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Nivel I
ICB Unit 1


Prof. E. Balliro
Prof. M. Tovar
Prof. Gonzalez
Prof. Fernandez
Prof. Goldsack
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Text 1 1. Extraiga del texto distintos ejemplos de determiners. Indique de que tipo son y en que posicin
estn usados.
Parts of a Plant
2. Extraiga del texto:
Plants grow almost everywhere on our planet. Plants need the same things to live. The four
things plants need are light, water, air, and soil. 2 sustantivos concretos
The roots are underground. This is the part of the plant that takes in water and nutrients from 2 sustantivos abstractos
the soil.
2 sustantivos contables en singular
The stem connects the roots with the leaves. The trunk of a tree is a good example of this part of
a plant. This part carries water and nutrients from the roots to other parts of the plant. 2 sustantivos incontables
The leaves are the parts of the plant that grow out of the stem. They take in nutrients and light.
Conteste las siguientes preguntas sobre el texto:

1- Por qu es azul el color que vemos ms cuando miramos la Tierra desde el espacio exterior?
Text 2 a- Because most of the Earth is covered in land.
Read the article "Outer Space" b- Because the Suns rays make the Earth look blue.
c- Because most of the Earth is covered in water.
d- Because clouds wrap around the Earth.

2- Que causa la luz del da en la Tierra?

From far out in space, Earth looks like a blue ball. Since water covers three -fourths a- The full Moon causes daylight.
of the Earths surface, blue is the colour we see most. The continents look brown, like b- Daylight is caused by the Earth facing away from the Sun.
small islands floating in the huge, blue sea. White clouds wrap around the Earth like a c- The heat of the Suns rays causes daylight.
light blanket. The Earth is shaped like a sphere, or a ball. It is 25,000 miles around! It d- Daylight is caused by the Earth facing toward the Sun.
would take more than a year to walk around the whole planet. A spaceship can fly
around the widest part of the sphere in only 90 minutes. 3- Cul de las siguientes oraciones describe MEJOR al sol?
a- The Sun looks small because it is so far from Earth.
Even though spaceships have travelled to th e Moon, people cannot visit the Moon b- The Sun is a ball of burning gases that gives the Earth heat and light.
without special suits. The Moon has no air or water. Plants and animals cant live there c- The Sun is a small star.
either. Astronauts first landed on the Moon in 1969. After that, there were six more d- The Sun is not as hot as it looks.
trips to the Moon. They brought back Moon roc ks, which scientists are still studying.
There are holes, or craters, all over the Moons surface. Scientists believe that 4- Por qu los astronautas trajeron rocas desde la Luna?
meteorites smashed into the Moon millions of years ago and formed the craters. a- Because they didnt know if they would return to the Moon ever again.
b- Because they wanted to prove that they went to the Moon.
The Sun is the closest star to Earth. A star is a hot ball of burning gas. The Sun looks c- Because they wanted to remember how the Moon looked.
very big because it is so close. But the Sun is just a medium -sized star. Billions of far- d- Because they wanted to study them and learn more about the Moon.
away stars are much bigger than our Sun. The burning gases from the Sun are so hot
that they warm the Earth from 93 million miles away! Even though the Sun is always 5- Cul es la idea principal de este artculo?
glowing, the night here on Earth is dark. Thats because the Earth rotates, or turns a- Plants and animals cant live on the Moon.
around, every 24 hours. During the day, the Earth faces the Sun. Then we see light. b- Without the Sun we would have no heat or light.
During the night, the Earth turns away from the Sun . Then it faces the darkness of c- We know a lot about the Earth, Moon, and Sun, but there is still more to learn.
space. d- From outer space, the Earth looks tiny, even though it is thousands of miles around.

Each day we learn more about the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun.

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Leer las siguientes oraciones extradas de un manual universitario. Subrayar los sustantivos y
Conteste las siguientes preguntas sobre el texto anterior
Biology is the scientific study of living things.
1. Cuntos ttulos tiene? Son igualmente jerrquicos?
Biologists study processes from the level of the molecule to the level of ecosystems. 2. Cmo te das cuenta de la diferencia?
Pieter focused on the possibility that some parasite was infecting the frogs. 3. Cul es el ms general? Cul es el tema ms general?
4. Cul es el tema del segundo prrafo?
Pieter, then, di dan experiment 5. Busque en ambos prrafos por una definicin de life y otra de metabolism.
85 percent of the frogs developed deformities.

Diga si las siguientes afirmaciones son Verdaderas o Falsas

Text 3 1. La vida es una unidad gentica organizada capaz de metabolizar, reproducirse y evolucionar.
2. El metabolismo envuelve miles de reacciones fsicas.
Lea el siguiente fragmento de texto y subraye los sustantivos que reconozca. Luego clasifquelos 3. Para que un organismo funcione, las reacciones qumicas deben estar coordinadas.
segn su tipo. 4. Los agentes externos controlan estas reacciones.

Text 4
Lea el siguiente texto.

What Is a Supernova?
A supernova is a large explosion that takes place at the end of a star's life cycle.


Supernovas are often seen in other galaxies. But supernovas are difficult to see in our own Milky
Way galaxy because dust blocks our view. In 1604, Johannes Kepler discovered the last observed
supernova in the Milky Way. NASAs Chandra telescope discovered the remains of a more recent
supernova. It exploded in the Milky Way more than a hundred years ago.


A supernova happens where there is a change in the core, or center, of a star. A change can occur
in two different ways, with both resulting in a supernova.

The first type of supernova happens in binary star systems. Binary stars are two stars that orbit
the same point. One of the stars, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, steals matter from its companion
star. Eventually, the white dwarf accumulates too much matter. Having too much matter causes
the star to explode, resulting in a supernova.

The second type of supernova occurs at the end of a single stars lifetime. As the star runs out of
nuclear fuel, some of its mass flows into its core. Eventually, the core is so heavy that it cannot

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withstand its own gravitational force. The core collapses, which results in the giant explosion of a a) ..: that posses both electrical and magnetic properties.
supernova. The sun is a single star, but it does not have enough mass to become a supernova. b) : a star near the end of its life that has used most or all of its nuclear fuel
and collapsed into a size similar to Earth.
____________________________________ c) ..: two types of electromagnetic radiation with very short wavelength and
very high-energy. They have shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light.
A supernova burns for only a short period of time, but it can tell scientists a lot about the d) ..: a person who studies astronomy.
universe. e) ..: to tolerate or resist something.
f) .: material burnt to produce heat or power.
One kind of supernova has shown scientists that we live in an expanding universe, one that is
g) ....: an instrument used for looking at the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc
growing at an ever increasing rate. Scientists also have determined that supernovas play a key
role in distributing elements throughout the universe. When the star explodes, it shoots 2. Coloque el ttulo correspondiente a cada prrafo.
elements and debris into space. Many of the elements we find here on Earth are made in the
core of stars. These elements travel on to form new stars, planets and everything else in the Where Do Supernovas Take Place?
universe. Why Do Scientists Study Supernovas?
What Can You Do to Help?
______________________________________ What Causes a Supernova?
How Do NASA Scientists Look for Supernovas?
NASA scientists use different types of telescopes to look for and study supernovas. Some
telescopes are used to observe the visible light from the explosion. Others record data from the 3. Explique los dos tipos de supernova que existen.
X-rays and gamma rays that are also produced. Both NASAs Hubble Space Telescope and
Chandra X-ray Observatory have captured images of supernovas.
In June 2012, NASA launched the first orbiting telescope that focuses light in the high-energy
region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NuSTAR mission has a number of jobs to do. It will B. Grammar activities:
look for collapsed stars and black holes. It also will search for the remains of supernovas.
Scientists hope to learn more about how stars explode and the elements that are created by 1. Seleccione 5 tipos diferentes de sustantivos y clasifquelos.
_________________________________ b).
You do not have to be a scientist, or even have a telescope, to hunt for supernovas. For example,
in 2008 a teenager discovered a supernova. Then in January 2011, a 10-year-old girl from Canada
discovered a supernova while looking at night sky images on her computer. The images, taken by e)..
an amateur astronomer, just happened to include a supernova.
2. Marque en el artculo ejemplos de lo siguiente:
With some practice and the right equipment, you could find the next supernova!
a) Una palabra con prefijo.
A. Comprehension Activities: b) Un numeral
c) Un artculo definido
1. Lea el texto nuevamente. Una las palabras en negrita en el texto con las definiciones d) Un artculo indefinido
correspondientes. e) Un quantifier

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Text 5 c. Sugar is green.
d. Photosynthesis requires green light to produce sugar.
5- After reading the passage, what can you conclude about photosynthesis?
(1) Photosynthesis is the process that plants use to convert sunlight into the food that they need to
survive and grow. Most plants create some form of sugar from the sunlight, and this sugar is used a. Chlorophyll is part of the ozone layer.
by the plant as its primary food source. b. Photosynthesis is the process that feeds a plant.
c. Plants need oxygen to survive.
(2) Plants actually need only three things to create this sugar: sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. d. The roots of a plant provide water.
The sunlight reacts with the plant's chlorophyll, a green chemical which is used to convert water
and carbon dioxide into sugar. 6- After reading the passage, what can you infer about photosynthesis?
a. Human life would not survive without plants.
(3) As a general rule, photosynthesis occurs in a plant's leaves. The leaf contains chlorophyll, b. Chlorophyll tastes sweet.
which reacts when sunlight strikes the leaf. It is also the chlorophyll which gives the leaf its typical c. Sunlight has both good and bad effects on plants.
green color, since photosynthesis absorbs most light rays except green, which are reflected d. Too much water can interfere with photosynthesis.
Ejercicio 2:
(4) The process of photosynthesis produces more than just sugar, however. One byproduct of the
process is oxygen, which is "exhaled" by the plant into the atmosphere. In fact, plant a- Extraiga del texto cinco palabras claves para el desarrollo del tema.
photosynthesis is one of the primary sources of oxygen generation on our planet, making plant life b- Identifique en el texto los sustantivos compuestos.
essential to almost all living things on earth. c- Los sustantivos que contengan prefijos y/o sufijos y determine su significado.
d- Sustantivos Incontables.
Ejercicio1: marque la respuesta correcta. e- Escriba un resumen con las ideas principales que expresa el autor.

1- According to paragraph 4, which of the following is a byproduct of photosynthesis?

a. green pigment Text 6

b. water
c. carbon dioxide Geometry
d. oxygen
Ejercicio 1.
2- The underlined word essential, as used in paragraph 4, most nearly means
a. Enumere los trminos que define el autor del texto.
a. necessary.
b. optional.
c. fragrant.
d. growing. b. Extraiga del texto sustantivos abstractos, contables e incontables.
3- The passage explains that photosynthesis is

a. done in the plant stem.

b. what makes plants edible. c. Extraiga ejemplos de sustantivos compuestos
c. the way that plants feed themselves.
d. the source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

4- According to the passage, why do plant leaves look green?

a. Leaves are actually not green.

b. Photosynthesis absorbs all colors except green.
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Text 8
Text 7
Organ Population Cell Molecule Tissue Organism
A ______________ is a group of many organisms of the same species.
1. Lea el siguiente texto e identifique las partes que lo componen. A __________ is a group of many cells with similar and coordinated functions.
2. Identifique 5 sustantivos y clasifquelos. _________ of many types are the working components of living organisms.
3. Identifique tres palabras que contengan prefijos, mrquelos y consigne su significado. An ___________ is a recongnizable, self-contained individual made up of organs and organ systems.
4. Identifique tres palabras con sufijos, mrquelos y consigne su significado. ____________ are made up of atoms, and can be organized into cells.
5. Diga de qu trata el texto. No escriba menos de cinco oraciones. ____________ combine several tissues that function together. Organs form systems, for example:
Nervous system

Lea las siguientes afirmaciones y luego conteste V o F

a. An organ is made up of tissues.

b. The heart is an organ.
c. An organism is made up of organs and organ systems.
d. A fish is made up of organs and organ systems.

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Conteste V o F 5. Identificar la raz y los sufijos o prefijos de las siguientes anteriores. Podras
proporcionar ms ejemplos?
A fish is an organism. 6. Proporcionar una alternativa en espaol.
The heart is an organism. 7. Decir si las siguientes afirmaciones son Verdaderas o Falsas:
A heart is made up of tissues.
A fish is an animal.
El fragmento de texto fue extrado de un artculo de investigacin
El fragmento de texto se encuentra en la parte final del texto completo.
Encuentre en las oraciones anteriores: 2 artculos indefinidos distintos en forma y un artculo definido. La intencin del trabajo en presentar factores solamente sociales y culturales que
Marque el grupo nominal completo. circundan del gran tema del agua.
El manejo del agua y sanidad debe estar dirigido a todo el mundo, sobretodo a aquellas
personas q viven en pobreza.
Lea las siguientes oraciones, proporcione una versin en espaol para las primeras tres oraciones, Menos de 1 billn de personas no tienen adecuadas condiciones sanitarias.
e identifique los sustantivos, los artculos y los cuantificadores. De dnde fueron sacadas estas El poco acceso a agua potable y las inadecuadas condiciones sanitarias son generalmente
oraciones? la causa de varios problemas.
El agua potable es un problema debido a su creciente escasez.
Las injusticias son llevadas a cabo por polticas de gobierno nacionales e internacionales
- In this work the reaction between several manganese oxides and chlorine is investigated. injustas.
- A few works related with chlorination of manganese oxides were reported.
- In the present work, the starting temperatures for the chlorination of manganese oxides were obtained.
- Three stages were identified during chlorination of MnO: the first one leads to the formation of MnCl 2
and Mn3O4, in the second step Mn3O4 is chlorinated forming forming MnCl 2 and Mn2O3. Finally,
volatilization of MnCl2 takes place

Text 9



Water is an essential element for life. Many people must confront daily the situation of an
inadequate supply of safe water and the very serious resulting consequences. The intention of this
paper is to present some of the human, social, economic, ethical and religious factors surrounding
the issue of water.

The management of water and sanitation must address the needs of all, and particularly of persons
living in poverty. Inadequate access to safe drinking water affects the well being of over one
billion persons and more than twice that number have no adequate sanitation. This all too often is
the cause of disease, unnecessary suffering, conflicts, poverty and even death. This situation is
characterized by countless unacceptable injustices.

1. Mirando el ttulo Cul cres es el tema principal de este fragmento?

2. Cules palabras ya conoces?
3. Qu temas relacionados con el tema del agua se te ocurren?
4. Podras identificar los sustantivos en el siguiente grupo de palabras y clasificarlos?

Water Essentials people situation safe serious issue consequence intention paper
some economic ethical factors sanitation poverty inadequate adequate countless
unacceptable acceptance injustice justice cause disease

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Text 1
Exercise 3

3.1- Lea el siguiente texto.

a- Identifique los adjetivos y subryelos.

b- Indique que tipo de adjetivos son y en que posicin se encuentran.

c- En caso de haber ms de un adjetivo juntos, por favor describa que tipo de adjetivo
son y el orden en el que aparecen.

It is a winter day and Mr. Jones, a 45-five-year-old man suffering from chronic renal failure has
just arrived at his regional dialysis centre. He comes here three times a week, each time for four
hours, to be connected to a haemodialysis machine. These treatments are necessary for Mr.
Jones to stay alive. During each 4-hour treatment his entire blood volume will pass through the
artificial kidney machine about 14 times for purification. On this same day, many miles away, an
American black bear slumbers in its wintery cave. The bear will remain there dormant for up to
five months during which time this animal will not eat, drink, defecate or urinate. Although
dormant, the bear still has an active metabolic rate about 50% of normal. Yet despite having no
urine output for this prolonged period of time, the bear will not suffer any of the manifestations of
renal failure experienced by Mr. Jones. How has the bears metabolic machinery adapted to such

Unit 2
a prolonged state of functional renal failure? Can we learn new approaches for the prevention
and/or treatment of chronic renal failure from such a natural animal model?

d- Finalmente conteste con sus propias palabras las siguientes preguntas acerca del texto.

1- Cuntas horas en total durante la semana se hace hemodilisis el Sr. Jones?

2- Por qu es necesario para el Sr. Jones hacerse el tratamiento?

3- Explique en pocas palabras que es la hemodilisis.

4- Cul es la diferencia entre el Sr. Jones y el Oso negro Americano?

5- Podra proponer un ttulo para este artculo? Explique su eleccin.

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Text 2 4. Las matemticas no fueron una prioridad para el estilo de vida que ellos llevaban.

a) True
Wild Children III: The Wild Life
b) False
Long before the arrival of Europeans on the Canadian prairie (the wide grasslands of what is now
called Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba), the First Nations people lived in a harmonious 5. La gente de las Primeras Naciones no desarrollaron un lenguage escrito.
relationship with their natural surroundings. Every item of their culture, from sewing needles to
homes was obtained from nature. Their homes were called teepees and were like large tents made a) True
from the skins of deer. These people - tribes with names like the Blackfoot, the Peigan and the
Blood people - were nomadic, which means that they travelled from place to place following the b) False
animals they hunted or the growth of the berries and fruits on the bushes and trees.
6. La gente rara vez era asesinada mientras cazaban bufalos.
They had horses, although horses came to North America after escaping from the Spanish a) True
explorers who brought them here to explore the areas around Mexico and Texas. Boys and girls
were both expert riders. They did not use saddles or reins or stirrups; they rode "bareback". Their b) False
clothes were made from deer skins and buffalo skins and decorated with the parts of other animals
- tails from squirrels and gophers, quills from porcupines and the delicate bones of birds. 3. Complete las siguientes oraciones con la palabra o la frase correcta.
These children of nature did not ever have to go to school. They did not have to study to get into a
prestigious college, nor did they have to worry about finding a job after graduation. This does not ________ modern horse-riders, First Nations children rode bareback, without saddles or reins.
mean their life was easy. The winters were very long and very cold and there were sometimes wars
between tribes. There were also the very great dangers involved in the buffalo hunt. Warriors rode 4. Escriba una palabra o frase apropiada para completar la oracin:
at top speed (with no saddle) beside the huge buffalo shooting arrows to bring them down. The
chances of a buffalo turning suddenly or of falling off the horse were very great. We must
________ their teepees and their clothes were made from animal skins.
remember that there were also no hospitals in those days.
5. Escriba una palabra o frase apropiada para completar la oracin:
Even so, the young people of the tribes must have enjoyed a very pleasant lifestyle: fishing and
gathering berries in summer, hunting in the forests in the early morning, dancing around the fire at
night and listening to the old people tell stories and legends from long ago. The European settlers who came to the prairies settled down to farm the land; _____, the First Nations
people were nomadic.
Multiple-Choice Questions
True or false:
1- Extraiga del texto cuatro adjetivos. Indique de que tipo son (condicin, apariencia, etc)
1. Cabalgar "bareback" significa cabalgar sin ningn equipo sobre el caballo.

a) True

b) False
2- Indique la forma comparativa y la forma superlativa de los adjetivos que extrajo en el punto 1.
2. A la gente de las Primeras Naciones nunca le gustaron los ciervos.

a) True
3- Extraiga del texto un adjetivo posesivo e indique a que se refiere (su antecedente)
b) False

3. La gente de la Primeras Naciones nunca tuvieron enemigos.

a) True
4- Extraiga del texto tres adverbios e indique de que tipo son.
b) False

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Text 3 2 The ice on top of the mountain is melting because of _____.

Snow Melting on Mount Kilimanjaro increasing pollution

By Cynthia Kirk increasing temperatures

Broadcast: November 15, 2002 increasing tourism
This is the VOA Special English ENVIRONMENT REPORT. 3 Mount Kilimanjaro rises above flat land, which is called the _____.

A new study says ancient snow on top of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania could be gone in about
twenty years. Huge layers of ice formed on the African mountain during a wet period about top
eleven-thousand years ago. But scientists say the ice on top of the mountain is melting because
of rising temperatures in recent years.
Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio led the study. It was published in 4 About _____ people visit Mount Kilimanjaro every year.
Science magazine. The scientists used maps, modern navigational satellites and markers placed
on the mountain to measure the ice. They found that the ice on Mount Kilimanjaro has shrunk
from about twelve square kilometers in nineteen-twelve to about two square kilometers today. twenty-thousand
That is about an eighty percent reduction in the ice. Scientists say the ice will be gone by two- twelve-thousand
thousand-twenty if it continues to melt at its current rate.
Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa. It is almost five-thousand-nine-hundred 5 The government of Tanzania fears that _____ will affect tourism
meters high. The top part of the mountain is covered with snow. The mountain rises above flat
land, called the savannah. The land is home to many different kinds of animals.
the melting ice
Many stories have been written about the famous mountain. The most famous is Ernest the rising temperatures
Hemingway's "The Snows of Kilimanjaro." Some ancient beliefs in Africa consider the mountain to
be a holy place. the amount of water flowing from the mountain
6 The decreasing ice has_____ the amount of water flowing from the mountain.
About twenty-thousand people visit Mount Kilimanjaro every year to see the famous snow-topped
mountain. It even has its own international airport. The government of Tanzania fears that the not affected
melting ice will affect tourism and weaken the economy. The decreasing ice already has reduced
the amount of water flowing from the mountain to some Tanzanian rivers. Water from the reduced
mountain supplies many villages. increased

The scientists are working to save pieces of the shrinking ice for more study. The frozen layers
7 The top part of the mountain is covered with _____.
tell about Africa's weather in ancient times. The ice also provides information about the world's
climate. Experts say other ice glaciers around the world are melting because of climate change
caused by human activities. But they say natural climate change could be the cause of Mount clouds
Kilimanjaro's problems.
This VOA Special English ENVIRONMENT REPORT was written by Cynthia Kirk. 8 Scientists are saving pieces of the ice _____.

1 Mount Kilimanjaro is in _____. for souvenirs

to supply water to villages

for more study
Kenya 9 Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in _____.
the world

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10 The snow on top of Mount Kilimanjaro could be gone in about _____. B. Grammar Activities:

1. Analice y clasifique los adjetivos subrayados en el texto.

twelve years
2. Provea la forma superlativa de los dos ltimos adjetivos del texto.
eighty-five years a) cheaper ______________
twenty years b) more widespread _______________

Text 4 3. Seleccione dos adverbios y clasifquelos.

World First Car Runs on Chocolate, Vegetable Oil Text 5

The World First Racing team at the Warwick Innovative Manufacturing Research Center in Britain
announced late last month that it has built an environmentally friendly Formula Three car THE ATMOSPHERE
powered by vegetable oil and waste chocolate. The car also includes a steering wheel derived
from carrots and other root vegetables, a seat made with flax fiber and soybean oil, and parts of 1- Isolate the unfamiliar words as you read, by underlining them or jotting them down. Then go
the bodywork made with potato starch. back and look at the sentences before and after themthat is, in their immediate context.
The project focuses on the full green picture and does not revolve solely around tailpipe
emissions, declares the World First press release. (1) The atmosphere forms a gaseous, protective envelope around Earth. It protects the planet from
the cold of space, from harmful ultraviolet light, and from all but the largest meteors. After
The World First car, which is expected to go 125 mph round corners, will be tested on the traveling over 93 million miles, solar energy strikes the atmosphere and Earth's surface, warming
racetrack within the next two weeks, project head James Meredith told The New York Times. the planet and creating what is known as the biosphere, the region of Earth capable of sustaining
Though the chocolate-derived biodiesel fuel is not currently allowed under Formula Three rules, life. Solar radiation in combination with the planet's rotation causes the atmosphere to circulate.
the team is petitioning for the car to be allowed in future races so it can compete against Atmospheric circulation is one important reason that life on Earth can exist at higher latitudes
traditional cars. because equatorial heat is transported poleward, moderating the climate.
The World First project expels the myth that performance needs to be compromised when (2) The equatorial region is the warmest part of the earth because it receives the most direct and,
developing the sustainable motor vehicles of the future, said Meredith. therefore, strongest solar radiation. The plane in which the earth revolves around the sun is called
The development of the car comes at a time when Formula One and other racing circuits are the ecliptic. Earth's axis is inclined 23 degrees with respect to the ecliptic. This inclined axis is
struggling to keep costs down during the global recession. Last December, after Honda responsible for our changing seasons because, as seen from the earth, the sun oscillates back and
pulled out of the 2009 F1 season and the viability of the circuit was put in doubt, the organization forth across the equator in an annual cycle. On or about June 21 each year, the sun reaches the
developed measures intended to cut costs by 30 to 50 percent. Tropic of Cancer, 23 degrees north latitude. This is the northernmost point where the sun can be
NASCAR, which primarily races cars produced by the troubled Big Three automakersFord, directly overhead. On or about December 21 of each year, the sun reaches the Tropic of Capricorn,
General Motors and Chryslerhas been forced to limit on testing and cut staff in an attempt 23 degrees south latitude. This is the southernmost point at which the sun can be directly
to keep costs reasonable. overhead. The polar regions are the coldest parts of the earth because they receive the least direct
and, therefore, the weakest solar radiation. Here solar radiation strikes at a very oblique angle and
The World First press release touts its car as one day being a cost-cutting solution for racing
thus spreads the same amount of energy over a greater area than in the equatorial regions. A static
circuits. It is also hoped that World Firsts ethos will eventually lead to a cost reduction for both
envelope of air surrounding the earth would produce an extremely hot, uninhabitable equatorial
fans and teams, as the technology advances and components become increasingly recyclable, region, while the polar regions would remain inhospitably cold.
reusable and cheaper as a result of their more widespread use, it says.
(3) The transport of water vapor in the atmosphere is an important mechanism by which heat
A. Comprehension Activity: energy is redistributed poleward. When water evaporates into the air and becomes water vapor, it
absorbs energy. At the equator, air saturated with water vapor rises high into the atmosphere where
1. Resuma en un breve prrafo cul es la idea principal del texto. (4 lneas) winds aloft carry it poleward. As this moist air approaches the polar regions, it cools and sinks
back to earth. At some point, the water vapor condenses out of the air as rain or snow, releasing
energy in the process. The now-dry polar air flows back toward the equator to repeat the
convection cycle. In this way, heat energy absorbed at the equator is deposited at the poles and the
. temperature gradient between these regions is reduced.
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(4) The circulation of the atmosphere and the weather it generates is but one example of the many b. that part of the earth and its atmosphere in which life can exist
complex, interdependent events of nature. The web of life depends on the proper functioning of c. the living things on Earth whose existence is made possible by circulation of the
these natural mechanisms for its continued existence. Global warming, the hole in the atmosphere
atmosphere's ozone layer, and increasing air and water pollution pose serious, long-term threats to d. the circulation of the atmosphere's contribution to life on Earth
the biosphere. Given the high degree of nature's interconnectedness, it is quite possible that the
most serious threats have yet to be recognized. 4- Which of the following sentences from the passage best supports the author's point that
circulation of the atmosphere is vital to life on Earth?
Ejercicio 1
a. The equatorial region is the warmest part of the earth because it receives the most direct
1-Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage? and, therefore, strongest solar radiation.
b. The circulation of the atmosphere and the weather it generates is but one example of the
a. The circulation of atmosphere, threatened by global warming and pollution, protects the many complex, interdependent events of nature.
biosphere and makes life on Earth possible. c. [The atmosphere] protects Earth from the cold of space, from harmful ultraviolet light, and
b. If the protective atmosphere around the earth is too damaged by human activity, all life on from all but the largest meteors.
Earth will cease. d. A static envelope of air surrounding the earth would produce an extremely hot,
c. Life on Earth is the result of complex interdependent events of nature, and some of these uninhabitable equatorial region, while the polar regions would remain inhospitably cold.
events are a result of human intervention.
d. The circulation of atmosphere is the single most important factor in keeping the biosphere 5- Based on the passage, which of the following is directly responsible for all temperature changes
alive, and it is constantly threatened by harmful human activity. on Earth?

2- Which of the following best represents the organization of the passage? a. variations in the strength of solar radiation
b. variations in the amount of ultraviolet light
a. c. variation of biologic processes in the biosphere
I. Definition and description of the circulation of the atmosphere d. variation in global warming
II. How the atmosphere affects heat and water in the biosphere
III. How the circulation of the atmosphere works 6- The first paragraph of the passage deals mainly with which of the following effects of the
IV. What will happen if human activity destroys the atmosphere and other life- atmosphere on the earth?
sustaining mechanisms
b. a. its sheltering effect
I. Origin of the atmosphere and ways it protects the biosphere b. its reviving effect
II. How the circulation of the atmosphere affects the equator and the poles c. its invigorating effect
III. How the circulation of the atmosphere interrelates with other events in nature to d. its cleansing effect
protect life on Earth IV. Threats to life in the biosphere
c. Ejercicio 2
I. Definition and description of the circulation of the atmosphere
II. Protective functions of the circulation of the atmosphere 1- Identifique en el texto adjetivos en grado comparativo y en grado superlativo.
III. Relationship of the circulation of the atmosphere to other life-sustaining 2- Determine las regiones que compara el autor en el prrafo 2? Identifique lo adjetivos que el
mechanisms autor utiliza para describirlas.
IV. Threats to nature's interconnectedness in the biosphere 3- Determine los elementos, segn su categora sintctica, que componen la siguiente oracin.
I. The journey of the atmosphere 93 million miles through space.
II. How the atmosphere circulates and protects the biosphere The circulation of the atmosphere and the weather it generates is but one example of the
III. How the atmosphere interrelates with weather in the biosphere many complex, interdependent events of nature.
IV. How damage to the biosphere threatens life on Earth

3- Which of the following is the best definition of the underlined word biosphere as it is used in
the passage?

a. the protective envelope formed by the atmosphere around the living earth
23 24
Text 1

Looking for the Freed Whales

CNN Television News Report by Greg Lefevre, 12/26/88 - Modified by F. Meehan

They are perhaps the best known whales since Moby Dick. When last seen, Siku and Putu, the
two gray whales recently trapped in ice were heading out to the open sea. After a three week
effort by Inuit, biologists, oil companies, the National guard, the crew of a Soviet ice breaker and
others to free them from the ice, now scientists want to know if the two whales actually survived.
(MAN SPEAKING) "Nobody knows for sure what happened to these whales after they hit the
open sea. We would like to know if they're still alive, and if so, the rate at which they're travelling."
Thousands of gray whales are now migrating south for the winter. They breed every year in the
lagoons off Baja Mexico. This is the season for whale watching tours. One whale watcher said, "I
think they could be found: after all, different whales have different markings so it should be
possible to distinguish between them." The hope is that someone will spot the two whales and
photograph them. Those photographs could then be compared with pictures of the trapped
whales in Alaska, but it won't be easy.
(WOMAN SPEAKING) "Well, you have to remember that around 21,000 gray whales head south,
so it won't be easy spotting just two. Now as far as the markings go, that is kind of tough. Gray

Unit 3 whales are covered with barnacles so they tend to look alike."
And then there is always the chance that they didn't make it. One scientist says, "It's not at all
improbable they died. One did die. There were three of them initially."
But even if the two gray whales did survive, scientists say it is still possible they would have
decided not to migrate all the way down the Pacific coast. That is because the two whales were
believed to be young males not yet of breeding age.
(WOMAN SPEAKING) "They don't breed. They're not going to go down and have kids, so why go
down at all? Why not just go part of the way, wait a little, then turn around and join the other grays
on their way back north?"
Whale sightings are common at this time of year, but as for finding Siku and Putu, that seems
unlikely. As one whale watcher put it, "That would be a fluke."

Lea el texto sobre liberacin de ballenas.

A- Extraiga del texto oraciones con los verbos en los siguientes tiempos:
1- presente simple
2- presente continuo
3- verbo to be presente.
4- dos adverbios de frecuencia y determine el tiempo de verbos de la oracin.

5- expresiones de tiempo que acompaan al Presente Continuo

C- Relea el texto en caso de ser necesario y resuelva los siguientes ejercicios.

1. How many groups of people worked to free the whales? (Do NOT include "others".)
a- Two. d- Five.
b- Three. e- Six.
c- Four.
25 26
2. Why do Gray Whales migrate to Baja? recognized by historians as the world's first computer program. She also saw possibilities in it that
a- For whale watching tours. Babbage hadn't: she realised that the machine could compose pieces of music. The computer
b- To mate and give birth.
programming language 'Ada', used in some aviation and military programs, is named after her.
c- To get food.
d- To be with other whales.
e- To lose their barnacles. Answer the following questions:

3. Some people think it should be possible to identify the whales that were trapped. How? 1- Ada Lovelace's teacher introduced her to Charles Babbage.
a- TV crews are following the whales all the way from Alaska to Baja.
b- Scientists have inserted a radio device into the whales' skin.
c- The two whales are males, and males are easy to identify. True False
d- Whales have different markings, so it may be possible to compare photos taken in Alaska
with photos of whales spotted recently. 2- Babbage programmed the first computer.
e- The two whales are covered with barnacles.

4. Why will it be difficult to identify Siku and Putu?

True False
a- There are about 21,000 whales heading south and they all look quite similar.
b- The weather is bad. 3- Ada translated the article in 1842.
c- They have changed appearance since they left Alaska.
d- They are heading north, but the whale watchers are looking for them in the south.
e- They have no markings. True False

5. Why is it possible that Siku and Putu will not go all the way to Baja? 4- The Analytical Engine was electronic.
a- They have never been to Baja before and do not know the way.
b- They feel tired.
c- They are too young to breed. True False
d- They will die.
e- Whale watchers will disturb them.
5- Luigi Menabrea designed the first computer.

True False
Text 2
6- Babbage finished the machine before he died.
Read through the text, answer the questions that follow.

Ada Lovelace: The First Computer Programmer True False

Ada Lovelace was the daughter of the poet Lord Byron. She was taught by Mary Somerville, a 7- Babbage's design was ahead of its time.
well-known researcher and scientific author, who introduced her to Charles Babbage in June
1833. Babbage was an English mathematician, who first had the idea for a programmable
computer. True False

In 1842 and 1843, Ada translated the work of an Italian mathematician, Luigi Menabrea, on 8- Ada's work was instantly recognised as being the first computer program.
Babbage's Analytical Engine. Though mechanical, this machine was an important step in the
history of computers; it was the design of a mechanical general-purpose computer. Babbage
True False
worked on it for many years until his death in 1871. However, because of financial, political, and
legal issues, the engine was never built. The design of the machine was very modern; it
anticipated the first completed general-purpose computers by about 100 years. 9- Babbage saw that his machine could write music.

When Ada translated the article, she added a set of notes which specified in complete detail a True False
method for calculating certain numbers with the Analytical Engine, which have since been

27 28
10 -Ada wrote military and aviation computer programs. considered his major achievements as stepping-stones for the next advance.
Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from
True False many European and American universities. During the 1920's he lectured in Europe, America and
the Far East. He was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies
QUESTIONS throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the
A. En que tiempo verbal se encuentra el texto? Porqu? Copley Medal in 1925 and the Franklin Medal in 1935.
Einstein died on April 18, 1955 of heart disease.
B- Provea dos oraciones como ejemplo.
Question 1: What was the native language of Albert Einstein?

C. Extraiga del texto 3 verbos regulares y 3 verbos irregulares y una forma de To be en A. English C. Italian
B. German D. Swiss

Question 2: What was the profession of Albert Einstein's father?

Text 3
A. Teacher C. Singer
Albert Einstein
B. Doctor D. Engineer
Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Wrttemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. His father was Question 3: When did Albert Einstein become the citizen of the United States?
Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein. Although Albert
had early speech difficulties, he was a top student in elementary school. Einstein's native A. 1944 C. 1940
language was German, and he later learned Italian and English.
B. 1920 D.1912
In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold
Question 4: Which of the following did Albert Einstein receive at Swiss Federal Polytechnic
Gymnasium. Later, the family moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau,
Switzerland. In 1896, he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a
teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss A. Diploma in medicine. C. Teaching diploma in Geography.
citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical
assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. While he was working there, he wrote the papers that made B. Teaching diploma in Physics and D. Teaching diploma in Physics and
him famous as a great scientist. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree. Chemistry. Mathematics.

Just before the start of World War I, he moved back to Germany. There he became director of a Question 5:What made Albert Einstein famous?
school. He lived in Berlin until the Nazi government came to power. Nazis and German physicists
A. His theories about Origin of Species. C. His services during World War I.
tried to prove that his theories were wrong. Einstein moved to the United States, and in 1940 he
became a United States citizen. B. His theories about light, matter, gravity D. His theories about the origin of the Earth.
His theories about light, matter, gravity, space, and time made him famous. His theories help and space.
scientists to understand these things much better than they had before. His theories are called
the theory of special relativity and the theory of general relativity. His most famous equation is E
= mc2. It means that the amount of energy in a piece of mass is equal to the amount of the mass
multiplied by the speed of light times itself. Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the A. Refiera cul es el tiempo verbal en que se encuentra el texto? Porqu?
problems of physics. He also had a great determination to solve the problems of physics. He had
B- Provea dos oraciones como ejemplo.
a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He
29 30
C. Extraiga del texto 3 verbos regulares y 3 verbos irregulares y una forma de To be en pasado.
D- Especifique el/los tiempos de verbos de la siguiente oracin: Qu tipo de accin describen? .
While he was working there, he wrote the papers that made him famous as a great scientist. .
E- Mencione 5 hechos importantes en la vida de Einstein. .

Text 4 d) Qu otras propiedades del oliva conoces t?

Olive oil health benefits B Grammar Activities

a) Subraye en el texto tres ejemplos de verbos en Presente simple.
Olive oil is the main source of dietary fat in the Mediterranean diet, which is associated with a b) Subraye en el texto tres ejemplos de verbos en Pasado simple. Los que sean regulares en
low death rate from cardiovascular diseases compared to other parts of the world. rojo y los irregulares en azul.
Maria-Isabel Covas, at the Parc de Recerca Biomdica de Barcelona, Spain, carried out an
extensive review of studies that had focused on the biological and clinical effects of olive oil. Text 5

The study was published in the journal Pharmacological Research.

The study found that people who regularly consume olive oil are much less likely to develop
cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension (high blood pressure), stroke, and
hyperlipidemia (high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels).

Covas also found that regular olive oil intake helps reduce inflammation, endothelial dysfunction
(problems with the inner linings of blood vessels), thrombosis and carbohydrate metabolism.

Covas concluded "The wide range of *anti-atherogenic effects associated with olive oil
consumption could contribute to explain the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in
Southern European Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other western countries,
despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors."

*Anti-atherogenic means preventing the hardening of the arteries and the development of

A Comprehension Activities
1. Lea el texto y responda:

a) Dnde se realizaron los estudios?

b) Cmo explica la cientfica Covas la baja mortandad por problemas cardiovasculares
en pases Mediterrneos?
c) Mencione con sus propias palabras cules son los beneficios del oliva que se
describen en el texto.

31 32
Lea atentemente el texto anterior. ( present tenses) .

1. Identifique las oraciones en Presente Simple. Provea ejemplos en afirmativo, interrogativo y


2. Extraiga ejemplos de otros tiempos de verbos que logre identificar.

Text 6

Unit 4

33 34
Text 1 2. Diga si las siguientes oraciones son Verdaderas o Falsas. Identifique la parte del texto que respalda su
respuesta y copie las palabras exactas del texto.
Deadly bird flu type detected
a. El tipo de gripe aviar detectada es altamente peligrosa.
The slaughter of thousands of turkeys is under way today as officials battle to stamp out Britains
b. East Anglia no va a ser un rea restringida:
first outbreak of the potentially deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu.
c. Esta enfermedad es muy peligrosa para los humanos.
Scientists confirmed the avian flu which killed more than 2,000 birds on a Bernard Matthews farm
at Holton, near Halesworth in Suffolk, is the highly pathogenic Asian strain.
3. Encuentre un sinnimo de cada una de las palabras de las seis opciones dadas.
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) has dramatically increased the
area where restrictions are in force in East Anglia to control the H5N1 outbreak. SLAUGHTER BATTLE OUTBREAK ISOLATED WILD COVER
The Restriction Zone, in which poultry must be kept isolated from wild birds and movements must Antnimo de domesticated
be licensed, covers 2,090 square kilometres (806 square miles) of east Suffolk and south east Norfolk.
It extends to the A47 just south of Norwich in the north, the A140 in the west, and almost to
Felixstowe in the south. Staying alone, separated from the others

Around 159,000 birds on the farm where the outbreak was identified are being killed, Defra said. Measure, reach

But Government officials were keen to reassure the public there was no need to panic, as the risk to
humans was negligible.

Turkeys first began falling ill on Tuesday, and by Thursday Defra had been informed and Text 2
restrictions were in place around the farm itself.
Yesterday, tests at the European Union laboratory in Weybridge, Surrey, confirmed the dangerous
form of avian flu on the Suffolk farm. Error-correcting codes are used to achieve a reliable transmission of information through noisy
channels. Due to their importance for many applications they became a meeting point between
mathematics, computer science and engineering. All error-correcting codes are constructed using
mathematical tools but, perhaps, the most deep and fascinating links between (classical)
A. En qu tiempo verbal se encuentra el texto? Provea ejemplos. mathematics and codes can be found in Algebraic Geometry Codes.

B. De un ejemplo de lo siguiente: The theory of Algebraic Geometry codes started over thirty years ago with the works of V.D.
Goppa. Nowadays this theory is both a ripe subject and an exciting research field. At the same
a- Una accin que sucedi en el pasado: time, it has impelled research in different mathematical areas, as for example curves over finite
b- Una accin que comenz en el pasado y tiene efecto en el presente:
In this book we try to provide the fundamentals, the `state of the art' and the `state of research', of
c- Una accin que sucedi antes que otra en el pasado: this field. It consists of twelve chapters written by some of the most renowned specialists
worldwide, each of them devoted to one of the main leading topics in this subject. These chapters
C. Conteste sobre el texto. Lalo nuevamente de ser necesario:
are mostly
1. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando sus propias palabras pero teniendo en cuenta la
self-contained and have been designed to be read independently.
informacin en el texto.
We hope that this book will be useful for students and researchers in algebraic geometry and
a. Cuando se encontr la enfermedad por primera vez?
coding theory, as well as for computer scientists and engineers interested in information
b. Cundo comenz la enfermedad? transmission.
35 36
We want to thank all the authors for their contribution to this volume. It was their efforts which Text 3
made the publication of this book possible. Also we want to thank World Scientific and E. H.
Chionh for their continuous support and excellent editorial job. 40 YEARS IN MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS
C. Munuera and E. Martinez-Moro -Dept. of Applied Mathematics, University of Valladolid
by L D Faddeev (St Petersburg, Russia)
D. Ruano- Department of Mathematics,
L D Faddeev was born in 1934 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia), and
his personal and scientific life have been closely connected with that city. He
graduated from Leningrad University in 1959 and has since been occupying a
research position in the Leningrad (or St Petersburg) Branch of the Steklov
Mathematical Institute of the Soviet (now Russian) Academy of Sciences. There he
A. Qu tiempo verbal usa el autor del texto cuando se incluye en la primera pers. del plural? Por qu?
gradually organized the Laboratory of Mathematical Methods in Physics, which he has
Provea ejemplos.
been heading until now (in addition to holding several administrative positions). The
subject of his research reflects several new tendencies in modern mathematical
physics, some of which were pioneered by Prof Faddeev himself. Among them one
B. De un ejemplo de lo siguiente:
can mention quantization of the Yang-Mills field, scattering theory, and quantum
a- Una accin que sucedi en el pasado: theory of solitons. He is author or coauthor of 5 monographs and 150 papers. Prof
Faddeev was an invited speaker and/or lecturer at numerous international
b- Una accin que comenz en el pasado y tiene efecto en el presente: conferences, workshops and schools. He was President of the International
Mathematical Union from 1986 to 1990, and is a member of the Russian Academy of
Sciences and a foreign member of several academies. Among his academic
C. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando sus propias palabras pero teniendo en cuenta la achievements are the Danni Heinemann Prize in Mathematical Physics, the Dirac
informacin en el texto. Medal and the UAP Prize.

a. Sobre qu trata el texto? A- Lea el texto y realice la siguiente ejercitacin:

b. Para qu se utilizan los cdigos de correccin de error? 1- Enumere los eventos ms importantes en la vida de L.D Faddeev en orden
c. En qu reas o ciencias se los puede utilizar?

d. A quienes est dirigido el libro?

e. Cul es el objetivo del libro?

f. Ha sido publicado el libro?

D. Explique el significado de cada una de las palabras a continuacin. 2- Extraiga del texto ejemplos en dos tiempos de verbo distintos al utilizado en el ejercicio 1.

1- achieve

2- reliable 3- Determine su estructura y uso.

3- topic

4- research

37 38
Text 4 A Comprehension Activity

1. Complete the following chart with the names and uses of the trees mentioned in the text
Medicinal Uses of Trees
Names Medicinal Use
Although the bark and wood of trees is seldom edible, extracts from them have given rise to some
of the worlds most important medicines. Malaria is said to have killed more people than all of the
wars and plagues in history combined. Oliver Cromwell and Alexander the Great are two of the
better-known people to have died at its hands. For centuries, the only known treatment was cinchona tree ..
quinine, an alkaloid found in the bark of the evergreen cinchona tree, which grows in the tropical
forests of Peru and Bolivia. Quinine was first used to treat malaria by the Quechua Indians and in (Quinine)
the 16th Century the Spanish Conquistadores realized its potential. Called the miracle cure when
it finally arrived in Europe, it was used to cure King Charles II, King Louis XIV and the Queen of
Spain, among countless others. Quinine has been chemically reproduced since the 1940s;
however, in recent years some forms of malaria have developed resistance to synthetic quinine and
the cinchona tree has once again become the center of attention.

If you have ever had a headache then the chances are that you will have reached for a bottle of
aspirin, the worlds most widely used drug. Before aspirin came in bottles, aches and pains could
be cured by walking to the nearest river and finding a piece of willow bark to chew on. Aspirin is
a derivative of salicylic acid, which comes from the bark of the white willow, Salix alba.
Nowadays aspirin is produced synthetically.

The last remaining member of a family that existed when dinosaurs roamed the earth, the
maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba, has long been used for medicinal purposes. The leaves have
traditionally been a staple of Chinese herbal medicine and used to treat everything from asthma to
hemorrhoids. Now maidenhair tree leaves have found their way into western medicine and are
used to treat memory loss and coronary conditions. Fluid extracted from the leaves helps to
improve blood circulation. It relaxes blood vessels, enhancing blood flow throughout the body but
in particular that going to the brain.

More than 2,000 different trees are currently used for medicinal purposes. Many, such as the
Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, are helping in the fight against cancer. Castanospermum austral,
the Australian Moreton Bay chestnut, contains an unusual alkaloid called castanospermine, which
B Grammar Activity
is able to help neutralize the Aids virus HIV. Witch hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, is a tree with
strong antiseptic qualities. Native American tribes such as the Cherokee made a tea of the
1. Seleccione tres ejemplos de oraciones en Presente perfecto.
leaves, which they used to wash sores and wounds. Another important medicinal tree species is
Eucalyptus globulus. Its leaves contain the oil cineol, which is very effective in the treatment of 2. Mencione a qu tiempo verbal corresponde la oracin subrayada en el texto.
coughs, sore throats, bronchitis and asthma. you will have reached for a bottle of aspirin
3. Actividad de repaso. Seleccione ejemplos de presente simple y pasado simple.
From Trees of the World, An Illustrated Encyclopedia and Identifier, by Tony Russell, Catherine Cutler and Martin Walters.
Published by Anness Publishing Ltd., Britain, in 2007. ISBN #1-84681-187-2. Printed in China

39 40
Text 5 4. Cancer patients should _____ about the disease.

a. talk
Cancer Center Announces Expansion b. wonder
c. learn
Cancer is a serious disease. Adults and children can get cancer. The cancer center treats d. sing
many patients each year. More and more people in California need cancer treatment.
Scientists are trying to find new ways to treat cancer. They also want to help cancer patients 5. Why does the woman want to donate money?
learn about the disease.
a. She likes to donate money to hospitals.
A cancer center in Davis wants to expand. The center wants to offer treatment and research b. She has cancer.
to patients. It also wants to add a special hospital. This special hospital is for children with c. She is married to a cancer doctor.
cancer. More space is needed. More money is needed, too. d. To help other children with cancer.
A woman lost her son to cancer. He was only five years old when he died. She wants to do
6. What does the woman want the hospital to do with her donation?
something to help other children with cancer. She wants more research to be done so other
children wont get sick. One thing she can do is donate money to the cancer center. She
donated a large sum of money to help treat children with cancer. a. Expand the parking lot.
b. Help her son who has cancer.
It will be an expensive project. The womans donation will help, but much more money is c. Research how to prevent cancer in children.
needed. A local university will provide some of the money. The rest of the money will be d. Buy more buildings.
donated by local people. They expect that it will take two years to raise the rest of the
needed funds. 7. According to the story, why are scientists working hard?

a- Identifique en el texto los verbos en futuro. Especifique que tiempo es exactamente. a. To open a children's hospital.
b. To find new ways to treat cancer.
c. To help people build a new hospital.
b- Escriba tres preguntas en futuro acerca de las partes subrayadas en el texto. d. To learn more about heart disease.

1- 8. What does the hospital need in order to provide services?

2- a. More patients and more doctors.

b. More doctors and more nurses.
3- c. More parking spaces and more children.
d. More money and more space.

c- Ahora, conteste las siguientes preguntas.

9. How long will it take to raise the funds to expand the hospital?

1. The rest of the money will come from _____.

a. About three years.
b. About two months.
a. local people c. About two years.
b. doctors d. About a year.
c. children
d. patients
10. Where will the money to expand the hospital come from?

2. The special hospital is for _____ with cancer.

a. From donations.
b. From university doctors.
a. older people c. From the government.
b. mothers d. From donations and the university.
c. doctors
d. children

3. Scientists are looking for new ways to _____ the disease.

a. understand
b. enjoy
c. find
d. treat

41 42
Text 6

Mark Rawlings and his team are still in the Andes filming Penny, a puma. They have managed to get quite
close to the big cat and gain her trust over the last summer. In this instalment of Marks video diary, he
describes how Penny is currently spending a lot of time with a mate, so Mark and his team are sure that
she is going to have cubs in the spring. If that is the case, they will have had much of her over the winter.
In fact, they are unlikely to see much of her until the winter is over anyway, as pumas, like most of the
large cats, tend to hide away when the weather is bad. If Penny is pregnant, she will have had the cubs by
early March and they will leave the den about three months later. Although Mark doubts whether she will
come out to hunt much in the next few months, he is going to stay until she reappears. Once the team
have finished filming Penny, they are going to North America to track down the grizzly bear, but Mark
doesnt think that will be such a pleasant assignment!


A- Read the text, identify and underline all the future forms.

B- State the name of the tense and its uses.

Unit 5

43 44
Text 1 Exercises

1- Grammar
Rainforest- Plants
1- Identify the passive forms in the text.
The rainforest contains more than half of Earth's plant and animal species, even though rain forests cover 2- How many different verb tenses can you recognize in the passive constructions?
only about 6% of the earth's surface. The average humidity in the rainforest is high, ranging from 77% to 3- Which are them? What is the structure?
88%. The average temperature is at least 75 to 86 degrees.

Many of the plants and foods in your home originated in the rainforests. Common house plants, such as
bromeliads, African violets, periwinkle and the Christmas cactus, began in the rain forest.
2- Comprehension :

About one-fourth of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants. Curare, from a tropical vine, is
Organize the different steps in vines cultivation in chronological order
used as an anesthetic and to relax muscles for surgery. Quinine, from the cinchona tree, is used to treat
malaria. The rosy periwinkle contains an anti-leukemia drug; a person with lymphocytic leukemia has a a- the juice is fermented
99% chance that the disease will go into remission because of the rosy periwinkle. More than 1,400 b- the age-old system of biodynamics is used
varieties of tropical plants are thought to be potential cures for cancer. c- some wines are left to mature for three months.
d- Some wines are matured for 12 to 15 months.
1. Why do you feel that animals and plants thrive in the rainforest? ___________________________

2. What impact has the rainforest had on medicine? _________________________________ Text 3

3. When might you use Quinine? _________________________________
Lea el siguiente texto:
4. If the rainforest were to suddenly vanish, what impact would it have on humans? __________

Exercise 6
The claim biodegradable is often associated with environmentally friendly products.
What exactly does this mean? I would define it as being able to be broken down by natural
Text 2
processes, into more basic components. Products are usually broken down by bacteria, fungi or
other simple organisms. By this definition, most chemicals are biodegradable; the only thing
CULTIVATION differing would be the amount of time it takes to break down. A piece of bread will break down
rather quickly, whereas a piece of plastic will take decades and beyond.
Toni Gelabert has five hectares of cordon-trained vines, cultivated using the cordon
de royat pruning system, (leaving eight spurs per vine). Rate of breakdown may not be as important as what the product breaks down into. The ideal final
products of any complex product of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen would be Carbon
He produces an average of two to three kilos of grapes per year. The earth is Dioxide(CO2) and Water (H2O). A majority of products are made mostly of these three elements.
fertilized with biological nutrients and, in the cultivation, pruning, harvesting, transfer The previously mentioned piece of bread is made mostly of these, and after breaking down from
and bottling processes, the age-old system of biodynamics is used. complex sugars to simpler sugars, will eventually degrade to CO2 and H2O. This process would
be accelerated if we ate the bread and our body would break it down and use it as energy, until
The winery has a capacity of 220 hectolitres. The juice of the handpicked, hand-
only CO2 and H2O are left.
selected grapes is fermented at a controlled temperature in stainless steel vats.
In a perfect world all products would break down to CO2 and H2O. It gets more complicated with
The red wines are left to mature from 12 to15 months in French and American oak
different chemicals. The banned pesticide DDT, is hazardous and toxic in its own right. It does
casks.The white Chardonnay and Torre des Canonge wines are fermented and
biodegrade, rather slowly. The problem is that its breakdown products of DDD and DDE are even
matured for three months in new French oak casks.
more toxic and dangerous than the original DDT.
Intuition, hard work and carefully nurtured fruit. Thanks to these three things, Toni
Gelabert has been awarded distinctions both in and outside the Balearic Islands. His I ran across a popular cleaning product that proudly claims to be "biodegradable" and even has an
merit resides in the efforts he has made to continue improving his wines. environmentally pleasing name and color. The main (active) cleaning chemical is a
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nonylphenolethoxylate (NPE), made solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. This class of The biofuels are therefore considered to be "CO2 neutral", not adding to the carbon dioxide level in
chemicals are considered suspicious because they are possible endocrine disruptors. This means the atmosphere. The type of biofuel used will depend on a number of factors, chief amongst them
they may mimic the endocrine hormones and may cause havoc with a female's reproductive being the available feedstock and the energy that can be used locally.
system. NPE's do biodegrade to a benzene ring type structure and other simpler structures. This
biodegrading may or may not lead to a less hazardous chemical, but still hazardous. Although it is Biodiesel

biodegradable, this product is by no means environmentally friendly.

Biodiesel was probably the first of the alternative fuels to really become known to the public. The
Biodegradability is definitely a positive trait, yet it could be applied to virtually anything. What is great advantage of biodiesel is that it can be used in existing vehicles with little or no adaptation
a "green" consumer to do or look for? Try to be educated about the products you purchase. Read necessary. Biodiesel is, naturally, a compromise for this reason, but still balances positively on the
the label and reward companies which fully disclose the ingredients in their products. Also energy scales. There are energy plants available that will produce a higher yield in kWh per area,
products based on natural ingredients are more, but not always, likely to be safer and degrade but the simplicity of having a fuel that is fully compatible with present fuel and engine technology
easier. Even though a product may say it is biodegradable, it may not be environmentally friendly. makes it very attractive.

Written by: Mike Bianucci Cars running on BioEthanol, which is produced from agricultural crops, sugar cane or bio-mass,
are governed by the same law of physics as those using gasoline. That means both emit CO 2, as an
A Comprehension Questions: inevitable consequence of the combustion process. But there is a crucial difference: burning
ethanol, in effect, recycles the CO2 because it has already been removed from the atmosphere by
1) Cundo un producto es biodegradable? photosynthesis during the natural growth process. In contrast, the use of gasoline or diesel injects
2) Cul es la diferencia entre biodegradable e environmentally friendly? into the atmosphere additional new quantities of CO2 which have lain fixed underground in oil
3) Qu ejemplos utiliza el autor para definir estos dos trminos? deposits for millions of years.
4) Por qu el pesticida DDT est prohibido?
5) Qu qumico encontrado en productos de limpieza puede ser peligroso? Porqu?
6) Cul crees que es el propsito del autor del texto? Biogas is becoming increasingly interesting as an alternative to natural gas. It is especially useful
that the composition is practically identical, so the same burners can be used for both fuels. Biogas
B Grammar Activity: can be produced from plant or animal waste, or a combination of both. There are many different
methods used dependent on the starting material and quantity involved. A mixtrue of both has
1) Lea la siguiente oracin y diga si es un caso de Voz Pasiva o Voz Activa: proven to be the best method. The animal waste produces the nitrogen needed for growth of the
bacteria and the vegetable waste supplies most ofthe carbon and hydrogen necessary.
In a perfect world all products would break down to CO2 and H2O
2) Selecciona dos ejemplos de Voz Pasiva en presente.
3) Selecciona dos ejemplos de Voz Pasiva en pasado. Biomass can be a practicable alternative for small district heating schemes in rural areas.
4) Selecciona un ejemplo de voz pasiva en Futuro simple. Traditional biomass is wood residue and excess straw from agriculture being burned to provide
5) Selecciona un ejemplo de voz pasiva con un modal. heat or power. There are also gasification plants that produce a gas composed mainly of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen from plant material. This has the advantage of being capable of
transportation by pipeline or being filled into cylinders for distribution. Pyrolyis, as it is known, is
being investigated in many countries presently.
Text 4
Pyrolysis of Biomass

Pyrolysis of biomass is used to produce a mixture of three combustible products from biomass: tar,
gas and coke are formed in varying proportions. After cleaning the gas can be used to drive
A biofuel is difficult to define. Most of the fossil fuels we use are biological in nature. Perhaps we
turbines or gas motors. The tar is also suitable for the plastics industry and the coke can also be
have to say that a biofuel is one that does not add to the stock of total carbon dioxide in the
burned in the conventional way.
atmosphere. These are plant forms that, typically, remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere,
and give up the same amount when burnt. Naturally, all the other fossil fuels have done the same, Landfill gas analyzer
but we are talking about a time scale of one or two years for the biofuels, whereas the fossil fuels
can only be considered on a time scale measured in millions of years. The landfill gas analyzer is similar to a standard flue gas analyser, but capable of measuring
methane and carbon dioxide directly. There are many landfill sites in use still, which all produce

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gas naturally. More advanced models of landfill gas analyzer will also be capable of measuring the
products of combustion.

Landfill sites

Landfill sites are now being used for the commercial production of methane in many areas instead
of simply flaring the gas for safety reasons. Methane is produced in commercially viable quantities
for many years after a landfill site has been closed. Nevertheless, there are still many landfill sites
where the gas is being wasted. This source will dry up in time to come, since many countires are
now finally emphasising the separation of waste and recycling, but there is gas for the next twenty
years in the landfill sites presently existing.

Measurements in biogas

Measurement of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in biogas has produced
interesting errors, probably due to the difference in size of the molecules. These factors require
consideration when biogas is measured before combustion. Commercial use of biogas makes
knowledge of the composition and heating value essential.

Methane digester

Although not a detailed description of how to build a methane digester, this is a good explanation
of the working principle. The methane digester is a plant to produce methane in the form of biogas
from plant and animal waste. Such systems are common in certain countries, such as India, but
sorely neglected in others, although the raw material is available everywhere.

Biodigester construction in the Philippines

A specific section about a methane digester in use in the Philippines constructed with the very kind
co-operation of the designer and builder, Gerry Baron. This section is updated when new
information comes in about the biogas project. Biogas is one of those matters where results do not
come immediately. It can take a few weeks for changes to take effect, so the changes will be
sporadic, but they will come.

Comprehension Activity

1. Provea una definicin del trmino biofuel.

2. Explique con sus palabras los distintos tipos de biocombustibles que se mencionan en el

Grammar Activity

1. Identifique los ejemplos destacados como voz pasiva o activa y los tiempos verbales de los


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