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EXAMEN II TM 2016 A

1. The boundary layer of a 2D cascade experimental setup usually :


a) It is absorbed , as this can be used in other external process
b) It is absorbed, as the boundary layer facilitates the stall over the blades affected by the
boundary layer.
c) It is absorbed, as the boundary layer facilitates the choking of the blades affected by the
boundary layer.
d) It is never absorbed, as the boundary layer helps to a better performance of the blades within
the cascade.
e) None of the previous

2. In the following 2D cascade what is true (2 answers are correct):

a) The contraction section works as a nozzle, which increase the kinetic energy of the flow to
achieve the velocity required for testing.
b) The screens of the arrangement are merely decorative.
c) The diffuser enables the increment of kinetic energy to increase the velocity of the flow
d) The cascade can rotate changing the alpha angle and it moves along the line of traverse with a
velocity equal to the blade velocity (as in a turbomachine).
e) The suction slot enables the suction of the boundary layer.

3. Where the contraction of streamlines due to boundary layer thickening in a cascade is larger:

a) When exists an adverse pressure gradient that struggles with the flow and hence increase the
boundary layer thickness
b) When exists a favorable pressure gradient that helps to create higher velocities that increase the
boundary layer thickness due to continuity.
c) None of the previous

4. A 2D cascade set up working with air is useful to define the following :


a) Stagnation pressure losses, inlet angle, deviation angle (exit flow angle).
b) Flow separation, shock waves and cavitation.
c) Inlet Mach number, flow separation, stagnation pressure losses and exit flow angle.
d) A 3D shape of the turbomachinery arrangement.

Nota: Las dos respuestas son vlidas



5. Which option would you choose as a mechanical engineering designer of a large hub to tip ratio ( )

turbomachine.
a. For determining the stagnation pressure losses, you would set up a 2D cascade test rig as the
arrangement (your desired turbomachine) is highly two dimensional
b. For determining the stagnation pressure losses, you would set up a 3D annular test rig as the
arrangement (your desired turbomachine) is highly 3D
c. For determining the stagnation pressure losses, you would set up a 2D cascade test rig as the
arrangement (your desired turbomachine) is highly 3D
d. None of the previous

6. When using a 2D cascade for the assessment of rotor blades what is true:
a) The absolute flow velocity (C) measured at the cascade is equal to the relative velocity (W) of
the rotor operating within the turbomachine
b) The absolute flow velocity (C) measured at the cascade is equal to the blade velocity (U) of the
rotor operating within the turbomachine
c) The absolute flow velocity (C) measured at the cascade is not equal to the relative velocity (W)
of the blade operating within the turbomachinery as both are defined at different frame of
references.
d) The absolute flow velocity (C) measured at the cascade is not equal to the relative velocity (W)
of the blade operating within the turbomachinery as there is a strong effect of boundary layer
development.
e) None of the previous.

7. In the following diagram identify the suction and pressure surfaces and what you can say about the
diffusion process (3 points):
a) b) c)

a) The graph b) has high diffusion process over the pressure surface.
b) The diffusion process of the graph a) is larger than in graph c)
c) The diffusion process of graph b) is the recommended as the suction surface has higher
diffusion process.

8. Draw schematically and clearly the velocity triangles (vector diagram) for an axial compressor and an
axial turbine (Hint: Draw at the correspondent levels the parts of both turbomachinery).
9. As a designer which parameters are important for the preliminary design of a turbomachinery:
a) Stage loading, as it indicates the energy delivered and reaction which relates the mass flow rate.
b) Flow coefficient, as it indicates the mass flow rate and stage loading to know the shape of the
blades.
c) The reaction, to define the shape of the blades, the air inlet angle to know the inlet swirl and
flow coefficient to define the mass flow rate
d) The stage loading, as it defines the mass flow rate and the reaction to define the energy
transfer.
e) None of the previous

Nota: las dos respuestas son vlidas

10. In the Mollier diagrams what of the following are true (3 points) :

a) b)

a) The stagnation enthalpy at 01 and 02 are equal in graph a) because the system is not adiabatic
and there is no work.
b) The process between 01 and 02 in the graph a) corresponds to the rotor row and therefore the
work is equal to zero.
c) The total enthalpy in the relative frame of reference is constant through the rotor of compressor
and turbine
d) The change in stagnation pressure between 01 and 02 obeys to the fact of irreversible process
and hence a variation in entropy
e) The change in stagnation pressure between 01 and 02 obeys to the fact of isentropic process
and hence a constant entropy
f) The total enthalpy in the relative frame of reference is constant through the rotor as the
observer in this case is located over the blade and hence the blade seems stationary and no
work is done.
g) The total enthalpy in the relative frame of reference is not constant through the rotor as the
observer in this case is not located over the blade and hence the blade seems stationary and no
work is done.

11. What is the reason of increasing continuously the blade height in turbines:
a) To allow for the reduction in fluid density
b) To stop the expansion process
c) To enable the adverse pressure gradient through the blade rows
d) To reduce the boundary layer thickness through the adverse pressure gradient
e) None of the previous

12. Why is more difficult to design a compressor than a turbine


a) Because of the adverse pressure gradient which reduces the boundary layer thickness and
hence makes more probable the stall process
b) Because of the favorable pressure gradient which reduces the boundary layer thickness and
hence makes more probable the stall process
c) Because of the adverse pressure gradient which increases the boundary layer thickness and
hence makes more probable the stall process
d) None of the previous
13. Why a compressor presents more stages than a turbine
a) Because the diffussion process implies a reduction in velocity combined with an adverse
pressure gradient and flow turning that limits the stage loading by stage.
b) Because the diffussion process implies an increment in velocity combined with an adverse
pressure gradient and flow turning that limits the stage loading by stage.
c) Because the diffussion process implies a reduction in velocity combined with a favourable
pressure gradient and flow turning that limits the stage loading by stage.
d) Because the diffussion process implies a reduction in velocity combined with an favourable
pressure gradient and flow turning that limits the stage loading by stage.
e) Because the diffussion process implies a reduction in velocity combined with an adverse
pressure gradient and flow turning that increase the stage loading by stage.
f) Because the diffussion process implies a reduction in velocity combined with an favourable
pressure gradient and flow turning that increase the stage loading by stage.
g) None of the previous

14. A single-stage gas turbine operates at its design condition with an axial absolute flow at entry and
exit from the stage. The absolute flow angle at nozzle exit is 70. At stage entry the total pressure
and temperature are 250 kPa and 875C, respectively. The exhaust static pressure is 90 kPa (Quito
conditions), the total-to-static efficiency is 0.83, and the mean blade speed is 450 m/s. (Hint: Be
cautious one R is for the ideal gas constant the other for reaction according the context you should
which one is each.)

Assuming constant axial velocity through the stage, determine (Please locate the answers from your
calculation, following the question statement):

a) the specific work done; = . ( )

b) the Mach number leaving the nozzle;


2 = 0.939


c) the axial velocity; = . ( )

d) the total-to-total efficiency; = ,

e) the stage reaction; = .


Assumption:

- If design condition is with an axial absolute flow at entry and exit from the stage, we have some
assumptions:

1 = 3 = 0 ; 1 = 1 = 3 = 0


a) = 1 ; 01 = 01

01 (1( 3 )
01
1
3
= 01 (1 ( )
01
1.331
90 1.33
= 0.83 1.148 1148.15 (1 ( )
250


= . ( )

- Development velocities triangles:
= (2 + 3 )
2
244.96 ( ) 1000 ( 2 )

2 = =
450 ( ) 1


= . ( )

2
tan 70 =

.
= = . ( )


=

.
= = . ( )

b)
2
= 1
(2 )2

= ( 1) ; = 0.2848 ( )

1
2
2 = 01 2

1 2
579.3 ( 2 )
2
2 = 1148.15
2
1000 ( )
2
1.148 ( )
1

2 = 1004.28 ()
So:
579.3
= 1
2
2
1000 ( )
2
1.33 0.2848 1004.28 ( )
1

( )

2 = 0.939

.
c) = = . ( )

1 1 32
d) =
2


1 198.13 ( )
=
0.83 2
1000 ( )
2
2 244.96 (
)
1( )

= .

1
e) = ( )( 3 2 )
2
1 198.13 450 2
= ( )( )
2 450 198.13

1 198.13 450 544.36 450


= ( )( )
2 450 198.13 198.13

= .