall be designed to provide adequate 4.2.3A for general guidance.
structural capacity, adequate foundation bearing capacity
with acceptable settlements, and acceptable overall sta- 4.3 SUBSURFACEEXPLORATION AND
bility of slopes adjacent to the foundations. The tolerable TESTING PROGRAMS
level of structural deformation is controlled by the type
and span of the superstructure. The elements of the subsurface exploration and testing
programs shall be the responsibility of the designer based
4.2.2.1 Bearing Capacity on the specific requirements of the project and his or her
experience with local geologic conditions.
The bearing capacity of foundations may be estimated
4.3.1 General Requirements
using procedures described in Articles 4.4,4.5, or 4.6 for
service load design and Articles 4.11, 4.12, or 4.13 for
As a minimum, the subsurface exploration and testing
strengthdesign, or other generally accepted theories. Such
programs shall define the following, where applicable:
theories are based on soil and rock parameters measured
by in situ and/or laboratory tests. The bearing capacity 0 Soil strata
may also be determined using load tests. -Depth, thickness, and variability
43

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44 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 4.3.1

TABLE 4.2.3A Problem Conditions Requiring Special Consideration

Problem
Type Description Comments

Organic soil; highly plastic clay Low strength and high compressibility
Sensitive clay Potentially large strength loss upon large straining
Micaceous soil Potentially high compressibility (often saprolitic)
Soil Expansive clay/silt; expansive slag Potentially large expansion upon wetting
Liquefiable soil Complete strength loss and high deformations due to earthquake
loading
Collapsible soil Potentially large deformations upon wetting (Caliche; Loess)
Pyritic soil Potentially large expansion upon oxidation
Laminated rock Low strength when loaded parallel to bedding
Expansive shale Potentially large expansion upon wetting; degrades readily upon
exposure to aidwater
Pyritic shale Expands upon exposure to aidwater
Rock Soluble rock Soluble in flowing and standing water (Limestone, Limerock,
Gypsum)
Cretaceous shale Indicator of potentially corrosive ground water
Weak claystone (Red Beds) Low strength and readily degradable upon exposure to aidwater
Gneissic and Schistose Rock Highly distorted with irregular weathering profiles and steep
discontinuities
Subsidence Typical in areas of underground mining or high ground water
extraction
Sinkholes/solutioning Karst topography; typical of areas underlain by carbonate rock
strata
Condition Negative skin friction/ Additional compressive/uplift load on deep foundations due to
expansion loading settlemenihplift of soil
Corrosive environments Acid mine drainage; degradation of certain soilhock types
Permafrost/frost Typical in northern climates
Capillary water Rise of water level in silts and fine sands leading to strength loss

-Identification and classification qc), and sample recovery and RQD for rock strata. The
-Relevant engineering properties (Le., shear drilling equipment and method, use of drilling mud, type
strength, compressibility, stiffness, permeability, of SPT hammer (i.e. safety, donut, hydraulic) or cone pen-
expansion or collapse potential, and frost suscep- etrometer (i.e., mechanical or electrical), and any unusual
tibility) subsurface conditions such as artesian pressures, boulders
0 Rock strata or other obstructions, or voids shall also be noted on the
-Depth to rock exploration logs.
-Identification and classification
-Quality (Le., soundness, hardness, jointing and 4.3.2 Minimum Depth
presence of joint filling, resistance to weathering,
if exposed, and solutioning) Where substructure units will be supported on spread
-Compressive strength (e.g., uniaxial compres- footings, the minimum depth of the subsurface explo-
sion, point load index) ration shall extend below the anticipated bearing level a
-Expansion potential minimum of two footing widths for isolated, individual
Ground water elevation footings where L 5 2B, and four footing widths for foot-
Ground surface elevation ings where L > 5B. For intermediate footing lengths, the
Local conditions requiring special consideration minimum depth of exploration may be estimated by lin-
ear interpolation as a function of L between depths of 2B
Exploration logs shall include soil and rock strata de- and 5B below the bearing level. Greater depths may be re-
scriptions, penetration resistance for soils (e.g., SPT or quired where warranted by local conditions.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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4.3.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 45

Where substructure units will be supported on deep 4.4.1.2 Footings Supporting Non-Rectangular
foundations, the depth of the subsurface exploration shall Columns or Piers
xtend a minimum of 20 feet below the anticipated pile or
shaft tip elevation. Where pile or shaft groups will be Footings supporting circular or regular polygon-
used, the subsurface exploration shall extend at least two shaped concrete columns or piers may be designed as-
times the maximum pile group dimension below the an- suming that the columns or piers act as square members
ticipated tip elevation, unless the foundations will be end with the same area for location of critical sections for mo-
bearing on or in rock. For piles bearing on rock, a mini- ment, shear, and development of reinforcement.
mum of 10 feet of rock core shall be obtained at each ex-
ploration location to insure the exploration has not been 4.4.1.3 Footings in Fill
terminated on a boulder. For shafts supported on or ex-
tending into rock, a minimum of 10 feet of rock core, or a Footings located in fill are subject to the same bearing
length of rock core equal to at least three times the shaft capacity, settlement, and dynamic ground stability con-
diameter for isolated shafts or two times the maximum siderations as footings in natural soil in accordance with
shaft group dimension for a shaft group, whichever is Articles 4.4.7.1 through 4.4.7.3. The behavior of both the
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

greater, shall be obtained to insure the exploration has not fill and underlying natural soil shall be considered.
terminated in a boulder and to determine the physical
characteristics of rock within the zone of foundation in- 4.4.1.4 Footings in Sloped Portions of
fluence for design. Embankments
4.3.3 Minimum Coverage The earth pressure against the back of footings and
columns within the sloped portion of an embankment
A minimum of one soil boring shall be made for each
shall be equal to the at-rest earth pressure in accordance
substructure unit. (See Article 7.1.1 for definition of sub-
with Article 5.5.2. The resistance due to the passive earth
structure unit.) For substructure units over 100 feet in
pressure of the embankment in front of the footing shall
width, a minimum of two borings shall be required.
be neglected to a depth equal to a minimum depth of
4.3.4 Laboratory Testing 3 feet, the depth of anticipated scour, freeze thaw action,
andor trench excavation in front of the footing,
Laboratory testing shall be performed as necessary to whichever is greater.
determine engineering properties including unit weight,
shear strength, compressive strength and compressibility. 4.4.1.5 Distribution of Bearing Pressure
In the absence of laboratory testing, engineering proper-
ties may be estimated based on published test results or Footings shall be designed to keep the maximum soil
local experience. and rock pressures within safe bearing values. To prevent
unequal settlement,footings shall be designed to keep the
4.3.5 Scour bearing pressure as nearly uniform as practical. For foot-
ings supported on piles or drilled shafts, the spacing be-
The probable depth of scour shall be determined by tween piles and drilled shafts shall be designed to ensure
subsurface exploration and hydraulic studies. Refer to nearly equal loads on deep foundation elements as may be
Article 1.3.2 and FHWA (1988) for general guidance practical.
regarding hydraulic studies and design. When footings support more than one column, pier, or
Part B wall, distribution of soil pressure shall be consistent with
SERVICE LOAD DESIGN METHOD properties of the foundation materials and the structure,
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN and with the principles of geotechnical engineering.

4.4.2 Notations
4.4 SPREAD FOOTINGS

4.4.1 General The following notations shall apply for the design of
spread footings on soil and rock:
4.4.1.1 Applicability
A = Contact area of footing (ft)
Provisions of this Article shall apply for design of iso- A = Effective footing area for computation of
lated footings, and to combined footings and mats (foot- bearing capacity of a footing subjected to
ings supporting more than one column, pier, or wall). eccentric load (ft); (SeeArticle4.4.7.1.1.1)

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46 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 4.4.2

b,, b,, b, = Base inclination factors (dim); (See Article Es = Soil modulus (ksf)
4.4.7.1.1.8)
. F = Total force on footing subjected to an in-
B = Width of footing (ft); (Minimum plan di- clined load (k); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.1)
mension of footing unless otherwise noted) = Unconfined compressive strength of con-
B' = Effective width for load eccentric in direc- crete (ksf)
tion of short side, L unchanged (ft) FS = Factor of safety against bearing capacity,
C = Soil cohesion (ksf) overturning or sliding shear failure (dim)
CI = Effective stress soil cohesion (ksf) H = Depth from footing base to top of second
C* = Reduced effective stress soil cohesion for cohesive soil layer for two-layer cohesive
punching shear (ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.1) soil profile below footing (ft); (See Article
= Adhesion between footing and foundation 4.4.7.1.1.7)
soil or rock (ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.3) = Height of compressible soil layer (ft)
= Coefficient of consolidation (ft2/yr); (See = Critical thickness of the upper layer of a
Article 4.4.7.2.3) two-layer system beyond which the under-
= Shear strength of upper cohesive soil lying layer will have little effect on the bear-
layer below footing (ksf); (See Article ing capacity of footings bearing in the upper
4.4.7.1.1.7) layer (ft); (SeeMicle 4.4.7.1.1.7)
c2 = Shear strength of lower cohesive soil = Height of longest drainage path in com-
layer below footing (ksf); (See Article pressible soil layer (ft)
4.4.7.1.1.7) = Height of slope (ft); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.4)
= Compression index (dim); (See Article = Slope angle from horizontal of ground sur-
4.4.7.2.3) face below footing (deg)
CC, = Recompression index (dim); (See Article = Load inclination factors (dim); (See Article
4.4.7.2.3) 4.4.7.1.1.3)
cc, = Compression ratio (dim); (See Article = Influence coefficient to account for rigidity
4.4.7.2.3) and dimensions of footing (dim); (See Arti-
CO = Uniaxial compressive strength of intact cle 4.4.8.2.2)
rock (ksf) e = Center-to-center spacing between adjacent
= Recompression ratio (dim); (See Article footings (ft)
4.4.7.2.3) L = Length of footing (ft)
= Coefficient of secondary compression de- L' = Effective footing length for load eccentric
fined as change in height per log cycle of in direction of long side, B unchanged (ft)
time (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.4) Li = Length (or width) of footing having positive
D = Influence depth for water below footing contact pressure (compression) for footing
(ft); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.6) loaded eccentrically about one axis (ft)
= Depth to base of footing (ft) n = Exponential factor relating B L or L/B ra-
= Void ratio (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3) tios for inclined loading (dim); (See Article
= Void ratio at final vertical effective stress 4.4.7.1.1.3)
(dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3) N = Standard penetration resistance (blowdft)
= Void ratio at initial vertical effective stress Ni = Standard penetration resistance corrected
(dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3) for effects of overburden pressure (blows/

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
= Void ratio at maximum past vertical effec- ft); (See Article 4.4.7.2.2)
tive stress (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3) = Bearing capacity factors based on the value
= Eccentricity of load in the B direction mea- of internal friction of the foundation soil
sured from centroid of footing (ft); (See Ar- (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1)
ticle 4.4.7.1.1.1) Nnl = Modified bearing capacity factor to account
= Eccentricity of load in the L direction mea- for layered cohesive soils below footing
sured from centroid of footing (ft); (See (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)
Article 4.4.7.1.1.1) Nms = Coefficient factor to estimate quitfor rock
Eo = Modulus of intact rock (ksf) (dim); (See Article 4.4.8.1.2)
Em = Rock mass modulus (ksf); (See Article NS = Stability number (dim); (See Article
4.4.8.2.2) 4.4.7.1.1.4)

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4.4.2 DIVISION I-DESIGN 47

= Modified bearing capacity factors for ef- = Time factor (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
fects of footing on or adjacent sloping = Depth from footing base down to the high-
ground (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.4) est anticipated ground water level (ft); (See
= Tangential component of force on footing. Article 4.4.7.1.1.6)
(k) =Angle of inclination of the footing base
= Maximum resisting force between footing from the horizontal (radian)
base and foundation soil or rock for sliding = Reduction factor (dim); (See Article
failure (k) 4.4.8.2.2)
= Effective overburden pressure at base of = Length to width ratio of footing (dim)
footing (ksf) = Punching index = BL/[2(B + L)H] (dim);
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

= Normal component of force on footing (k) (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)


= Allowable uniform bearing pressure or con- = Factor to account for footing shape and
tact stress (ksf) rigidity (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.2)
= Cone penetration resistance (ksf) = Total unit weight of soil or rock (kcf)
= Maximum footing contact pressure (ksf) = Buoyant unit weight of soil or rock (kcf)
= Maximum normal component of load sup- = Moist unit weight of soil (kcf)
ported by foundation soil or rock at ultimate = Angle of friction between footing and foun-
bearing capacity (k) dation soil or rock (deg); (See Article
= Minimum magnitude of footing contact 4.4.7.1.1.3)
pressure (ksf) = Differential settlement between adjacent
= Vertical stress at base of loaded area (ksf); footings (ft); (See Article 4.4.7.2.5)
(See Article 4.4.7.2.1) = Vertical strain (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Ultimate bearing capacity for uniform bear- = Vertical strain at final vertical effective
ing pressure (ksf) stress (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Ultimate bearing capacity of footing sup- = Initial vertical strain (dim); (See Article
ported in the upper layer of a two-layer sys- 4.4.7.2.3)
tem assuming the upper layer is infinitely = Vertical strain at maximum past vertical
thick (ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7) effective stress (dim); (See Article
= Ultimate bearing capacity of a fictitious 4.4.7.2.3)
footing of the same size and shape as the ac- = Angle of load eccentricity (deg)
tual footing, but supported on surface of the = Shear strength ratio (c&) for two layered
second (lower) layer of a two-layer system cohesive soil system below footing (dim);
(ksf); (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7) (See Article 4.4.7.1.1.7)
= Resultant of pressure on base of footing (k) = Reduction factor to account for three-di-
= Radius of circular footing or B/2 for square mensional effects in settlement analysis
footing (ft); (See Article 4.4.8.2.2) (dim); (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Rock Quality Designation (dim) = Poisson's ratio (dim)
= Footing shape factors (dim); (See Article = Final vertical effective stress in soil at depth
4.4.7.1.1.2) interval below footing (ksf); (See Article
= Undrained shear strength of soil (ksf) 4.4.7.2.3)
= Consolidation settlement (ft); (See Article = Initial vertical effective stress in soil at
4.4.7.2.3) depth interval below footing (ksf); (See Ar-
= Elastic or immediate settlement (ft); (See ticle 4.4.7.2.3)
Article 4.4.7.2.2) = Maximum past vertical effective stress in
= Secondary settlement (ft); (See Article soil at depth interval below footing (ksf);
4.4.7.2.4) (See Article 4.4.7.2.3)
= Total settlement (ft); (See Article 4.4.7.2) = Angle of internal friction (deg)
= Time to reach specified average degree = Effective stress angle of internal friction
of consolidation (yr); (See Article (deg)
4.4.7.2.3) = Reduced effective stress soil friction angle
= Arbitrary time intervals for determination for punching shear (ksf); (See Article
of S, (yr); (See Article 4.4.7.2.4) 4.4.7.1)

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48 HIGHWAY BRIDGES 4.4.2

The notations for dimension units include the follow- 4.4.4 Soil and Rock Property Selection
ing: dim = Dimensionless; deg = degree; ft = foot; k =
kip; Mft = kip/ft; ksf = kip/ft2;kcf = kip/ft3;lb = pound; Soil and rock properties defining the strength and com-
in. = inch; and psi = pound per square inch. The dimen- pressibility characteristics of the foundation materials are
sional units provided with each notation are presented for required for footing design. Foundation stability and set-
illustration only to demonstrate a dimensionally correct tlement analyses for design shall be conducted using soil
combination of units for the footing capacity procedures and rock properties based on the results of field and/or
presented herein. If other units are used, the dimensional laboratory testing.
correctness of the equations shall be confirmed.
4.4.5 Depth
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4.4.3 Design Terminology 4.4.5.1 Minimum Embedment and Bench Width

Refer to Figure 4.4.3A for terminology used in the de- Footings not otherwise founded on sound, non-de-
sign of spread footing foundations. gradeable rock surfaces shall be embedded a sufficient

FIGURE 4.4.3A Design Terminologyfor Spread Footing Foundations

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4.4.5.1 DIVISION I-DESIGN 49

depth to provide adequate bearing, scour and frost heave vented by properly designed, graded soil filters or geotex-
protection, or 2 feet to the bottom of footing, whichever is tile drainage systems.
greatest. For footings constructed on slopes, a minimum
horizontal distance of 4 feet, measured at the top of foot- 4.4.6 Anchorage
ing, shall be provided between the near face of the foot-
ing and the face of the finished slope. Footings founded on inclined, smooth rock surfaces
and which are not restrained by an overburden of resistant
material shall be effectively anchored by means of rock
4.4.5.2 Scour Protection anchors, rock bolts, dowels, keys, benching or other suit-
able means. Shallow keying or benching of large footing
Footings supported on soil or degradable rock strata areas shall be avoided where blasting is required for rock
shall be embedded below the maximum computed scour removal.
depth or protected with a scour countermeasure. Footings
supported on massive, competent rock formations which
are highly resistant to scour shall be placed directly on the 4.4.7 Geotechnical Design on Soil
cleaned rock surface. Where required, additional lateral
resistance should be provided by drilling and grouting Spread footings on soil shall be designed to support the
steel dowels into the rock surface rather than blasting to design loads with adequate bearing and structural capac-
embed the footing below the rock surface. ity, and with tolerable settlements in conformance with
Footings on piles may be located above the lowest an- Articles 4.4.7 and 4.4.11. In addition, the capacity of
ticipated scour level provided the piles are designed for footings subjected to seismic and dynamic loads, shall
this condition.Assume that only one-half of the maximum be evaluated in conformance with Articles 4.4.7.3 and
anticipated scour has occurred when designing for earth- 4.4.10.
quake loading. Where footings on piles are subject to The location of the resultant of pressure (R) on the base
damage by boulders or debris during flood scour, ade- of the footings shall be maintained within B/6 of the ten-
quate protection shall be provided. Footings shall be con- ter of the footing.
structed so as to neither pose an obstacle to water traffic
nor be exposed to view during low flow. 4.4.7.1 Bearing Capacity

4.4.5.3 Footing Excavations The ultimate bearing capacity (for general shear fail-
ure) may be estimated using the following relationshipfor
Footing excavations below the ground water table, par; continuous footings (i.e., L > 5B):
ticularly in granular soils having relatively high perme-
ability, shall be made such that the hydraulic gradient in quit = cN, + O.SyBN, + qN, (4.4.7.1-1)
the excavation bottom is not increased to a magnitude that
would cause the foundation soils to loosen or soften due The allowable bearing capacity shall be determined
to the upward flow of water. Further, footing excavations as:
shall be made such that hydraulic gradients and material
removal do not adversely affect adjacent structures. Seep- qaii = quit/Fs (4.4.7.1-2)
age forces and gradients may be evaluated by flow net
procedures or other appropriate methods. Dewatering or Refer to Table 4.4.7.1A for values of N,, N,, and N,.
cutoff methods to control seepage shall be used where If local or punching shear failure is possible, the value
necessary. of quitmay be estimated using reduced shear strength pa-
Footing excavations in nonresistant, easily weathered rameters c* and +* in Equation (4.4.7.1-1) as follows:
moisture sensitive rocks shall be protected from weather-
ing immediately after excavation with a lean mix concrete c* = 0 . 6 7 ~ (4.4.7.1-3)
or other approved materials.
c$* = tan-' (0.67tan +) (4.4.7.1-4)

4.4.5.4 Piping Effective stress methods of analysis and drained shear


strength parameters shall be used to determine bearing
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Piping failures of fine materials through rip-rap or capacity factors for drained loading conditions in all soils.
through drainage backfills behind abutments shall be pre- Additionally, the bearing capacity of cohesive soils shall

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50 HIGHWAY BRIDGES
~~
4.4.7.1

TABLE 4.4.7.1A Bearing Capacity Factors

O 5.14 1.o0 0.00 26 22.25 11.85 12.54


1 5.38 1.o9 0.07 27 23.94 13.20 14.47
2 5.63 1.20 O. 15 28 25.80 14.72 16.72
3 5.90 1.31 0.24 29