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Control Strategies for

Productivity and Safety

Override/constraint control
Selective control
Selective control
(Smith & Corripio, Seborg)

Usually implemented for safety and


optimization considerations.
Protective strategy to maintain process
variables within limits.
Higher and Lower Selectors: HS, LS
Types of Selective Control

Selective control
Override/constraint control
Split range control
Selective Control
Higher and Lower Selectors: HS, LS
Measure one variable
to select the higher (lower) of several
measurement signals
to pass on as the process variable to a feedback
controller
Example of Selective control
Consider the plug flow reactor where an exothermic
catalytic reaction take place, as shown in figure.
The sensor providing the temperature measurement
should be located at the hot spot.
As the catalyst in the reactor ages, or as conditions
change, the hot spot moves.
It is desired to design a control scheme so that its
measured variable moves as the hot spot moves.
A control strategy that accomplishes the desired
specification
The high selector in this scheme selects the
transmitter with the highest output, and thus the
controlled variable is always the highest or closest to
the highest temperature.
Override Control/ Constraint Control
Basic Idea:
selector selects between the higher or lower of
several controller outputs for implementation
Normal operation:
one process variable is the controlling variable
Abnormal operation:
some other process variable becomes the controlling
variable to prevent it from exceeding a process or
equipment limit
The limiting controller is said to override the normal
process controller
Example
Normal Control: level in the tank is at height h1

If the liquid level drop below h2, will cause


cavitations at the pump.
It is necessary to design a control scheme that
avoids this condition.
Under normal condition, the low selector selects the output
signal of the flow controller to manipulate the pump speed.
The level controller is not connected to the pump because the
level is not at an undesired state.
As soon as the level drops below the set point on the level
controller, this controller will slow down the pump by
reducing the output.
When the level controller output drops below the output of
the flow controller, the low selector selects the output of the
level controller to manipulate the pump.
level controller overrides the flow controller.
Split-range control (Seborg)
Selective control with
multiple final control
elements. Single
controller and two
control valves.
For example batch
reactor, where both
heating and cooling are
used to maintain precise
regulation of the reactor
temperature.
Example of Split range for CSTR
The process is exothermic
reaction, where by a
cooling is needed to
maintain desired
temperature.
If the jacket temperature is
between 0-50%, the cold
glycol is open, but when
the jacket temperature is
between 50-100%, the hot
glycol valve is open.