Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 96

Debian

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19 2016 .
Debian
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Published 2016-06-19
Copyright 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
Copyright 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003
Copyright 2002, 2003, 2008, 2009
Copyright 2008, 2009
Copyright 1997, 1998

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GNU, Free Software Foundation;
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GNU.
GNU /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-2
Debian, - GNU.
, : Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
02110-1301, USA.
, pdf-.
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ii

1 1

2 3
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3 Debian 7
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.1 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

4 Debian 11
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2 IRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4.1 bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4.2 ftp-master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4.3 www-master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4.4 - people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4.6 chroot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.6 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6.4.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.6.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.7 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.9.2 dak ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.10 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.10.1 . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

iii

4.10.3 22
4.10.4 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.12 Debian FusionForge: Alioth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.13 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

5 25
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5.1 : 27
5.5.2 : testing/testing-proposed-updates . . . . 28
5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.6.1 ftp-master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.7 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.8.5 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.8.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.8.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.8.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.8.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.8.5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.9 , , , , -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.9.2.1 Incoming ( ) . . 38
5.9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.9.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.9.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.10.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.10.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.10.2.1 NMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.10.2.2 NMU, . . . . . . . . . 42
5.10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.10.3.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.10.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.10.3.3 wanna-build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.10.5 (auto-buildable) . . . . 43
5.11 - (NMU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.11.1 NMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.11.2 NMU debian/changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.11.3 DELAYED/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.11.4 NMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.11.5 NMU NMU (binNMU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.11.6 NMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

iv

5.11.7 NMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.13.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.13.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.13.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.13.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.13.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.13.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.13.4.1 , ? . 51
5.13.4.2 -
? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

6 53
6.1 debian/rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.2 debian/control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.2.5.1 Vcs-Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.2.5.2 Vcs-* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.3 debian/changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.3.2 . . . . . . . 57
6.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.3.4 NEWS.Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.5 debconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.5.1 debconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.5.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.5.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.5.2.3 -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.5.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.3.1.1 string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.3.1.2 password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.3.1.3 boolean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.3.1.4 select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.5.3.1.5 multiselect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.5.3.1.6 note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.5.3.1.7 text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.5.3.1.8 error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.5.3.2 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.5.3.3 Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.5.3.4 Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

6.5.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.5.4.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.5.4.2.1 string/password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.5.4.2.2 boolean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.5.4.2.3 select/multiselect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.5.4.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.5.4.3 Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.5.4.4 Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6.5.4.5 Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6.6.1 debconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6.7.1 , autoconf/automake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6.7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.7.7 , deborphan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
6.7.8 .orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz} . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
6.7.8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
6.7.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.7.8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.7.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.7.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

7 71
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.1.1 (
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.1.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.4 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.5 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.5.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
7.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

8 79
8.1 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
8.2 I18N L10N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.3 I18N L10N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

vi

A Debian 83
A.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
A.1.1 dpkg-dev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
A.1.2 debconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
A.1.3 fakeroot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
A.2 . . . . . 84
A.2.1 lintian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
A.2.2 debdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
A.3 debian/rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
A.3.1 debhelper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
A.3.2 dh-make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.3.3 equivs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.4.1 git-buildpackage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.4.2 debootstrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.4.3 pbuilder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.4.4 sbuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.5.1 dupload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.5.2 dput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.5.3 dcut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.6.1 devscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.6.2 autotools-dev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A.6.3 dpkg-repack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.6.4 alien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.6.5 dpkg-dev-el . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.6.6 dpkg-depcheck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.7.1 dpkg-cross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.8.1 docbook-xml . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A.8.2 debiandoc-sgml . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
A.8.3 debian-keyring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
A.8.4 debian-el . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

vii
1

Debian
.
, ( 2, -
); ( 5.1, )
( 5.6, ); ( 5.8,
); , (
5.9, , , , ,
); ( 5.10, -
); , (
5.11, - (NMU)).
( 4.1, -
) ( 4.4, Debian); Debian ( 4.6,
Debian); , ( 5.6.1,
ftp-master); , -
( A, Debian ).
, Debian
. ,
Debian.
Debian.
, .
Debian , . ,
.

1
2

2.1
, , Debian, ,
, hello Debian.
Debian, , ?
-, debian-devel@lists.debian.org, .
subscribe debian-devel-REQUEST@
lists.debian.org. listmaster@
lists.debian.org. . 4.1, -
. debian-devel-announce@lists.debian.org,
Debian.
( ,
) - ,
- , .
, , debian-mentors@lists.
debian.org. . 2.2, Debian. IRC- #debian
, . 4.2, IRC.
, Debian, -
Debian, . -
. , Debian ,
.
Debian, . -
debian-mentors@lists.debian.org
( .
7.5.1, https://wiki.debian.org/DebianMentorsFaq). ,
Debian ,
, . ,
(QA), ,
.
,
: mail, admin, root, master, . https://
www.debian.org/MailingLists/.

2.2 Debian
debian-mentors@lists.debian.org ,
. -
, . 4.1,
.

3
2. 2.3.

, -- (., ),
.
, , Debian,
, -
. ,
Debian . ,
debian-mentors https://wiki.debian.org/DebianMentorsFaq.
/ , .
7.5, Debian.

2.3 Debian
Debian,
Debian. , -
, Debian. ,
Debian. -
, Debian; ,
, Debian. GNU
.
-
, . , Debian,
1000, , -
. , ,
.
, , -
. ,
, -
Debian. , ,
, . -
, , !
, Debian -
. , GnuPG, -
Debian. GnuPG , -
Debian .
GnuPG, Debian . (
Debian, -
. .
.)
OpenPGP, . OpenPGP -
. , ,
.
- , - - -
.
. 3.2.2, .
Debian GNU Privacy Guard ( gnupg 1 )
. OpenPGP. , OpenPGP
RFC 2440.
Debian 4. 1024
. .1
1 4 OpenPGP, RFC 2440. 4 ,

GnuPG. PGP 5.x 4, -


PGP 2.6.x, v3 ( PGP RSA).
4 () RSA, DSA,
GnuPG , : (1) DSA Elgamal, (2) DSA ( ), (5) RSA ( ).
, .
, 4 3 ( 2), ,
. 4 SHA-1 ,
40 , 4. MD5
2 . , 5B00 C96D 5D54
AEE1 206B AF84 DE7A AF6E 94C0 9C7F, 4.

4
2. 2.3.

, subkeys.pgp.net,
2: . -
, .
, .
.
Debian,
, -. ,
, ,
.
, Debian
(). Debian
,
, , ,
Debian.
, GnuPG ,
Debian, . .
, , . -
, ,
.
.
, Debian - Debian.
,
, . ,
.

pgpdump, - Public Key Packet - Ver 4.


, , (. . -
; ). OpenPGP ,
, .

5
3

Debian

3.1
, -
Debian.

3.1.1
, -
,
. , ,
, .
, ,
(. 5.13, ). , -
, , .
( -
), ( ,
) , , -
. ,
, , .

3.1.2

, .
, .
, -
(. 5.8.5, , ).
important ( ) , -
. ,
, (. 5.5.1, -
: ).

3.1.3
,
5.8, . , , -
(RC ).
, critical, grave serious, -
. , Debian (
), -
( ).
. .
-
(, - , , ),

7
3. 3.2.

, help,
. ,
, (. 5.11,
- (NMU)),
.
-
,
. (MIA) ,
, (. 7.4,
/ ).

3.1.4
Debian -
. Debian ,
Debian. ,
.
, Debian,
, . -
, . -
Debian ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
, Debian -
, , Debian.
, Debian, , -
- .

3.2
, , Debian, -
, . -
, , .

3.2.1 Debian
LDAP, Debian, https:
//db.debian.org/. -
. , , ,
debian.org, , ,
debian-private, .
. 4.5, .

3.2.2
. -
, Debian (. 4.4, Debian).
; . , ; -
PGP.
, , ,
. ( )
; .
, ,
Debian, keyring.debian.org.

8
3. 3.2.

, -
. , -
, .
, .
http://keyring.debian.org/replacing_keys.html.
, 2.3, -
Debian.
Debian
debian-keyring.

3.2.3
, Debian , -
.
Debian.
, , -
. debian-vote@lists.debian.
org, , -
.
,
debian-devel-announce@lists.debian.org ( -
). ,
, .
GPG-/ .
( )
Debian, , , -
.

3.2.4
, , ,
. , ,
, , , ,
- .
, , -
(. 5.11, - (NMU)),
- ( , . .).
, ,
.
, , . -, -
debian-private@lists.debian.org [VAC] 1 ,
, . -
, , .
, LDAP Debian
( Debian).
!
GPG
, - . ,
, , .

3.2.5
Debian, , :

1. 5.9.4,
.
1 , , , .

9
3. 3.2.

2. gpg , ,
debian-private@lists.debian.org.
3. Debian, , Debian RT
keyring@rt.debian.org Debian RT -
( ).

4. @debian.org (. press@debian.org)
, RT Debian. -
admin@rt.debian.org Debian RT - , -
, .

, , -
.

3.2.6
emeritus , -
3.2.5, , disabled .
, emeritus,
:

da-manager@debian.org.

( ,
, P&P T&S).
, GPG, , -
, GPG ,
.

, ,
NM.

10
4


Debian

Debian, Debian,
, ,
.

4.1
Debian ( ) -
, lists.debian.org. ,
, , -
, -
, https://www.debian.org/MailingLists/.
, -
.

4.1.1
(CC) ,
, . ,
, , .
. -
, , . -
.
.
Debian.

4.1.2
Debian, :

debian-devel-announce@lists.debian.org -
. , .
debian-devel@lists.debian.org , -
.
debian-policy@lists.debian.org Debian, -
.
debian-project@lists.debian.org , -
.

; .
https://lists.debian.org/.

11
4. 4.2. IRC

4.1.3
debian-private@lists.debian.org
Debian. , ,
- . -
, debian-private@lists.debian.org, -
. ,
. ,
, master.debian.org,
~debian/archive/debian-private/.
debian-email@lists.debian.org , -
Debian ,
, . ., -
, .

4.1.4 ,
, (
), ( .forward-aliasname
master.debian.org, you-aliasname@debian.org )
Alioth.
, lists.debian.org , ,
, .

4.2 IRC
IRC Debian. -
(OFTC). DNS irc.debian.org
irc.oftc.net.
Debian #debian. ,
, . #debian -
; #debian.de, #debian-fr, #debian-br
, .
Debian #debian-devel.
; 150 . , -
Debian, ( #debian). ,
, ( ).
, .
#debian-devel , , -
debian-private@lists.debian.org. , #
debian-private, . master.debian.org:~debian/
misc/irc-password.
, . #deb
ian-bugs . #debian-boot -
Debian. #debian-doc -
, , ,
. : #debian-
kde, #debian-dpkg, #debian-jr, #debian-edu, #debian-oo ( OpenOffice.org)...
, -
, #debian-devel-fr ,
Debian.
IRC , Debian, IRC freenode,
4 2006 irc.debian.org.
(cloak) freenode (Jrg Jaspert) <joerg@debian.org>
. -
cloak Subject:. , . -
. , Debian. -
. Freenode.

12
4. 4.3.

4.3
Debian , -
. -
. , , .

4.4 Debian
Debian , , -
Debian.
, .
, -
, Debian.
, Debian ,
. , , -
, ,
. .
Debian SSH, Debian. -
, ,
Telnet, FTP, POP . .
, - , Debian, Debian,
.
Debian : https://db.debian.org/machines.cgi.
- , , ,
, SSH . .
Debian, , -
, DSA
https://rt.debian.org/ ( -
debian, : master.debian.org:~debian/misc/rt-password).
, admin@rt.debian.org
, Debian RT. DSA ,
, , dsa@
debian.org, debian-admin@lists.debian.org. DSA -
IRC- #debian-admin OFTC.
,
( , , - . .),
pseudo-package. ,
, . 7.1, .
, .

4.4.1 bugs
bugs.debian.org .
- , -
Debian, . , ,
debian-devel@lists.debian.org ,
.

4.4.2 ftp-master
ftp-master.debian.org Debian. , , -
ftp.upload.debian.org, , . 5.6, -
.
; mirror.ftp-master.debian.org.
Debian FTP ftp.debian.
org, ftpmaster@debian.org, .
5.9, , , , ,
.

13
4. 4.5.

4.4.3 www-master
- www-master.debian.org. -
Debian .
- Debian,
www.debian.org. , -
.

4.4.4 - people
people.debian.org , -
, Debian.
- Debian , ,
, public_html
people.debian.org. URL: https://people.debian.org/~-
-/.
, ,
.
,
- , ,
, .
- , debian-devel@lists.debian.org.

4.4.5
- Debian,
, Alioth, -
-
. Alioth CVS (cvs.alioth.debian.org/cvs.debian.org), Subversion (svn.debian.org), Arch
(tla/baz, arch.debian.org), Bazaar (bzr.debian.org), Darcs (darcs.debian.org), Mercurial (hg.debian.org)
Git (git.debian.org). -
, . https://wiki.debian.org/Alioth/PackagingProject. -
Alioth . 4.12, Debian FusionForge: Alioth.

4.4.6 chroot
chroot .
:
vore$ dchroot unstable
Executing shell in chroot: /org/vore.debian.org/chroots/user/unstable

chroot . , chroot
, https://db.debian.org/machines.cgi.

4.5
, https://db.debian.org/,
LDAP Debian.
Debian. finger
Debian, finger --@db.debian.org -
.
, :

debian.org

debian-private

14
4. 4.6. DEBIAN

, , , , , ,
Debian, ,
IRC -

Debian

, . -
, , https://db.debian.org/
doc-general.html.
SSH-, -
Debian, DNS *.debian.net.
https://db.debian.org/doc-mail.html.

4.6 Debian
Debian ( 15000 -
) ( ).
Debian:
dists/stable/main/
dists/stable/main/binary-amd64/
dists/stable/main/binary-armel/
dists/stable/main/binary-i386/
...
dists/stable/main/source/
...
dists/stable/main/disks-amd64/
dists/stable/main/disks-armel/
dists/stable/main/disks-i386/
...

dists/stable/contrib/
dists/stable/contrib/binary-amd64/
dists/stable/contrib/binary-armel/
dists/stable/contrib/binary-i386/
...
dists/stable/contrib/source/

dists/stable/non-free/
dists/stable/non-free/binary-amd64/
dists/stable/non-free/binary-armel/
dists/stable/non-free/binary-i386/
...
dists/stable/non-free/source/

dists/testing/
dists/testing/main/
...
dists/testing/contrib/
...
dists/testing/non-free/
...

dists/unstable
dists/unstable/main/
...
dists/unstable/contrib/
...
dists/unstable/non-free/
...

pool/
pool/main/a/

15
4. 4.6. DEBIAN

pool/main/a/apt/
...
pool/main/b/
pool/main/b/bash/
...
pool/main/liba/
pool/main/liba/libalias-perl/
...
pool/main/m/
pool/main/m/mailx/
...
pool/non-free/f/
pool/non-free/f/firmware-nonfree/
...

, , dists/ pool/. -
, , -
. ,
, . Packages Sources
pool/. -
. , ,
.
dists/stable , main, contrib non-free.
(source) -
(binary-i386, binary-amd64 . .).
main , -
, Debian
(disks-i386, disks-amd64 . .).

4.6.1
main Debian , Debian. main -
, .
; Debian.
Debian -
(DFSG), ,
Debian. DFSG . -
Debian.
contrib DFSG, .
, .
, DFSG, non-free. -
Debian, ,
(, , )
.
Debian .
.
,
Debian, FTP CD-ROM:
main contrib, . , non-free
.
, CD-ROM
non-free CD-ROM,
. ( ,
Debian.)
, ,
, , admin, net, utils . . - (
) Debian.
Section .

16
4. 4.6. DEBIAN

4.6.2
Linux Intel i386 ( ), Debian -
. Linux ,
, Debian . -
, Debian Unix, hurd kfreebsd.
Debian GNU/Linux 1.3 i386. Debian 2.0 i386
m68k. Debian 2.1 i386, m68k, alpha sparc. Debian
. Debian 6 Linux (amd64, armel, i386, ia64, mips, mipsel, pow
erpc, s390, sparc) kFreeBSD (kfreebsd-i386 kfreebsd-amd64).
-
Debian.

4.6.3
Debian, .
,
.dsc:

1.0 .tar.gz, .orig.tar.gz .diff.gz;

3.0 (quilt) tar- .orig.tar.


{gz,bz2,xz}, tar- -
.orig- .tar.{gz,bz2,xz} tar- debian doc debian.tar.{gz,
bz2,xz};

3.0 (native) tar- .tar.{gz,bz2,xz}.

Debian Debian, -
.tar.{gz,bz2,xz}, , -
. - , .orig.
tar.{gz,bz2,xz} ,
, ( ).
.diff.gz debian.tar.{gz,bz2,xz} , -
Debian.
.dsc ,
(md5sums, sha1sums, sha256sums) (,
. .).

4.6.4
, , .
pool Debian.
, , Debian FTP. ,
, ftp.us.debian.org, Debian /debian, -
( /pub/debian).
Debian ,
Sources Packages, .
pool/, dists/ ( ).

4.6.4.1 ,
, ( dists/stable),
( dists/testing), (
dists/unstable). Debian.
( -
). Debian
. , .
, , , -
.

17
4. 4.6. DEBIAN

,
.
. ,
. . 5.13, .
, , ,
, , , ,
. -
. - . -
, ,
.
debian-devel-announce. , -
, . ,
, -
,
.
archive.debian.org.
,
. , -
. ,
, -
.
proposed-updates. proposed-updates, , -
,
(., 6.0 6.0.1, 5.0.7 5.0.8 . .).
.
, , -
.

4.6.4.2
, -
.
.

4.6.4.3
. -
, . ,
, , ,
, (
). , ,
, . -
, ,
.
sources.list(5) :
deb http://ftp.xy.debian.org/debian/ experimental main
deb-src http://ftp.xy.debian.org/debian/ experimental main

, , -
. ,
, , .
, -
, , ,
. ,
, . -
,
, , ,
.

18
4. 4.7. DEBIAN

, -
, , ,
, . -
,
ftp,
, .
, ,
.
people.deb
ian.org.

4.6.5
Debian : Debian 6.0 squeeze; Debian
7 wheezy; Debian 8 jessie; Debian 9 stretch Debian 10
buster. , , sid, -
;
, sid . -
Debian sid ,
Debian.
. -
.
Debian (. .,
),
FTP HTTP Debian. , , , -
, testing, stable,
, , FTP (
).
, Debian-x.y, -
, Debian x.y. ( , CD-ROM
CD-ROM Debian 1.0 pre-1.0.
Debian 1.1, 1.0.)
, ,
(., jessie). ;
, , .
, ,
.

4.7 Debian
- , -
. ,
. ,
, Debian -

. , ,
( ).
Debian, FTP/HTTP ,
https://www.debian.org/mirror/.
, , ,
, .
, , -
Debian. , .

4.8
Debian.
, ftp-master.debian.org.

19
4. 4.9.

UploadQueue. -
, queued, *.command,
*.changes -
unchecked. ,
ftp ; 15 dak process-upload, -
. ,
done. (
), new, -
ftp. , ,
byhand, , ftp.
, - , reject.
,
, , -
. http:
//incoming.debian.org/, Debian. -
( dinstall run);
. (-
, , Packages Sources) ,
, .
OpenPGP/GnuPG .changes,
, . Distribution -
stable, debian-changes@lists.debian.org. Distribution
unstable experimental, debian-devel-changes@lists.
debian.org debian-experimental-changes@lists.debian.org.
ftp , mir
ror.ftp-master.debian.org.

4.9
4.9.1
-. https://packages.debian.org/
- , . -
, , ,
.
.
https://bugs.debian.org/-.

4.9.2 dak ls
dak ls dak,
. dak ftp-master.debian.org,
mirror.ftp-master.debian.org. ,
. :
$ dak ls evince
evince | 0.1.5-2sarge1 | oldstable | source, alpha, arm, hppa, i386, ia64, -
m68k, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, sparc
evince | 0.4.0-5 | etch-m68k | source, m68k
evince | 0.4.0-5 | stable | source, alpha, amd64, arm, hppa, i386, ia64 -
, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, sparc
evince | 2.20.2-1 | testing | source
evince | 2.20.2-1+b1 | testing | alpha, amd64, arm, armel, hppa, i386, ia64 -
, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, sparc
evince | 2.22.2-1 | unstable | source, alpha, amd64, arm, armel, hppa, -
i386, ia64, m68k, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, sparc

,
, binNMU .
.

20
4. 4.10.

4.10 Debian
-
.
, ,
Debian.
, -
, . ,
.
:
bts .
bts-control control@bugs.debian.org .
upload-source dak , .
archive dak (,
/ ). .
build , ,
, .
default ,
dispatch+___@tracker.debian.org. , -
, , , -
X-Distro-Tracker-Approved .
contact , *@packages.debian.org.
summary , -
. ,
( ).
:
upload-binary dak, .
, , ,
, , -
.
vcs , -
-
.
translation debconf,
Debian.
derivatives , , (,
Ubuntu).
derivatives-bugs (,
Ubuntu).

4.10.1
,
control@tracker.debian.org.
subscribe <---> [<-->] -
- , ---
. , . -
-- , -
. , ,
.

21
4. 4.10.

unsubscribe <---> [<-->] -


---,
, , .

unsubscribeall [<-->] -
, , .

which [<-->] , -
.

keyword [<-->] , .
. .

keyword <---> [<-->] , -


, ,
.

keyword [<-->] {+|-|=} <--> (+)


(-) , . (=)
. , -
.

keywordall [<-->] {+|-|=} <-->


(+) (-) , . -
(=) .
.

keyword <---> [<-->] {+|-|=} <-->


, , -
.

quit | thanks | -- . -
.

pts-subscribe ( devscripts)
- , , NMU.

4.10.2
,
. , -
(. , procmail). : X-Loop, X-Dis
tro-Tracker-Package, X-Distro-Tracker-Keyword, X-Debian-Package, X-Debian, List-Id
List-Unsubscribe.

dpkg:
X-Loop: dispatch@tracker.debian.org
X-Distro-Tracker-Package: dpkg
X-Distro-Tracker-Keyword: upload-source
X-Debian-Package: dpkg
X-Debian: tracker.debian.org
List-Id: <dpkg.tracker.debian.org>
List-Unsubscribe: <mailto:control@tracker.debian.org?body=unsubscribe%20dpkg>

4.10.3


Debian, ,
( ) .

22
4. 4.11.

, ,
dispatch@tracker.
debian.org dispatch+____vcs@tracker.debian.org. -
,
... X-Distro-Tracker-Package:__
_ X-Distro-Tracker-Keyword:vcs, , -
X-Git-Repo , git-
.
Subversion svnmailer. ,
, . https://wiki.debian.org/Alioth/PackagingProject.

4.10.4 -
- https://tracker.debian.org/,
.
( , QA, , DDTP,
) (30 -
, . .). , ,
c . ,
.
- URL
https://tracker.debian.org/---.
- , .
, https://tracker.debian.org/docs/
contributing.html.

4.11
- QA ( ) https://qa.debian.org/developer.php,
( ,
). :
, ,
.
,
, .

4.12 Debian FusionForge: Alioth


Alioth Debian, FusionForge ( -
SourceForge GForge).
, , ,
/, , ,
. . -.
, ,
Debian, , Debian,
, Debian .
Debian
.
Debian Alioth. ,
.
Alioth.
:
https://wiki.debian.org/Alioth
https://wiki.debian.org/Alioth/FAQ
https://wiki.debian.org/Alioth/PackagingProject
https://alioth.debian.org/

23
4. 4.13.

4.13 Debian
, Debian : https://wiki.
debian.org/MemberBenefits.

24
5

, , , -
.

5.1
Debian, -
(WNPP). WNPP ,
, . -
WNPP .
, . , -
( 7.1, ) wnpp
, , -
, .
ITP:foo -- ,
foo. wishlist. -
debian-devel@lists.debian.org, X-Debbugs-CC (
CC:, ). -
(>10), ,
, debian-
devel .
.
Closes:#nnnnn , -
(.
5.8.4, ).
, -
(NEW) , , ftpmaster@
debian.org ,
, , .
, CVE, Closes:#nnnnn.
. , -
, , -
.

.
, ,
:

() ,
, , -
.

, , , -
, .

25
5. 5.2.

, ,
Initial release, -
debian-devel-changes@lists.debian.org.

, ( ,
). .

,
.

. https://ftp-master.
debian.org/REJECT-FAQ.html.

5.2
, , debian/changelog. -
, , (
- ), . ,
, . /usr/
share/doc//changelog.Debian.gz, /usr/share/doc//changelog.gz
, .
debian/changelog , . -
, , 5.5, .
Debian, debian/changelog.

Debian, . . 5.8.4,
.
- ,
, :
* New upstream release.

, -
changelog . A.6.1, devscripts A.6.5, dpkg-dev-el.
. 6.3, debian/changelog.

5.3
, .
(
Debian):

, ,
, Debian .

lintian, . lintian -
: lintian -v -.changes. ,
. , lintian,
-i, , lintian
.
, lintian ( E).
lintian, . A.2.1, lintian.

debdiff (. A.2.2, debdiff),


( ).

( )
postrm prerm.

, .

26
5. 5.4.

.
, ,
, , ,
.diff.gz.

5.4
Debian :

,
Debian

( ) , tarball-
, , Debian

(.dsc) -
tarball (.tar.{gz,bz2,xz}).
, tarball (.orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz})
Debian (.diff.gz 1.0 .debian.
tar.{gz,bz2,xz} 3.0 (quilt)).
1.0 , , dpkg-
source . ,
3.0 (quilt), 3.0 (native) debian/source/format.
.
,
, tar-,
.changes. tar-
(diffs) .dsc, .
dpkg-genchanges dpkg-buildpackage tar-
,
, . -
-sa, tar-, -sd,
.
, tar- , -
dpkg-source .dsc diff
, .
, , *.orig.tar.{gz,
bz2,xz} , diff . ,
3.0 (quilt), debian
, tar.

5.5
, -
. debian/changelog
Distribution .changes.
. (unstable)
(experimental)
; uploads for other supported suites should use the suite codenames, as they avoid any ambiguity.
, : --security, 5.8.5,
, .
.

5.5.1 :

stable , proposed-updates-new
, ,

27
5. 5.6.

stable-proposed-updates Debian. , , sta


ble .
, ,
. -
release.debian.org, reportbug, ,
, .
,
.
. , -
, -
:

stable . ,
, , -
Debian , proposed-updates
. . 5.8.5, ,
. -
, , DSA,
.
- , , ,
.
, , ,
, (
), ; , ,
, , ,
.
( Provides shlibs), ,
.
, -
. .

5.5.2 : testing/testing-proposed-updates
. .

5.6
5.6.1 ftp-master
, ( changes dsc-) -
ftp ftp.upload.debian.org /pub/UploadQueue/. ,
, , -
Debian, Debian (. https://wiki.debian.org/
DebianMaintainer).
, changes .
, ,
changes, , .
dupload dput.
Debian.
. ftp://ftp.upload.debian.org/pub/UploadQueue/README -
dcut.

28
5. 5.7.

5.6.2
, ,
. , , ,
, - .
.
,
. ftp.upload.debian.org
DELAYED/X -day (X 0 15). 0-
ftp.upload.debian.org.
dput, --delayed ,
.

5.6.3
( security-master.debian.org) -
. -
,
. . 5.8.5, , .

5.6.4
ftp://ftp.eu.upload.debian.org/
pub/UploadQueue/. ftp.upload.debian.org, -
- .
, ssh ssh.upload.debian.org;
/srv/upload.debian.org/UploadQueue. -
.

5.6.5
Debian .

, dak process-upload. , ,
, . (
) . -
, . , .
, ,
, .
, , ,
, .
,
. , . .
, ,
.

5.7 ,
Section Priority debian/control ,
, . ,
, . debian/
control .
-
. ,
debian/control, , ,
. debian/control -
, .
, , , debian/
control . , ftp.debian.org

29
5. 5.8.

. override:
1:/, [...], X:/ -
.
. dpkg-scanpackages(1) https://www.
debian.org/Bugs/Developer#maintincorrect.
, Section , , 4.6.1,
. main (), .
https://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/
ch-archive.html#s-subsections.

5.8
Debian. -
, (. 7.1,
), , , .

. , ,
, , ,
.
,
, ,
, .
.

5.8.1
, -
Debian (BTS) .
. :
https://bugs.debian.org/--@debian.org.

bugs.debian.org. https://www.debian.
org/Bugs/, , doc-debian, /usr/
share/doc/debian/bug-*.
.
cron ,
:
#
0 17 * * fri echo index maint address | mail request@bugs.debian.org

Debian.

5.8.2
, ,
, (., 123@bugs.
debian.org).
, 123-submitter@bugs.debian.org , -
( ,
123@bugs.debian.org).
, FTBFS, Fails to build
from source ( ). , , -
.
(., )
( ), 123-done@bugs.debian.
org. ,
5.8.4, .

30
5. 5.8.

close -
control@bugs.debian.org. ,
- , .

5.8.3
, -
,
. -
Debian. ,
-
.
, Debian.
, ,
, . 7.1,
. ,
.
, -
:

1. , .
, . ,
, ,
(
). , ,
,
.
.
, ,
, , ,
. , wontfix,
, , .
, ( , )
, tech-ctte (
clone, ,
). , , .
2. , , -
. , -
, IRC debian-devel@lists.debian.org. ,
, ,
, ,
, -@packages.debian.org, -
. , ,
, ,
.
, -
,
. , ,
, , ,
. , ,
.
3. ,
. ,
. wishlist,
.
4. , - ,
merge.

31
5. 5.8.

, , , . ( ,
, , , , -
, .)
merge unmerge, .
.

5. , , - ,
. -
moreinfo, -
. , ,
unreproducible. , - -
, , -
. ,
, .

6. , . -
, help. ,
debian-devel@lists.debian.org debian-qa@lists.debian.org. -
, . -
,
. ,
, .
, , -
. ,
patch.

7. ,
, pen
ding, , ,
( closes: changelog). ,
.

8. ,
, . , .
5.8.4, .

5.8.4
,
. , ,
, , Debian. ,
, ,
. ,
, .
,
debian/changelog,
, . :
acme-cannon (3.1415) unstable; urgency=low

* Frobbed with options (closes: Bug#98339)


* Added safety to prevent operator dismemberment, closes: bug#98765,
bug#98713, #98714.
* Added man page. Closes: #98725.

, Perl ,
:
/closes:\s*(?:bug)?\#\s*\d+(?:,\s*(?:bug)?\#\s*\d+)*/ig

closes:#XXX , ,
changelog. -v

32
5. 5.8.

dpkg-buildpackage, ,
( , ,
.changes).
, (NMU) -
fixed, , .
fixed-in-experimental.
-
, .
, reopen XXX
, control@bugs.debian.org. ,
, .changes XXX -done@bugs.
debian.org, XXX , Version: YYY -
, YYY , .
, , , -
. , -
, XXX -done@bugs.debian.
org. - ,
.
, , . 6.3, deb
ian/changelog.

5.8.5 ,
- , , , ,
. Debian , -
, ,
,
security.debian.org.
- Debian, , -
, , ,
: team@security.debian.org. -
, Debian Security Contact, . https://www.debian.
org/security/faq#contact. - , -
. :

. ,
Debian, .

, ( )

, ( debdiff
.diff.gz .dsc 5.8.5.4, -
)

, (,
. .)

, (. 5.8.5.3, -
)

-
. , ,
, ,
.

5.8.5.1
, Debian.
, :

33
5. 5.8.

, , , , -
/ , . .
. ,
, . ,
, .
.

5.8.5.2
, Debian,
.
, .
-
, , .
:

( , - . .)
-
-

, -
. , .
:

,
, .
,
. -
, .

, , ,
, , -
Debian. ,
.
, ,
( - , , ). -
,
( ) .
,
: ,
.

PGP . . .

5.8.5.3
,
.
debian-security-announce@lists.debian.org - .
. , ,
- .
:

, :

( , . .)
( )

34
5. 5.8.

, ( Debian)

,
CVE ,

5.8.5.4

, , -
Debian.
, , -
. , ,
.
, - . -
: , API ABI, ,
.
, -
. ,
Debian. ,
, . , Debian.
, ,
. , -
. ,
, .
: . ,
,
. , ,
.
- , -
. , .
, ,
proposed-updates , .
, -
, , ,
.
, .
( interdiff patchutils debdiff devscr
ipts, . A.2.2, debdiff).
, :

debian/changelog: --security (.,


jessie-security). -proposed-updates stable!

urgency=high.

.
, . -
closes: Debian. ,
CVE. , CVE , ,
. .

35
5. 5.9. , ,

, . , ,
, . -
, dpkg --compare-versions. ,
, , , -
binNMU. +debX u1 ( X
), ., 1:2.4.3-4+deb8u1, , ,
1.

security.debian.
org ( ),
(dpkg-buildpackage -sa). -
security.debian.org, -
, (dpkg-
buildpackage -sd).

, *.orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz}, -
,
.

, ,
. , debian.org
(. 4.4, Debian), chroot (. A.4.3, pbuilder
A.4.2, debootstrap).

5.8.5.5
( security-master.debian.org)
.
,
.
proposed-updates, -
. security.debian.org proposed-updates -
. - ,
, . -
.
, -
, , .
ftp://security-master.debian.org/pub/SecurityUploadQueue/.
,
.
, , . -
, ,
.
, security.debian.
org, -proposed-updates ftp-master.
debian.org.

5.9 , , , -
,
Debian . -
. ,
.

5.9.1
- . , non-free (
) GPL,

36
5. 5.9. , ,

main ( ) contrib ( , ).1


, -
, ( . Debian).
, .orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz} ( -
),
. , .
, ftp , , .
, , (., devel,
admin), . ,
. , ,
5.7, , .

5.9.2
- (,
, ),
ftp.debian.org ;
, normal.
RM: [ ] --, , -
, , -
. [ ] ,
, . , reportbug , -
,
ftp.debian.org.
, -
, ROM (Request Of Maintainer, ).
, , .
https://ftp-master.debian.org/removals.html. , -
.
, ,
. .
,
. (
release.debian.org. . 5.13.2.2, .)
, :
,
. ,
, ;
, . -
, , ,
.
, .
, . ,
, .
, .
, -
. , ,
debian-qa@lists.debian.org.
, wnpp
O: , .
, ,
https://wiki.debian.org/ftpmaster_Removals https://qa.
debian.org/howto-remove.html.
, - , debian-devel@
lists.debian.org . , apt-cache apt.
apt-cache showpkg , ,
1 . Debian , .

37
5. 5.9. , ,

. apt-cache rdepends, apt-


rdepends, build-rdeps ( devscripts) grep-dctrl.
debian-qa@lists.debian.org.
.
, (., lib
foo12 - , libfoo13 ),
Debian. ,
Debian, < --
--Debian>+rm.

5.9.2.1 Incoming ( )
incoming. , -
.
, , . -
,
, . ,
, .

5.9.3
( -
), ,
. debian/control , -
, , , -
(. Debian). ,
Provides , , , -
. , ,
ftp.debian.org
(. 5.9.2, ). ,
.
, . -
.
. , ,
: tarball , -
. foo_1.00.orig.tar.gz
foo_1.00+0.orig.tar.gz, foo_1.00.orig.tar.bz2. -
ftp , .

5.9.4
, , ,
. Debian QA
Group <packages@qa.debian.org> wnpp. -
O: -- , ,
. normal;
, important.
, debian-devel@lists.debian.org,
X-Debbugs-CC: ( CC:,
).
, ,
wnpp, RFA: --
. RFA Request For Adoption ( ).
- WNPP.

5.9.5
, ,
(WNPP). - , -

38
5. 5.10.

WNPP,
.
,
. , , .
, (AWOL,
absent without leave), . 7.4, / .
,
.
. .
, , -
, ( .
).
, ,
. -
Maintainer,
.
, 4.10, Debian
. , ,
, - .

5.9.6
- , ,
.
, ,
.
, .
, -
.
, , , -
, . ,
- .
, -
, ,
, .
, , ( 5.1, -
).

. ,
.
, , -
, . ,
control -
, , .
( ,
) ,
. (
), ,
+rm, .
, , , , .

5.10
Debian .
, ,
. , ,
.

39
5. 5.10.

Debian , -
. .
, , ,
Debian. , ()
i386,
, 11 .

5.10.1 ,
, , , -
. .
, . , -
Debian , , ,
.
( ) -
, , . ,
, (
). ; -
, , .
, , , ,
, , .
, .

1. , Build-Depends Build-Depends-Indep debian/control


. deboots
trap chroot (. A.4.2, debo
otstrap). chroot build-essential Build-
Depends / Build-Depends-Indep . ,
chroot. ,
pbuilder, (. A.4.3, pbui
lder).
chroot, dpkg-depcheck (. A.6.6,
dpkg-depcheck).
. Debian.

2. all any , -
. -
Debian. -
( i386 amd64) .

3. , . dpkg-source -x .dsc
, , . , -
dpkg-buildpackage.

4. , debian/files debian/substvars.
clean debian/rules.

5. , -
. , /usr/local/bin -
. , -
. ,
.

6. - ( -
). , , ,

.

7. , - . ,
, , , ,

40
5. 5.10.

- , -
.

8. , debian/rules binary-arch binary-indep,


Debian. ,
, , , .
, dpkg-buildpackage -B.

5.10.2 ,
, ,
. ; ,
, .
, ,
NMU , 5.11.1,
NMU.
, , . -
- . debian/changelog.
dpkg-buildpackage dpkg-buildpackage -B -mporter-email. , -
porter-email.
binary-arch debian/rules -
.
Debian , ,
, , debsign,
.changes , ,
dpkg-sig.

5.10.2.1 NMU

, , - , , -
, ( ,
. .).
. , ,
Debian (dak ,
).
, NMU , -
. ,
, dpkg $(Source-
Version).
, NMU -
.
,
, Debian-, -
. ,
(- ).
NMU
, : b. , ,
, 2.9-3, NMU 2.9-3+b1.
3.4+b1 (. ., , NMU
), NMU 3.4+b2.2
, , dpkg-buildpackage
dpkg-buildpackage -B, ,
.
2 NMU Debian
; ,
NMU, NMU NMU ,
.

41
5. 5.10.

5.10.2.2 NMU,
, NMU , 5.11, -
- (NMU), , . , ,
NMU , , , , ,
, , ,
. , , .
, ; -
, .
NMU , -
, . -,
, , ,
NMU , , -
. ,
, ,
. (, , .)
-
.
-, , NMU , ,
, , serious .
,
Debian . , -
,
.
, , ,
, libc. .
- , , #ifdef
; , , ,
.
, , , -
. , ,
. , -
- , .

5.10.3
,
. ;
. .

5.10.3.1 -
-, , : https://
www.debian.org/ports/.
Debian . -
: https://lists.debian.org/ports.html.
, .

5.10.3.2
A.7, -
.

5.10.3.3 wanna-build
wanna-build - .
, buildd.
, wanna-build
, .

42
5. 5.10.

wanna-build ; ,
Debian . ,
, sbuild, , . A.4.4, sbuild. ,
, ,
.
, wanna-build, ,
, -: https://buildd.debian.org/.
,
.
, .
Debian,
(, Debian,
gcc). ,
Debian.
wanna-build, buildd, : debian-wb-
team@lists.debian.org. , , ( wanna-build, )
(, ) , . https://lists.
debian.org/debian-project/2009/03/msg00096.html.
binNMU ( ) https:
//release.debian.org/wanna-build.txt .

5.10.4
/
Debian , , -
. , SVGA ( i386
amd64), , -
.
, buildd,
:

-, , ,
. .
, ,
,
. , ()
, -
.
, , , -
any debian/control.
, ,
.
, -
, Packages-arch-specific , wanna-
build. https://anonscm.debian.org/cgit/mirror/packages-arch-spe
git/tree/Packages-arch-specific; .
.

, Packages-arch-specific ,
: , -
, - , , , ,
.
, , ftp.debian.org.

5.10.5 (auto-buildable)
non-free (
- , ). ,
:

43
5. 5.11. -

1. , ;

2. XS-Autobuild:yes debian/control;

3. nonfree@release.debian.org, ,
,
.

5.11 - (NMU)
. , -
. , -
, , ,
, .
-, Non-Maintainer Uploads (NMU).

5.11.1 NMU
NMU, :

NMU , ? , -
, , DELAYED, -
,
NMU-.

NMU- ? ( , .
, -
.)
(., cdbs dh) NMU .

? -
? ,
. , ,
?

? : . -
, , -
, , . 100% , ,
. , - NMU,
.

NMU, -
? - ,
( ,
, IRC).

, ?
, ,
,
, NMU.
,
.

NMU, , NMU
.
NMU . nmudiff devscripts .
. -
,
, , , .
debian/README.source.

44
5. 5.11. -

- -
, (, DELAYED).
:

, 7 ,
7 , , -
: 0

, 7
: 2

: 5

NMU: 10

. , -
, , , ,
.
NMU
(., , -
7 ). , NMU
NMU - . -
,
, ,
.
NMU , .
( , -
).
NMU. NMU, , -
, ,
, . -
NMU, .

5.11.2 NMU debian/changelog


( ) NMU
debian/changelog, , .
, NMU, .:
* Non-maintainer upload.

NMU .
( Debian ), -
, +nmuX , X ,
1. NMU, . ,
1.5, NMU 1.5+nmu1.
,
Debian ( , ).
1. , 1.5-2, NMU
1.5-2.1. NMU ,
Debian 0, , 1.6-0.1.
NMU, .
, 1.5+nmu3 ( ,
NMU ), NMU 1.5+nmu4.
, , -
Debian -
, ,
NMU, NEW ftp. ,
, , .
,
. , ,

45
5. 5.11. -

. +debX uY , X
, Y , 1. , jessie (Debian 8) -
, NMU
, 1.5-3 1.5-3+deb8u1, NMU
stretch 1.5-3+deb9u1.

5.11.3 DELAYED/
NMU , ,
, NMU, , .
DELAYED (. 5.6.2, ) , NMU,
. , ,
, 7 ,
DELAYED/7 , 7 ,
. ,
.
DELAYED .
, ,
, ,
.
NMU DELAYED, ,
, , .
(
, ) .

5.11.4 NMU
- NMU , ,
. .
, NMU, . -
NMU , ; ,
, .
NMU, -
. NMU, NMU
, ,
, .

5.11.5 NMU NMU (binNMU)


NMU NMU . NMU, NMU
binNMU. BinNMU , .
, .
( ) ,
. ,
.
BinNMU buildd wanna-build. debian/changelog -
, , , -
, 5.10.2.1, NMU.
.
Buildd . ,
binNMU. , NMU, debian/
changelog.

5.11.6 NMU
NMU , . -
, : -
. , ,
.

46
5. 5.12.

, , -
: , , ;
, . -
, Maintainer Uploader . ,
, , :
* QA upload.

NMU, , -
, , ( -
).
Debian QA Group <packages@qa.
debian.org>. , -
, . :
https://qa.debian.org/orphaned.html.
, -
. , ,
(. 5.9.5,
).

5.11.7 NMU
/ ,
( Maintainer
Uploader, . 5.12, ), Uploa
ders, .
, ,
Maintainer Uploader.
:
* Team upload.

5.12
, -
Debian . -
,
. , standard, ,
, .
.
, Maintainer debian/control. -
, Uploaders debian/
control.
:

,
. , , -
, CVS Subversion. Alioth (. 4.12, Debian FusionForge:
Alioth) .

Uploaders
debian/control.
Uploaders: John Buzz <jbuzz@debian.org>, Adam Rex <arex@debian.org>

( 4.10, Debian), -
-
.

47
5. 5.13.

, -
.
Maintainer Uploaders . -
:

1. Maintainer , .
Uploaders , ,
.
2. Maintainer. Uploaders -
, . ,
- ( -
, ).

Uploaders. -
(. 4.11, )
, ,
, .
Uploaders , ,
(. 5.11.7, NMU ). ,
Maintainer, Uploaders .

5.13
5.13.1
,
.
, -
, ;
. ,
. . .

5.13.2
, , , -
; britney. Packages
, ;
, .
-
:

2, 5 10
(, ). ,
,
;
, ( , -
, ,
);
,
. dak ls ;
- ;
, , ,
(
, );
. .,
.

48
5. 5.13.

, , .
- , grep-excuses,
devscripts. crontab(5)
, .
update_excuses , ;
, , -
. - ,
.
, - ,
. . .
https://release.debian.
org/migration/ , ,
britney.

5.13.2.1
: -
( fuckedarches;
fuckedarches , ( update_out.py),
). ,
.
:

alpha arm
testing 1 -
unstable 1 2

alpha ,
. ,
alpha, .
, ftp ( -
arm):

alpha arm hurd-i386


testing 1 1 -
unstable 2 - 1

-
( hurd-i386 , -
).
, ,
. . . ( , glibc
- .)

5.13.2.2
- , .
, , . -
, ., a b; a
, b.
, .
( ).
, ,
, .

5.13.2.3
, britney, , a
b, .

49
5. 5.13.

testing unstable
a 1; depends: b=1 2; depends: b=2
b 1; depends: a=1 2; depends: a=2

a, b .
. ,
debian-release@lists.debian.org,
.

5.13.2.4
,
, . -,
,
, . -,
.
; , ,
, fuckedarches,

.
, : ,
, , .

5.13.2.5
, britney :
, .
. ,
, , , -
, - . britney
, (. ), , britney
.
. Britney -
. britney -
. ,
. ,
, . -
.
, https://
ftp-master.debian.org/testing/update_output/.
https://ftp-master.debian.org/testing/hints/, -
. Debian -
, ,
, testing-proposed-updates, .

5.13.3

. , ,
. testing-proposed-updates.
, , , ,
. , ,
. , , -
, , debian-devel-announce@lists.
debian.org.
testing-proposed-updates, -
. (, - ,

50
5. 5.13.

), .
.
,
- .
+debX uY, X
Debian, Y , 1. ., 1:2.4.3-4+deb8u1.
, :
, testing-proposed-updates,
;
, ;
, ;
, - (., stretch)
;
, ,
;
, , tes
ting-proposed-updates, , ;
,
debian-release@lists.debian.org .

5.13.4
5.13.4.1 , ?
, , ;
critical, grave serious.
, ,
Debian . ,
, , ,
.

, /, -
. -
.

5.13.4.2 - ?
, ; -
. , acmefoo
acme-foo-bin, acme-bar-bin, libacme-
foo1 libacme-foo-dev, .
, -
, libacme-foo0. acmefoo libacme-foo0,
.
, , -
( ). , ,
, ==, <= <<.
, , -
, , ,
.
, ,
: ,
, ,
.
, debian-devel@lists.
debian.org or debian-release@lists.debian.org for help.

51
6

Debian Debian, , -
Debian. ,
Debian, .
, , ,
Debian, .
Debian.
, . -
, , Debian. ,
.

6.1 debian/rules
debian/rules. debian/rules -
, ( ),
, .

6.1.1 -
- debian/rules ,

. : /usr/
share/menu (, , /usr/lib/menu ),
-
. ,
, ? , , ,
.
- . , , -
-, . ,
-;
- .
A, Debian -
. ( ) - debh
elper. -, debmake, :
, ,
. , debhelper dh_*.
, dh_installman , dh_installmenu
. , , -
- , , ,
debian/rules .
debhelper debhelper(1) , -
. dh_make dh-make (. -
A.3.2, dh-make), debh
elper . , , ,

53
6. 6.2. DEBIAN/

dh_*.
, , ,
.

6.1.2
, , .
, ,
, , . -
,
, ( ) .
diff (., .diff.gz) ,
, .
, 3.0 (quilt) ,
debian/rules . debian/patches/,
, , debian/patches/series,
. ,
quilt.
1.0 -
, :
Debian (.diff.gz), debian/.
, dpkg-source, -
build debian/rules, patch. ,
clean, unpatch.
quilt. ,
. quilt.
, dpatch, , -
cdbs.

6.1.3
,
(., vim),
(.,
).
debian/rules.
.
install dh_install debhelper.
,
debian/control.
,
, . vim
, , debian/rules.

6.2 debian/control
debian/control. .
, control, -
. 6.2.1,
. , 6.2.2,
, , 6.2.3, -
, .

6.2.1
, , -
. , -
, . ,

54
6. 6.2. DEBIAN/

, -
.
,
, , -
. , .
? . -
,
GNOME KDE , ,
GTK+ . - .
, .
. , ,
, . , , .
, ,
, . , X Window System,
X11 X; X Windows, X-Windows X Window. GTK+, GTK gtk.
GNOME, Gnome. PostScript, Postscript postscript.
, debian-l10n-
english@lists.debian.org .

6.2.2
, ( ) ,
, .
, , , ,
, : (
) . -
a, an the. , :
Package: libeg0
Description: exemplification support library

.
, :
{a,an,the,some} .
,
, , -, , -, :
Package: eg-tools
Description: simple exemplification system (utilities)

Package: eg-doc
Description: simple exemplification system - documentation

.
() - , , -
:
{a,an,the} .

6.2.3
, ,
. , ,
. , -
.
.
: -
? ?
, , , -
.
:
? ?

55
6. 6.2. DEBIAN/

(., X, Y)?
, (.,
foo)?
, .
. ispell, aspell debian/control:
ispell -d american -g debian/control

aspell -d en -D -c debian/control

? ,
, .

? ,
( ; , , PGP LDAP,
IMAP, X, Y Z).

, , -
.

, ,
, , ,
.

? ?
? ? .

6.2.4
Homepage Source
debian/control.
.

6.2.5
debian/control
.

6.2.5.1 Vcs-Browser
https://,
, , -
, .
, ,
, (.,
, pending).

6.2.5.2 Vcs-*
,
, , . *
; -
: arch, bzr (Bazaar), cvs, darcs, git, hg (Mercurial), mtn (Monotone), svn (Subversion).
:
- .
, ,
,
. -
. ,

56
6. 6.3. DEBIAN/

, ( -
, ). ,
;
, SSH.
vim -
Subversion. , URL svn:// ( svn+ssh://),
, trunk/. Vcs-Browser Homepage,
.
Source: vim
Section: editors
Priority: optional
<snip>
Vcs-Svn: svn://svn.debian.org/svn/pkg-vim/trunk/packages/vim
Vcs-Browser: https://svn.debian.org/wsvn/pkg-vim/trunk/packages/vim
Homepage: http://www.vim.org

6.3 debian/changelog
.

6.3.1
. -
, -
.
, , . ,
, (., ,
).
. -
. , , .
, , -
. README.Debian.
, -
. , , ,
, , ,
- . , .
, .
, , -
. .
, - . ,
, , closes: #nnnnn. -
. 5.8.4, .

6.3.2
(, foo.conf,
/etc/--/.), , -
, Debian. ,
, , , .
,
. -
. . 5.8.4, .
, -
( , foo bar;
), , (,
, ), ( ,
, ). ,

57
6. 6.3. DEBIAN/

, .
, . 5.8.2, .
, , , -
, . -
, ,
, .

6.3.3

.
* Fixed all outstanding bugs.

, .
* Applied patch from Jane Random.

?
* Late night install target overhaul.

? ,
?
* Fix vsync FU w/ ancient CRTs.

, , , (, !),
.
* This is not a bug, closes: #nnnnnn.

-, , ;
. -, ,
.
* Has been fixed for ages, but I forgot to close; closes: #54321.

- , -
, .
, ( ,
, -
, ).
* Closes: #12345, #12346, #15432

? ,
.

6.3.4 NEWS.Debian
NEWS.Debian.
apt-listchanges .
.
, debconf,
NEWS.Debian . ,
README.Debian, .
, -
, , ,
, .
dpkg-parsechangelog ,
. NEWS.Debian:

58
6. 6.4.

cron (3.0pl1-74) unstable; urgency=low

The checksecurity script is no longer included with the cron package:


it now has its own package, checksecurity. If you liked the
functionality provided with that script, please install the new
package.

-- Steve Greenland <stevegr@debian.org> Sat, 6 Sep 2003 17:15:03 -0500

NEWS.Debian /usr/share/doc//NEWS.Debian.gz. -
, Debian. debhelper, dh_i
nstallchangelogs debian/NEWS .
NEWS.Debian . -
- ,
. , NEWS.Debian . -
!

6.4
debian/postinst, debian/preinst, debian/
prerm debian/postrm. ,
.
Debian.
. , ,
, ,
.
(., )
, , tty.
. ,
debconf. ,
postinst.
, . -
POSIX. , - bash, -
, bash. POSIX
Bash Perl, debhelper -
.
, ,
. , , , -
.
, - :
if [ -x /usr/sbin/install-docs ]; then ...

,
POSIX- :
pathfind() {
OLDIFS=$IFS
IFS=:
for p in $PATH; do
if [ -x $p/$* ]; then
IFS=$OLDIFS
return 0
fi
done
IFS=$OLDIFS
return 1
}

59
6. 6.5.

$PATH ,
. (), , , . -
, , command -v, type which
POSIX.
which , debi
anutils, . , /usr/bin, /bin,
, /usr. ,
.

6.5 debconf
Debconf , -
( postinst) -
, . -
debconf. .
Debconf , . -
debconf-devel(7). ,
debconf. ,
.
,
debconf,
(, ).

6.5.1 debconf
debconf Debian, , Debian
debconf
.
, : NEWS.Debian README.
Debian. ,
. , -
, .
.
. debconf-devel(7). -
.

6.5.2
6.5.2.1
Debian . -
.
debian-l10n-english@lists.debian.org ( ).
.
, ...
Debian.
.
, . , -
( ). ,
.

6.5.2.2
debconf . Debconf, po-debconf,
.
gettext. po-debconf ,
, (man po-debconf ).
.
, .

60
6. 6.5.

, , ,
, .
, PO, .
, -
, po-debconf, podebconf-report-po. -
,
. gettext, -
PO-
podebconf-report-po.
:
cd debian/po && podebconf-report-po --call --languageteam --withtranslators -- -
deadline=+10 days

, -, PO- POT debian/po ,


debian/po/POTFILES.in. ,
debian-i18n@lists.debian.org. ,
( Language-Team PO-),
( Last-translator).
, , -
. ,
/, 10 .

.
, (debian-
l10n-xxxxx@lists.debian.org) debian-i18n@lists.debian.org.

6.5.2.3
debconf , , ,
.
, .
, msguntypot (
po4a).

1. POT PO .
debconf-updatepo

2. POT-.
cp templates.pot templates.pot.orig

3. PO-.
mkdir po_fridge; cp *.po po_fridge

4. debconf .
5. POT PO ().
debconf-updatepo

, ,
PO -
. .
6. , .
cp po_fridge/*.po .

7. PO POT-, .

61
6. 6.5.

msguntypot -o templates.pot.orig -n templates.pot *.po

8. .
rm -rf templates.pot.orig po_fridge

6.5.2.4
, - debconf. -
If you answer Yes... ,
.
. -
, , . ,
(,
debconf ).
, . .

6.5.2.5
(I will do this... We recommend...). -
, debconf Debian.
. , , ,
. , , ,
Enable this if ... This can be enabled if....

6.5.2.6
. -
.

6.5.3
, debconf-
devel(7).

6.5.3.1
6.5.3.1.1 string , .

6.5.3.1.2 password . ; , -
, , debconf. , -
.

6.5.3.1.3 boolean /. : /, /...

6.5.3.1.4 select .
Choices. , : Choices:
yes, no, maybe.
, Choices
: __Choices.
.
po-debconf -
. :
Template: foo/bar
Type: Select
#flag:translate:3
__Choices: PAL, SECAM, Other
_Description: TV standard:

62
6. 6.5.

Please choose the TV standard used in your country.

Other , -
, . PO POT
Other.
debconf . -
po-debconf(7) .

6.5.3.1.5 multiselect select,


( ).

6.5.3.1.6 note , ,
. ,
, debconf
, ; ,
.

6.5.3.1.7 text : .

6.5.3.1.8 error .
note. - (,
cdebconf ).
,
.

6.5.3.2 :
: . Description:
.
(50 ), -
debconf. ,
.
.
, , ,
. What do you want to do?
. ,
.
. -
, . debian-devel. . -
! .
, .
.
. , .
. . ,
20 , , ,
, .
.
, (string, boolean . .), -
.

6.5.3.3 Choices
select multiselect. ,
. .

6.5.3.4 Default
. string, select multiselect. -
multiselect , .

63
6. 6.5.

6.5.4
6.5.4.1
:
.

6.5.4.2 Description
Description (
) .

6.5.4.2.1 string/password

, .
(IP Address?) (IP address:). .

. ,
, .
. .

6.5.4.2.2 boolean

,
. ( ) -
, (,
, ).

, .
-.

6.5.4.2.3 select/multiselect

, .
Please choose... , , - ...:)

. -
. ,
, multiselect (
).

6.5.4.2.4

,
. , .

debconf. -
debconf. debconf-devel: -
.
NEWS.Debian README.Debian. , , -
note NEWS.Debian README.Debian, ,
.

6.5.4.3 Choices
Choices , __Choices.
, .

64
6. 6.6.

6.5.4.4 Default

(, ), _Default.
-
. ,
Default Choice ,
.
, geneweb:
Template: geneweb/lang
Type: select
__Choices: Afrikaans (af), Bulgarian (bg), Catalan (ca), Chinese (zh), Czech (cs) -
, Danish (da), Dutch (nl), English (en), Esperanto (eo), Estonian (et), -
Finnish (fi), French (fr), German (de), Hebrew (he), Icelandic (is), Italian -
(it), Latvian (lv), Norwegian (no), Polish (pl), Portuguese (pt), Romanian ( -
ro), Russian (ru), Spanish (es), Swedish (sv)
# This is the default choice. Translators may put their own language here
# instead of the default.
# WARNING : you MUST use the ENGLISH NAME of your language
# For instance, the french translator will need to put French (fr) here.
_Default: English[ translators, please see comment in PO files]
_Description: Geneweb default language:

,
debconf. , ,
, .
, _Default : -

6.5.4.5 Default
default. ,
Default .
po-debconf ( , . 6.5.2.2, -
), , , ,
.
/ (,
), _Default, po-debconf(7).

6.6
. -
, ,
Debian.

6.6.1 debconf
, , .
. ,
,
.
debconf . -
debconf debconf-mergetemplate. ,
; debconf
po-debconf package. ; -
.
po-debconf, .po (, gettext).
, -
. , , -
debconf-updatepo, . , -

65
6. 6.7.

, dh_installdebconf
. po-
debconf(7).

6.6.2
, . -
, , -
.
, ,
.
, , , , . -
, , -
. -
doc-check debian-installer,
,
, , , . -
, .
XML SGML, -
,
. , ,
URL .
(., po4a, poxml translate-toolkit) -
. PO,
, , ,
.

6.7
6.7.1 , autoconf/automake
autoconf config.sub config.guess -
, , . -
, autoconf /
automake /usr/share/doc/autotools-dev/README.Debian.gz
autotools-dev package.
.

6.7.2
.
, , ,
, .
.

.

6.7.3
.
, XML SGML,
XML SGML (-).
, .
, HTML. -
PDF , ,
. , ,
HTML, .
doc-base. -
. doc-base.

66
6. 6.7.

Debian ( 12.1) , -
, , ,
. , , , -
.
troff. -
Docbook, POD reST, xsltproc,
pod2man rst2man . -
help2man.

6.7.4

:

, Perl, Perl, , -
: libdbd-pg-perl ( perl) libmldbm-perl (
perl).

Python Python; . /usr/share/doc/python/python-policy.


txt.gz python.

Emacs Emacs.

Java Java.

Ocaml , . /usr/share/doc/ocaml/ocaml_
packaging_policy.gz ocaml.
camlzip.

, XML SGML DTD


sgml-base-doc.

Lisp common-lisp-controller, . /usr/share/


doc/common-lisp-controller/README.packaging.

6.7.5

. , ,
, . -
,
.
, ,
(_all.deb). ,
.debs, .
Packages,
Debian. lintian (.
A.2, )
Debian.

6.7.6
,
:
LOCPATH , /usr/lib/locale, LC_ALL
, , , - -
. - :
LOCALE_PATH=debian/tmpdir/usr/lib/locale
LOCALE_NAME=en_IN
LOCALE_CHARSET=UTF-8

67
6. 6.7.

mkdir -p $LOCALE_PATH
localedef -i $LOCALE_NAME.$LOCALE_CHARSET -f $LOCALE_CHARSET $LOCALE_PATH/ -
$LOCALE_NAME.$LOCALE_CHARSET

#
LOCPATH=$LOCALE_PATH LC_ALL=$LOCALE_NAME.$LOCALE_CHARSET date

6.7.7 , deborphan
deborphan , ,
, . . , .
libs oldlibs .
, .
, --guess-dummy, deborphan ,
, . dummy
transitional .
, , .
, : apt-cache search .|grep dummy apt-cache search
.|grep transitional.
, oldlibs, extra
, deborphan.

6.7.8 .orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz}
tar- :
.

6.7.8.1
tar- , .orig.tar.
{gz,bz2,xz} tar-,
.1 , -
Debian db=iff- Debian. ,
, ,
tar- , , , ,
.
,
, tar-, dpkg-source , ,
tar- .
:

1. tar- ,
zcat //-_--.orig.tar.gz | tar xf -

2.
, dpkg-source - --(.orig).
tar- .

3. , tar-
( !). dpkg-source
- --(.orig).
1 tar-, , -

, , ,
. , , , -, - -
. (, ,
gzip),
. - .orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz} ,
.

68
6. 6.7.

6.7.8.2

, , , -
. ,
gzip tar-, tar- -
DFSG ,
.
.orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz} -
. tar- . ,
Debian.
Debian .diff.gz
.debian.tar.{gz,bz2,xz} , --
-debian.
, , , -
.tar.{gz,bz2,xz},
. , -
tar-
. , -
, , .
.orig.tar.{gz,bz2,xz}

1. .
, , ,
, debian/copyright. -
get-orig-source debian/rules, ,
, : debian/rules.

2. - , ,
.2

3. , , ,
, -
. , , - MS-
DOS, . , Makefile, -
, debian/rules
, .
(: Debian, Debian -
, Debian,
).

4. - --.orig -
tar-. tar- .

5. gzip bzip .

6.7.8.3

, tar-,
, . , -
3.0 (quilt), . dpkg-
source(1). 1.0, .diff.
gz, , uuencode ( )
debian/rules ( ).

2 ,

Debian diff, , , /
README.source . , ,
.

69
6. 6.7.

6.7.9
- , -dbg, ,
gdb. Debian -
, , ,
gdb Debian. ,
, , .
, . -
,
, . ,
; . , -
, . ,
, apache X,
.
-
, ,
, , -
gdb . , Debian
/usr/lib/debug/,
. , /usr/bin/foo /usr/lib/debug/usr/
bin/foo, /usr/lib/libfoo.so.1 /usr/lib/debug/usr/
lib/libfoo.so.1.
objcopy --only-
keep-debug. , , objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink -
. objcopy(1) ,
.
dh_strip debhelper ,
objcopy . debhel
per, , , - dh_strip --dbg-package=libfoo-dbg debian/
control .
, , -
, . :
Depends: libfoo (= ${binary:Version})

6.7.10
, , -
. , -
. APT, ,
. , -
, , (
aptitude). gnome linux-image-amd64
( meta-gnome2 linux-latest).
, -
, , . .
, -
.
, , -
.

70
7

Debian , . -
, , Debian
.
, Debian ,
, ,
.

7.1
Debian . , -
Debian .
Debian.
Debian.
,
, ,
. .
reportbug(1) .
.
, .
, , https://bugs.debian.org/-
. querybts(1) (reportbug
querybts ).
, . , ,
, , ,
, .
, -
, ,
( fixed), . , ,
, (
).
, ,
. , , -
. , , https:
//bugs.debian.org/from:---.

7.1.1 ( -
)
,
., 10 . ,
. ,
, lintian,
.

71
7. 7.2.

10 , -
debian-devel@lists.debian.org ,
, . ,
. , ,
.
, dd-list , , whodepends ( devscripts)

debian-devel@lists.debian.org.
, ,
maintonly@bugs.debian.org,
.

7.1.1.1

. (usertags) ,
patch wishlist, ,
, . -

.
,
User Usertags:
To: submit@bugs.debian.org
Subject: -

Package:
[ ... ]
User: -email
Usertags: - [ - ... ]

- ...

, .
, User
.
, ,
https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/pkgreport.cgi?users=--&tag=
-.

7.2
7.2.1
, ,
(Quality Assurance), . -
, ,
, lintian (. A.2.1,
lintian). , , , , () -
(. 5.9.4, ). ,
, -
( debian-qa@lists.debian.org debian-devel@lists.
debian.org). (. 5.12,
).

7.2.2
QA ,
. debian-devel-announce@lists.
debian.org, , :

72
7. 7.3.

, , -
(, perl,
).
(NMU), -
NMU. ,
( , , ),
,
. NMU, -
, ,
.
, , NMU, -
NMU , NMU
DELAYED/3-day. NMU ; NMU
( , NMU,
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NMU,
. , NMU.

7.3
Debian
. , -
, - ,
, .
. ,
, @packages.debian.org,
,
( ). .
, , -
( 4.10, Debian). ,
@packages.qa.debian.org.

7.4 /
, , ,
. , , ,
, . , ,
.
( MIA), -
, (Missing In Action). QA
, -
MIA. /org/qa.debian.org/mia qa.debian.org
mia-query. mia-query --help, , -
. ,
, ,
.
,
. , , ,
, . ,
.
(), ,
. ,
. :

LDAP , ,
Debian. ( -
, debian-devel-changes@

73
7. 7.5.

lists.debian.org.) , ,
.

, , . -
, - ,
? , ? ,
, , .

- Debian? ,
- , Debian, - .

,
Debian. ,
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debian-devel@lists.debian.org, , -
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mia qa.debian.org, MIA, mia@qa.
debian.org.

7.5 Debian
Debian .
,
. , .

7.5.1
, -
. , , ,
, Debian.
Debian . Debian .
:

1. (.dsc) - (-
, mentors.debian.net) , ,
(. 4.4.5, ),
.

2. ( ) .

3. . - , -
( -
1).

74
7. 7.5.

4. - . , -
Debian.
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Debian.
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Debian
. . Debian
Debian.
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, .
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( Debian ,
tarball- ).
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. , lintian, , -
.
licensecheck ( A.6.1, devscripts) , debian/copyright
. (., All rights reserved,
Debian ). grep -ri -
.
pbuilder ( , . A.4.3, pbu
ilder) , , .
debian/control: (.
6.2, debian/control)? ?
debian/rules: (. 6.1,
debian/rules)? - ?
(preinst, postinst, prerm, postrm, config):
preinst/postrm , ? -
(. ., - )?
1 wiki,

75
7. 7.5.

( .diff.gz, debian/
patches/, tarball- debian ).
? ( DEP-3 )?
, ,
. (. 6, -
)?
, . ,
. piuparts.
- , Debian. ,
, ,
Debian. 4.10,
Debian.
, changelog
control. Maintainer control changelog -
, , . ., , .
.
dpkg-buildpackage
. -k:
dpkg-buildpackage -k-

debuild debsign, ~/
.devscripts:
DEBSIGN_KEYID=-

7.5.1.2
, . ,
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, ,
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.
( apt-get source) (
aptitude download). sponsor (
dget).
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devscripts), , ( .dsc), -
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.changes).
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, , debdiff filterdiff
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Debian.
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Debian), , .
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76
7. 7.5.

7.5.2
- Debian.

7.5.3
, - Debian.

77
8

Debian .
, ,
( i18n, internationalization i n 18 ). -
, ,
.
, , I18N (-
) ,
, . ., L10N () -
.
l10n i18n , , , . -
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i18n, , , ,
l10n Debian - ,
buildd . .

8.1 Debian
, , , -
, , ,
.
gettext.
the Free Translation
Project, Gnome KDE. -
Debian Debian, -
, ,
.
, , -
(., APT -
). -
; -
Debian (DDTP).
debconf, po-debconf
, DDTP (
DDTP). DDTP (
, ), Debian ( , -
).
- l10n ,
Debian.
Debian
- ( ), -

79
8. 8.2. I18N L10N

.
( man, info, ),
.
KDE ,
.
man,
Debian.

8.2 I18N L10N


i18n l10n, . ,
, Debian ,
. -
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.

8.2.1
debconf, ;
DDTP , .
( gettext, man -
) - -
debian-i18n .
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8.2.2
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l10n . -
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.

8.2.3
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; , ,
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8.2.4 ,
: -
, -
( debian-l10n-XXX).

8.3 I18N L10N


, , Debian - , -
,
.

80
8. 8.4. ,

8.3.1
, , ,
( debian-l10n-XXX), ,
l10n, (. ).

8.3.2
, ( l10n)
. ,
.
, .
, PATCH, , wishlist,
.

8.4 ,
( -
), l10n. , ,
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( ) .
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,
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, l10n ,
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. ,
l10n, debian-i18n debian-
devel ( , l10n
:)

81
A

Debian

. -
,
.
Debian -
. ,
.
, -
. Debian ; , -
. , , , -
.
-
.
.
. -
apt-cache show -.

A.1
.

A.1.1 dpkg-dev
dpkg-dev ( dpkg-source), ,
Debian . , -
, ; ,
Debian.

A.1.2 debconf
debconf . -
,
, HTML, . -
.
debconf-doc.
, , -
; . 6.5, debconf.
Debian debconf, .

83
A. A.2.

A.1.3 fakeroot
fakeroot .
( , -
). fakeroot, dpkg-buildpackage .

A.2 -

(FOLDOC), lint
Unix C, , C.
, -
.

A.2.1 lintian
lintian Debian . -
Debian,
.
lintian
. , -i ,
, , ,
.
, Lintian, -
5.3, .
, Lintian ,
https://lintian.debian.org/. lintian
( ).

A.2.2 debdiff
debdiff ( devscripts, A.6.1, devscripts)
. , ,
, -
. , , , -
, .
, :
debdiff package_1-1_arch.deb package_2-1_arch.deb

changes:
debdiff package_1-1_arch.changes package_2-1_arch.changes

. debdiff(1).

A.3 debian/rules
debian/rules . -
, , . 6.1.1, -
.

A.3.1 debhelper
debhelper , debian/rules -
, Debian. debhelper
, , -
, Debian.

84
A. A.4.

, debhelper ,
. , ,
debian/rules.
debhelper, , -
. , apt-cache search dh-.

A.3.2 dh-make
dh-make dh_make, , ,
Debian . , dh_make
debmake, - dh_* debhelper.
rules, dh_make, - -
, :
,
.

A.3.3 equivs
equivs .
, .
, , ,
.

A.4
, dpkg-buildpackage,
.

A.4.1 git-buildpackage
git-buildpackage Debian
Git, Debian Git,
.
Git Debian.
Git ,
, .

A.4.2 debootstrap
debootstrap
Debian .
, .
. , chroot
. ,
. chroot ; . .

A.4.3 pbuilder
pbuilder chroot chroot. , -
, , ,
.
, cowbuilder, COW
Linux.

85
A. A.5.

A.4.4 sbuild
sbuild . -
chroot. , , .
, , , -
. . 5.10.3.3,
wanna-build, https://buildd.debian.org/.

A.5
-
.

A.5.1 dupload
dupload Debian Debian,
, .
.

A.5.2 dput
dput , dupload, -. -
dupload,
GnuPG , dinstall
.

A.5.3 dcut
dcut ( dput, A.5.2, dput)
ftp.

A.6
-
Emacs -
config.sub.

A.6.1 devscripts
devscripts , ,
Debian. , debchange dch, -
debian/changelog , debuild,
dpkg-buildpackage. bts
. uscan
. debrsign -
, , ,
, GPG.
. devscripts(1).

A.6.2 autotools-dev
autotools-dev , ,
autoconf / automake. config.sub config.
guess, , , Debian.

86
A. A.7.

A.6.3 dpkg-repack
dpkg-repack Debian , .
- (., /etc),
.
,
, , , -
, .

A.6.4 alien
alien , Debian, RPM (RedHat),
LSB (Linux Standard Base), Solaris, Slackware.

A.6.5 dpkg-dev-el
dpkg-dev-el Emacs lisp,
debian . ,
, debian/changelog.

A.6.6 dpkg-depcheck
dpkg-depcheck ( devscripts, A.6.1, devscripts)
strace , .
Debian , Build-Depends
: dpkg-depcheck
. :
dpkg-depcheck -b debian/rules build

dpkg-depcheck ,
, exec(2) .
. dpkg-depcheck(1).

A.7
-.

A.7.1 dpkg-cross
dpkg-cross
dpkg . , dpkg-buildpackage dpkg-shlibdeps
.

A.8
, -
.

A.8.1 docbook-xml
docbook-xml DocBook XML DTD, -
Debian ( debiandoc SGML DTD). ,
DocBook XML.
docbook-xsl XSL
. , XSL, XSLT,
xsltproc. docbook-xsl-doc-*.
PDF FO, FO, xmlroff fop. -
PDF DocBook XML dblatex.

87
A. A.8.

A.8.2 debiandoc-sgml
debiandoc-sgml DebianDoc SGML DTD,
Debian, ( docbook-xml ). -
,
.
DTD debiandoc-sgml-doc.

A.8.3 debian-keyring
GPG Debian.
. 3.2.2, .

A.8.4 debian-el
debian-el Emacs Debian. -
.

88